Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1527

Search results for: thickness swelling

1527 Improving the Dimensional Stability of Bamboo Woven Strand Board

Authors: Gulelat Gatew


Bamboo Woven Strand Board (WSB) products are manufactured from Ethiopia highland bamboo (Yushania alpina) as a multiple layer mat structure for enhanced mechanical performance. Hence, it shows similar mechanical properties as tropical hardwood products. WSB, therefore, constitutes a sustainable alternative to tropical hardwood products. The resin and wax ratio had a great influence on the determinants properties of the product quality such as internal bonding, water absorption, thickness swelling, bending and stiffness properties. Among these properties, because of the hygroscopic nature of the bamboo, thickness swelling and water absorption are important performances of WSB for using in construction and outdoor facilities. When WSB is exposed to water or moist environment, they tend to swell and absorb water in all directions. The degree of swelling and water absorption depends on the type of resin used, resin formulation, resin ratio, wax type and ratio. The objective of this research is investigating effects of phenol formaldehyde and wax on thickness swelling and water absorption behavior on bamboo WSB for construction and outdoor facilities. The experiments were conducted to measure the effects of wax and phenol-formaldehyde resin content on WSB thickness swelling and water absorption which leads to investigate its effect on dimension stability and mechanical properties. Both experiments were performed with 2–hour and 24-hour water immersion test and a significant set of data regarding the influence of such method parameters is also presented. The addition of up to 2% wax with 10% of phenol formaldehyde significantly reduced thickness swelling and water absorption of WSB which resulted in making it more hydrophobic and less susceptible to the influences of moisture in high humidity conditions compared to the panels without wax.

Keywords: woven strand board (WSB), water absorption, thickness swelling, phenol formaldehyde resin

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1526 An Experimental Study to Mitigate Swelling Pressure of Expansive Tabuk Shale, Saudi Arabia

Authors: A. A. Embaby, A. Abu Halawa, M. Ramadan


In Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, there are several areas where expansive soil exists in the form of variable-thicknesses layers in the developed regions. Severe distress to infrastructures can be caused by the development of heave and swelling pressure in this kind of expansive shale. Among the various techniques for expansive soil mitigation, the removal and replacement technique is very popular for lightly loaded structures and shallow foundations. This paper presents the result of an experimental study conducted for evaluating the effect of type and thickness of the cushion soils on mitigation of swelling characteristics of expanded shale. Seven undisturbed shale samples collected from Al Qadsiyah district, which is located in the Tabuk town north Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, are treated with two types of cushion coarse-grained sediments (CCS); sand and gravel. Each type is represented with three thicknesses, 22%, 33% and 44% in relation to the depth of the active zone. The test results indicated that the replacement of expansive shale by CCS reduces the swelling potential and pressure. It is found that the reduction in swelling depends on the type and thickness of CCS. The treatment by removing the original expansive shale and replacing it by cushion sand with 44% thickness reduced the swelling potential and pressure of about 53.29% and 62.78 %, respectively.

Keywords: cushion coarse-grained sediments (CCS), expansive soil, Saudi Arabia, swelling pressure, Tabuk Shale

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1525 Properties of Epoxy Composite Reinforced with Amorphous and Crystalline Silica from Rice Husk

Authors: Norul Hisham Hamid, Amir Affan, Ummi Hani Abdullah, Paridah Md. Tahir, Khairul Akmal Azhar, Rahmat Nawai, W. B. H. Wan Sulwani Izzati


The dimensional stability and static bending properties of epoxy composite reinforced with amorphous and crystalline silica were investigated. The amorphous and crystalline silica was obtained by the precipitation method from carbonisation process of the rice husk at a temperature of 600 °C and 1000 °C for 7 hours respectively. The epoxy resin was mixed with 5%, 10% and 15% concentrations of amorphous and crystalline silica. The mixture was stirred for 10 minutes and cured at 28 °C for 72 hours and oven dried at 80 °C for 72 hours. The scanning electron microscope image showed the silica sized of 10-30nm was obtained. The water absorption and thickness swelling of epoxy/amorphous silica composite was not significantly different with silica concentration ranged from 0.08% to 0.09% and 0.17% to 0.20% respectively. The maximum modulus of rupture (85 MPa) and modulus of elasticity (3284 MPa) were achieved for 10% silica concentration. For epoxy/crystalline silica composite; the water absorption and thickness swelling were also not significantly different with silica concentration, ranged from 0.08% to 0.11% and 0.16% to 0.18% respectively. The maximum modulus of rupture (47.9 MPa) and modulus of elasticity (2760 MPa) were achieved for 10% silica concentration. Overall, the water absorption and thickness swelling were almost identical for epoxy composite made from either amorphous or crystalline silica. The epoxy composite made from amorphous silica was stronger than crystalline silica.

