Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8288

Search results for: water usage

8288 Evaluation of Water Efficiency in Farming: Empirical Evidence from a Semi-Arid Region

Authors: Laura Piedra-Munoz, Angeles Godoy-Duran, Emilio Galdeano-Gomez, Juan C. Perez-Mesa

Abstract:

Spain is very sensitive to water management issues due to its climatic characteristics and the deficit of this resource in many areas of its territory. This study examines the characteristics of the family farms that are more efficient in the use of water, focusing on a semi-arid area located in Almeria, southeast of Spain. In the case of irrigated agriculture, water usage efficiency usually indicates water productivity in terms of yield (kg/m³), or in economic terms (euros/m³). These two water usage indicators were considered to analyse water usage efficiency according to other studies on water efficiency in the horticultural area under analysis. This work also takes into account other water usage characteristics such as water supplied, innovative irrigation practices, water-efficient technology, and water-saving practices. The results show that the most water efficient farms have technical advisors and use irrigation on demand, that measures the water needs of the crops and are considered the most technological irrigation system. These farms are more technological and less labor intensive. They are also aware of water scarcity and the need to conserve the environment. This approach allow managers to identify the principal factors and best practices related to water efficiency in order to promote and implement them in inefficient farms and promote sustainability.

Keywords: cluster analysis, family farms, Spain, sustainability, water-use efficiency

Procedia PDF Downloads 204
8287 The Review and Contribution of Taiwan Government Policies on Environmental Impact Assessment to Water Recycling

Authors: Feng-Ming Fan, Xiu-Hui Wen, Po-Feng Chen, Yi-Ching Tu

Abstract:

Because of inborn natural conditions and man-made sabotage, the water resources insufficient phenomenon in Taiwan is a very important issue needed to face immediately. The regulations and law of water resources protection and recycling are gradually completed now but still lack of specific water recycling effectiveness checking method. The research focused on the industrial parks that already had been certificated with EIA to establish a professional checking system, carry through and forge ahead to contribute one’s bit in water resources sustainable usage. Taiwan Government Policies of Environmental Impact Assessment established in 1994, some development projects were requested to set certain water recycling ratio for water resources effective usage. The water covers and contains everything because all-inclusive companies enter and be stationed. For control the execution status of industrial park water and waste water recycling ratio about EIA commitment effectively, we invited experts and scholars in this filed to discuss with related organs to formulate the policy and audit plan. Besides, call a meeting to set public version water equilibrium diagrams and recycles parameter. We selected nine industrial parks that were requested set certain water recycling ratio in EIA examination stage and then according to the water usage quantity, we audited 340 factories in these industrial parks with spot and documents examination and got fruitful results – the average water usage of unit area per year of all these examined industrial parks is 31,000 tons/hectare/year, the value is just half of Taiwan industries average. It is obvious that the industrial parks with EIA commitment can decrease the water resources consumption effectively. Taiwan government policies of Environmental Impact Assessment took follow though tracking function into consideration at the beginning. The results of this research verify the importance of the implementing with water recycling to save water resources in EIA commitment. Inducing development units to follow EIA commitment to get the balance between environmental protection and economic development is one of the important EIA value.

Keywords: Taiwan government policies of environmental impact assessment, water recycling ratio of EIA commitment, water resources sustainable usage, water recycling

Procedia PDF Downloads 125
8286 Water's Role in Creating a Sense of Belonging

Authors: Narges Nejati

Abstract:

Nowadays as science hasten toward technology, only quantity of construction noticed and there is a little attention toward quality of construction and there is no usage for element which was prevalent in traditional architecture. This is the cause of this issue that nowadays we see building that most of them just keep you from heat and cold of outside environment and there is no trace of any culture of their country or nation in it. And although we know that man is a creature that adores beauty by his nature, but this spiritual need of him is ignored. And designers by taking an enormous price instead of planning (spiritual designing) to release peace, they attend to planning which make a human soul bothered and ill. The present research is trying to illustrate price of concepts and principles of water usage as one of the elements of nature and also shows the water application in some of the Iranian constructions and the results show the motif of using water in constructions and also some benefits of using it in constructions. And also this matter can causes a reconnection between nature and constructing of a beautiful environment which is consonant and proportional with man’ physical, spiritual and cultural needs. And causes peace and comfort of men. A construction which man feels a friendly atmosphere in them which he has a sense of belonging to them not a construction which arouses feeling of weariness and fatigue.

