Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8

Search results for: epichlorohydrin

8 Fabrication of Chitosan/Polyacrylonitrile Blend and SEMI-IPN Hydrogel with Epichlorohydrin

Authors: Muhammad Omer Aijaz, Sajjad Haider, Fahad S. Al Mubddal, Yousef Al-Zeghayer, Waheed A. Al Masry


The present study is focused on the preparation of chitosan-based blend and Semi-Interpenetrating Polymer Network (SEMI-IPN) with polyacrylonitrile (PAN). Blend Chitosan/Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) hydrogel films were prepared by solution blending and casting technique. Chitosan in the blend was cross-linked with epichlorohydrin (ECH) to prepare SEMI-IPN. The developed Chitosan/PAN blend and SEMI-IPN hydrogels were characterized with SEM, FTIR, TGA, and DSC. The result showed good miscibility between chitosan and PAN, crosslinking of chitosan in the blend, and improved thermal properties for SEMI-IPN. The swelling of the different blended and SEMI-IPN hydrogels samples were examined at room temperature. Blend (C80/P20) sample showed highest swelling (2400%) and fair degree of stability (28%) whereas SEMI-IPN hydrogel exhibited relatively low degree of swelling (244%) and high degree of aqueous stability (85.5%).

Keywords: polymer hydrogels, chitosan, SEMI-IPN, polyacrylonitrile, epichlorohydrin

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7 Adsorption of Iodine from Aqueous Solution on Modified Silica Gel with Cyclodextrin Derivatives

Authors: Raied, Badr, E. I. El-Shafey


Cyclodextrin (CD) derivatives (αCD, βCD, γCD and hp-βCD) were successfully immobilized on silica gel surface via epichlorohydrin as a crosslinker. The ratio of silica to CD was optimized in preliminary experiments based on the best performance of iodine adsorption capacity. Selected adsorbents with ratios of silica to CD derivatives, in this study, include Si-αCD (3:2), Si-βCD (4:1), Si-γCD (4:1) and Si-hp-βCD (4:1). The adsorption of iodine (I2/KI) solution was investigated in terms of initial pH, contact time, iodine concentration and temperature. No significant variations were noticed for iodine adsorption at different pH values; thus, initial pH 6 was selected for further studies. Equilibrium adsorption was reached faster on Si-hp-bCD than other adsorbents with kinetic adsorption data fitting well pseudo-second-order model. The activation energy (Eₐ) was found to be in the range of 12.7 - 23.4 kJ/mol. Equilibrium adsorption data were found to fit well the Langmuir adsorption model with lower uptake as temperature rises. Iodine uptake follows the order: Si-hp-βCD (714 mg/g) >Si-αCD (625 mg/g) >Si-βCD (555.6 mg/g)> Si-γCD (435 mg/g). A thermodynamic study showed that iodine adsorption is exothermic and spontaneous. Adsorbents reuse exhibited excellent performance for iodine adsorption with a decrease in iodine uptake of ~ 2- 4 % in the third adsorption cycle.

Keywords: adsorption, iodine, silica, cyclodextrin, functionalization, epichlorohydrin

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6 Synthesis of Magnetic Chitosan Beads and Its Cross-Linked Derivatives for Sorption of Zinc Ions from Water Samples of Yamuna and Hindon Rivers in India

Authors: Priti Rani, Rajni Johar, P. S. Jassal


The magnetic chitosan beads (MCB) were synthesized using co-precipitation method and made to react with epichlorohydrin (ECH) to get the cross-linked derivative (ECH-MCB). The beads were characterized by FTIR, SEM, EDX, and TGA. It is found that zinc metal ion sorption efficiency of ECH-MCB is significantly higher than MCB. Various factors affecting the uptake behavior of metal ions, such as pH, adsorbent dosage, contact time, and temperature effects, were investigated. The adsorption parameters fitted well with Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The equilibrium parameter RL values support that the adsorption (0 < RL < 1) is favorable and spontaneous process. The thermodynamic parameters confirm that it is an endothermic reaction, which results in an increase in the randomness of adsorption process. The beads were regenerated using ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) for further use. These beads prove as promising materials for the removal of pollutants from industrial wastewater. Water samples from Yamuna and Hindon rivers were analysed for the detection of Zn (II) ions.

