Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3458

Search results for: Chinese culture

3458 Cultural Understanding in Chinese Language Education for Foreigners: A Quest for Better Integration

Authors: Linhan Sun

Abstract:

With the gradual strengthening of China's economic development, more and more people around the world are learning Chinese due to economic and trade needs, which has also promoted the research related to Chinese language education for foreigners. Because the Chinese language system is different from the Western language system, learning Chinese is not easy for many learners. In addition, language learning cannot be separated from the learning and understanding of culture. How to integrate cultural learning into the curriculum of Chinese language education for foreigners is the focus of this study. Through a semi-structured in-depth interview method, 15 foreigners who have studied or are studying Chinese participated in this study. This study found that cultural learning and Chinese as a foreign language are relatively disconnected. In other words, learners were able to acquire a certain degree of knowledge of the Chinese language through textbooks or courses but did not gain a deeper understanding of Chinese culture.

Keywords: Chinese language education, Chinese culture, qualitative methods, intercultural communication

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3457 An Innovative Poly System Theory for the Go-Out of Chinese Culture

Authors: Jianhua Wang, Ying Zhou, Han Guo

Abstract:

Translation underwent culture turn for more than half a century, which brought translation and its studies beyond intra-texts. Different cultures in recent years have developed towards a translation turn, which made a great contribution to relocate national or local cultures being localized to become regional or global cultures. As China grows quickly economically integrating into the world, it becomes urgent to relate China’s story and disseminate the Chinese culture. Due to the weaknesses and drawbacks of different existing cultural translation theories for Chinese culture to go out, a new perspective on translation turn for the go-out of Chinese culture should be drawn to spread better and disseminate Chinese culture to other countries. Based on the existing cultural translation theories, the equivalence of ideology, style of the translator and agency of the support are proposed to draw a new perspective: an innovative poly-system theory for Chinese culture translation.

Keywords: cultural translation theory, Chinese culture, innovative poly system, global cultures

Procedia PDF Downloads 343
3456 An Exploratory Study of Chinese Paper-Cut Art in Household Product Design

Authors: Ruining Wu, Na Song

Abstract:

Paper-cut, as one of the Chinese traditional folk decoration art, has become a unique visual aesthetic characteristics of the Chinese nation in the long-term evolution of cultural symbols. Chinese paper-cut art is the treasure-house for product design in natural resources. This paper first analyzed Chinese folk art of historical origin, cultural background, cultural values, aesthetic value, style features of Chinese paper cut art, then analyzed the design thought and design cases of paper-cut art application in different areas, such as clothing design, logo design and product design areas. Through the research of Chinese paper-cut art culture and design elements, this paper aims to build a household product design concept of Chinese traditional culture.

Keywords: paper-cut art, culture, household products, design

Procedia PDF Downloads 445
3455 Sustainable Behavior and Design in Chinese Traditional Culture

Authors: Jin Chuhao

Abstract:

Sustainable design is the key for the human to realize the harmonious development. However, sustainable design requires localization that combines their own regional culture’s characteristics, then forms the most common cultural identity. As a result, the concept of sustainable design integrates into social behavior and promotes the harmonious development. Chinese Confucian doctrine is one of the important thoughts of human culture, which is accepted by more and more people. This paper summarizes the sustainable concept from the Chinese traditional culture and local design, discusses how they change the life of human being and produces enlightenment and significance to China and world.

Keywords: sustainable design, Chinese traditional culture, harmonious development, Confucianism

Procedia PDF Downloads 582
3454 Shaping Traditional Chinese Culture in Contemporary Fashion: ‘Guochao’ as a Rising Aesthetic and the Case Study of the Designer Brand Angel Chen

Authors: Zhe Ginnie Wang

Abstract:

Recent cultural design studies have begun to shed light on the discussion of Western-Eastern cultural and aesthetic hybridization, especially in the field of fashion. With the unprecedented spread of cultural Chinese fashion design in the global fashion system, the under-identified ‘Guochao’ aesthetic that has emerged in the global market needs to be academically emphasized with a methodological approach looking at the Western-Eastern cultural hybridization present in fashion visualization. Through an in-depth and comprehensive investigation of a representative international-based Chinese designer, Angel Chen's fashion show 'Madam Qing', this paper provides a methodological approach on how a form of traditional culture can be effectively extracted and applied to modern design using the most effective techniques. The central approach examined in this study involves creating aesthetic revolutions by addressing Chinese cultural identity through re-creating and modernizing traditional Chinese culture in design.