Keywords: epoxy, composite, dimensional stability, static bending, silica

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1524 Analytical and Statistical Study of the Parameters of Expansive Soil

Authors: A. Medjnoun, R. Bahar


The disorders caused by the shrinking-swelling phenomenon are prevalent in arid and semi-arid in the presence of swelling clay. This soil has the characteristic of changing state under the effect of water solicitation (wetting and drying). A set of geotechnical parameters is necessary for the characterization of this soil type, such as state parameters, physical and chemical parameters and mechanical parameters. Some of these tests are very long and some are very expensive, hence the use or methods of predictions. The complexity of this phenomenon and the difficulty of its characterization have prompted researchers to use several identification parameters in the prediction of swelling potential. This document is an analytical and statistical study of geotechnical parameters affecting the potential of swelling clays. This work is performing on a database obtained from investigations swelling Algerian soil. The obtained observations have helped us to understand the soil swelling structure and its behavior.

Keywords: analysis, estimated model, parameter identification, swelling of clay

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1523 Effect of Swelling Pressure on Drug Release from Polyelectrolyte Micro-Hydrogel Particles

Authors: Mina Boroujerdi, Javad Tavakoli


Hydrogels are extensively studied as matrices for the controlled release of drugs. To evaluate the mobility of embedded molecules, these drug delivery systems are usually characterized by release studies. In this contribution, an electronic device for swelling pressure measurement during drug release from hydrogel network was developed. Also, poly acrylic acid micro particles were prepared for prolonged and sustained controlled acetaminophen release. Effect of swelling pressure on drug release from micro particles studied under different environment pH in order to predict release profile in gastro-intestine medium. Swelling ratio and swelling pressure were measured in different pH.

Keywords: swelling pressure, drug delivery, hydrogel, polyelectrolyte

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1522 Swelling Behaviour of Kappa Carrageenan Hydrogel in Neutral Salt Solution

Authors: Sperisa Distantina, Fadilah Fadilah, Mujtahid Kaavessina


Hydrogel films were prepared from kappa carrageenan by crosslinking with glutaraldehyde. Carrageenan films extracted from Kappaphycus alvarezii seaweed were immersed in glutaraldehyde solution for 2 min and then cured at 110 °C for 25 min. The obtained crosslinked films were washed with ethanol to remove the unreacted glutaraldehyde and then air dried to constant weights. The aim of this research was to study the swelling degree behaviour of the hydrogel film to neutral salts solution, namely NaCl, KCl, and CaCl2. The results showed that swelling degree of crosslinked films varied non-monotonically with salinity of NaCl. Swelling degree decreased with the increasing of KCl concentration. Swelling degree of crosslinked film in CaCl2 solution was lower than that in NaCl and in KCl solutions.

Keywords: carrageenan, hydrogel, glutaraldehyde, salt, swelling

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1521 Stabilization of Expansive Soils by Additions Binders Hydraulic Lime and Cement

Authors: Kherafa Abdennasser


A literature review was conducted to gather as much information. Concerns the phenomenon of swelling clays, as well as a presentation of some bibliographic findings on factors affecting the swelling potential. Citing the various techniques of stabilization of clays as well as a presentation of some literature results on the stabilization of swelling. Then a characterization of the materials was carried out at basic bibliographic study. These are standard mechanical geotechnical testing. Simple practical, economical and efficient to minimize the phenomenon swelling.