Keywords: water usage, belonging, sustainable architecture, urban design

Procedia PDF Downloads 304
8285 Sustainable Use of Laura Lens during Drought

Authors: Kazuhisa Koda, Tsutomu Kobayashi

Abstract:

Laura Island, which is located about 50 km away from downtown, is a source of water supply in Majuro atoll, which is the capital of the Republic of the Marshall Islands. Low and flat Majuro atoll has neither river nor lake. It is very important for Majuro atoll to ensure the conservation of its water resources. However, up-coning, which is the process of partial rising of the freshwater-saltwater boundary near the water-supply well, was caused by the excess pumping from it during the severe drought in 1998. Up-coning will make the water usage of the freshwater lens difficult. Thus, appropriate water usage is required to prevent up-coning in the freshwater lens because there is no other water source during drought. Numerical simulation of water usage applying SEAWAT model was conducted at the central part of Laura Island, including the water-supply well, which was affected by up-coning. The freshwater lens was created as a result of infiltration of consistent average rainfall. The lens shape was almost the same as the one in 1985. 0 of monthly rainfall and variable daily pump discharge were used to calculate the sustainable pump discharge from the water-supply well. Consequently, the total amount of pump discharge was increased as the daily pump discharge was increased, indicating that it needs more time to recover from up-coning. Thus, a pump standard to reduce the pump intensity is being proposed, which is based on numerical simulation concerning the occurrence of the up-coning phenomenon in Laura Island during the drought.

Keywords: freshwater lens, islands, numerical simulation, sustainable water use

Procedia PDF Downloads 195
8284 The Study of Tourists’ Behavior in Water Usage in Hotel Business: Case Study of Phuket Province, Thailand

Authors: A. Pensiri, K. Nantaporn, P. Parichut

Abstract:

Tourism is very important to the economy of many countries due to the large contribution in the areas of employment and income generation. However, the rapid growth of tourism can also be considered as one of the major uses of water user, and therefore also have a significant and detrimental impact on the environment. Guest behavior in water usage can be used to manage water in hotels for sustainable water resources management. This research presents a study of hotel guest water usage behavior at two hotels, namely Hotel A (located in Kathu district) and Hotel B (located in Muang district) in Phuket Province, Thailand, as case studies. Primary and secondary data were collected from the hotel manager through interview and questionnaires. The water flow rate was measured in-situ from each water supply device in the standard room type at each hotel, including hand washing faucets, bathroom faucets, shower and toilet flush. For the interview, the majority of respondents (n = 204 for Hotel A and n = 244 for Hotel B) were aged between 21 years and 30 years (53% for Hotel A and 65% for Hotel B) and the majority were foreign (78% in Hotel A, and 92% in Hotel B) from American, France and Austria for purposes of tourism (63% in Hotel A, and 55% in Hotel B). The data showed that water consumption ranged from 188 litres to 507 liters, and 383 litres to 415 litres per overnight guest in Hotel A and Hotel B (n = 244), respectively. These figures exceed the water efficiency benchmark set for Tropical regions by the International Tourism Partnership (ITP). It is recommended that guest water saving initiatives should be implemented at hotels. Moreover, the results showed that guests have high satisfaction for the hotels, the front office service reveal the top rates of average score of 4.35 in Hotel A and 4.20 in Hotel B, respectively, while the luxury decoration and room cleanliness exhibited the second satisfaction scored by the guests in Hotel A and B, respectively. On the basis of this information, the findings can be very useful to improve customer service satisfaction and pay attention to this particular aspect for better hotel management.

Keywords: hotel, tourism, Phuket, water usage

Procedia PDF Downloads 174
8283 Corresponding Effect of Mycorhizal fungi and Pistachio on Absorption of Nutrition and Resistance on Salinity in Pistacia vera, L.

Authors: Hamid Mohammadi, S. H. Eftekhar Afzali

Abstract:

The irregular usage of chemical fertilizer cause different types of water and soil pollution and problems in health of human in past decades and organic fertilizer has been considered more and more. Mycorrhizal fungi have symbiosis with plant families and significantly effect on plant growth. Proper management of these symbiosis causes to reduce the usage of chemical fertilizers and absorb nutrition especially phosphor. Pistacia vera is endemic in Iran and is one of the most important products for this country. Considering special circumstances of pistachio orchards according to increasing salinity of water and soil and mismanagement of fertilizer reveals the necessity of the usage of Mycorrhizal fungi in these orchards.

