Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1471

Search results for: older adult

1471 Factors Affecting Internet Behavior and Life Satisfaction of Older Adult Learners with Use of Smartphone

Authors: Horng-Ji Lai

Abstract:

The intuitive design features and friendly interface of smartphone attract older adults. In Taiwan, many senior education institutes offer smartphone training courses for older adult learners who are interested in learning this innovative technology. It is expected that the training courses can help them to enjoy the benefits of using smartphone and increase their life satisfaction. Therefore, it is important to investigate the factors that influence older adults’ behavior of using smartphone. The purpose of the research was to develop and test a research model that investigates the factors (self-efficacy, social connection, the need to seek health information, and the need to seek financial information) affecting older adult learners’ Internet behaviour and their life satisfaction with use of smartphone. Also, this research sought to identify the relationship between the proposed variables. Survey method was used to collect research data. A Structural Equation Modeling was performed using Partial Least Squares (PLS) regression for data exploration and model estimation. The participants were 394 older adult learners from smartphone training courses in active aging learning centers located in central Taiwan. The research results revealed that self-efficacy significantly affected older adult learner’ social connection, the need to seek health information, and the need to seek financial information. The construct of social connection yielded a positive influence in respondents’ life satisfaction. The implications of these results for practice and future research are also discussed.

Keywords: older adults, smartphone, internet behaviour, life satisfaction

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1470 Relationship between Functionality and Cognitive Impairment in Older Adult Women from the Southeast of Mexico

Authors: Estrella C. Damaris, Ingrid A. Olais, Gloria P. Uicab

Abstract:

This study explores the relationship between the level of functionality and cognitive impairment in older adult women from the south-east of Mexico. It is a descriptive, cross-sectional study; performed with 172 participants in total who attended a health institute and live in Merida, Yucatan Mexico. After a non-probabilistic sampling, Barthel and Pfeiffer scales were applied. The results show statistically significant correlation between the cognitive impairment (Pfeiffer) and the levels of independence and function (Barthel) (r =0.489; p =0.001). Both determine a dependence level so they need either a little or a lot of help. Society needs that the older woman be healthy and that the professionals of mental health develop activities to prevent and rehabilitate because cognitive impairment and function are directly related with the quality of life.

Keywords: functionality, cognition, routine activities, cognitive impairment

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1469 Systematic Review of Sexual Assault Prevention Methods for Older Adults: Exploring the Hidden Needs of a Growing Population

Authors: Michelle Hand, Brieanne Beaujolais

Abstract:

Rape stereotypes have long involved the assault of young females by strangers desiring sex. As such, older adult women and men have largely been excluded from research, policies, and awareness raising initiatives to address sexual violence. Moreover sexual assault accounts for the most underreported type of abuse experienced by older adults, highlighting a need to expand our knowledge base in this area. Thus a systematic review of peer-reviewed scholarly articles and reports was conducted to explore the ways sexual assault has been prevented among older adults in recent years and to identify implications for researchers and practitioners as they aim to meet the needs of this population. Articles and reports published during or after 2007 were eligible if their focus included methods to address sex abuse among older adults as well as practice or research implications. Forty-four articles met this criteria and were included in this systematic review. The findings from this review will provide an in-depth understanding of the under-researched issue of sexual violence among older adult women and men as well as current prevention strategies. In addition, implications and recommendations will be provided for practitioners, educators and researchers as they aim to meet the hidden needs of this growing yet under-researched population.

Keywords: elder, rape, sexual assault, sexual violence

Procedia PDF Downloads 241
1468 Older Adult Grandparents' Voices as a Principle Care Giver in a Skipped-Generation Family

Authors: Kerdsiri Hongthai, Darunee Jongudomkarn, Rutja Phuphaibul

Abstract:

In Thailand, many adults in rural areas migrate to seek employ¬ment resulting in skipped-generation family where grandparents care for grandchildren with no other adults present. This is a preliminary study using qualitative case study methods, aimed to explore the situations of older adult grandparents' experiences in skipped-generation family in North-East of Thailand. Data were collected by in-depth inter¬views with 6 grandparents living in skipped-generation families; 5 females and 1 males grandparents, aged 62-75, some of them have diabetes mellitus, hypertension, during November to December, 2017. The finding themes are: ‘Caught up in the middle’: the older adults were pleased to have grandchildren but, at the same time, acknowledge the burden that this placed on them, especially when the migrant children failed to send enough money back to support the family. ‘Getting bad health’: they reported to be fatigued and stressed due to burden of caring for their grandchildren without support. This situation can aggravate problems of poor health status and be worsening economic status of the grandparents. In some cases of deprivation, the grandparents feel that having to be the sole care providers of their grandchildren can negative adversely affect their mental status. It is important to find out in other sectors similar to Thailand and lead to more in-depth research to answer the research questions about policy and social support in skipped-generation family in the future.

Keywords: older adult grandparents, experiences, principle care giver, skipped-generation family

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1467 The Relationship between Spiritual Well-Being and the Quality of Life among Older Adults Who Live in Aged Institutions

Authors: Li-Fen Wu

Abstract:

Spiritual well-being is one aspect of quality of life that can significantly improve the quality of life of individuals. However, the reports of older adults’ spiritual well-being that live in aged institutions were few. This study aims to identify the relationship between spiritual well-being and quality of life among older adults residing in aged institutions in Taiwan. The correlative study design is used. Data collected by basic personal information, Spiritual Index of Well-being Scale and EuroQol-5D-3L. Case managers help participants complete the questionnaires. This study uses descriptive statistics and correlation test analysis data. The study finds the positive correlation between spiritual well-being and quality of life. According to the correlation between spiritual well-being and quality-of-life score, awareness of the importance of spiritual well-being in caring for these people is recommended.