Keywords: stabilization, expansive soils, cement, lime, oedometer

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1520 Physico-Mechanical Properties of Chemically Modified Sisal Fibre Reinforced Unsaturated Polyester Composites

Authors: A. A. Salisu, M. Y. Yakasai, K. M. Aujara


Sisal leaves were subjected to enzymatic retting method to extract the sisal fibre. A portion of the fibre was pretreated with alkali (NaOH), and further treated with benzoyl chloride and silane treatment reagents. Both the treated and untreated Sisal fibre composites were used to fabricate the composite by hand lay-up technique using unsaturated polyester resin. Tensile, flexural, water absorption, density, thickness swelling and chemical resistant tests were conducted and evaluated on the composites. Results obtained for all the parameters showed an increase in the treated fibre compared to untreated fibre. FT-IR spectra results ascertained the inclusion of benzoyl and silane groups on the fibre surface. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) result obtained showed variation in the morphology of the treated and untreated fibre. Chemical modification was found to improve adhesion of the fibre to the matrix, as well as physico-mechanical properties of the composites.

Keywords: chemical resistance, density test, polymer matrix sisal fibre, thickness swelling

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1519 A Soil Stabilization Technique on Apa-Hotamiş Conveyance Channel

Authors: Ali Sinan Soğancı


Apa-Hotamış conveyance channel is located within in the boundaries of Konya Regional Directorate of Water Works. This channel transfers the water to the fount of Apa Dam with 17 km length of Blue Channel. Then the water is transmitted with Apa- Hotamış conveyance channel to Hotamış Water Storage. In some places along the Apa-Hotamış conveyance canal which will be constructed by Directorate of Water Works of Konya, some swelling soils have been seen. The samples taken from these places have 35-95 kPa swelling pressure. To prevent the swelling pressure arising from the penetration of water to the concrete channel, it was proposed to make 10 cm concrete coating by spreading the geomembrane and geotextile between the soil and concrete. In this way, the pressure (35-95 kPa) caused by the swelling and cracking of concrete failure will be blocked.

Keywords: conveyance channel, swelling pressure, geomembrane, geotextile, concrete

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1518 Leading Edge Vortex Development for a 65° Delta Wing with Varying Thickness and Maximum Thickness Locations

Authors: Jana Stucke, Sean Tuling, Chris Toomer


This study focuses on the numerical investigation of the leading edge vortex (LEV) development over a 65° swept delta wing with varying thickness and maximum thickness location and their impact on its overall performance. The tested configurations are defined by a 6% and 12 % thick biconvex aerofoil with maximum thickness location at 30% and 50% of the root chord. The results are compared to a flat plate delta wing configuration of 3.4% thickness. The largest differences are observed for the aerofoils of 12% thickness and are used to demonstrate the trends and aerodynamic characteristics from here on. It was found that the vortex structure changes with change with maximum thickness and overall thickness. This change leads to not only a reduction in lift but also in drag, especially when the maximum thickness is moved forward. The reduction in drag, however, outweighs the loss in lift thus increasing the overall performance of the configuration.

Keywords: aerodynamics, CFD, delta wing, leading edge vortices

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1517 Swelling Behavior of Cross-Linked Poly (2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate)

Authors: Salah Hamri, Tewfik Bouchaour, Ulrich Maschke


The aim of this works is the study of swelling ratio of cross-linked polymer networks poly (2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA). The system composed of erythrosine and Triethanolamine, in aqueous medium, is used as photo-initiator and 1,6-Hexanediol diacrylate as cross-linker. The analysis of UV-visible and infrared spectra, which were taken at different times during polymerization/cross linking, makes it possible to obtain useful information on the reaction mechanism. The swelling behavior was study by changing the nature of solvent, dye sensitizer (erythrosine, rose Bengal and eosin), and pH of the medium. The exploitation of experimental results using Fick diffusion model is also expected and shows a good correlation between theoretical and experimental results.

Keywords: cross-linker, photo-sensitizer, polymer network, swelling ratio

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1516 The Effect of Particle Temperature on the Thickness of Thermally Sprayed Coatings

Authors: M. Jalali Azizpour, H.Mohammadi Majd


In this paper, the effect of WC-12Co particle Temperature in HVOF thermal spraying process on the coating thickness has been studied. The statistical results show that the spray distance and oxygen-to-fuel ratio are more effective factors on particle characterization and thickness of HVOF thermal spraying coatings. Spray Watch diagnostic system, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction and thickness measuring system were used for this purpose.

