Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 115

Search results for: 2D fillers

115 Interaction of Vegetable Fillers with Polyethylene Matrix in Biocomposites

Authors: P. V. Pantyukhov, T. V. Monakhova, A. A. Popov

Abstract:

The paper studies the diffusion of low molecular weight components from vegetable fillers into polyethylene matrix during the preparation of biocomposites. In order to identify the diffusible substances a model experiment used where the hexadecane acted as a model of polyethylene. It was determined that polyphenolic compounds and chlorophyll penetrate from vegetable fillers to hexadecane to the maximum extent. There was found a correlation between the amount of polyphenolic compounds diffusible from the fillers to hexadecane and thermal oxidation kinetics of real biocomposites based on polyethylene and vegetable fillers. Thus, it has been assumed the diffusion of polyphenols and chlorophyll from vegetable fillers into polyethylene matrix during the preparation of biocomposites.

Keywords: biocomposite, composite, diffusion, polyethylene, vegetable filler

Procedia PDF Downloads 371
114 Thermo-Elastic and Self-Healing Polyacrylamide: 2D Polymer Composite Hydrogels for Water Shutoff Treatment

Authors: Edreese H. Alsharaeh, Feven Mattews Michael, Ayman Almohsin

Abstract:

Self-healing hydrogels have many advantages since they can resist various types of stresses, including tension, compression, and shear, making them attractive for various applications. In this study, thermo-elastic and self-healing polymer composite hydrogels were prepared from polyacrylamide (PAM) and 2D fillers using in-situ method. In addition, the PAM and fillers were prepared in presence of organic crosslinkers, i.e., hydroquinone (HQ) and hexamethylenediamine (HMT). The swelling behavior of the prepared hydrogels was studied by hydrating the dried hydrogels. The thermal and rheological properties of the prepared hydrogels were evaluated before and after swelling study using thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetric technique and dynamic mechanical analysis. From the results obtained, incorporating fillers into the PAM matrix enhanced the swelling degree of the hydrogels with satisfactory mechanical properties, attaining up to 77% self-healing efficiency compared to the neat-PAM (i.e., 29%). This, in turn, indicates addition of 2D fillers improved self-healing properties of the polymer hydrogel, thus, making the prepared hydrogels applicable for water shutoff treatments under high temperature.

Keywords: polymer hydrogels, 2D fillers, elastic self-healing hydrogels, water shutoff, swelling properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 52
113 Influence of Micro Fillers Content on the Mechanical Properties of Epoxy Composites

Authors: H. Unal, A. Mimaroglu, I. Ozsoy

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In this study, the mechanical properties of micro filled epoxy composites were investigated. The matrix material is epoxy. Micro fillers are Al2O3 and TiO2 added in 10-30 wt% by weight ratio. Test samples were prepared using an open mould type die. Tensile, three point bending and hardness tests were carried out. The tensile strength, elastic modulus, elongation at break, flexural strength, flexural modulus and the hardness of the composite materials were obtained and evaluated. It was seen from the results that the level of the mechanical properties of the epoxy composites is highly influenced by micro filler content.

Keywords: composites, epoxy, fillers, mechanical properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 392
112 Effect of Different Types of Nano/Micro Fillers on the Interfacial Shear Properties of Polyamide 6 with De-Sized Carbon Fiber

Authors: Mohamed H. Gabr, Kiyoshi Uzawa

Abstract:

The current study aims to investigate the effect of fillers with different geometries and sizes on the interfacial shear properties of PA6 composites with de-sized carbon fiber. The fillers which have been investigated are namely; nano-layer silicates (nanoclay), sub-micro aluminum titanium (ALTi) particles, and multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT). By means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), epoxide group which defined as a sizing agent, has been removed. Sizing removal can reduce the acid parameter of carbon fibers surface promoting bonding strength at the fiber/matrix interface which is a desirable property for the carbon fiber composites. Microdroplet test showed that the interfacial shear strength (IFSS) has been enhanced with the addition of 10wt% ALTi by about 23% comparing with neat PA6. However, with including other types of fillers into PA6, the results did not show enhancement of IFSS.

Keywords: sub-micro particles, nano-composites, interfacial shear strength, polyamide 6

Procedia PDF Downloads 159
111 Correlation Volumic Shrinkage, Conversion Degree of Dental Composites