Keywords: older adult, spiritual well-being, quality of life, aged institution

Procedia PDF Downloads 169
1466 Sociodemographic Predictors of Flourishing among Older Adults in Rural and Urban Mongolia

Authors: Saranchuluun Otgon, Sugarmaa Myagmarjav, Khorolsuren Lkhagvasuren, Fabio Casati

Abstract:

Background: Flourishing is a eudaimonic dimension of psychological well-being that has been associated with positive social and health-related outcomes. Determining the factors associated with health and well-being is important to the development of evidence-based intervention programs, policies, and action plans targeting the older adult population, especially in low- and middle-income countries, such as Mongolia, where evidence-based research on aging, health, and well-being is still scarce. This study makes important contributions to the study of well-being at a later age and also for policy activities for the older population in Mongolia. Methods: We employed multiple regression models to predict the factors of flourishing using data of 304 older adults living in urban and rural Mongolia. Data is collected by the standardized and validated questionnaire adapted from Ed Diener. Results: The median score of the flourishing of urban and rural older adults in Mongolia was significantly different, 53 and 50 respectively. The sex (β = 2.52,p = 0.034), level of education (β = 0.94, p = 0.026), receive help for ADL (β = 2.16, p = 0.022) determine flourishing of older adults living in rural area, while self-reported health (β = 0.94, p = 0.026), number of social activities, friends network determine flourishing of older adults living urban area. Conclusion. Older adults who live in urban areas have more psychological resources and strengths than those in the rural areas. Determinants of flourishing are different in the different settings. For instance, individual and family factors determine flourishing in rural areas, and social ties determine flourishing in urban areas.

Keywords: flourishing, predictors, older adults, Mongolia, psychological well-being

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1465 The Learning Process in Future Preparations: Middle-Aged and Older Adults' Experiences

Authors: Ya-Hui Lee, Ching-Yi Lu

Abstract:

Taiwan will become an aging society in 2018. The method to face the challenges related to the aging population has become an important topic. Purpose: This study aims to understand the future preparation of middle-age and older adults, and how they prepared themselves to face the problems of aging, and how they took actions to plan and cope with their future life. Moreover, how did they generate the process of learning action, so that they would be able to live a more active and meaningful life when they entered into their older age? Method: We conducted semi-structure interviews with 10 middle-aged and older adults who had taken actions to prepare for their future. We examined the interviewees’ consciousness and learning actions in their future preparation. Preliminary Results: 1. The triggering factors of the interviewees’ consciousness to prepare for the future included: family events, the desire to maintain active social lives after retirement, the continuation of the interviewees’ professional careers after retirement, and the aspiration for participation in volunteer services. 2. 'Health problems' and 'economic security' were issued of the utmost concern for the interviewees’ future. However, they would transform these worries to learning actions, comprising of active participation in learning, finding relevant information through learning; thus, accumulating more resources to cope with their future needs.

Keywords: middle-age and older adults, preparing for future, older adult learning

Procedia PDF Downloads 160
1464 Development and Usability Assessment of a Connected Resistance Exercise Band Application for Strength-Monitoring

Authors: J. A. Batsis, G. G. Boateng, L. M. Seo, C. L. Petersen, K. L. Fortuna, E. V. Wechsler, R. J. Peterson, S. B. Cook, D. Pidgeon, R. S. Dokko, R. J. Halter, D. F. Kotz

Abstract:

Resistance exercise bands are a core component of any physical activity strengthening program. Strength training can mitigate the development of sarcopenia, the loss of muscle mass or strength and function with aging. Yet, the adherence of such behavioral exercise strategies in a home-based setting are fraught with issues of monitoring and compliance. Our group developed a Bluetooth-enabled resistance exercise band capable of transmitting data to an open-source platform. In this work, we developed an application to capture this information in real-time, and conducted three usability studies in two mixed-aged groups of participants (n=6 each) and a group of older adults with obesity participating in a weight-loss intervention (n=20). The system was favorable, acceptable and provided iterative information that could assist in future deployment on ubiquitous platforms. Our formative work provides the foundation to deliver home-based monitoring interventions in a high-risk, older adult population.

Keywords: application, mHealth, older adult, resistance exercise band, sarcopenia

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1463 A Dialectical Behavioral Therapy Adaptation in Reducing Depression, Anxiety, and Self-Harm in Older Adults

Authors: Valerie Alexander, Amanda Gutierrez, Veronica Campbell, Dara Schwartz, B. Charles Tatum

Abstract:

It has long been assumed that personality disorders (PD) originate in adolescence or early adulthood and that the maladaptive behaviors significantly attenuate over time. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5 supports early onset of PD and views the pattern of behaviors as enduring and stable. The premise of this study is that PD may not always begin early in life, that behaviors may change over the lifespan, and that current treatment modalities may be beneficial in seniors. Self-injurious behaviors (SIB) exhibited earlier in life may, in older adults, be manifested in less overt high-risk behaviors but by refusal to take medication and get necessary medical treatment. Dialectical Behavioral Therapy is a well-known treatment modality for teaching emotional regulation and distress tolerance and thus reducing self-injurious behaviors yet very little has been studied about SIB and treatment in older adults. The population for this study was older adults, with a history of SIB, a PD, and depression and/or anxiety. Participants learned an adapted version of Dialectical Behavioral Therapy (DBT) as developed by DBT trained therapists. The results provided clinical potentials for the efficacy of DBT to reduce SIB, decrease depression and anxiety in the older adult population.