Keywords: HVOF, temperature, thickness, velocity, WC-12Co

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1515 The Effect of Impinging WC-12Co Particles Temperature on Thickness of HVOF Thermally Sprayed Coatings

Authors: M. Jalali Azizpour


In this paper, the effect of WC-12Co particle Temperature in HVOF thermal spraying process on the coating thickness has been studied. The statistical results show that the spray distance and oxygen-to-fuel ratio are more effective factors on particle characterization and thickness of HVOF thermal spraying coatings. Spray Watch diagnostic system, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction and thickness measuring system were used for this purpose.

Keywords: HVOF, temperature thickness, velocity, WC-12Co

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1514 Improving Swelling Performance Using Industrial Waste Products

Authors: Mohieldin Elmashad, Salwa Yassin


Expansive soils regarded as one of the most problematic unsaturated formations in the Egyptian arid zones and present a great challenge in civil engineering, in general, and geotechnical engineering, in particular. Severe geotechnical complications and consequent structural damages have been arising due to an excessive and differential volumetric change upon wetting and change in water content. Different studies have been carried out concerning the swelling performance of the expansive soils using different additives including phospho-gypsum as an industrial waste product. However, this paper describes the results of a comprehensive testing programme that was carried out to investigate the effect of phospho-gypsum (PG) and sodium chloride (NaCl), as an additive mixture, on the swelling performance of constituent samples of swelling soils. The constituent samples comprise commercial bentonite collected from a natural site, mixed with different percentages of PG-NaCl mixture. The testing programme had been scoped to cover the physical and chemical properties of the constituent samples. In addition, a mineralogical study using x-ray diffraction (XRD) was performed on the collected bentonite and the mixed bentonite with PG-NaCl mixture samples. The obtained results of this study showed significant improvement in the swelling performance of the tested samples with the increase of the proposed PG-NaCl mixture content.

Keywords: expansive soils, industrial waste, mineralogical study, swelling performance, X-ray diffraction

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1513 Fabrication and Evaluation of Particleboards from Oil Palm Fronds Blend with Empty Fruit Bunch Fibre

Authors: Ghazi Faisal Najmuldeen, Wahida Amat Fadzila


The aim of this study is to investigate physical and mechanical properties of experimental particleboards manufactured from mixing the oil palm fronds particles with empty fruit bunch fibers. Variables were two blending ratios (100:0 and 70:30), press temperature (160°C and 180°C) and press time (180 and 300 s). Experimental boards with a target density of 750 kg m-3 were manufactured from these two particles and fibers blended with urea formaldehyde resin and compressed into targeted thickness. The effect of these manufacturing conditions on bending strength, internal bonding, water absorption and thickness swelling were determined. From this research, it can be concluded that hybridization of fibers with fronds particles improved some properties of particleboard. Empty fruit bunch fibers and fronds particleboard showed better modulus of rupture and internal bonding than fronds particleboards.

Keywords: oil palm fronds, empty fruit bunch, particleboards, chemistry, environment

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1512 Characterization of a LiFeOP₄ Battery Cell with Mechanical Responses

Authors: Ki-Yong Oh, Eunji Kwak, Due Su Son, Siheon Jung


A pouch type of 10 Ah LiFePO₄ battery cell is characterized with two mechanical responses: swelling and bulk force. Both responses vary upon the state of charge significantly, whereas voltage shows flat responses, suggesting that mechanical responses can become a sensitive gauge to characterize microstructure transformation of a battery cell. The derivative of swelling s with respect to capacity Q, (ds/dQ) and the derivative of force F with respect to capacity Q, (dF/dQ) more clearly identify phase transitions of cathode and anode electrodes in the overall charge process than the derivative of voltage V with respect to capacity Q, (dV/dQ). Especially, the force versus swelling curves over the state of charge clearly elucidates three different stiffness over the state of charge oriented from phase transitions: the α-phase, the β-phase, and the metastable solid-solution phase. The observation from mechanical responses suggests that macro-scale mechanical responses of a battery cell are directly correlated to microscopic transformation of a battery cell.