Authors: A. Amirouche, M. Mouzali, D. C. Watts

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During polymerization of dental composites, the volumic shrinkage is related to the conversion degree. The variation of the volumic shrinkage (S max according to the degree of conversion CD.), was examined for the experimental composites: (BisGMA/TEGDMA): (50/50), (75/25), (25/75) mixed with seven radiopac fillers: La2O3, BaO, BaSO4, SrO, ZrO2 , SrZrO3 and BaZrO 3 with different contents in weight, from 0 to 80%. We notice that whatever the filler and the composition in monomers, Smax increases with the increase in CD. This variation is, linear in particular in the case of the fillers containing only one heavy metal, and that whatever the composition in monomers. For a given salt, the increase of BisGMA composition leads to significant increase of S max more pronounced than the increase in CD. The variation of ratio (S max / CD.) with the increase of filler content is negligible. However the fillers containing two types of heavy metals have more effect on the volumic shrinkage than on the degree of conversion. Whatever the composition in monomer, and the content of filler containing only one heavy atom, S max increases with the increase in CD. Nevertheless, S max is affected by the viscosity of the medium compared with CD. For high percentages of mineral fillers (≥ 70% in weight), the diagrams S max according to CD are deviated of the linearity, owing to the fact that S max is affected by the high percentage of fillers compared with CD. The number of heavy atoms influences directly correlation (S max / CD.). In the case of the two mineral fillers: SrZrO3 and BaZrO3 ratio (S max / CD) moves away from the proportionality. The linearity of the diagrams Smax according to CD is less regular, due to the viscosity of high content of BisGMA. The study of Smax and DC of four commercial composites are presented and compared to elaborate experimental composites.

Keywords: Dental composites, degree of conversion, volumic shrinkage, photopolymerization

Procedia PDF Downloads 298
110 Magnetic (Ethylene-Octene) Polymer Composites Reinforced With Carbon Black

Authors: Marcin Maslowski, Marian Zaborski

Abstract:

The aim of the study was to receive magnetorheological elastomer composites (MRE) with the best mechanical characteristics. MRE based on different magnetoactive fillers in ethylene-octene rubber are reported and studied. To improve mechanical properties of polymer mixtures, also carbon black (N550) was added during the composites preparation process. Micro and nan-sized magnetites (Fe3O4), as well as gamma iron oxide (gamma-Fe2O3) and carbonyl iron powder (CIP) are added together with carbon black (N550) were found to be an active fillers systems improving both static and dynamic mechanical properties of elastomers. They also changed magnetic properties of composites. Dynamic-mechanical analysis (DMA) indicates the presence of strongly developed secondary structure in vulcanizates. Reinforcing character of applied different fillers systems results in an increased stress at 100% elongation, tensile strength and cross-linking density of the vulcanizates. Studies investigated by vibration sample magnetometer (VSM) proved that all composites exhibit good magnetic properties.

Keywords: carbon black, mechanical properties, magnetorheological composites, magnetic fillers

Procedia PDF Downloads 271
109 Eco-Friendly Natural Filler Based Epoxy Composites

Authors: Suheyla Kocaman, Gulnare Ahmetli

Abstract:

In this study, acrylated soybean oil (AESO) was used as modifying agent for DGEBF-type epoxy resin (ER). AESO was used as a co-matrix in 50 wt % with ER. Composites with eco-friendly natural fillers-banana bark and seashell were prepared. MNA was used as a hardener. Effect of banana peel (BP) and seashell (SSh) fillers on mechanical properties, such as tensile strength, elongation at break, and hardness of M-ERs were investigated. The structure epoxy resins (M-ERs) cured with MNA and sebacic acid (SAc) hardeners were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Tensile test results show that Young’s (elastic) modulus, tensile strength and hardness of SSh particles reinforced with M-ERs were higher than the M-ERs reinforced with banana bark.

Keywords: biobased composite, epoxy resin, mechanical properties, natural fillers

Procedia PDF Downloads 142
108 Reinforcing Effects of Natural Micro-Particles on the Dynamic Impact Behaviour of Hybrid Bio-Composites Made of Short Kevlar Fibers Reinforced Thermoplastic Composite Armor

Authors: Edison E. Haro, Akindele G. Odeshi, Jerzy A. Szpunar

Abstract:

Hybrid bio-composites are developed for use in protective armor through positive hybridization offered by reinforcement of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) with Kevlar short fibers and palm wood micro-fillers. The manufacturing process involved a combination of extrusion and compression molding techniques. The mechanical behavior of Kevlar fiber reinforced HDPE with and without palm wood filler additions are compared. The effect of the weight fraction of the added palm wood micro-fillers is also determined. The Young modulus was found to increase as the weight fraction of organic micro-particles increased. However, the flexural strength decreased with increasing weight fraction of added micro-fillers. The interfacial interactions between the components were investigated using scanning electron microscopy. The influence of the size, random alignment and distribution of the natural micro-particles was evaluated. Ballistic impact and dynamic shock loading tests were performed to determine the optimum proportion of Kevlar short fibers and organic micro-fillers needed to improve impact strength of the HDPE. These results indicate a positive hybridization by deposition of organic micro-fillers on the surface of short Kevlar fibers used in reinforcing the thermoplastic matrix leading to enhancement of the mechanical strength and dynamic impact behavior of these materials. Therefore, these hybrid bio-composites can be promising materials for different applications against high velocity impacts.