Keywords: anxiety, depression, dialectical behavioral therapy, personality disorders, self-harm behavior, treatment in older adults

Procedia PDF Downloads 221
1462 The Effects of in vitro Digestion on Cheese Bioactivity; Comparing Adult and Elderly Simulated in vitro Gastrointestinal Digestion Models

Authors: A. M. Plante, F. O’Halloran, A. L. McCarthy

Abstract:

By 2050 it is projected that 2 billion of the global population will be more than 60 years old. Older adults have unique dietary requirements and aging is associated with physiological changes that affect appetite, sensory perception, metabolism, and digestion. Therefore, it is essential that foods recommended and designed for older adults promote healthy aging. To assess cheese as a functional food for the elderly, a range of commercial cheese products were selected and compared for their antioxidant properties. Cheese from various milk sources (bovine, goats, sheep) with different textures and fat content, including cheddar, feta, goats, brie, roquefort, halloumi, wensleydale and gouda, were initially digested with two different simulated in vitro gastrointestinal digestion (SGID) models. One SGID model represented a validated in vitro adult digestion system and the second model, an elderly SGID, was designed to consider the physiological changes associated with aging. The antioxidant potential of all cheese digestates was investigated using in vitro chemical-based antioxidant assays, (2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and total phenolic content (TPC)). All adult model digestates had high antioxidant activity across both DPPH ( > 70%) and FRAP ( > 700 µM Fe²⁺/kg.fw) assays. Following in vitro digestion using the elderly SGID model, full-fat red cheddar, low-fat white cheddar, roquefort, halloumi, wensleydale, and gouda digestates had significantly lower (p ≤ 0.05) DPPH radical scavenging properties compared to the adult model digestates. Full-fat white cheddar had higher DPPH radical scavenging activity following elderly SGID digestion compared to the adult model digestate, but the difference was not significant. All other cheese digestates from the elderly model were comparable to the digestates from the adult model in terms of radical scavenging activity. The FRAP of all elderly digestates were significantly lower (p ≤ 0.05) compared to the adult digestates. Goats cheese was significantly higher (p ≤ 0.05) in FRAP (718 µM Fe²/kg.fw) compared to all other digestates in the elderly model. TPC levels in the soft cheeses (feta, goats) and low-fat cheeses (red cheddar, white cheddar) were significantly lower (p ≤ 0.05) in the elderly digestates compared to the adult digestates. There was no significant difference in TPC levels, between the elderly and adult model for full-fat cheddar (red, white), roquefort, wensleydale, gouda, and brie digestates. Halloumi cheese was the only cheese that was significantly higher in TPC levels following elderly digestion compared to adult digestates. Low fat red cheddar had significantly higher (p ≤ 0.05) TPC levels compared to all other digestates for both adult and elderly digestive systems. Findings from this study demonstrate that aging has an impact on the bioactivity of cheese, as antioxidant activity and TPC levels were lower, following in vitro elderly digestion compared to the adult model. For older adults, soft cheese, particularly goats cheese, was associated with high radical scavenging and reducing power, while roquefort cheese had low antioxidant activity. Also, elderly digestates of halloumi and low-fat red cheddar were associated with high TPC levels. Cheese has potential as a functional food for the elderly, however, bioactivity can vary depending on the cheese matrix. Funding for this research was provided by the RISAM Scholarship Scheme, Cork Institute of Technology, Ireland.

Keywords: antioxidants, cheese, in-vitro digestion, older adults

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1461 The Role of Leisure in Older Adults Transitioning to New Homes

Authors: Kristin Prentice, Carri Hand

Abstract:

As the Canadian population ages and chronic health conditions continue to escalate, older adults will require various types of housing, such as long term care or retirement homes. Moving to a new home may require a change in leisure activities and social networks, which could be challenging to maintain identity and create a sense of home. Leisure has been known to help older adults maintain or increase their quality of life and life satisfaction and may help older adults in moving to new homes. Sense of home and identity within older adults' transitions to new homes are concepts that may also relate to leisure engagement. Literature is scant regarding the role of leisure in older adults moving to new homes and how the sense of home and identity inter-relate. This study aims to explore how leisure may play a role in older adults' transitioning to new homes, including how sense of home and identity inter-relate. An ethnographic approach will be used to understand the culture of older adults transitioning to new homes. This study will involve older adults who have recently relocated to a mid-sized city in Ontario, Canada. The study will focus on the older adult’s interactions with and connections to their home environment through leisure. Data collection will take place via video-conferencing and will include a narrative interview and two other interviews to discuss an activity diary of leisure engagement pre and post move and mental maps to capture spaces where participants engaged in leisure. Participants will be encouraged to share photographs of leisure engagement taken inside and outside their home to help understand the social spaces the participants refer to in their activity diaries and mental maps. Older adults attempt to adjust to their new homes by maintaining their identity, developing a sense of home through creating attachment to place, and maintaining social networks, all of which have been linked to engaging in leisure. This research will provide insight into the role of leisure in this transition process and the extent that the home and community can contribute to aiding their transition to the new home. This research will contribute to existing literature on the inter-relationships of leisure, sense of home, and identity and how they relate to older adults moving to new homes. This research also has potential for influencing policy and practice for meeting the housing needs of older adults.