Keywords: force response, LiFePO₄ battery, strain response, stress response, swelling response

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1511 Effect of Thickness and Solidity on the Performance of Straight Type Vertical Axis Wind Turbine

Authors: Jianyang Zhu, Lin Jiang, Tixian Tian


Inspired by the increasing interesting on the wind power associated with production of clear electric power, a numerical experiment is applied to investigate the aerodynamic performance of straight type vertical axis wind turbine with different thickness and solidity, where the incompressible Navier-Stokes (N-S) equations coupled with dynamic mesh technique is solved. By analyzing the flow field, as well as energy coefficient of different thickness and solidity turbine, it is found that the thickness and solidity can significantly influence the performance of vertical axis wind turbine. For the turbine under low tip speed, the mean energy coefficient increase with the increasing of thickness and solidity, which may improve the self starting performance of the turbine. However for the turbine under high tip speed, the appropriate thickness and smaller solidity turbine possesses better performance. In addition, delay stall and no interaction of the blade and previous separated vortex are observed around appropriate thickness and solidity turbine, therefore lead better performance characteristics.

Keywords: vertical axis wind turbine, N-S equations, dynamic mesh technique, thickness, solidity

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1510 Assessment of Hygroscopic Characteristics of Hevea brasiliensis Wood

Authors: John Tosin Aladejana


Wood behave differently under different environmental conditions. The knowledge of the hygroscopic nature of wood becomes a key factor in selecting wood for use and required treatment. This study assessed the hygroscopic behaviour of Hevea brasiliensis (Rubber) wood. Void volume, volumetric swelling in the tangential, radial and longitudinal directions and volumetric shrinkage were used to assess the response of the wood when loosing or taking up moisture. Hevea brasiliensis wood samples cut into 20 × 20 × 60 mm taken longitudinally and transversely were used for the study and dried in the oven at 103 ± 2⁰C. The mean values for moisture content in green Hevea brasiliensis wood were 49.74 %, 51.14 % and 54.36 % for top, middle and bottom portion respectively while 51.77 %, 50.02 % and 53.45 % were recorded for outer, middle and inner portions respectively for the tree. The values obtained for volumetric shrinkage and swelling indicated that shrinkage and swelling were higher at the top part of H. brasiliensis. It was also observed that the longitudinal shrinkage was negligible while tangential direction showed the highest shrinkage among the wood direction. The values of the void volume obtained were 43.0 %, 39.0 % and 38.0 % at the top, middle and bottom respectively. The result obtained showed clarification on the wood density of hevea brasiliensis based on the position and portion of the wood species and the variation in moisture content, void volume, volumetric shrinkage and swelling were also revealed. This will provide information in the process of drying hevea brasiliensis wood to ensure better wood quality devoid of defects.

Keywords: moisture content, shrinkage, swelling, void volume

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1509 Effect of Welding Parameters on Penetration and Bead Width for Variable Plate Thickness in Submerged Arc Welding

Authors: Harish K. Arya, Kulwant Singh, R. K. Saxena


The heat flow in weldment changes its nature from 2D to 3D with the increase in plate thickness. For welding of thicker plates the heat loss in thickness direction increases the cooling rate of plate. Since the cooling rate changes, the various bead parameters like bead penetration, bead height and bead width also got affected by it. The present study incorporates the effect of variable plate thickness on penetration and bead width. The penetration reduces with increase in plate thickness due to heat loss in thickness direction for same heat input, while bead width increases for thicker plate due to faster cooling.

Keywords: submerged arc welding, plate thickness, bead geometry, cooling rate

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1508 Modification of Four Layer through the Thickness Woven Structure for Improved Impact Resistance

Authors: Muhammad Liaqat, Hafiz Abdul Samad, Syed Talha Ali Hamdani, Yasir Nawab


In the current research, the four layers, orthogonal through the thickness, 2D woven, 3D fabric structure was modified to improve the impact resistance of 3D fabric reinforced composites. This was achieved by imparting the auxeticity into four layers through the thickness woven structure. A comparison was made between the standard and modified four layers through the thickness woven structure in terms of auxeticity, penetration and impact resistance. It was found that the modified structure showed auxeticity in both warp and weft direction. It was also found that the penetration resistance of modified sample was less as compared to the standard structure, but impact resistance was improved up to 6.7% of modified four layers through the thickness woven structure.