Keywords: hybrid bio-composites, organic nano-fillers, dynamic shocking loading, ballistic impacts, energy absorption

Procedia PDF Downloads 51
107 Magnetorheological Silicone Composites Filled with Micro- and Nano-Sized Magnetites with the Addition of Ionic Liquids

Authors: M. Masłowski, M. Zaborski

Abstract:

Magnetorheological elastomer composites based on micro- and nano-sized Fe3O4 magnetoactive fillers in silicone rubber are reported and studied. To improve the dispersion of applied fillers in polymer matrix, ionic liquids such as 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium diethylphosphate, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate, 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate,1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate, trihexyltetradecylphosphonium chloride were added during the process of composites preparation. The method of preparation process influenced the specific properties of MREs (isotropy/anisotropy), similarly to ferromagnetic particles content and theirs quantity. Micro and non-sized magnetites were active fillers improving the mechanical properties of elastomers. They also changed magnetic properties and reinforced the magnetorheological effect of composites. Application of ionic liquids as dispersing agents influenced the dispersion of magnetic fillers in the elastomer matrix. Scanning electron microscopy images used to observe magnetorheological elastomer microstructures proved that the dispersion improvement had a significant effect on the composites properties. Moreover, the particles orientation and their arrangement in the elastomer investigated by vibration sample magnetometer showed the correlation between MRE microstructure and their magnetic properties.

Keywords: magnetorheological elastomers, iron oxides, ionic liquids, dispersion

Procedia PDF Downloads 256
106 Current Concepts of Male Aesthetics: Facial Areas to Be Focused and Prioritized with Botulinum Toxin and Hyaluronic Acid Dermal Fillers Combination Therapies, Recommendations on Asian Patients

Authors: Sadhana Deshmukh

Abstract:

Objective: Men represent only a fraction of the medical aesthetic practice. They are increasingly becoming more cosmetically-inclined. The primary objective is to harmonize facial proportion by prioritizing and focusing on forehead nose, cheek and chin complex. Introduction: Despite tremendous variability, diverse population of the Indian subcontinent, the male skull is unique in its overall larger size, and shape. Men tend to have a large forehead with prominent supraorbital ridges, wide glabella, square orbit, and a prominent protruding mandible. Men have increased skeletal muscle mass, with less facial subcutaneous fat. Facial aesthetics is evolving rapidly. Commonly published canons of facial proportions usually represent feminine standards and are not applicable to males. Strict adherence to these norms is therefore not necessary to obtain satisfying results in male patients. Materials and Methods: Male patients age group 30-60 years have been enrolled. Botulinum toxin and hyaluronic acid fillers were used to update consensus recommendations for facial rejuvenation using these two types of products alone and in combination. Results: There are specific recommendations by facial area, focusing on relaxing musculature, restoring volume, recontouring using toxin and dermal fillers alone and in combination. For upper face, though botulinum toxin remains the cornerstone of treatment, temples and forehead fillers are recommended for optimal results. In Mid face, these fillers are placed more laterally to maintain the masculine look. Botulinum toxin and fillers in combination can improve outcomes in the lower face. Chin augmentation remains the center point for lower face. Conclusions: Males are more likely to have shorter doctor visits, less likely to ask questions, have a lower attention to bodily changes. The physician must patiently gauge male patients’ aging and cosmetic goals. Clinicians can also benefit from ongoing guidance on products, tailoring treatments, treating multiple facial areas, and using combinations of products. An appreciation that rejuvenation is 3-dimensional process involving muscle control, volume restoration and recontouring helps.

Keywords: male aesthetics, botulinum toxin, hyaluronic acid dermal fillers, Asian patients

Procedia PDF Downloads 88
105 Magnetorheological Elastomer Composites Obtained by Extrusion

Authors: M. Masłowski, M. Zaborski

Abstract:

Magnetorheological elastomer composites based on micro- and nano-sized magnetite, gamma iron oxide and carbonyl iron powder in ethylene-octene rubber are reported and studied. The method of preparation process influenced the specific properties of MREs (isotropy/anisotropy). The use of extrusion method instead of traditional preparation processes (two-roll mill, mixer) of composites is presented. Micro and nan-sized magnetites as well as gamma iron oxide and carbonyl iron powder were found to be an active fillers improving the mechanical properties of elastomers. They also changed magnetic properties of composites. Application of extrusion process also influenced the mechanical properties of composites and the dispersion of magnetic fillers. Dynamic-mechanical analysis (DMA) indicates the presence of strongly developed secondary structure in vulcanizates. Scanning electron microscopy images (SEM) show that the dispersion improvement had significant effect on the composites properties. Studies investigated by vibration sample magnetometer (VSM) proved that all composites exhibit good magnetic properties.

Keywords: extrusion, magnetic fillers, magnetorheological elastomers, mechanical properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 245
104 Study of the Performances of an Environmental Concrete Based on Recycled Aggregates and Marble Waste Fillers Addition

Authors: Larbi Belagraa, Miloud Beddar, Abderrazak Bouzid

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The needs of the construction sector still increasing for concrete. However, the shortage of natural resources of aggregate could be a problem for the concrete industry, in addition to the negative impact on the environment due to the demolition wastes. Recycling aggregate from construction and demolition (C&D) waste presents a major interest for users and researchers of concrete since this constituent can occupies more than 70% of concrete volume. The aim of the study here in is to assess the effect of sulfate resistant cement combined with the local mineral addition of marble waste fillers on the mechanical behavior of a recycled aggregate concrete (RAC). Physical and mechanical properties of RAC including the density, the flexural and the compressive strength were studied. The non destructive test methods (pulse-velocity, rebound hammer) were performed . The results obtained were compared to crushed aggregate concrete (CAC) using the normal compressive testing machine test method. The optimal content of 5% marble fillers showed an improvement for both used test methods (compression, flexion and NDT). Non-destructive methods (ultrasonic and rebound hammer test) can be used to assess the strength of RAC, but a correction coefficient is required to obtain a similar value to the compressive strength given by the compression tests. The study emphasizes that these waste materials can be successfully and economically utilized as additional inert filler in RAC formulation within similar performances compared to a conventional concrete.