Keywords: chitosan magnetic beads, EDTA, epichlorohydrin, removal efficiency

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5 Synthesis of Carboxylate Gemini Surfactant

Authors: Rui Wang, Shanfa Tang, Yuanwu Dong, Siyao Wang


A carboxylate Gemini surfactant N, N`-bis (3-chloro-2 -hydroxypropane-N-dodecyl secondary amine) p-phenylenediamine diacetate sodium (GD12-P-12) was synthesized by substitution and ring-opening reaction from p-phenylenediamine, sodium chloroacetate, epichlorohydrin, and dodecylamine. The synthesis conditions were optimized by controlling variables. The structure of GD12-P-12 was characterized by FT-IR and 1H NMR, and its foam performance, interfacial tension, viscosity was evaluated. The results show that the molecular structure of the synthesized product is consistent with that of the target product, the GD12-P-12 can reduce the oil-water interfacial tension to 7.49×10⁻³mN/m (ultra-low interfacial tension level) in 20min. GD12-P-12 surfactant has excellent foam performance, ultra-low interfacial tension, good temperature-resistant viscosity-increasing properties, has good application prospect in foam flooding.

Keywords: gemini surfactant, optimization of synthesis conditions, foam performance, low interfacial tension

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4 Treatment of Rice Industry Waste Water by Flotation-Flocculation Method

Authors: J. K. Kapoor, Shagufta Jabin, H. S. Bhatia


Polyamine flocculants were synthesized by poly-condensation of diphenylamine and epichlorohydrin using 1, 2-diaminoethane as modifying agent. The polyelectrolytes were prepared by taking epichlohydrin-diphenylamine in a molar ratio of 1:1, 1.5:1, 2:1, and 2.5:1. The flocculation performance of these polyelectrolytes was evaluated with rice industry waste water. The polyelectrolytes have been used in conjunction with alum for coagulation- flocculation process. Prior to the coagulation- flocculation process, air flotation technique was used with the aim to remove oil and grease content from waste water. Significant improvement was observed in the removal of oil and grease content after the air flotation technique. It has been able to remove 91.7% oil and grease from rice industry waste water. After coagulation-flocculation method, it has been observed that polyelectrolyte with epichlohydrin-diphenylamine molar ratio of 1.5:1 showed best results for the removal of pollutants from rice industry waste water. The highest efficiency of turbidity and TSS removal with polyelectrolyte has been found to be 97.5% and 98.2%, respectively. Results of these evaluations also reveal 86.8% removal of COD and 87.5% removal of BOD from rice industry waste water. Thus, we demonstrate optimization of coagulation–flocculation technique which is appropriate for waste water treatment.

Keywords: coagulation, flocculation, air flotation technique, polyelectrolyte, turbidity

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3 Synthesis of New Analogs of IPS-339, and Study of Their Cardiovascular in Dogs

Authors: Elham Zarenezhad, Ali Zarenezhad, Mehdi Mardkhoshnood


We described the synthesis and biological study of O-oxime ethers having a-amino acid residues as new analogs of IPS-339. In this synthesis, the reaction of fluorene O-oxime with epichlorohydrin or epibromohydrin afforded the corresponding O-oxime ether adducts. The N-alkylation of valine amino acid with O-oxime ether adducts led to the synthesis of new analogs of IPS-339. The cardiovascular properties of the compound have been studied. In this regard, six clinically healthy same sex mongrel dogs were examined. The dogs were randomly divided into 3 groups of two members. 1 groups received 2 mg kg-1 body weight of compound (2-(3-(9H-fluoren-9-ylideneaminooxy)-2- hydroxypropylamino)-3-methylbutanoic acid) intravenously, whereas group 2 and 3 received only DMSO–water (distil.) and propranolol (Inderal) (2 mg kg-1), respectively. The electrocardiograph (ECG) was recorded with lead II. The recording was run successively by 5 min time interval on each dog before, simultaneously, and after compound infusion. Data after administration were taken from normal sinus beats that were closely related to the arrhythmias whenever they occurred. In general, no detectable arrhythmia was observed in all ECG records regardless of increasing the heart rate that likely caused by stress origin from invasive procedure just after infusion. Compound diminished the heart rate during study especially at 20th minute compared to propranolol as a reference drug. Compound (2-(3-(9H-fluoren-9-ylideneaminooxy)-2- hydroxypropylamino)-3-methylbutanoic acid) was the most effective compound with remarkable ability in declining of the heart rate.