Keywords: 2D woven, 3D fabrics, auxetic, impact resistance, orthogonal through the thickness

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1507 Effect of Welding Parameters on Dilution and Bead Height for Variable Plate Thickness in Submerged Arc Welding

Authors: Harish Kumar Arya, Kulwant Singh, R. K Saxena, Deepti Jaiswal


The heat flow in weldment changes its nature from 2D to 3D with the increase in plate thickness. For welding of thicker plates the heat loss in thickness direction increases the cooling rate of plate. Since the cooling rate changes, the various bead parameters like bead penetration, bead height and bead width also got affected by it. The present study incorporates the effect of variable plate thickness on bead geometry and dilution. The penetration reduces with increase in plate thickness due to heat loss in thickness direction, while bead width and reinforcement increases for thicker plate due to faster cooling.

Keywords: submerged arc welding, plate thickness, bead geometry, cooling rate

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1506 Synthesis of Crosslinked Konjac Glucomannan and Kappa Carrageenan Film with Glutaraldehyde

Authors: Sperisa Distantina, Fadilah, Mujtahid Kaavessina


Crosslinked konjac glucomannan and kappa carrageenan film were prepared by chemical crosslinking using glutaraldehyde (GA) as the crosslinking agent. The effect crosslinking on the swelling degree was investigated. Konjac glucomanan and its mixture with kappa carragenan film was immersed in GA solution and then thermally cured. The obtained crosslinked film was washed and soaked in the ethanol to remove the unreacted GA. The obtained film was air dried at room temperature to a constant weight. The infrared spectra and the value of swelling degree of obtained crosslinked film showed that glucomannan and kappa carrageenan was able to be crosslinked using glutaraldehyde by film immersion and curing method without catalyst. The crosslinked films were found to be pH sensitive, indicating a potential to be used in drug delivery polymer system.

Keywords: crosslinking, glucomannan, carrageenan, swelling

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1505 Physical and Microbiological Evaluation of Chitosan Films: Effect of Essential Oils and Storage

Authors: N. Valderrama, W. Albarracín, N. Algecira


It was studied the effect of the inclusion of thyme and rosemary essential oils into chitosan films, as well as the microbiological and physical properties when storing chitosan film with and without the mentioned inclusion. The film forming solution was prepared by dissolving chitosan (2%, w/v), polysorbate 80 (4% w/w CH) and glycerol (16% w/w CH) in aqueous lactic acid solutions (control). The thyme (TEO) and rosemary (REO) essential oils (EOs) were included 1:1 w/w (EOs:CH) on their combination 50/50 (TEO:REO). The films were stored at temperatures of 5, 20, 33°C and a relative humidity of 75% during four weeks. The films with essential oil inclusion did not show an antimicrobial activity against strains. This behavior could be explained because the chitosan only inhibits the growth of microorganisms in direct contact with the active sites. However, the inhibition capacity of TEO was higher than the REO and a synergic effect between TEO:REO was found for S. enteritidis strains in the chitosan solution. Some physical properties were modified by the inclusion of essential oils. The addition of essential oils does not affect the mechanical properties (tensile strength, elongation at break, puncture deformation), the water solubility, the swelling index nor the DSC behavior. However, the essential oil inclusion can significantly decrease the thickness, the moisture content, and the L* value of films whereas the b* value increased due to molecular interactions between the polymeric matrix, the loosing of the structure, and the chemical modifications. On the other hand, the temperature and time of storage changed some physical properties on the chitosan films. This could have occurred because of chemical changes, such as swelling in the presence of high humidity air and the reacetylation of amino groups. In the majority of cases, properties such as moisture content, tensile strength, elongation at break, puncture deformation, a*, b*, chrome, ΔE increased whereas water resistance, swelling index, L*, and hue angle decreased.

Keywords: chitosan, food additives, modified films, polymers

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1504 Conductive Clay Nanocomposite Using Smectite and Poly(O-Anisidine)

Authors: M. Şahi̇n, E. Erdem, M. Saçak


In this study, Na-smectite crystals purificated of bentonite were used after being swelling with benzyltributylammonium bromide (BTBAB) as alkyl ammonium salt. Swelling process was carried out using 0.2 g of BTBAB for smectite of 0.8 g with 4 h of mixing time after investigated conditions such as mixing time, the swelling agent amount. Then, the conductive poly(o-anisidine) (POA)/smectite nanocomposite was prepared in the presence of swollen Na-smectite using ammonium persulfate (APS) as oxidant in aqueous acidic medium. The POA content and conductivity of the prepared nanocomposite were systematically investigated as a function of polymerization conditions such as the treatment time of swollen smectite in monomer solution and o-anisidine/APS mol ratio. POA/smectite nanocomposite was characterized by XRD, FTIR and SEM techniques and was compared separately with components of composite.