Keywords: marble waste fillers, mechanical strength, natural aggregate, non-destructive testing (NDT), recycled aggregate concrete

Procedia PDF Downloads 221
103 Evaluation of the Mechanical Properties of Nano TiO2 and Clay Filler Filled Epoxy Composites

Authors: A. Mimaroglu, H. Unal

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In this study, the mechanical properties of nano filled epoxy composites were evaluated. The matrix material is epoxy. nano fillers are Al2O3, TiO2 and clay added in 2.5- 10 wt% by weight ratio. Test samples were prepared using an open mould type die. Mechanical tests were carried out. The tensile strength, elastic modulus, elongation at break and the hardness of the composite materials were obtained and evaluated. It was seen from the results that the filler content had a high influence on the level of the mechanical properties of the epoxy composites.

Keywords: nano, epoxy, composite, fillers, clay

Procedia PDF Downloads 299
102 Use of Nanoclay in Various Modified Polyolefins

Authors: Michael Tupý, Alice Tesaříková-Svobodová, Dagmar Měřínská, Vít Petránek

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Polyethylene (PE), Polypropylene (PP), Polyethylene (vinyl acetate) (EVA) and Surlyn (modif-PE) nano composite samples were prepared with montmorillonite fillers Cloisite 93A and Dellite 67G. The amount of modified Na+ montmorillonite (MMT) was fixed to 5 % (w/w). For the compounding of polymer matrix and chosen nano fillers twin-screw kneader was used. The level of MMT intercalation or exfoliation in the nano composite systems was studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations. The properties of samples were evaluated by dynamical mechanical analysis (E* modulus at 30 °C) and by the measurement of tensile properties (stress and strain at break).

Keywords: polyethylene, polypropylene, polyethylene(vinyl acetate), clay, nanocomposite, montmorillonite

Procedia PDF Downloads 415
101 Investigating the Minimum RVE Size to Simulate Poly (Propylene carbonate) Composites Reinforced with Cellulose Nanocrystals as a Bio-Nanocomposite

Authors: Hamed Nazeri, Pierre Mertiny, Yongsheng Ma, Kajsa Duke

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The background of the present study is the use of environment-friendly biopolymer and biocomposite materials. Among the recently introduced biopolymers, poly (propylene carbonate) (PPC) has been gaining attention. This study focuses on the size of representative volume elements (RVE) in order to simulate PPC composites reinforced by cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) as a bio-nanocomposite. Before manufacturing nanocomposites, numerical modeling should be implemented to explore and predict mechanical properties, which may be accomplished by creating and studying a suitable RVE. In other studies, modeling of composites with rod shaped fillers has been reported assuming that fillers are unidirectionally aligned. But, modeling of non-aligned filler dispersions is considerably more difficult. This study investigates the minimum RVE size to enable subsequent FEA modeling. The matrix and nano-fillers were modeled using the finite element software ABAQUS, assuming randomly dispersed fillers with a filler mass fraction of 1.5%. To simulate filler dispersion, a Monte Carlo technique was employed. The numerical simulation was implemented to find composite elastic moduli. After commencing the simulation with a single filler particle, the number of particles was increased to assess the minimum number of filler particles that satisfies the requirements for an RVE, providing the composite elastic modulus in a reliable fashion.

Keywords: biocomposite, Monte Carlo method, nanocomposite, representative volume element

Procedia PDF Downloads 376
100 Polymer Industrial Floors: The Possibility of Using Secondary Raw Materials from Solar Panels

Authors: J. Kosikova, B. Vacenovska, M. Vyhnankova

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The paper reports on the subject of recycling and further use of secondary raw materials obtained from solar panels, which is becoming a very up to date topic in recent years. Recycling these panels is very difficult and complex, and the use of resulting secondary raw materials is still not fully resolved. Within the research carried out at the Brno University of Technology, new polymer materials used for industrial floors are being developed. Secondary raw materials are incorporated into these polymers as fillers. One of the tested filler materials was glass obtained from solar panels. The following text describes procedures and results of the tests that were performed on these materials, confirming the possibility of the use of solar panel glass in industrial polymer flooring systems.