Keywords: electrocardiograph (ECG), cardiovascular, IPS-339, dogs

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2 Design, Synthesis and Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Some Coumarin and Flavone Derivatives Containing 1,4 Dioxane Ring System

Authors: Asif Husain, Shah Alam Khan


Coumarins and flavones are oxygen containing heterocyclic compounds which are present in various biologically active compounds. Both the heterocyclic rings are associated with diverse biological actions, therefore considered as an important scaffold for the design of molecules of pharmaceutical interest. Aim: To synthesize and evaluate the in vivo anti-inflammatory activity of few coumrain and flavone derivatives containing 1,4 dioxane ring system. Materials and methods: Coumarin derivatives (3a-d) were synthesized by reacting 7,8 dihydroxy coumarin (2a) and its 4-methyl derivative (2b) with epichlorohydrin/ethylene dibromide. The flavone derivatives (10a-d) were prepared by using quercetin and 3,4 dihydroxy flavones. Compounds of both the series were also evaluated for their anti-inflammatory, analgesic activity and ulcerogenicity in animal models by reported methods. Results and Discussion: The structures of all newly synthesized compounds were confirmed with the help of IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and Mass spectral studies. Elemental analyses data for each element analyzed (C, H, N) was found to be within acceptable range of ±0.4 %. Flavone derivatives, but in particular quercetin containing 1,4 dioxane ring system (10d) showed better anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity along with reduced gastrointestinal toxicity as compared to other synthesized compounds. The results of anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of both the series are comparable with the positive control, diclofenac. Conclusion: Compound 10d, a quercetin derivative, emerged as a lead molecule which exhibited potent anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity with significant reduced gastric toxicity.

Keywords: analgesic, anti-inflammatory, 1, 4 dioxane, coumarin, flavone

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1 Crosslinked Porous 3-Dimensional Cellulose Nanofibers/Gelatin Based Biocomposite Aerogels for Tissue Engineering Application

Authors: Ali Mirtaghavi, Andy Baldwin, Rajendarn Muthuraj, Jack Luo


Recent advances in biomaterials have led to utilizing biopolymers to develop 3D scaffolds in tissue regeneration. One of the major challenges of designing biomaterials for 3D scaffolds is to mimic the building blocks similar to the extracellular matrix (ECM) of the native tissues. Biopolymer based aerogels obtained by freeze-drying have shown to provide structural similarities to the ECM owing to their 3D format and a highly porous structure with interconnected pores, similar to the ECM. Gelatin (GEL) is known to be a promising biomaterial with inherent regenerative characteristics owing to its chemical similarities to the ECM in native tissue, biocompatibility abundance, cost-effectiveness and accessible functional groups, which makes it facile for chemical modifications with other biomaterials to form biocomposites. Despite such advantages, gelatin offers poor mechanical properties, sensitive enzymatic degradation and high viscosity at room temperature which limits its application and encourages its use to develop biocomposites. Hydrophilic biomass-based cellulose nanofibrous (CNF) has been explored to use as suspension for biocomposite aerogels for the development of 3D porous structures with excellent mechanical properties, biocompatibility and slow enzymatic degradation. In this work, CNF biocomposite aerogels with various ratios of CNF:GEL) (90:10, 70:30 and 50:50) were prepared by freeze-drying technique, and their properties were investigated in terms of physicochemical, mechanical and biological characteristics. Epichlorohydrin (EPH) was used to investigate the effect of chemical crosslinking on the molecular interaction of CNF: GEL, and its effects on physicochemical, mechanical and biological properties of the biocomposite aerogels. Ultimately, chemical crosslinking helped to improve the mechanical resilience of the resulting aerogels. Amongst all the CNF-GEL composites, the crosslinked CNF: GEL (70:30) biocomposite was found to be favourable for cell attachment and viability. It possessed highly porous structure (porosity of ~93%) with pore sizes ranging from 16-110 µm, adequate mechanical properties (compression modulus of ~47 kPa) and optimal biocompatibility both in-vitro and in-vivo, as well as controlled enzymatic biodegradation, high water penetration, which could be considered a suitable option for wound healing application. In-vivo experiments showed improvement on inflammation and foreign giant body cell reaction for the crosslinked CNF: GEL (70:30) compared to the other samples. This could be due to the superior interaction of CNF with gelatin through chemical crosslinking, resulting in more optimal in-vivo improvement. In-vitro cell culture investigation on human dermal fibroblasts showed satisfactory 3D cell attachment over time. Overall, it has been observed that the developed CNF: GEL aerogel can be considered as a potential scaffold for soft tissue regeneration application.

Keywords: 3D scaffolds, aerogels, Biocomposites , tissue engineering

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