Keywords: pistachio, mycorhiza, nutrition, salinity

Procedia PDF Downloads 405
8282 Assessment of Water Quality Network in Karoon River by Dynamic Programming Approach (DPA)

Authors: M. Nasri Nasrabadi, A. A. Hassani

Abstract:

Karoon is one of the greatest and longest rivers of Iran, which because of the existence of numerous industrial, agricultural centers and drinking usage, has a strategic situation in the west and southwest parts of Iran, and the optimal monitoring of its water quality is an essential and indispensable national issue. Due to financial constraints, water quality monitoring network design is an efficient way to manage water quality. The most crucial part is to find appropriate locations for monitoring stations. Considering the objectives of water usage, we evaluate existing water quality sampling stations of this river. There are several methods for assessment of existing monitoring stations such as Sanders method, multiple criteria decision making and dynamic programming approach (DPA) which DPA opted in this study. The results showed that due to the drinking water quality index out of 20 existing monitoring stations, nine stations should be retained on the river, that include of Gorgor-Band-Ghir of A zone, Dez-Band-Ghir of B zone, Teir, Pole Panjom and Zargan of C zone, Darkhoein, Hafar, Chobade, and Sabonsazi of D zone. In additional, stations of Dez river have the best conditions.

Keywords: DPA, karoon river, network monitoring, water quality, sampling site

Procedia PDF Downloads 287
8281 Water Quality Assessment of Owu Falls for Water Use Classification

Authors: Modupe O. Jimoh

Abstract:

Waterfalls create an ambient environment for tourism and relaxation. They are also potential sources for water supply. Owu waterfall located at Isin Local Government, Kwara state, Nigeria is the highest waterfall in the West African region, yet none of its potential usefulness has been fully exploited. Water samples were taken from two sections of the fall and were analyzed for various water quality parameters. The results obtained include pH (6.71 ± 0.1), Biochemical oxygen demand (4.2 ± 0.5 mg/l), Chemical oxygen demand (3.07 ± 0.01 mg/l), Dissolved oxygen (6.59 ± 0.6 mg/l), Turbidity (4.43 ± 0.11 NTU), Total dissolved solids (8.2 ± 0.09 mg/l), Total suspended solids (18.25 ± 0.5 mg/l), Chloride ion (0.48 ± 0.08 mg/l), Calcium ion (0.82 ± 0.02 mg/l)), Magnesium ion (0.63 ± 0.03 mg/l) and Nitrate ion (1.25 ± 0.01 mg/l). The results were compared to the World Health Organisations standard for drinking water and the Nigerian standard for drinking water. From the comparison, it can be deduced that due to the Biochemical oxygen demand value, the water is not suitable for drinking unless it undergoes treatment. However, it is suitable for other classes of water usage.

Keywords: Owu falls, waterfall, water quality, water quality parameters, water use

Procedia PDF Downloads 89
8280 Development of Total Maximum Daily Load Using Water Quality Modelling as an Approach for Watershed Management in Malaysia

Authors: S. A. Che Osmi, W. M. F. Wan Ishak, H. Kim, M. A. Azman, M. A. Ramli

Abstract:

River is one of important water sources for many activities including industrial and domestic usage such as daily usage, transportation, power supply and recreational activities. However, increasing activities in a river has grown the sources of pollutant enters the water bodies, and degraded the water quality of the river. It becomes a challenge to develop an effective river management to ensure the water sources of the river are well managed and regulated. In Malaysia, several approaches for river management have been implemented such as Integrated River Basin Management (IRBM) program for coordinating the management of resources in a natural environment based on river basin to ensure their sustainability lead by Department of Drainage and Irrigation (DID), Malaysia. Nowadays, Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) is one of the best approaches for river management in Malaysia. TMDL implementation is regulated and implemented in the United States. A study on the development of TMDL in Malacca River has been carried out by doing water quality monitoring, the development of water quality model by using Environmental Fluid Dynamic Codes (EFDC), and TMDL implementation plan. The implementation of TMDL will help the stakeholders and regulators to control and improve the water quality of the river. It is one of the good approaches for river management in Malaysia.