Keywords: leisure, older adults, transition, identity

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1460 The Relation between Proactive Coping and Well-Being: An Example of Middle-Aged and Older Learners from Taiwan

Authors: Ya-Hui Lee, Ching-Yi Lu, Hui-Chuan Wei

Abstract:

The purpose of this research was to explore the relation between proactive coping and well-being of middle-aged adults. We conducted survey research that with t-test, one way ANOVA, Pearson correlation and stepwise multiple regression to analyze. This research drew on a sample of 395 participants from the senior learning centers of Taiwan. The results provided the following findings: 1.The participants from different residence areas associated significant difference with proactive coping, but not with well-being. 2. The participants’ perceived of financial level associated significant difference with both proactive coping and well-being. 3. There was significant difference between participants’ income and well-being. 4. The proactive coping was positively correlated with well-being. 5. From stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that two dimensions of proactive coping had positive predictability. Finally, these results of this study can be provided as references for designing older adult educational programs in Taiwan.

Keywords: middle-age and older adults, learners, proactive coping, well-being

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1459 Attachment Style, Attachment Figure, and Intimate Relationship among Emerging Adults with Anxiety and Depression

Authors: P. K. Raheemudheen, Vibha Sharma, C. B. Tripathi

Abstract:

Background and Aim: Intimate relationships are one of the major sources of unhappiness for emerging adults(18-25 years) and the extent of worry from it is higher for them as compared to older adults. This increases their vulnerability to develop anxiety and depression. Current academic literature have highlighted adult attachment have a crucial role in determining the psycho social adjustment and psychopathology in Emerging Adulthood. In this context, present study is an attempt to explore patterns of adult attachment styles, availability of attachment figures and dimensions of intimate relationship among emerging adults. Method: The participants(n=30) were emerging adults diagnosed with anxiety or/and depression seeking treatment from IHBAS, Delhi. Relationship Style Questionnaire was used to assess the adult attachment styles and Multidimensional Relationship Questionnaire was used to assess dimensions of intimate relationship. Results& Discussion: Results showed that majority of the participants have insecure attachment styles. They perceived their attachment figure as insensitive and unavailable. Further, it was found that participants experience multiple difficulties to establish and maintain healthy intimate relationships. These findings highlight Adult attachment insecurities seem to contribute to anxiety and depression among emerging adults. It proved a conceptual foundation for planning interventions to deal with these attachment based correlate of anxiety and depression which may be more amenable to therapeutic change.

Keywords: emerging adult, adult attachment, intimate relationship, anxiety

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1458 Ageism: What Makes Older Adults Vulnerable to COVID-19

Authors: Jenny Kwon

Abstract:

Following the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic globally, another type of pandemic, ageism, appeared on the surface. Ageism, the stereotypes, prejudice, and discrimination directed towards others or oneself based on chronological age, has adversely impacted older adults' lives during the pandemic. In the short term, older adults struggled with health issues (e.g., high rate of infection and mortality) and experienced social disconnection (e.g., loneliness and depression). Ultimately, older adults' self-perceptions of aging, self-esteem and intergenerational relationships were negatively influenced. To closely look into the impact of ageism during the pandemic on U.S. older adults' aging process, the current study has three specific purposes. First, the study introduces a theoretical foundation (i.e., stereotype embodiment theory) in the development of ageism research. Second, the study reports on examples of ageism toward U.S. older adults manifested in the context of COVID-19. Finally, collective responsibilities and future research directions are proposed to fight against ageism.

Keywords: ageism, COVID-19, older adults, pandemic, stereotype embodiment

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1457 Ten Basic Exercises of Muay Thai Chaiya on Balance and Strength in Male Older Adults

Authors: K. Thawichai, R. Pornthep

Abstract:

This study examined the effects of ten basic exercises of Muay Thai Chaiya training for balance and strength in male older adults. Thirty male older adult volunteer from Thayang elderly clubs, Thayang, Petchaburi, Thailand. All participants were randomly assigned to two groups a training group and a control group. The training group (n=15) participated in eight week training program of ten basic exercises of Muay Thai Chaiya training and not to change or increase another exercise during of the study. In the control group, (n=15) did not participate in ten basic exercises of Muay Thai Chaiya training. Both groups were tested before and after eight weeks of the study period on balance in terms of single leg stance with eyes closed and strength in terms of the thirty second chair stand. The data of the study show that the participants of the training group perform significantly different higher scores in single leg stance with eyes closed and thirty second chair stand than the participants in the control group. The results of this study suggested that ten basic exercises of Muay Thai Chaiya training can use to improve balance and strength in male older adults.

Keywords: balance, strength, Muay Thai Chaiya, older adults

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1456 Information Needs and Information Usage of the Older Person Club’s Members in Bangkok

Authors: Siriporn Poolsuwan

Abstract:

This research aims to explore the information needs, information usages, and problems of information usage of the older people club’s members in Dusit District, Bangkok. There are 12 clubs and 746 club’s members in this district. The research results use for older person service in this district. Data is gathered from 252 club’s members by using questionnaires. The quantitative approach uses in research by percentage, means and standard deviation. The results are as follows (1) The older people need Information for entertainment, occupation and academic in the field of short story, computer work, and religion and morality. (2) The participants use Information from various sources. (3) The Problem of information usage is their language skills because of the older people’s literacy problem.