Keywords: style modernization, Chinese culture, guochao, design identity, fashion show, Angel Chen

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3453 Participatory Culture and Value Perception Amongst the Korean and Chinese Drama International Fandom

Authors: Patricia P. M. C. Lourenco, Javier Bringué Sala, Anaisa D. A. de Sena

Abstract:

Almost everyone in Dramaland knows the names of big Korean stars that grace their computer screens on a roll through social media and video streaming platforms that enable awareness of Korean dramas and lifestyle at a click. A surface culture instilled with notions of belonging has redefined the meaning of friendship and challenged deep inner values. Not everyone, however, knows Chinese Dramas or their stars, which is a consequence of Dramaland's focus on Korean dramas and promoting the Korean experience. Despite a parity in terms of production quality, star power, scripts and compelling visual settings, Chinese Dramas have been playing catch up to their famous counterparts. While they might have a strong competitive soft power for international drama fans, the soft power of Korean dramas is imbued with substantial societal values that they want to share with others. Those values are portrayed in an artistic way that connects with audiences who experience loneliness in the non-virtual world contrary to the way Chinese Dramas are perceived.

Keywords: Chinese dramas, fandom, Korean dramas, participatory culture, value perception, soft power, surface culture

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3452 An Analysis on the Hidden Transcripts and Power: A Cultural Study on Confliction between Mother and Daughter-in-Law in Contemporary Chinese Television Dramas

Authors: Xiaohui Pan

Abstract:

As the most influential media for the dissemination of Chinese culture, films and television dramas have played cognitive orientation in guiding young audience to understand its cultural value. Taking a retrospective overview of the Chinese domestic film and television dramas in the last decade, it is tangible to notice that Westernization has become irresistible force in the presentation of Chinese youth culture, such as the rise of sensibility, publicity of subjectivity, and the resistance to mainstream discourse. However, the process of deconstruction and transition of these film and television works on Western youth culture brought about more comprehensive conflicts and integration rather than providing a panoramic interpretation to young Chinese. Issues of tradition and modernization, oriental and Western, and serious thinking and the spirit of entertainment overwhelmed those Chinese works. This study attempts to examine the mechanism of young Chinese’s resistance, compromise and re-construction in their marriages during the dynamic cultural intergration between traditional Chinese culture and Western culture. To investigate such a mechanism, this study analyzed four Chinese television dramas themed on family ethics to reveal the conflictions between two generations, mother-in-law and daughter-in-law, aiming to identify their strategies of their struggles. Incorporating the theory of Scott's weapons of the weak, this study examines the dynamic model of the struggles content analysis on their hidden language and the power. The finding shows that young Chinese identified their self-awakening during the resistance. The study also finds out that the external factors might have the functions of switching the power from the strong end to the weak end. The finding of this study can provide useful insights for researchers in this area and for those in the process of exploring cultural integration issues.

Keywords: intergration, integration, resistance, youth culture

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3451 Understanding the ‘Third Gender’: A Qualitative Study of the Perception of Being a Leftover Woman among Chinese Female Ph.D. Students

Authors: Qian Wang

Abstract:

In recent years, a growing number of Chinese women choose to pursue Ph.D. education. Except for the male and female, women with PhD degrees are stigmatized as the ‘third gender’ in Chinese society. People, especially most men, believe that female PhD students challenge the traditional image and gender role of Chinese women. This gender stereotype causes a range of difficulties in finding partners in marriage market for Chinese female PhD students. In this study, the author conducted in-depth interviews with 15 participants who are currently doing their PhD studies in Chinese universities to explore their perceptions of being leftover women on the basis of their experience. All the participants are single. Based on the analysis of qualitative data, this study found that the ‘leftover women’ phenomenon among Chinese female PhD students is the result of the contradictions generated between Chinese patriarchal society and them. Although Chinese female PhD students is an attention-attracting group, the studies about them are very limited in China. This study could not only contribute to the understanding of the ‘third gender’ phenomenon and the ‘leftover women’ studies in China, but also, in practical level, could give some guidance for governments to resolve the social problems of female PhD students.

Keywords: Chinese female Ph.D. students, the ‘leftover women’, the Chinese patriarchal society, gender role, Chinese culture

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3450 Queer Lesbian Experience within Chinese Girl's Love Manga Fandom: An Qualitative Study of Sexuality among Chinese Yuri Fans

Authors: Ka Yi Yeung

Abstract:

Yuri is a manga culture which refers to the works (manga, literature, TV shows) that depict the intimacy between two girls. It is originally a Japanese culture which then implanted in Chinese fandom after the airing of Maria-sama ga Miteru. There has been a growing fanbase of Yuri culture and most of them are attracted by the subtle and sentimental relationship between girls. The culture is characterized by the spiritual bonding and interactions within girls. A high proportion of female fans in Chinese Yuri community was recorded, and Yamibo forum is their major site for socializing and discussion on Yuri’s work. There is a high tendency that female Yuri fans engaged in a homosexual relationship. However, they seldom directly address themselves as lesbian but non-heterosexual. It is due to the fact that Yuri fans community largely disagrees with the butch-femme role in the mainstream lesbianism. Within Chinese Yuri community, femininity is highly being appreciated. Members with high degree of feminine characteristics are popular among fans community. Besides, since the fans community-based at the online forum, there has been a high tendency that members developed the long-distance relationship. From the in-depth interviews of the research, Yuri fans are mostly pessimistic towards their relationship due to the social and geographical barriers, yet at the same time, they do not lose hope in searching for their true love. This research explored how Chinese Yuri fans challenge the homonormativity in mainstream lesbianism and how they construct their sexual identity through varies discourses on sexuality and homosexual experience.