Keywords: fillers, industrial floors, recycling, secondary raw material, solar panel

Procedia PDF Downloads 204
99 High-Yield Synthesis of Nanohybrid Shish-Kebab of Polyethylene on Carbon NanoFillers

Authors: Dilip Depan, Austin Simoneaux, William Chirdon, Ahmed Khattab

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In this study, we present a novel approach to synthesize polymer nanocomposites with nanohybrid shish-kebab architecture (NHSK). For this low-density and high density polyethylene (PE) was crystallized on various carbon nano-fillers using a novel and convenient method to prepare high-yield NHSK. Polymer crystals grew epitaxially on carbon nano-fillers using a solution crystallization method. The mixture of polymer and carbon fillers in xylene was flocculated and precipitated in ethanol to improve the product yield. Carbon nanofillers of varying diameter were also used as a nucleating template for polymer crystallization. The morphology of the prepared nanocomposites was characterized scanning electron microscopy (SEM), while differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to quantify the amount of crystalline polymer. Interestingly, whatever the diameter of the carbon nanofiller is, the lamellae of PE is always perpendicular to the long axis of nanofiller. Surface area analysis was performed using BET. Our results indicated that carbon nanofillers of varying diameter can be used to effectively nucleate the crystallization of polymer. The effect of molecular weight and concentration of the polymer was discussed on the basis of chain mobility and crystallization capability of the polymer matrix. Our work shows a facile, rapid, yet high-yield production method to form polymer nanocomposites to reveal application potential of NHSK architecture.

Keywords: carbon nanotubes, polyethylene, nanohybrid shish-kebab, crystallization, morphology

Procedia PDF Downloads 226
98 Mineral Thermal Insulation Materials Based on Sodium Liquid Glass

Authors: Zin Min Htet, Tikhomirova Irina Nikolaevna, Karpenko Marina A.

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In this paper, thermal insulation materials based on sodium liquid glass with light fillers as foam glass granules with different sizes and wollastonite - M325 (U.S.A production) were studied. Effective mineral thermal insulation materials are in demand in many industries because of their incombustibility and durability. A method for the preparation of such materials based on mechanically foamed sodium liquid glass and light mineral fillers is proposed. The thermal insulation properties depend on the type, amount of filler and on the foaming factor, which is determined by the concentration of the foaming agent. The water resistance of the material is provided by using an additive to neutralize the glass and transfer it to the silica gel.

Keywords: thermal insulation material, sodium liquid glass, foam glass granules, foaming agent, hardener, thermal conductivity, apparent density, compressive strength

Procedia PDF Downloads 102
97 The Influence of Fiber Fillers on the Bonding Safety of Structural Adhesives: A Fracture Analytical Evaluation

Authors: Brandtner-Hafner Martin

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Adhesives have established themselves as an innovative joining technology in the industry. Their strengths lie in joining different materials, avoiding structural weakening as in welding or screwing, and enabling lightweight construction methods. Now there are a variety of ways to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of bonded joints. One way is to add fiber fillers. This leads to an improvement in adhesion and cohesion (structural integrity). In this study, the effectiveness of fiber-modified adhesives for bonding different construction materials is reviewed. A series of experimental tests were performed using the fracture analytical GF principle to study the adhesive bonding safety and performance of the joint. Three different structural adhesive systems based on epoxy, CA/A hybrid, and PUR were modified with different fiber materials on different substrates. The results show that significant performance improvements can be achieved and that bonding reliability can be sustainably increased.

Keywords: fiber-modified adhesives, bonding safety, GF-principle, fracture analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 105
96 Saline Aspiration Negative Intravascular Test: Mitigating Risk with Injectable Fillers

Authors: Marcelo Lopes Dias Kolling, Felipe Ferreira Laranjeira, Guilherme Augusto Hettwer, Pedro Salomão Piccinini, Marwan Masri, Carlos Oscar Uebel

Abstract:

Introduction: Injectable fillers are among the most common nonsurgical cosmetic procedures, with significant growth yearly. Knowledge of rheological and mechanical characteristics of fillers, facial anatomy, and injection technique is essential for safety. Concepts such as the use of cannula versus needle, aspiration before injection, and facial danger zones have been well discussed. In case of an accidental intravascular puncture, the pressure inside the vessel may not be sufficient to push blood into the syringe due to the characteristics of the filler product; this is especially true for calcium hydroxyapatite (CaHA) or hyaluronic acid (HA) fillers with high G’. Since viscoelastic properties of normal saline are much lower than those of fillers, aspiration with saline prior to filler injection may decrease the risk of a false negative aspiration and subsequent catastrophic effects. We discuss a technique to add an additional safety step to the procedure with saline aspiration prior to injection, a ‘’reverse Seldinger’’ technique for intravascular access, which we term SANIT: Saline Aspiration Negative Intravascular Test. Objectives: To demonstrate the author’s (PSP) technique which adds an additional safety step to the process of filler injection, with both CaHA and HA, in order to decrease the risk of intravascular injection. Materials and Methods: Normal skin cleansing and topical anesthesia with prilocaine/lidocaine cream are performed; the facial subunits to be treated are marked. A 3mL Luer lock syringe is filled with 2mL of 0.9% normal saline and a 27G needle, which is turned one half rotation. When a cannula is to be used, the Luer lock syringe is attached to a 27G 4cm single hole disposable cannula. After skin puncture, the 3mL syringe is advanced with the plunger pulled back (negative pressure). Progress is made to the desired depth, all the while aspirating. Once the desired location of filler injection is reached, the syringe is exchanged for the syringe containing a filler, securely grabbing the hub of the needle and taking care to not dislodge the needle tip. Prior to this, we remove 0.1mL of filler to allow for space inside the syringe for aspiration. We again aspirate and inject retrograde. SANIT is especially useful for CaHA, since the G’ is much higher than HA, and thus reflux of blood into the syringe is less likely to occur. Results: The technique has been used safely for the past two years with no adverse events; the increase in cost is negligible (only the cost of 2mL of normal saline). Over 100 patients (over 300 syringes) have been treated with this technique. The risk of accidental intravascular puncture has been calculated to be between 1:6410 to 1:40882 syringes among expert injectors; however, the consequences of intravascular injection can be catastrophic even with board-certified physicians. Conclusions: While the risk of intravascular filler injection is low, the consequences can be disastrous. We believe that adding the SANIT technique can help further mitigate risk with no significant untoward effects and could be considered by all performing injectable fillers. Further follow-up is ongoing.