Keywords: information behavior, older person, information seeking, knowledge discovery and data mining

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1455 Components of Arterial Pressure and Its Association with Dietary Inflammatory Potential of Older Individuals: The Multinational Medis Study

Authors: Demosthenes Panagiotakos

Abstract:

The aim of the present work was to evaluate dietary habits’ inflammatory potential with various components of arterial blood pressure (hypertension, mean arterial pressure (MAP) and pulse pressure (PP)) in a sample of older Mediterranean people without known cardiovascular disease. During 2005-2011, 2,813 older (aged 65-100 years) individuals from 21 Mediterranean islands and the rural Mani region (Peloponnesus) were voluntarily enrolled. Standard procedures were used to determine arterial blood pressure, as well as PP and MAP, and for the evaluation of dietary habits, lifestyle, anthropometric and clinical characteristics of the participants. A dietary inflammatory index (DII) was assessed based on the participants specific dietary habits, and its calculation was based on a standard procedure. It was reported that the higher the DII level of a diet (adherence to a more pro-inflammatory diet) the greater was the likelihood of having an older adult hypertension [OR=3.82 (95% CI): 1.24 to 11.71]. Moreover, the higher the level of DII (more pro-inflammatory dietary habits) the greater were the levels of MAP [b-coefficient (95% CI): 7.23 (+1.86 to +12.59)] and PP, [b-coefficient (95% CI): 10.86 (+2.70 to +19.01)]. Diet’s inflammatory potential is related with various components of arterial pressure. Adherence to a more pro-inflammatory diet seems to be associated with increased arterial peripheral resistance and arterial stiffness.

Keywords: dietary inflammatory index, hypertension, mean arterial pressure, elderly

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1454 Mapping the Adoption Process of Communication Technology to Maintain Contact between Older Adults with Intellectual Disability in Out-of-home Residence and Their Families: A Multiple-Case Study Research

Authors: Carmit Noa Shpigelman, Michal Isaacson

Abstract:

Over the last decades, the improvement in welfare and health services and the increase in awareness of the needs of people with intellectual disability has led to an increase in their life expectancy, and many of them enter into old age. Furthermore, many older adults with intellectual disability live in out-of-home residence. This situation, in addition to the parents' aging process as the main caregivers, may lead to a reduction in contact with the family and, as a result, decreased level of the residents' (older adults with intellectual disability) well-being. A plausible solution for this condition may be using communication technologies. Previous studies indicate that using communication technologies among older adults contributes to maintaining the relationship with others, decreasing the older adult's sense of loneliness, and increasing their level of well-being. Using communication technologies may be especially valuable for older adults in the current global pandemic of COVID-19 and the associated restrictions of social distancing. However, to date, research on using communication technologies among people with intellectual disability has focused on younger cohorts. Moreover, research on the adoption of technologies among older adults with intellectual disability has focused more on assistive technologies and less on communication technologies. To address these practice and research gaps, the present study focuses on the adoption process of communication technology among older adults with intellectual disability (over the age of 45 years) who live in supported accommodation. Fifteen residents participated in an intervention program where they received a tablet with a video communication application and through which they were able to contact their families. A multiple-case study methodology was applied to capture the experiences, including barriers and needs, of the residents from three perspectives: the resident, the family member, and a staff member from the residential setting. The data was collected via quantitative and qualitative measures at different time points over the intervention. The findings demonstrate the contribution of using communication technology for the well-being of older adults with intellectual disability in supported accommodation. The findings also map the adoption process among this population, including pitfalls. The present study contributes to developing best practices on how to accommodate communication technologies to older adults with intellectual disability for maintaining contact with others.

Keywords: adoption, aging, communication, intellectual disability, technology

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1453 Effects of Intergenerational Social Mobility on General Health, Oral Health and Physical Function among Older Adults in England

Authors: Alejandra Letelier, Anja Heilmann, Richard G. Watt, Stephen Jivraj, Georgios Tsakos

Abstract:

Background: Socioeconomic position (SEP) influences adult health. People who experienced material disadvantages in childhood or adulthood tend to have higher adult disease levels than their peers from more advantaged backgrounds. Even so, life is a dynamic process and contains a series of transitions that could lead people through different socioeconomic paths. Research on social mobility takes this into account by adopting a trajectory approach, thereby providing a long-term view of the effect of SEP on health. Aim: The aim of this research examines the effects of intergenerational social mobility on adult general health, oral health and functioning in a population aged 50 and over in England. Methods: This study is based on the secondary analysis of data from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA). Using cross-sectional data, nine social trajectories were created based on parental and adult occupational socio-economic position. Regression models were used to estimate the associations between social trajectories and the following outcomes: adult self-rated health, self-rated oral health, oral health related quality of life, total tooth loss and grip strength; while controlling for socio-economic background and health related behaviours. Results: Associations with adult SEP were generally stronger than with childhood SEP, suggesting a stronger influence of proximal rather than distal SEP on health and oral health. Compared to the stable high group, being in the low SEP groups in childhood and adulthood was associated with poorer health and oral health for all examined outcome measures. For adult self-rated health and edentulousness, graded associations with social mobility trajectories were observed. Conclusion: Intergenerational social mobility was associated with self-rated health and total tooth loss. Compared to only those who remained in a low SEP group over time reported worse self-rated oral health and oral health related quality of life, and had lower grip strength measurements. Potential limitations in relation to data quality will be discussed.