Keywords: Chinese fandom, femininity, gender, homonormativity, Japanese manga, lesbianism, sexuality, queer culture

Procedia PDF Downloads 278
3449 Innovative Pictogram Chinese Characters Representation

Authors: J. H. Low, S. H. Hew, C. O. Wong

Abstract:

This paper proposes an innovative approach to represent the pictogram Chinese characters. The advantage of this representation is using an extraordinary to represent the pictogram Chinese character. This extraordinary representation is created accordingly to the original pictogram Chinese characters revolution. The purpose of this innovative creation is to assistant the learner learning Chinese as second language (SCL) in Chinese language learning specifically on memorize Chinese characters. Commonly, the SCL will give up and frustrate easily while memorize the Chinese characters by rote. So, our innovative representation is able to help on memorize the Chinese character by the help of visually storytelling. This innovative representation enhances the Chinese language learning experience of SCL.

Keywords: Chinese e-learning, innovative Chinese character representation, knowledge management, language learning

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3448 High Culture or Low Culture: The Propagation and Popularization of the Classic of Poetry in Modern China

Authors: Fang Tang

Abstract:

A major Confucian masterpiece and the earliest-known poetry anthology (composed approximately 1046-771 BCE), The Classic of Poetry, reflects different cultures in ancient China. It is regarded as a Chinese classic and one of the world’s most significant written works, an essential part of our global cultural heritage. This paper explores how the ancient Chinese classic became transformed into part of popular culture, found in folk songs circulated in Fangxian county, a mountainous location in Hubei province in central mainland China. It is the hometown of one of the most well-known authors of The Classic of Poetry, whose name is Yin Jifu. Local villagers process, refine, and recreate these poems into popular folk songs, which have been handed down from generation to generation. The folk songs based on The Classic of Poetry vividly reflect local customs, life styles, and various cultural activities. After thousands of years of singing these traditional songs, the region has become an important area to maintain part of Chinese cultural heritages; here, the original high culture is converted into a popular culture that is absorbed into people’s daily life. Based on a year’s field research and many interviews with local singers, this paper explores the ways in which locals have transformed the contents of The Classic of Poetry. It examines how today these popular folk songs become part of much-treasured culture heritage, illustrating the transformation of traditional high culture into popular culture. The paper argues that the modern adaptations of the traditional poems of The Classic of Poetry combine both oral and written cultural heritage and reflects the interaction between ancient Chinese official literature and folk literature. The paper also explores the reasons why the folk songs of The Classic of Poetry are so popular in the area, including the influences of its author Yin Jifu, the impact of ancient diasporic culture from the political centre to remote rural areas, and the interactions of local cultures (famous as Chu culture) and Chinese mainstream cultural policies.

Keywords: high/low culture, The Classic of Poetry, the functions of media, cultural policy

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3447 A Series of Teaching Modules to Prepare International Students for Real-World China

Authors: Jui-Chien Wang

Abstract:

Because of China’s continued economic growth and dominance, increasingly many students of Chinese from western countries are interested in pursuing careers related to China. Unless we do more to teach them about contemporary Chinese society and Chinese cultural codes, however, few will be able to do so successfully. Most traditional language textbooks treat these topics only cursorily, and, because of the rapid pace of China’s social and economic development, what they do cover is frequently outdated and insufficient. However, understanding contemporary Chinese society and Chinese cultural codes is essential to successfully negotiating real-world China. The current paper details one of the main ways in which the presenter has dealt with this educational lacuna: the development and implementation of a series of teaching modules for advanced Chinese language classes. Each module explores a particular area, provides resources, and raises questions to engage students in strengthening their language and cultural competencies. The teaching modules address four main areas: (1) Chinese behavioral culture; (2) critical issues in contemporary China; (3) current events in China; and (4) great social transformations in contemporary China. The presenter will also discuss lessons learned and insights gained during the development and implementation process as well as the benefits of using these modules. In addition, the presenter will offer suggestions for the application of these modules, so that other language teachers will be able to make better use of them in their own classrooms.

Keywords: behavioral culture, contemporary Chinese society, cultural code, teaching module

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3446 Chinese Remainder Theorem and Decidability

Authors: Zahra Sheikhaleslami

Abstract:

The Chinese remainder theorem deals with systems of modular equations. It has many applications. The Chinese remainder theorem requires that modules be pairwise coprime. In this paper, we discuss the general Chinese remainder theorem, which does not require this restriction on modules. We also show interesting applications of the general Chinese remainder theorem in proving decidability.