Keywords: injectable fillers, safety, saline aspiration, injectable filler complications, hyaluronic acid, calcium hydroxyapatite

Procedia PDF Downloads 61
95 Nano-Filled Matrix Reinforced by Woven Carbon Fibers Used as a Sensor

Authors: K. Hamdi, Z. Aboura, W. Harizi, K. Khellil

Abstract:

Improving the electrical properties of organic matrix composites has been investigated in several studies. Thus, to extend the use of composites in more varied application, one of the actual barrier is their poor electrical conductivities. In the case of carbon fiber composites, organic matrix are in charge of the insulating properties of the resulting composite. However, studying the properties of continuous carbon fiber nano-filled composites is less investigated. This work tends to characterize the effect of carbon black nano-fillers on the properties of the woven carbon fiber composites. First of all, SEM observations were performed to localize the nano-particles. It showed that particles penetrated on the fiber zone (figure1). In fact, by reaching the fiber zone, the carbon black nano-fillers created network connectivity between fibers which means an easy pathway for the current. It explains the noticed improvement of the electrical conductivity of the composites by adding carbon black. This test was performed with the four points electrical circuit. It shows that electrical conductivity of 'neat' matrix composite passed from 80S/cm to 150S/cm by adding 9wt% of carbon black and to 250S/cm by adding 17wt% of the same nano-filler. Thanks to these results, the use of this composite as a strain gauge might be possible. By the way, the study of the influence of a mechanical excitation (flexion, tensile) on the electrical properties of the composite by recording the variance of an electrical current passing through the material during the mechanical testing is possible. Three different configuration were performed depending on the rate of carbon black used as nano-filler. These investigation could lead to develop an auto-instrumented material.

Keywords: carbon fibers composites, nano-fillers, strain-sensors, auto-instrumented

Procedia PDF Downloads 326
94 Design Modification of Lap Joint of Fiber Metal Laminates (CARALL)

Authors: Shaher Bano, Samia Fida, Asif Israr

Abstract:

The synergistic effect of properties of metals and fibers reinforced laminates has diverted attention of the world towards use of robust composite materials known as fiber-metal laminates in many high performance applications. In this study, modification of an adhesively bonded joint as a single lap joint of carbon fibers based CARALL FML has done to increase interlaminar shear strength of the joint. The effect of different configurations of joint designs such as spews, stepped and modification in adhesive by addition of nano-fillers was studied. Both experimental and simulation results showed that modified joint design have superior properties as maximum force experienced stepped joint was 1.5 times more than the simple lap joint. Addition of carbon nano-tubes as nano-fillers in the adhesive joint increased the maximum force due to crack deflection mechanism.

Keywords: adhesive joint, Carbon Reinforced Aluminium Laminate (CARALL), fiber metal laminates, spews

Procedia PDF Downloads 153
93 Adjuvant Effect and Mineral Addition in Aggressive Environments on the Sustainability of Using Local Materials Concretes

Authors: M. Belouadah, S. Rahmouni, N. Teballe

Abstract:

The durability of concrete is not one of its features, but its response to service loads and environmental conditions. Thus, the durability of concrete depends on a variety of material characteristics, but also the aggressiveness of the environment. Much durability problems encountered in tropical regions (region M'sila) due to the presence of chlorides and sulfates (in the ground or in the aggregate) with the additional aggravation of the effect of hot weather and arid. This lack of sustainability has a direct influence on the structure of the building and can lead to the complete deterioration of many buildings. The characteristics of the nature of fillers are evaluated based on the degree of aggressiveness of the environment considering as a means of characterization: mechanical strength, porosity. Specimens will be exposed to different storage media chemically aggressive drinking water, salts and sulfates (sodium chloride, MgSO4), solutions are not renewed or PH control solutions. The parameters taken into account are: age, the nature and degree of aggressiveness of the environment conservation, the incorporation of adjuvant type superplasticizer dosage and mineral additives.