Keywords: social determinants of oral health, social mobility, socioeconomic position and oral health, older adults oral health

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1452 Adult Education for Transformation and Security Challenges in Nigeria

Authors: Asmau Zarma Gogaram

Abstract:

The paper examines adult education and how it can be employed as a strategy for transformation and security challenges in Nigeria. It defines the meaning of adult education and its objectives.The issue of the necessity of employing adult education as a strategy for transformation and security challenges was also examined in the paper.In doing this it discussed the different types of adult education programmes, i.e.continuing education, literacy education, retirement and pre-retirement education and civic education. The paper concluded by stating that if the programmes stated are internalizes and applied they can help to raise awareness. Finally the paper proffered some recommendations one of which was that government should at all levels increase their efforts or promoting acquisition of adult education.

Keywords: adult education, transformation and security challenges, Nigeria, education and human development

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1451 Prevalence of Life Style Diseases and Physical Activities among Older in India

Authors: Vaishali Chaurasia

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Ageing is the universal phenomenon that is associated with deteriorating health status. As the human becomes old, certain changes take place in an organism leading to morbidities, disabilities, and event death. Furthermore, older people are more vulnerable for the various kinds of diseases and health problem. Due to the some unhealthy conventions like smoking, drinking and unhealthy foods is the genesis of the lifestyle diseases. These diseases associated with the way a person or group of people lives. The main purpose of the study is to determine the prevalence of lifestyle diseases and its association with physical activity as well as the risk factors associated with it among the adult population in India. Longitudinal Aging Study in India and Study on Global Aging and Adult Health in India were used in the study. We will take population aged 50 and older, began in 1935, and regularly refreshed at younger ages with new birth cohorts. Life style diseases are more prominent in 65+ age group. The study finds an association between prevalence of life style diseases and life style risk factors. The lifestyle disease prevalence is more among higher age group people, female, richest quintile, and doing lesser physical activity. A higher prevalence of lifestyle diseases associated with the multiple risk factors. The occurrence of three and four risk factors was more prevalent in India. The frequency of different type of life style disease is higher among those who hardly or never do any physical activity as compare to those who do physical activity every day. The pattern remains the same in Moderate as well as vigorous physical activity. Those who are regularly doing physical activities have lesser percentage of having any disease and those who hardly ever or never do any physical activities and equally involve with some risk factors have higher percentage of having all type of diseases.

Keywords: lifestyle disease, morbidity, disability, physical activity

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1450 Effects of Self-Management Programs on Blood Pressure Control, Self-Efficacy, Medication Adherence, and Body Mass Index among Older Adult Patients with Hypertension: Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

Authors: Van Truong Pham

Abstract:

Background: Self-management was described as a potential strategy for blood pressure control in patients with hypertension. However, the effects of self-management interventions on blood pressure, self-efficacy, medication adherence, and body mass index (BMI) in older adults with hypertension have not been systematically evaluated. We evaluated the effects of self-management interventions on systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), self-efficacy, medication adherence, and BMI in hypertensive older adults. Methods: We followed the recommended guidelines of preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Searches in electronic databases including CINAHL, Cochrane Library, Embase, Ovid-Medline, PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and other sources were performed to include all relevant studies up to April 2019. Studies selection, data extraction, and quality assessment were performed by two reviewers independently. We summarized intervention effects as Hedges' g values and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using a random-effects model. Data were analyzed using Comprehensive Meta-Analysis software 2.0. Results: Twelve randomized controlled trials met our inclusion criteria. The results revealed that self-management interventions significantly improved blood pressure control, self-efficacy, medication adherence, whereas the effect of self-management on BMI was not significant in older adult patients with hypertension. The following Hedges' g (effect size) values were obtained: SBP, -0.34 (95% CI, -0.51 to -0.17, p < 0.001); DBP, -0.18 (95% CI, -0.30 to -0.05, p < 0.001); self-efficacy, 0.93 (95%CI, 0.50 to 1.36, p < 0.001); medication adherence, 1.72 (95%CI, 0.44 to 3.00, p=0.008); and BMI, -0.57 (95%CI, -1.62 to 0.48, p = 0.286). Conclusions: Self-management interventions significantly improved blood pressure control, self-efficacy, and medication adherence. However, the effects of self-management on obesity control were not supported by the evidence. Healthcare providers should implement self-management interventions to strengthen patients' role in managing their health care.

Keywords: self-management, meta-analysis, blood pressure control, self-efficacy, medication adherence, body mass index

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1449 Optimal Health and Older Adults: The Existential Health Dimension as a Health-Promoting Potential

Authors: Jessica Hemberg, Anna K. Forsman, Johanna Nordmyr

Abstract:

With a considerable increase in the aging population in the Nordic countries there is a call for a deeper understanding of healthy aging and its underlying mechanisms. The aim of this study is to uncover health and well-being for older adults according to their own views and understand what role the existential dimension play? The study uses a hermeneutical approach. Material was collected through focus group interviews with 18 older adults. The texts were interpreted through hermeneutical reading. The underlying mechanisms of health among older adults are described, illustrating the key prerequisites for health as being in the present. This implies ‘living on the continuums of life and death’ and in this field of forces also ‘living on the continuum of the past and the future’. Important aspects for being in the present was balancing ambivalent emotions, considering existential issues, and being in connectedness. Health for older adults may be understood in the light of the metaphor of taking it one day at a time. Being in the present was emphasized as a health potential for older adults highlighting the existential health dimension. From a societal point of view, this implies that health promotion should focus on highlighting the importance of the existential dimension of health since it holds health-promoting potentials for older adults. Optimal health for older adults requires awareness of one’s attitude to life through being in the present as a basis for a positive and healthy outlook on life.