Keywords: Chinese remainder theorem, decidability, general Chinese remainder theorem, quantifier-elimination

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3445 Constructing Digital Memory for Chinese Ancient Village: A Case on Village of Gaoqian

Authors: Linqing Ma, Huiling Feng, Jihong Liang, Yi Qian

Abstract:

In China, some villages have survived in the long history of changes and remain until today with their unique styles and featured culture developed in the past. Those ancient villages, usually aged for hundreds or thousands of years, are the mirror for traditional Chinese culture, especially the farming-studying culture represented by the Confucianism. Gaoqian, an ancient village with a population of 3,000 in Zhejiang province, is such a case. With a history dating back to Yuan Dynasty, Gaoqian Village has 13 well-preserved traditional Chinese houses with a courtyard, which were built in the Ming and Qing Dynasty. It is a fine specimen to study traditional rural China. In China, some villages have survived in the long history of changes and remain until today with their unique styles and featured culture developed in the past. Those ancient villages, usually aged for hundreds or thousands of years, are the mirror for traditional Chinese culture, especially the farming-studying culture represented by the Confucianism. Gaoqian, an ancient village with a population of 3,000 in Zhejiang province, is such a case. With a history dating back to Yuan Dynasty, Gaoqian Village has 13 well-preserved traditional Chinese houses with a courtyard, which were built in the Ming and Qing Dynasty. It is a fine specimen to study traditional rural China. Then a repository for the memory of the Village will be completed by doing arrangement and description for those multimedia resources such as texts, photos, videos and so on. Production of Creative products with digital technologies is also possible based a thorough understanding of the culture feature of Gaoqian Village using research tools for literature and history studies and a method of comparative study. Finally, the project will construct an exhibition platform for the Village and its culture by telling its stories with completed structures and treads.

Keywords: ancient villages, digital exhibition, multimedia, traditional culture

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3444 Designing Cultural-Creative Products with the Six Categories of Hanzi (Chinese Character Classification)

Authors: Pei-Jun Xue, Ming-Yu Hsiao

Abstract:

Chinese characters, or hanzi, represent a process of simplifying three-dimensional signs into plane signifiers. From pictograms at the beginning to logograms today, a Han linguist thus classified them into six categories known as the six categories of Chinese characters. Design is a process of signification, and cultural-creative design is a process translating ideas into design with creativity upon culture. Aiming to investigate the process of cultural-creative design transforming cultural text into cultural signs, this study analyzed existing cultural-creative products with the six categories of Chinese characters by treating such products as representations which accurately communicate the designer’s ideas to users through the categorization, simplification, and interpretation of sign features. This is a two-phase pilot study on designing cultural-creative products with the six categories of Chinese characters. Phase I reviews the related literature on the theory of the six categories of Chinese characters investigated and concludes with the process and principles of character evolution. Phase II analyzes the design of existing cultural-creative products with the six categories of Chinese characters and explores the conceptualization of product design.

Keywords: six categories of Chinese characters, cultural-creative product design, cultural signs, cultural product

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3443 An Exploration of Cross-culture Consumer Behaviour - The Characteristics of Chinese Consumers’ Decision Making in Europe

Authors: Yongsheng Guo, Xiaoxian Zhu, Mandella Osei-Assibey Bonsu

Abstract:

This study explores the effects of national culture on consumer behaviour by identifying the characteristics of Chinese consumers’ decision making in Europe. It offers a better understanding of how cultural factors affect consumers’ behaviour, and how consumers make decisions in other nations with different culture. It adopted a grounded theory approach and conducted twenty-four in-depth interviews. Grounded theory models are developed to link the causal conditions, process and consequences. Results reveal that some cultural factors including conservatism, emotionality, acquaintance community, long-term orientation and principles affect Chinese consumers when making purchase decisions in Europe. Most Chinese consumers plan and prepare their expenditure and stay in Europe as cultural learners, and purchase durable products or assets as investment, and share their experiences within a community. This study identified potential problems such as political and social environment, complex procedures, and restrictions. This study found that external factors influence on internal factors and then internal characters determine consumer behaviour. This study proposes that cultural traits developed in convergence evolution through social selection and Chinese consumers persist most characters but adapt some perceptions and actions overtime in other countries. This study suggests that cultural marketing could be adopted by companies to reflect consumers’ preferences. Agencies, shops, and the authorities could take actions to reduce the complexity and restrictions.