Keywords: clay, composite, conducting polymer, poly(o-anisidine)

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1503 Design and Development of Mucoadhesive Buccal Film Bearing Itraconazole

Authors: Yuvraj Singh Dangi, Kamta Prasad Namdeo, Surendra Bodhake


The purpose of this research was to develop and evaluate mucoadhesive films for buccal administration of itraconazole using film-forming and mucoashesive polymers. Buccal films of chitosan bearing Itraconazole were prepared by solvent casting technique. The films have been evaluated in terms of film weight, thickness, density, surface pH, FTIR, X-ray diffraction analysis, bioadhesion, swelling properties, and in vitro drug release studies. It was found that film formulations of 2 cm2 size having weight in the range of 204 ± 0.76 to 223 ± 2.09 mg and film thickness were in the range of 0.44 ± 0.11 to 0.57 ± 0.19 mm. Density of the films was found to be 0.102 to 0.126 g/ml. Drug content was found to be uniform in the range of 8.23 ± 0.07 to 8.73 ± 0.09 mg/cm2 for formulation A1 to A4. Maximum bioadhesion force was recorded for HPMC buccal films (A2) i.e. 0.57 ± 0.47 as compared to other films. In vitro residence time was in range of 1.7 ± 0.12 to 7.65 ± 0.15 h. The drug release studies show that formulations follow non-fickian diffusion. These mucoadhesive formulations could offer many advantages in comparison to traditional treatments.

Keywords: biovariability, buccal patches, itraconazole, Mucoadhesion

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1502 Thermo-Elastic and Self-Healing Polyacrylamide: 2D Polymer Composite Hydrogels for Water Shutoff Treatment

Authors: Edreese H. Alsharaeh, Feven Mattews Michael, Ayman Almohsin


Self-healing hydrogels have many advantages since they can resist various types of stresses, including tension, compression, and shear, making them attractive for various applications. In this study, thermo-elastic and self-healing polymer composite hydrogels were prepared from polyacrylamide (PAM) and 2D fillers using in-situ method. In addition, the PAM and fillers were prepared in presence of organic crosslinkers, i.e., hydroquinone (HQ) and hexamethylenediamine (HMT). The swelling behavior of the prepared hydrogels was studied by hydrating the dried hydrogels. The thermal and rheological properties of the prepared hydrogels were evaluated before and after swelling study using thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetric technique and dynamic mechanical analysis. From the results obtained, incorporating fillers into the PAM matrix enhanced the swelling degree of the hydrogels with satisfactory mechanical properties, attaining up to 77% self-healing efficiency compared to the neat-PAM (i.e., 29%). This, in turn, indicates addition of 2D fillers improved self-healing properties of the polymer hydrogel, thus, making the prepared hydrogels applicable for water shutoff treatments under high temperature.

Keywords: polymer hydrogels, 2D fillers, elastic self-healing hydrogels, water shutoff, swelling properties

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1501 Rock Thickness Measurement by Using Self-Excited Acoustical System

Authors: Janusz Kwaśniewski, Ireneusz Dominik, Krzysztof Lalik


The knowledge about rock layers thickness, especially above drilled mining pavements are crucial for workers safety. The measuring systems used nowadays are generally imperfect and there is a strong demand for improvement. The application of a new type of a measurement system called Self-Excited Acoustical System is presented in the paper. The system was applied until now to monitor stress changes in metal and concrete constructions. The change in measurement methodology resulted in possibility of measuring the thickness of the rocks above the tunnels as well as thickness of a singular rock layer. The idea is to find two resonance frequencies of the self-exited system, which consists of a vibration exciter and vibration receiver placed at a distance, which are coupled with a proper power amplifier, and which operate in a closed loop with a positive feedback. The resonance with the higher amplitude determines thickness of the whole rock, whereas the lower amplitude resonance indicates thickness of a singular layer. The results of the laboratory tests conducted on a group of different rock materials are also presented.