Keywords: focus group interviews, hermeneutics, life experiences, older adults

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1448 A Study on Adult Attachment Styles and Romantic Relationship Quality among Young Adults

Authors: Kaliammah Kumaran, Thilaagheswary Thangadurai

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This study examined the relationship between anxious attachment and avoidant attachment among young adult romantic relationship quality. Our survey was administered to 300 young adult participants (126 males and 174 females) aged 18-24 years old (M= 20.85, SD=1.89), accomplished the English version of the Revised Adult Attachment Scale (RAAS) used to measure adult attachment and Revised Dyadic Adjustment Scale (RDAS). All the participants were tertiary level students. Findings of our study indicated that young adults experienced anxious attachment style is negatively correlated with romantic relationship quality as well as young adult from avoidant attachment also negatively correlated with romantic relationship quality among young adults. The results showed that insecure adult attachment styles which are anxious and avoidance adult attachment styles links with reduced quality of romantic relationship.

Keywords: adult attachment style, anxious attachment style, avoidant attachment style, romantic relationship quality

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1447 The Digital Divide: Examining the Use and Access to E-Health Based Technologies by Millennials and Older Adults

Authors: Delana Theiventhiran, Wally J. Bartfay

Abstract:

Background and Significance: As the Internet is becoming the epitome of modern communications, there are many pragmatic reasons why the digital divide matters in terms of accessing and using E-health based technologies. With the rise of technology usage globally, those in the older adult generation may not be as familiar and comfortable with technology usage and are thus put at a disadvantage compared to other generations such as millennials when examining and using E-health based platforms and technology. Currently, little is known about how older adults and millennials access and use e-health based technologies. Methods: A systemic review of the literature was undertaken employing the following three databases: (i) PubMed, (ii) ERIC, and (iii) CINAHL; employing the search term 'digital divide and generations' to identify potential articles. To extract required data from the studies, a data abstraction tool was created to obtain the following information: (a) author, (b) year of publication, (c) sample size, (d) country of origin, (e) design/methods, (f) major findings/outcomes obtained. Inclusion criteria included publication dates between the years of Jan 2009 to Aug 2018, written in the English language, target populations of older adults aged 65 and above and millennials, and peer reviewed quantitative studies only. Major Findings: PubMed provided 505 potential articles, where 23 of those articles met the inclusion criteria. Specifically, ERIC provided 53 potential articles, where no articles met criteria following data extraction. CINAHL provided 14 potential articles, where eight articles met criteria following data extraction. Conclusion: Practically speaking, identifying how newer E-health based technologies can be integrated into society and identifying why there is a gap with digital technology will help reduce the impact on generations and individuals who are not as familiar with technology and Internet usage. The largest concern of all is how to prepare older adults for new and emerging E-health technologies. Currently, there is a dearth of literature in this area because it is a newer area of research and little is known about it. The benefits and consequences of technology being integrated into daily living are being investigated as a newer area of research. Several of the articles (N=11) indicated that age is one of the larger factors contributing to the digital divide. Similarly, many of the examined articles (N=5) identify that privacy concerns were one of the main deterrents of technology usage for elderly individuals aged 65 and above. The older adult generation feels that privacy is one of the major concerns, especially in regards to how data is collected, used and possibly sold to third party groups by various websites. Additionally, access to technology, the Internet, and infrastructure also plays a large part in the way that individuals are able to receive and use information. Lastly, a change in the way that healthcare is currently used, received and distributed would also help attribute to the change to ensure that no generation is left behind in a technologically advanced society.

Keywords: digital divide, e-health, millennials, older adults

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1446 Association between Elder Mistreatment and Suicidal Ideation among Community-Dwelling Chinese Older Adults in the USA

Authors: Xin Qi Dong, Melissa Simon

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Aims: Elder mistreatment and suicidal ideation are important public health concerns among aging populations. This study will examine the association between elder mistreatment and suicidal ideation among Chinese older adults in the USA. Methods: Guided by a community-based participatory research approach, in this study we conducted in-person interviews with Chinese older adults aged 60 years and older in the Greater Chicago area from 2011 to 2013. Elder mistreatment was assessed by a 10-item instrument derived from the Hwalek-Sengstock Elder Abuse Screening Test (H-S/EAST) and the Vulnerability to Abuse Screening Scale (VASS). Suicidal ideation was assessed by the ninth item of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) and the Geriatric Mental State Examination-Version A (GMS-A). Results: Overall, 3,159 Chinese older adults participated in this study, and their mean age was 72.8 years. After controlling for age, gender, education, income, medical comorbidities, depressive symptoms, and social support, elder mistreatment was significantly associated with 2-week suicidal ideation (OR 2.46, 95% CI 1.52--4.01) and 12-month suicidal ideation (OR 2.46, 95% CI 1.62--3.73). With respect to gender differences, the study found that the association remained significant for older women but not for older men after adjusting for all confounding factors. Conclusion: As the largest epidemiology study conducted among Chinese older adults in the USA, this study suggests that elder mistreatment is significantly associated with 2-week and 12-month suicidal ideation in older women but not in older men. Longitudinal studies should be conducted to explore the mechanisms through which elder mistreatment links with suicidal ideation.