Keywords: EFDC, river management, TMDL, water quality modelling

Procedia PDF Downloads 241
8279 Identifying the Factors that Influence Water-Use Efficiency in Agriculture: Case Study in a Spanish Semi-Arid Region

Authors: Laura Piedra-Muñoz, Ángeles Godoy-Durán, Emilio Galdeano-Gómez, Juan C. Pérez-Mesa

Abstract:

The current agricultural system in some arid and semi-arid areas is not sustainable in the long term. In southeast Spain, groundwater is the main water source and is overexploited, while alternatives like desalination are still limited. The Water Plan for the Mediterranean Basins 2015-2020 indicates a global deficit of 73.42 hm3 and an overexploitation of the aquifers of 205.58hm3. In order to solve this serious problem, two major actions can be taken: increasing available water, and/or improving the efficiency of its use. This study focuses on the latter. The main aim of this study is to present the major factors related to water usage efficiency in farming. It focuses on Almería province, southeast Spain, one of the most arid areas of the country, and in particular on family farms as the main direct managers of water use in this zone. Many of these farms are among the most water efficient in Spanish agriculture, but this efficiency is not generalized throughout the sector. This work conducts a comprehensive assessment of water performance in this area, using on-farm water-use, structural, socio-economic and environmental information. Two statistical techniques are used: descriptive analysis and cluster analysis. Thus, two groups are identified: the least and the most efficient farms regarding water usage. By analyzing both the common characteristics within each group and the differences between the groups with a one-way ANOVA analysis, several conclusions can be reached. The main differences between the two clusters center on the extent to which innovation and new technologies are used in irrigation. The most water efficient farms are characterized by more educated farmers, a greater degree of innovation, new irrigation technology, specialized production and awareness of water issues and environmental sustainability. The research shows that better practices and policies can have a substantial impact on achieving a more sustainable and efficient use of water. The findings of this study can be extended to farms in similar arid and semi-arid areas and contribute to foster appropriate policies to improve the efficiency of water usage in the agricultural sector.

Keywords: cluster analysis, family farms, Spain, water-use efficiency

Procedia PDF Downloads 202
8278 Flood Prevention Strategy for Reserving Quality Ground Water Considering Future Population Growth in Kabul

Authors: Said Moqeem Sadat, Saito Takahiro, Inuzuka Norikazu, Sugiyama Ikuo

Abstract:

Kabul city is the capital of Afghanistan with a population of about 4.0 million in 2009 and 6.5 million in 2025. It is geographically located in a narrow plain valley along the Kabul River and is surrounded by high mountains. Due to its sharp geological condition, the city has been suffering from floods caused by storm water and snow melting water in the rainy season. Meanwhile, potable water resources are becoming a critical issue as the underground water table is decreasing falling rapidly due to domestic usage, industrial and agricultural activities usage especially in the dry season. This paper focuses on flood water management in Kabul including suburban agricultural area considering not only for flood protection but also: 1. To reserve the quality underground water for the future population growth. 2. To irrigate farming area in dry season using storm water ponds in rainy season. 3. To discharge city contaminated flood water to the downstream safely using existing channels/new pipes. Cost and benefit is considered in this study to find out a suitable flood protection method both in rural area and city center from a view point of 1 to 3 mentioned above. In this analysis, cost mainly consists of lost opportunity to develop lands due to flood ponds in addition to construction and maintenance one including connecting channels for water collecting/discharging. Benefit mainly consists of damage reduction of flood loss due to counter measures (this is corresponding cost) in addition to the contribution to agricultural crops. As far as reservation of the ground water for the future city growth is concerned, future demand and supply are compared in case that the pumping amount is limited by this irrigation system.

Keywords: cost-benefit, hydrological modeling, water management, water quality

Procedia PDF Downloads 191
8277 Backwash Optimization for Drinking Water Treatment Biological Filters

Authors: Sarra K. Ikhlef, Onita Basu

Abstract:

Natural organic matter (NOM) removal efficiency using drinking water treatment biological filters can be highly influenced by backwashing conditions. Backwashing has the ability to remove the accumulated biomass and particles in order to regenerate the biological filters' removal capacity and prevent excessive headloss buildup. A lab scale system consisting of 3 biological filters was used in this study to examine the implications of different backwash strategies on biological filtration performance. The backwash procedures were evaluated based on their impacts on dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removals, biological filters’ biomass, backwash water volume usage, and particle removal. Results showed that under nutrient limited conditions, the simultaneous use of air and water under collapse pulsing conditions lead to a DOC removal of 22% which was significantly higher (p>0.05) than the 12% removal observed under water only backwash conditions. Employing a bed expansion of 20% under nutrient supplemented conditions compared to a 30% reference bed expansion while using the same amount of water volume lead to similar DOC removals. On the other hand, utilizing a higher bed expansion (40%) lead to significantly lower DOC removals (23%). Also, a backwash strategy that reduced the backwash water volume usage by about 20% resulted in similar DOC removals observed with the reference backwash. The backwash procedures investigated in this study showed no consistent impact on biological filters' biomass concentrations as measured by the phospholipids and the adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP) methods. Moreover, none of these two analyses showed a direct correlation with DOC removal. On the other hand, dissolved oxygen (DO) uptake showed a direct correlation with DOC removals. The addition of the extended terminal subfluidization wash (ETSW) demonstrated no apparent impact on DOC removals. ETSW also successfully eliminated the filter ripening sequence (FRS). As a result, the additional water usage resulting from implementing ETSW was compensated by water savings after restart. Results from this study provide insight to researchers and water treatment utilities on how to better optimize the backwashing procedure for the goal of optimizing the overall biological filtration process.

Keywords: biological filtration, backwashing, collapse pulsing, ETSW

Procedia PDF Downloads 202
8276 Multi-Agent System for Irrigation Using Fuzzy Logic Algorithm and Open Platform Communication Data Access

Authors: T. Wanyama, B. Far

Abstract:

Automatic irrigation systems usually conveniently protect landscape investment. While conventional irrigation systems are known to be inefficient, automated ones have the potential to optimize water usage. In fact, there is a new generation of irrigation systems that are smart in the sense that they monitor the weather, soil conditions, evaporation and plant water use, and automatically adjust the irrigation schedule. In this paper, we present an agent based smart irrigation system. The agents are built using a mix of commercial off the shelf software, including MATLAB, Microsoft Excel and KEPServer Ex5 OPC server, and custom written code. The Irrigation Scheduler Agent uses fuzzy logic to integrate the information that affect the irrigation schedule. In addition, the Multi-Agent system uses Open Platform Connectivity (OPC) technology to share data. OPC technology enables the Irrigation Scheduler Agent to communicate over the Internet, making the system scalable to a municipal or regional agent based water monitoring, management, and optimization system. Finally, this paper presents simulation and pilot installation test result that show the operational effectiveness of our system.

Keywords: community water usage, fuzzy logic, irrigation, multi-agent system

Procedia PDF Downloads 198
8275 Process Integration: Mathematical Model for Contaminant Removal in Refinery Process Stream

Authors: Wasif Mughees, Malik Al-Ahmad

Abstract:

This research presents the graphical design analysis and mathematical programming technique to dig out the possible water allocation distribution to minimize water usage in process units. The study involves the mass and property integration in its core methodology. Tehran Oil Refinery is studied to implement the focused water pinch technology for regeneration, reuse and recycling of water streams. Process data is manipulated in terms of sources and sinks, which are given in terms of properties. Sources are the streams to be allocated. Sinks are the units which can accept the sources. Suspended Solids (SS) is taken as a single contaminant. The model minimizes the mount of freshwater from 340 to 275m3/h (19.1%). Redesigning and allocation of water streams was built. The graphical technique and mathematical programming shows the consistency of results which confirms mass transfer dependency of water streams.

Keywords: minimization, water pinch, process integration, pollution prevention

Procedia PDF Downloads 254
8274 Losing Benefits from Social Network Sites Usage: An Approach to Estimate the Relationship between Social Network Sites Usage and Social Capital

Authors: Maoxin Ye

Abstract:

This study examines the relationship between social network sites (SNS) usage and social capital. Because SNS usage can expand the users’ networks, and people who are connected in this networks may become resources to SNS users and lead them to advantage in some situation, it is important to estimate the relationship between SNS usage and ‘who’ is connected or what resources the SNS users can get. Additionally, ‘who’ can be divided in two aspects – people who possess high position and people who are different, hence, it is important to estimate the relationship between SNS usage and high position people and different people. This study adapts Lin’s definition of social capital and the measurement of position generator which tells us who was connected, and can be divided into the same two aspects as well. A national data of America (N = 2,255) collected by Pew Research Center is utilized to do a general regression analysis about SNS usage and social capital. The results indicate that SNS usage is negatively associated with each factor of social capital, and it suggests that, in fact, comparing with non-users, although SNS users can get more connections, the variety and resources of these connections are fewer. For this reason, we could lose benefits through SNS usage.