Keywords: ordinary concretes, marble powder fillers, adjuvant, strength

Procedia PDF Downloads 214
92 Hybrid Conductive Polymer Composites: Effect of Mixed Fillers and Polymer Blends on Pyroresistive Properties

Authors: Eric Asare, Jamie Evans, Mark Newton, Emiliano Bilotti

Abstract:

High-density polyethylene (HDPE) filled with silver coated glass flakes (5µm) was investigated and the effect on PTC by addition of a second filler (100µm silver coated glass flake) or matrix (polypropylene elastomer) to the composite were examined. The addition of the secondary filler promoted the electrical properties of the composite. The bigger flakes acted like a bridge between the small flakes and this helped to enhance the electrical properties. The PTC behaviour of the composite was also improved by the addition of the bigger flakes due to the increase in separation distance between particles caused by the bigger flakes. Addition of small amount of polypropylene elastomer enhanced not only PTC effect but also improved substantially the flexibility of the composite as well as reduces the overall filler content. SEM images showed that the fillers were dispersed in the HDPE phase.

Keywords: positive temperature coefficient, conductive polymer composite, electrical conductivity, high density polyethylene

Procedia PDF Downloads 389
91 The Influence of Fiber Fillers on the Bonding Safety of Wood-Adhesive Interfaces: A Fracture Energetic Approach

Authors: M. H. Brandtner-Hafner

Abstract:

Adhesives have established themselves as an innovative joining technology in the wood industry. The strengths of adhesive bonding lie in the realization of lightweight designs, the avoidance of material weakening, and the joining of different types of materials. There is now a number of ways to positively influence the properties of bonded joints. One way is to add fiber fillers. This leads to an improvement in adhesion, structural integrity, and fracture toughness. In this study, the effectiveness of fiber-modified adhesives for bonding wooden joints is reviewed. A series of experimental tests were performed using the fracture analytical GF-principle to study the adhesive bonding safety and performance of the wood-adhesive interface. Two different construction adhesives based on epoxy and PUR were modified with different fiber materials and applied to bond wooden joints. The results show that bonding efficiency by adding fibrous materials to the bonding matrix leads to significant improvements in structural material properties.

Keywords: fiber-modified adhesives, bonding safety, wood-adhesive interfaces, fracture analysis

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90 Studies on Organic and Inorganic Micro/Nano Particle Reinforced Epoxy Composites

Authors: Daniel Karthik, Vijay Baheti, Jiri Militky, Sundaramurthy Palanisamy

Abstract:

Fibre based nano particles are presently considered as one of the potential filler materials for the improvement of mechanical and physical properties of polymer composites. Due to high matrix-filler interfacial area there will be uniform and homogeneous dispersion of nanoparticles. In micro/nano filler reinforced composites, resin material is usually tailored by organic or inorganic nanoparticles to have improved matrix properties. The objective of this study was to compare the potential of reinforcement of different organic and inorganic micro/nano fillers in epoxy composites. Industrial and agricultural waste of fibres like Agave Americana, cornhusk, jute, basalt, carbon, glass and fly ash was utilized to prepare micro/nano particles. Micro/nano particles were obtained using high energy planetary ball milling process in dry condition. Milling time and ball size were kept constant throughout the ball milling process. Composites were fabricated by hand lay method. Particle loading was kept constant to 3% wt. for all composites. In present study, loading of fillers was selected as 3 wt. % for all composites. Dynamic mechanical properties of the nanocomposite films were performed in three-point bending mode with gauge length and sample width of 50 mm and 10 mm respectively. The samples were subjected to an oscillating frequency of 1 Hz, 5 Hz and 10 Hz and 100 % oscillating amplitude in the temperature ranges of 30°C to 150°C at the heating rate of 3°C/min. Damping was found to be higher with the jute composites. Amongst organic fillers lowest damping factor was observed with Agave Americana particles, this means that Agave americana fibre particles have betters interface adhesion with epoxy resin. Basalt, fly ash and glass particles have almost similar damping factors confirming better interface adhesion with epoxy.

Keywords: ball milling, damping factor, matrix-filler interface, particle reinforcements

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89 Ultrasonic Spectroscopy of Polymer Based PVDF-TrFE Composites with CNT Fillers

Authors: J. Belovickis, V. Samulionis, J. Banys, M. V. Silibin, A. V. Solnyshkin, A. V. Sysa

Abstract:

Ferroelectric polymers exhibit good flexibility, processability and low cost of production. Doping of ferroelectric polymers with nanofillers may modify its dielectric, elastic or piezoelectric properties. Carbon nanotubes are one of the ingredients that can improve the mechanical properties of polymer based composites. In this work, we report on both the ultrasonic and the dielectric properties of the copolymer polyvinylidene fluoride/tetrafluoroethylene (P(VDF-TrFE)) of the composition 70/30 mol% with various concentrations of carbon nanotubes (CNT). Experimental study of ultrasonic wave attenuation and velocity in these composites has been performed over wide temperature range (100 K – 410 K) using an ultrasonic automatic pulse-echo tecnique. The temperature dependences of ultrasonic velocity and attenuation showed anomalies attributed to the glass transition and paraelectric-ferroelectric phase transition. Our investigations showed mechanical losses to be dependent on the volume fraction of the CNTs within the composites. The existence of broad hysteresis of the ultrasonic wave attenuation and velocity within the nanocomposites is presented between cooling and heating cycles. By the means of dielectric spectroscopy, it is shown that the dielectric properties may be tuned by varying the volume fraction of the CNT fillers.