Keywords: suicidal ideation, elder abuse, family violence, Asian health equity

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1445 Adult and Non Formal Education for the Attainment of Enterprenuerial Skills in Nigeria

Authors: Zulaiha Maluma Ahmad

Abstract:

This paper attempted to examine adult and non formal education for the attainment of entrepreneurial skills in empowering the citizens with entrepreneurial skills, for Nigeria’s socioeconomic development. This paper highlighted the meaning of education in the context of skill acquisition, entrepreneurial education, adult and non formal education. It also examined the objectives, issues and challenges as well as prospects of this type of education. It further discussed the role of adult and non formal education for the attainment of socioeconomic development of a growing nation like Nigeria. The paper equally proffered some recommendations and eventually concluded that adult and non formal education can indeed make self reliance, personal satisfaction and the attainment of entrepreneurial education for the socioeconomic development of any nation, possible.

Keywords: entrepreneurial education, adult education, non formal education skills, Nigeria

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1444 Factors Predicting Food Insecurity in Older Thai Women

Authors: Noppawan Piaseu, Surat Komindr

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This study aimed to determine factors predicting food insecurity in older Thai women living in crowded urban communities. Through purposive sampling, 315 participants were recruited from community dwelling older women in Bangkok, Thailand. Data collection included interview from questionnaires and anthropometric measurement. Results showed that approximately half of the sample were 60-69 years old (51.1%), married (50.6%), obtained primary education (52.3%), had low family income (51.7%), lived in poor physical environment (49.9%) with normal body mass index (51.0%). Logistic regression analysis revealed that older women who were widowed/divorced/separated (OR = 1.804, 95% CI = 1.052-3.092, p = .032), who reported low family income (OR =.654, 95% CI = .523-.817, p < .001), and who had poor physical environment surrounding home (OR = 2.338, 95% CI = 1.057-5.171, p = .036) were more likely to have food insecurity. Results support that social and environmental factors are major factors predicting food insecurity in older women living in the urban community. Health professionals need to identify and monitor psychosocial, economic and environmental dimensions of food insecurity among them.

Keywords: food insecurity, older women, urban communities, Thailand

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1443 The Imperative of Adult Education in the Knowledge Society

Authors: Najim Akorede Babalola

Abstract:

Adult Education is a multi and interdisciplinary in nature that cut across different fields of study which includes education, social sciences, engineering even information technologies that dominate the contemporary world among others. In the past, Adult Education has been used as an instrument of civilization by teaching people how to read and write as well as earning a better living. The present world has witnessed a transition from industrial age to information age which is also known as knowledge society needs Adult Education for knowledge acquisition and update of existing knowledge. An individual needs Adult Education in either of its various forms (on-the-job-training, in-service training, extramural classes, vocational education, continuing education among others) in order to develop towards the information society trends; this is because Adult Education is a process of transforming an individual through acquisition of relevant skills and knowledge for personal as well as societal development. Evidence abounds in the literature that Adult Education has not only assisted people in the medieval period but still assisting people in this modern society in changing and transforming their lives for a better living. This study, therefore, raised a salient question that with different ideas and innovations brought by the contemporary world, is Adult Education relevant? It is on this basis that this study intends to examine the relevance of Adult Education in the past and present in order to determine its future relevance.

Keywords: adult education, multi and inter-disciplinary, knowledge society, skill acquisition

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1442 Functional Vision of Older People with Cognitive Impairment Living in Galician Nursing Homes

Authors: C. Vázquez, L. M. Gigirey, C. P. del Oro, S. Seoane

Abstract:

Poor vision is common among older people, and several studies show connections between visual impairment and cognitive function. 15 older adult live in Galician Government nursing homes, and cognitive decline is one of the main reasons of admission. Objectives: (1) To evaluate functional far and near vision of older people with cognitive impairment. (2) To determine connections between visual and cognitive state of “our” residents. Methodology: A total of 364 older adults (aged 65 years or more) underwent a visual and cognitive screening. We tested presenting visual acuity (binocular visual acuity with habitual correction if warn) for distance and near vision (E-Snellen, usual working distance for near vision). Binocular presenting visual acuity less than 0.3 was used as cut point for diagnosis of visual impairment. Exclusion criteria included immobilized residents unable to reach the USC Dual Sensory Loss Unit for visual screening. To screen cognition we employed the mini-mental examination test (Spanish version). Analysis of categorical variables was performed using chi-square tests. We utilized Pearson and Spearman correlation tests and the variance analysis to determine differences between groups of interest (SPSS 19.0 version). Results: the percentage of residents with cognitive decline reaches 32.2% Prevalence of visual impairment for distance and near vision increases among those subjects with cognitive impairment respect those with normal cognition. Shift correlation exists between distance visual acuity and mini-mental test (age and sex controlled), and moderate association was found in case of near vision (p<0.01). Conclusion: First results shows that people with cognitive impairment have poor functional distance and near vision than those with normal cognition. Next step will be to analyse the individual contribution of distance and near vision loss on cognition.

Keywords: visual impairment, cognition, aging, nursing homes

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