Keywords: social network sites, social capital, position generator, general regression

Procedia PDF Downloads 192
8273 Design of a Solar Water Heating System with Thermal Storage for a Three-Bedroom House in Newfoundland

Authors: Ahmed Aisa, Tariq Iqbal

Abstract:

This letter talks about the ready-to-use design of a solar water heating system because, in Canada, the average consumption of hot water per person is approximately 50 to 75 L per day and the average Canadian household uses 225 L. Therefore, this paper will demonstrate the method of designing a solar water heating system with thermal storage. It highlights the renewable hybrid power system, allowing you to obtain a reliable, independent system with the optimization of the ingredient size and at an improved capital cost. The system can provide hot water for a big building. The main power for the system comes from solar panels. Solar Advisory Model (SAM) and HOMER are used. HOMER and SAM are design models that calculate the consumption of hot water and cost for a house. Some results, obtained through simulation, were for monthly energy production, annual energy production, after tax cash flow, the lifetime of the system and monthly energy usage represented by three types of energy. These are system energy, electricity load electricity and net metering credit.

Keywords: water heating, thermal storage, capital cost solar, consumption

Procedia PDF Downloads 358
8272 Usage of Biosorbent Material for the Removal of Nitrate from Wastewater

Authors: M. Abouleish, R. Umer, Z. Sara

Abstract:

Nitrate can cause serious environmental and human health problems. Effluent from different industries and excessive use of fertilizers have increased the level of nitrate in ground and surface water. Nitrate can convert to nitrite in the body, and as a result, can lead to Methemoglobinemia and cancer. Therefore, different organizations have set standard limits for nitrate and nitrite. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has set a Maximum Contaminant Level Goal (MCLG) of 10 mg N/L for nitrate and 1 mg N/L for nitrite. The removal of nitrate from water and wastewater is very important to ensure the availability of clean water. Different plant materials such as banana peel, rice hull, coconut and bamboo shells, have been studied as biosorbents for the removal of nitrates from water. The use of abundantly existing plant material as an adsorbent material and the lack of energy requirement for the adsorption process makes biosorption a sustainable approach. Therefore, in this research, the fruit of the plant was investigated for its ability to act as a biosorbent to remove the nitrate from wastewater. The effect of pH on nitrate removal was studied using both the raw and chemically activated fruit (adsorbent). Results demonstrated that the adsorbent needs to be chemically activated before usage to remove the nitrate from wastewater. pH did not have a significant effect on the adsorption process, with maximum adsorption of nitrate occurring at pH 4. SEM/EDX results demonstrated that there is no change in the surface of the adsorbent as a result of the chemical activation. Chemical activation of the adsorbent using NaOH increased the removal of nitrate by 6%; therefore, various methods of activation of the adsorbent will be investigated to increase the removal of nitrate.

Keywords: biosorption, nitrates, plant material, water, and wastewater treatment

Procedia PDF Downloads 54
8271 A Performance Analysis Study of an Active Solar Still Integrating Fin at the Basin Plate

Authors: O. Ansari, H. Hafs, A. Bah, M. Asbik, M. Malha, M. Bakhouya

Abstract:

Water is one of the most important and vulnerable natural resources due to human activities and climate change. Water-level continues declining year after year and it is primarily caused by sustained, extensive, and traditional usage methods. Improving water utilization becomes an urgent issue in order satisfy the increasing population needs. Desalination of seawater or brackish water could help in increasing water potential. However, a cost-effective desalination process is required. The most appropriate method for performing this desalination is solar-driven distillation, given its simplicity, low cost and especially the availability of the solar energy source. The main objective of this paper is to demonstrate the influence of coupling integrated basin plate by fins with preheating by solar collector on the performance of solar still. The energy balance equations for the various elements of the solar still are introduced. A numerical example is used to show the efficiency of the proposed solution.