Keywords: carbon nanotubes, polymer composites, PVDF-TrFE, ultrasonic spectroscopy

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88 Room Temperature Ionic Liquids Filled Mixed Matrix Membranes for CO2 Separation

Authors: Asim Laeeq Khan, Mazhar Amjad Gilani, Tayub Raza

Abstract:

The use of fossil fuels for energy generation leads to the emission of greenhouse gases particularly CO2 into the atmosphere. To date, several techniques have been proposed for the efficient removal of CO2 from flue gas mixtures. Membrane technology is a promising choice due to its several inherent advantages such as low capital cost, high energy efficiency, and low ecological footprint. One of the goals in the development of membranes is to achieve high permeability and selectivity. Mixed matrix membranes comprising of inorganic fillers embedded in polymer matrix are a class of membranes that have showed improved separation properties. One of the biggest challenges in the commercialization if mixed matrix membranes are the removal of non-selective voids existing at the polymer-filler interface. In this work, mixed matrix membranes were prepared using polysulfone as polymer matrix and ordered mesoporous MCM-41 as filler materials. A new approach to removing the interfacial voids was developed by introducing room temperature ionic (RTIL) at the polymer-filler interface. The results showed that the imidazolium based RTIL not only provided wettability characteristics but also helped in further improving the separation properties. The removal of interfacial voids and good contact between polymer and filler was verified by SEM measurement. The synthesized membranes were tested in a custom built gas permeation set-up for the measurement of gas permeability and ideal gas selectivity. The results showed that the mixed matrix membranes showed significantly higher CO2 permeability in comparison to the pristine membrane. In order to have further insight into the role of fillers, diffusion and solubility measurements were carried out. The results showed that the presence of highly porous fillers resulted in increasing the diffusion coefficient while the solubility showed a slight drop. The RTIL filled membranes showed higher CO2/CH4 and CO2/N2 selectivity than unfilled membranes while the permeability dropped slightly. The increase in selectivity was due to the highly selective RTIL used in this work. The study revealed that RTIL filled mixed matrix membranes are an interesting candidate for gas separation membranes.

Keywords: ionic liquids, CO2 separation, membranes, mixed matrix membranes

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87 Investigation on Corrosion Behavior of Copper Brazed Joints

Authors: A. M. Aminazad, A. M. Hadian, F. Ghasimakbari

Abstract:

DHP (Deoxidized High Phosphorus )copper is widely used in various heat transfer units such as, air conditioners refrigerators, evaporators and condensers. Copper sheets and tubes (ISODHP) were brazed with four different brazing alloys. Corrosion resistances of the joints were examined by polarization and salt spray tests. The selected fillers consisted of three silver-based brazing alloys (hard solder); AWS-BCu5 BAg8, DINLAg30, and a copper-based filler AWS BCuP2. All the joints were brazed utilizing four different brazing processes including furnace brazing under argon, vacuum, air atmosphere and torch brazing. All of the fillers were used with and without flux. The microstructure of the brazed sheets was examined using both optical and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Hardness and leak tests were carried out on all the brazed tubes. In all three silver brazing alloys selective and galvanic corrosion were observed in filler metals, but in copper phosphor alloys the copper adjacent to the joints were noticeably corroded by pitting method. Microstructure of damaged area showed selective attack of copper lamellae as well. Interfacial attack was observed along boundaries as well as copper attack within the filler metal itself. It was found that the samples brazed with BAg5 filler metal using vacuum furnace show a higher resistance to corrosion. They also have a good ductility in the brazed zone.

Keywords: copper, brazing, corrosion, filler metal

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86 Development of Light-Weight Fibre-Based Materials for Building Envelopes

Authors: René Čechmánek, Vladan Prachař, Ludvík Lederer, Jiří Loskot

Abstract:

Thin-walled elements with a matrix set on a base of high-valuable Portland cement with dispersed reinforcement from alkali-resistant glass fibres are used in a range of applications as claddings of buildings and infrastructure constructions as well as various architectural elements of residential buildings. Even if their elementary thickness and therefore total weight is quite low, architects and building companies demand on even further decreasing of the bulk density of these fibre-cement elements for the reason of loading elimination of connected superstructures and easier assembling in demand conditions. By the means of various kinds of light-weight aggregates it is possible to achieve light-weighing of thin-walled fibre-cement composite elements. From the range of possible fillers with different material properties granulated expanded glass worked the best. By the means of laboratory testing an effect of two fillers based on expanded glass on the fibre reinforced cement composite was verified. Practical applicability was tested in the production of commonly manufactured glass fibre reinforced concrete elements, such as channels for electrical cable deposition, products for urban equipment and especially various cladding elements. Even if these are not structural elements, it is necessary to evaluate also strength characteristics and resistance to environment for their durability in certain applications.

Keywords: fibre-cement composite, granulated expanded glass, light-weighing

Procedia PDF Downloads 208