Keywords: national culture, consumer behaviour, decision making, cultural marketing

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3442 Intercultural Strategies of Chinese Composers in the Organizational Structure of Their Works

Authors: Bingqing Chen

Abstract:

The Opium War unlocked the gate of China. Since then, modern western culture has been imported strongly and spread throughout this Asian country. The monologue of traditional Chinese culture in the past has been replaced by the hustle and bustle of multiculturalism. In the field of music, starting from school music, China, a country without the concept of composition, was deeply influenced by western culture and professional music composition, and entered the era of professional music composition. Recognizing the importance of national culture, a group of insightful artists began to try to add ‘China’ to musical composition. However, due to the special historical origin of Chinese professional musical composition and the three times of cultural nihilism in China, professional musical composition at this time failed to interpret the deep language structure of local culture within Chinese traditional culture, but only regarded Chinese traditional music as a ‘melody material library.’ At this time, the cross-cultural composition still takes Western music as its ‘norm,’ while our own music culture only exists as the sound of the contrast of Western music. However, after reading scores extensively, watching video performances, and interviewing several active composers, we found that at least in the past 30 years, China has created some works that can be called intercultural music. In these kinds of music, composers put Chinese and Western, traditional and modern in an almost equal position to have a dialogue based on their deep understanding and respect for the two cultures. This kind of music connects two music worlds, and links the two cultural and ideological worlds behind it, and communicates and grows together. This paper chose the works of three composers with different educational backgrounds, and pay attention to how composers can make a dialogue at the organizational structure level of their works. Based on the strategies adopted by composers in structuring their works, this paper expounds on how the composer's music procedure shows intercultural in terms of whole sound effects and cultural symbols. By actively participating in this intercultural practice, composers resorting to various musical and extra-musical procedures to arrive at the so-called ‘innovation within tradition.’ Through the dialogue, we can activate the space of creative thinking and explore the potential contained in culture. This interdisciplinary research promotes the rethinking of the possibility of innovation in contemporary Chinese intercultural music composition, spanning the fields of sound studies, dialogue theory, cultural research, music theory, and so on. Recently, China is calling for actively promoting 'the construction of Chinese music canonization,’ expecting to form a particular music style to show national-cultural identity. In the era of globalization, it is possible to form a brand-new Chinese music style through intercultural composition, but it is a question about talents, and the key lies in how composers do it. There is no recipe for the formation of the Chinese music style, only the composers constantly trying and tries to solve problems in their works.

Keywords: dialogism, intercultural music, national-cultural identity, organization/structure, sound

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3441 Teachers' Views on Mother Tongue Language Curriculum Development

Authors: Wai Ha Leung

Abstract:

Mother tongue language (MTL) curriculum is core to school education in most countries/regions' school curriculum. Through mother tongue language learning, students are expected to enhance their understanding of the nation's culture and foster the sense of cultural and ethnic identity. However, MTL education in Hong Kong is complicated by the colonial history. This study examines Hong Kong Chinese language teachers' perceptions of MTL education, and the implication on MTL curriculum development. The questionnaire was administrated to 97 teachers, and interviews were carried out on 17 teachers. Usually, MTL is both the tool with which knowledge and skills are taught and learned and the vehicle for students to learn about the traditions of the countries' literature and culture. In Hong Kong, 95% of the population is of Chinese descent. Traditionally, education in China was a mixture of philosophy, history, politics and literacy. Chinese as an MTL subject in pre-colonial Hong Kong has always been assigned the mission of developing students' cultural identity in addition to the development of linguistic proficiency. During the colonial period, the Chinese Language curriculum shifted to be more language skills based with less emphasis on Chinese culture and moral education. After the sovereignty of Hong Kong was returned to China in 1997, although a new curriculum was implemented in 2002, teaching and learning in school as well as public examinations seem to be remaining language skills oriented instead of culturally based. This deviation from the trend of both Chinese traditional education and global mother tongue language education makes some Chinese language teachers feel confused. In addition, there is comment that in general Hong Kong students' Chinese language proficiency is becoming weaker and weaker in recent years. Thus, effectiveness of the skills oriented language curriculum has come under question. How a language teacher views the aims and objectives of the language subject he or she is teaching has a direct effect on the curriculum delivery and pedagogies used. It is, therefore, important to investigate what is the language teachers' perception of MTL education, and whether the current school curriculum can meet the teachers' expectation as well as achieve the aims of MTL education. Given this context, this study explored the views of Hong Kong Chinese language teachers on MTL education. The data indicate that teachers showed a strong resentment towards the current curriculum. Results may have implications on mother tongue language curriculum development.

Keywords: Chinese language education, curriculum development, mother tongue language education, teachers' perception

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3440 “Context” Thinking of Contemporary Urban History Space under the Basis of Enlightenment of Chinese Traditional Cultural Philology: Taking West Expansion Plan of Tianyi Pavilion as An Example

Authors: Wei Yan, Wei Dong

Abstract:

Facing the understanding problem of update and preservation of urban history space under background of rapid Chinese urbanization, so at first there is a need to dig the philosophic principles of “antithesis” and “unification” which are contained in the traditional Chinese literature known as “antithesis” and do the job of planning translation by personal understanding in order to form understanding and value systems of dialectical urban history space under the foundation of “antithesis”. Then we could put forward a “context” concept for urban history space under the foregoing basis. After that, we will take the update and preservation of Ningbo Tianyi Pavilion’s historical district as an example to discuss problems related to understanding of urban history area under the basis of Chinese tradition culture, improvement of value system, construction of urban trait space and Chinese “localization” of planning theory.