Keywords: auto-oscillator, non-destructive testing, rock thickness measurement, geotechnic

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1500 Fabrication of Chitosan/Polyacrylonitrile Blend and SEMI-IPN Hydrogel with Epichlorohydrin

Authors: Muhammad Omer Aijaz, Sajjad Haider, Fahad S. Al Mubddal, Yousef Al-Zeghayer, Waheed A. Al Masry


The present study is focused on the preparation of chitosan-based blend and Semi-Interpenetrating Polymer Network (SEMI-IPN) with polyacrylonitrile (PAN). Blend Chitosan/Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) hydrogel films were prepared by solution blending and casting technique. Chitosan in the blend was cross-linked with epichlorohydrin (ECH) to prepare SEMI-IPN. The developed Chitosan/PAN blend and SEMI-IPN hydrogels were characterized with SEM, FTIR, TGA, and DSC. The result showed good miscibility between chitosan and PAN, crosslinking of chitosan in the blend, and improved thermal properties for SEMI-IPN. The swelling of the different blended and SEMI-IPN hydrogels samples were examined at room temperature. Blend (C80/P20) sample showed highest swelling (2400%) and fair degree of stability (28%) whereas SEMI-IPN hydrogel exhibited relatively low degree of swelling (244%) and high degree of aqueous stability (85.5%).

Keywords: polymer hydrogels, chitosan, SEMI-IPN, polyacrylonitrile, epichlorohydrin

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1499 Durability of Wood Shavel Composites with Environmental Friendly Based Binder

Authors: Jul Endawati


The composite element of 20 mm in thickness were manufactured using high volume fly ash, silica fume as alternative hydraulic binders and Portland cement Type II. Pine wood shavel as by product of local small wood working industries were used as the composite filler. The elements were given in situ wet and dry treatment for 9 months. Visually there is no fiber degradation as a result of the interaction of the environment. The assessment were done to the elements bending strength and dimensional properties. Increase in MoR after 180 days of exposure shown that mechanically this degradation is not seen yet. The increment of MoR (213%) compare to that of 28 days might be affected by the formation of calcium hydroxide (CH) or ettringite in the transition zone. The use of pozzolan showed also a delay or minimize degradation of composites while improving the pore structure, and minimize the mineralization of the fiber bond with the cement matrix. The water absorption is 4,22% at 180 days, 7,94% at 120 days and 12,38% at 28 days, in line with the 68% decrease in Thickness Swelling (TS). This unoccured degradation could also be affected by the presence of silica fume in the binder matrix. After 270 days of exposure under tropical condition, the flexural strength started to decrease.

Keywords: durability, fly ash, natural fibre, silica fume

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1498 Effect of Different Parameters on the Swelling Behaviour of Thermo-Responsive Elastomers in a Nematogenic Solvent

Authors: Nouria Bouchikhi, Soufiane Bedjaoui, C. Tewfik Bouchaour, Lamia Alachaher Bedjaoui, Ulrich Maschke


Swelling properties and phase diagrams of binary systems composed of liquid crystalline networks and a low molecular mass liquid crystal (LMWLC) have been investigated. The networks were prepared by ultraviolet (UV) irradiation of reactive mixtures including a monomer, a cross-linking agent and a photo-initiator. These networks were prepared using two cross-linking agents: 1,6 hexanedioldiacrylate (HDDA) and a mesogenic acrylic acid 6-(4’-(6-acryloyloxy-hexyloxy) biphenyl-4-yl oxy) hexyl ester (AHBH). The obtained dry networks were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry, and immersed in an excess of a LMWLC solvent 4-cyano-4’-pentylbiphenyl (5CB), forming polymer gels. A detailed study by polarized optical microscopy allowed to determine the swelling degree of the gels and to follow the phase behavior of the solvent inside the polymer matrix in a wide range of temperature. It has been found that the gels undergo a sharp decrease of their swelling degree in response to an infinitesimal change of temperature. This finding adds new and interesting aspects on the actuators applications. We have subsequently explored the effect of different parameters on volume phase transition of these liquid crystalline materials. Such as the cross-linking density (CD), a nature of cross-linking agent and the photo initiator concentration.

Keywords: cross-linking density, liquid crystalline elastomers, phase diagrams, swelling

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