Keywords: antithesis, traditional values, city renewal and conservation, the “context” of city history space

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3439 Machine Translation Analysis of Chinese Dish Names

Authors: Xinyu Zhang, Olga Torres-Hostench

Abstract:

This article presents a comparative study evaluating and comparing the quality of machine translation (MT) output of Chinese gastronomy nomenclature. Chinese gastronomic culture is experiencing an increased international acknowledgment nowadays. The nomenclature of Chinese gastronomy not only reflects a specific aspect of culture, but it is related to other areas of society such as philosophy, traditional medicine, etc. Chinese dish names are composed of several types of cultural references, such as ingredients, colors, flavors, culinary techniques, cooking utensils, toponyms, anthroponyms, metaphors, historical tales, among others. These cultural references act as one of the biggest difficulties in translation, in which the use of translation techniques is usually required. Regarding the lack of Chinese food-related translation studies, especially in Chinese-Spanish translation, and the current massive use of MT, the quality of the MT output of Chinese dish names is questioned. Fifty Chinese dish names with different types of cultural components were selected in order to complete this study. First, all of these dish names were translated by three different MT tools (Google Translate, Baidu Translate and Bing Translator). Second, a questionnaire was designed and completed by 12 Chinese online users (Chinese graduates of a Hispanic Philology major) in order to find out user preferences regarding the collected MT output. Finally, human translation techniques were observed and analyzed to identify what translation techniques would be observed more often in the preferred MT proposals. The result reveals that the MT output of the Chinese gastronomy nomenclature is not of high quality. It would be recommended not to trust the MT in occasions like restaurant menus, TV culinary shows, etc. However, the MT output could be used as an aid for tourists to have a general idea of a dish (the main ingredients, for example). Literal translation turned out to be the most observed technique, followed by borrowing, generalization and adaptation, while amplification, particularization and transposition were infrequently observed. Possibly because that the MT engines at present are limited to relate equivalent terms and offer literal translations without taking into account the whole context meaning of the dish name, which is essential to the application of those less observed techniques. This could give insight into the post-editing of the Chinese dish name translation. By observing and analyzing translation techniques in the proposals of the machine translators, the post-editors could better decide which techniques to apply in each case so as to correct mistakes and improve the quality of the translation.

Keywords: Chinese dish names, cultural references, machine translation, translation techniques

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3438 Bridging the Gap through New Media Technology Acceptance: Exploring Chinese Family Business Culture

Authors: Farzana Sharmin, Mohammad Tipu Sultan

Abstract:

Emerging new media technology such as social media and social networking sites have changed the family business dynamics in Eastern Asia. The family business trends in China has been developed at an exponential rate towards technology. In the last two decades, many of this family business has succeeded in becoming major players in the Chinese and world economy. But there are a very few availabilities of literature on Chinese context regarding social media acceptance in terms of the family business. Therefore, this study has tried to cover the gap between culture and new media technology to understand the attitude of Chinese young entrepreneurs’ towards the family business. This paper focused on two cultural dimensions (collectivism, long-term orientation), which are adopted from Greet Hofstede’s. Additionally perceived usefulness and ease of use adopted from the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) to explore the actual behavior of technology acceptance for the family business. A quantitative survey method (n=275) used to collect data Chinese family business owners' in Shanghai. The inferential statistical analysis was applied to extract trait factors, and verification of the model, respectively. The research results found that using social media for family business promotion has highly influenced by cultural values (collectivism and long-term orientation). The theoretical contribution of this research may also assist policymakers and practitioners of other developing countries to advertise and promote the family business through social media.

Keywords: China, cultural dimensions, family business, technology acceptance model, TAM

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3437 Commodification of the Chinese Language: Investigating Language Ideology in the Chinese Complementary Schools’ Online Discourse

Authors: Yuying Liu

Abstract:

Despite the increasing popularity of Chinese and the recognition of the growing commodifying ideology of Chinese language in many contexts (Liu and Gao, 2020; Guo, Shin and Shen 2020), the ideological orientations of the Chinese diaspora community towards the Chinese language remain under-researched. This research contributes seeks to bridge this gap by investigating the micro-level language ideologies embedded in the Chinese complementary schools in the Republic of Ireland. Informed by Ruíz’s (1984) metaphorical representations of language, 11 Chinese complementary schools’ websites were analysed as discursive texts that signal the language policy and ideology to prospective learners and parents were analysed. The results of the analysis suggest that a move from a portrayal of Chinese as linked to student heritage identity, to the commodification of linguistic and cultural diversity, is evident. It denotes the growing commodifying ideology among the Chinese complementary schools in the Republic of Ireland. The changing profile of the complementary school, from serving an ethnical community to teaching Chinese as a foreign language for the wider community, indicates the possibility of creating the a positive synergy between the Complementary school and the mainstream education. This study contributes to the wider discussions of language ideology and language planning, with regards to modern language learning and heritage language maintenance.

Keywords: the Chinese language;, Chinese as heritage language, Chinese as foreign language, Chinese community schools

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3436 Comparison of Filamentous Fungus (Monascus purpureus)Growth in Submerged and Solid State Culture

Authors: Shafieeh Mansoori, Fatemeh Yazdian, Ashrafsadat Hatamian, Majid Azizi

Abstract:

Monascus purpureus, which has a special metabolite with many therapeutic and medicinal properties including antioxidant, antibiotic, anti-hypercholesterolemia, and immunosuppressive properties, is a traditional Chinese fermentation fungus and is used as a natural dietary supplement. Production of desired metabolites actually determined by optimized growth which is supported by some factors such as substrates and Monascus strains type, moisture content of the fermentation mixture, aeration, and control of contamination issues. In this experiment, M. purpureus PTCC5305 was cultured in both the liquid and solid culture medium. The former medium contain YMP (yeast extract, maltose and peptone), PGC (peptone, glucose complex), and GYP (glucose, yeast extract and peptone) medium. After 8 days, the best medium for the cell production was PGC agar medium on solid culture with 0.28 g dry weight of cell mass whereas the best liquid culture was GYP medium with 3.5 g/l dry weight of cell mass. The lowest cell production was on YMP agar with 0.1 g dry weight of cell mass and then YMP medium with 2.5 g/l dry cell weight.

Keywords: Monascus purpureus, solid state fermentation, submerged culture, Chinese fermentation fungus

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3435 Analysing Representations of ‘Leftover’ Women in Chinese Media: Taking the Film ‘The Last Woman Standing’ and ‘I Do’ as Examples

Authors: Ting Li Liu

Abstract:

‘Leftover woman’ or ‘3S’ woman is the term used to describe a well-educated, high income, independent woman who is single and never married around 30 years in Chinese society. With the naming of this demographic of ‘leftover women’, their family, dating culture, mate selection and marriage attract public concern. Massive media representations of ‘leftover women’ occur daily; the research aims to present several media representations of women’s anxiety about their singlehood and related marital issues around thirty. The research triangulates two areas of media representation of ‘leftover women’: films and audience reviews on ‘Douban Movie’ website. Drawing on traditional media studies, Fairclough’s critical discourse analysis combined with multimodal techniques is applied to the research to analyze the representations of ‘leftover women’ and their implications for marital culture in China, in conjunction with a feminist perspective. The conference paper will discuss two case studies: the film ‘The last woman standing’ and ‘I Do’. Paying attention to different aspects of ‘leftover women’, the research aims to re-examine the representations of ‘leftover women’ in selected scenes, such as their age anxiety, family, marriage, dating process, careers, etc. The paper also includes public beliefs about ‘leftover women’ from online audience reviews. In conclusion, the emergence of ‘leftover women’ is a reflection of Chinese tradition’s impact on people’s lives and new changes in Chinese families and their attitude to marriage.

Keywords: leftover women, marriage, family, media culture, China

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3434 The Development of Chinese Film Market as Factor of Change in Global Hollywood

Authors: Marcin Adamczak

Abstract:

The growth of Chinese film market and its dynamic incomparable to any other historical phenomenon has already made China the second world market and potential future leader in 2-3 years period. The growing power of Chines box-office and its future prospects is then the crucial and potentially disturbing factor for persistence of global Hollywood reality. The paper is based on market statistical data. The main findings of the analysis are defining of essential obstacles for the development of Chinese market and its foreign expansion. However, the new strategies employed by the industry (acquisitions of cinema chains abroad, blockbuster made with the involvement of figures from Hollywood star system, coproduction ties within Pacific basin) could be a successful remedy for current shortcomings. The main factor for development will be wider economical framework and maintenance of growth pace. The future state of Chinese film market will be one of the main factors shaping global film culture and film market in following decades of XXI century.

Keywords: production studies, film market, Chinese film market, distribution

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3433 The Influence of Chinese Philosophic-Religious Traditions on Chinese Consumption Behaviour: Findings from the Taoist Case Study

Authors: Haiping Zhu

Abstract:

The purpose of this work-in-progress paper is to explore how the Chinese philosophic-religious tradition of Taoism impacts on the consumption behaviour of contemporary Chinese consumers. Although much cultural research has been conducted on Chinese consumption behaviours, most studies have approached the subject from Western perspectives. Examination of the limited literature indicates a gap in the knowledge of the relationship of traditional Chinese Taoism philosophy and Chinese consumption behaviour. To bridge this gap, this study examines Chinese consumption behaviour at a Taoist-related Chinese religious festival - the DuanWu festival - in order to seek some understanding of how the Taoism philosophic-religious tradition influences Chinese consumption behaviour from the point of view of the individuals involved. It focuses attention on their expression of Taoism cultural values, purchasing experience and subsequent consumption behaviours. This study undertook multiple methods for Taoist case study data collection: accompanied shopping with Taoists before DuanWu Festival; participant observations during DuanWu Festival; and in-depth interviews in order to explore Taoists consumption behaviours at the end of the Festival. Specifically, the finding from the Taoist case study corroborates and details the influence of the Taoism doctrine: man–nature orientation, Fenshui, ecological effect, and ecological knowledge, on their attitudes toward green purchasing behaviour. Findings from this Taoist case study - one of a series of three Chinese philosophic religious tradition case studies - contribute to the deeper understanding of contemporary Chinese consumers from a non-Western viewpoint and offer initial insights for global marketers to differentiate consumer needs and develop effective marketing strategies.

Keywords: consumer behaviour, culture values, green purchase behaviour, Taoism

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3432 Design Elements: Examining Product Design Attribute That Make Sweets Appear More Delicious to Foreign Patrons

Authors: Kazuko Sakamoto, Keiichiro Kawarabayashi, Yoji Kitani

Abstract:

Japanese sweets are one of the important elements of the Chur Japan strategy. In this research, we investigated what kind of sweets are liked to the Chinese tourist. What is generally eaten is influenced by culture, a sense of values, and business practice. Therefore, what was adapted there is sold. However, when traveling, what its country does not have is called for. Then, how far should we take in Chinese people's taste in a design? This time, the design attribute (a color and a form) which leads to sweets "being delicious" was clarified by rough aggregate theory.As a result, the difference in the taste of Chinese people and Japanese people became clear.

Keywords: design attribute, international comparison, taste by appearance, design attribute

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3431 Language Learning Strategies of Chinese Students at Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University in Thailand

Authors: Gunniga Anugkakul, Suwaree Yordchim

Abstract:

The objectives were to study language learning strategies (LLSs) employed by Chinese students, and the frequency of LLSs they used, and examine the relationship between the use of LLSs and gender. The Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL) by Oxford was administered to thirty-six Chinese students at Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University in Thailand. The data obtained was analyzed using descriptive statistics and chi-square tests. Three useful findings were found on the use of LLSs reported by Chinese students. First, Chinese students used overall LLSs at a high level. Second, among the six strategy groups, Chinese students employed compensation strategy most frequently and memory strategy least frequently. Third, the research results also revealed that gender had significant effect on Chinese Student’s use of overall LLSs.

Keywords: English language, language learning strategy, Chinese students, compensation strategy

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3430 Wh-Movement in Second Language Acquisition: Evidence from Magnitude Estimation

Authors: Dong-Bo Hsu

Abstract:

Universal Grammar (UG) claims that the constraints that are derived from this should operate in language users’ L2 grammars. This study investigated this hypothesis on knowledge of Subjacency and resumptive pronoun usage among Chinese learners of English. Chinese fulfills two requirements to examine the existence of UG, i.e., Subjacency does not operate in Chinese and resumptive pronouns in English are very different from those in Chinese and second L2 input undermines the knowledge of Subjacency. The results indicated that Chinese learners of English demonstrated a nearly identical pattern as English native speakers do but the resumptive pronoun in the embedding clauses. This may be explained in terms of the case that Chinese speakers’ usage of pronouns is not influenced by the number of embedding clauses. Chinese learners of English have full access to knowledge endowed by UG but their processing of English sentences may be different from native speakers as a general slow rate for processing in their L2 English.

Keywords: universal grammar, Chinese, English, wh-questions, resumption

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3429 Fatherhood and Migration among Chinese Returnees in Hong Kong: A Literature Review

Authors: Lucille Lok-Sun Ngan

Abstract:

There are significant gaps in both the migration and family literatures regarding the gendered parenting of Chinese migrants. Evidence from the literature informs us that the child-focused parenting style of the West has altered, with positive consequences, parent–child relationships in migrant families. In particular, second-generation migrants have developed hybrid identities distinct from those of their overseas-born parents and the locals. On returning to their place of origin, they may undergo yet another process of change in values, and in behaviour, in order to adapt to the local culture. As migration changes values, personality and practice at personal, interpersonal and familial levels, the cross-cultural experiences of returnees inevitably affect their own fatherhood journeys in their country of origin. This paper reviews current literature on fatherhood and migration and identifies the gaps and limitations that pertain to understanding the paternal experiences of Chinese return migrants.

Keywords: Chinese returnees, cross-cultural experiences, fatherhood, hybridity, migration

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