Keywords: active solar still, desalination, fins, solar collector

Procedia PDF Downloads 125
8270 A Case Study on the Drivers of Household Water Consumption for Different Socio-Economic Classes in Selected Communities of Metro Manila, Philippines

Authors: Maria Anjelica P. Ancheta, Roberto S. Soriano, Erickson L. Llaguno

Abstract:

The main purpose of this study is to examine whether there is a significant relationship between socio-economic class and household water supply demand, through determining or verifying the factors governing water use consumption patterns of households from a sampling from different socio-economic classes in Metro Manila, the national capital region of the Philippines. This study is also an opportunity to augment the lack of local academic literature due to the very few publications on urban household water demand after 1999. In over 600 Metro Manila households, a rapid survey was conducted on their average monthly water consumption and habits on household water usage. The questions in the rapid survey were based on an extensive review of literature on urban household water demand. Sample households were divided into socio-economic classes A-B and C-D. Cluster analysis, dummy coding and outlier tests were done to prepare the data for regression analysis. Subsequently, backward stepwise regression analysis was used in order to determine different statistical models to describe the determinants of water consumption. The key finding of this study is that the socio-economic class of a household in Metro Manila is a significant factor in water consumption. A-B households consume more water in contrast to C-D families based on the mean average water consumption for A-B and C-D households are 36.75 m3 and 18.92 m3, respectively. The most significant proxy factors of socio-economic class that were related to household water consumption were examined in order to suggest improvements in policy formulation and household water demand management.

Keywords: household water uses, socio-economic classes, urban planning, urban water demand management

Procedia PDF Downloads 210
8269 Investigation of Cascade Loop Heat Pipes

Authors: Nandy Putra, Atrialdipa Duanovsah, Kristofer Haliansyah

Abstract:

The aim of this research is to design a LHP with low thermal resistance and low condenser temperature. A Self-designed cascade LHP was tested by using biomaterial, sintered copper powder, and aluminum screen mesh as the wick. Using pure water as the working fluid for the first level of the LHP and 96% alcohol as the working fluid for the second level of LHP, the experiments were run with 10W, 20W, and 30W heat input. Experimental result shows that the usage of biomaterial as wick could reduce more temperature at evaporator than by using sintered copper powder and screen mesh up to 22.63% and 37.41% respectively. The lowest thermal resistance occurred during the usage of biomaterial as wick of heat pipe, which is 2.06 oC/W. The usage of cascade system could be applied to LHP to reduce the temperature at condenser and reduced thermal resistance up to 17.6%.

Keywords: biomaterial, cascade loop heat pipe, screen mesh, sintered Cu

Procedia PDF Downloads 195
8268 Environmental Fatigue Analysis for Control Rod Drive Mechanisms Seal House

Authors: Xuejiao Shao, Jianguo Chen, Xiaolong Fu

Abstract:

In this paper, the elastoplastic strain correction factor computed by software of ANSYS was modified, and the fatigue usage factor in air was also corrected considering in water under reactor operating condition. The fatigue of key parts on control rod drive mechanisms was analyzed considering the influence of environmental fatigue caused by the coolant in the react pressure vessel. The elastoplastic strain correction factor was modified by analyzing thermal and mechanical loads separately referring the rules of RCC-M 2002. The new elastoplastic strain correction factor Ke(mix) is computed to replace the original Ke computed by the software of ANSYS when evaluating the fatigue produced by thermal and mechanical loads together. Based on the Ke(mix) and the usage cycle and fatigue design curves, the new range of primary plus secondary stresses was evaluated to obtain the final fatigue usage factor. The results show that the precision of fatigue usage factor can be elevated by using modified Ke when the amplify of the primary and secondary stress is large to some extent. One approach has been proposed for incorporating the environmental effects considering the effects of reactor coolant environments on fatigue life in terms of an environmental correction factor Fen, which is the ratio of fatigue life in air at room. To incorporate environmental effects into the RCCM Code fatigue evaluations, the fatigue usage factor based on the current Code design curves is multiplied by the correction factor. The contribution of environmental effects to results is discussed. Fatigue life decreases logarithmically with decreasing strain rate below 10%/s, which is insensitive to strain rate when temperatures below 100°C.

Keywords: environmental fatigue, usage factor, elastoplastic strain correction factor, environmental correction

Procedia PDF Downloads 191
8267 Fairly Irrigation Water Distribution between Upstream and Downstream Water Users in Water Shortage Periods

Authors: S. M. Hashemy Shahdany

Abstract:

Equitable water delivery becomes one of the main concerns for water authorities in arid regions. Due to water scarcity, providing reliable amount of water is not possible for most of the irrigation districts in arid regions. In this paper, water level difference control is applied to keep the water level errors equal in adjacent reaches. Distant downstream decentralized configurations of the control method are designed and tested under a realistic scenario shows canal operation under water shortage. The simulation results show that the difference controllers share the water level error among all of the users in a fair way. Therefore, water deficit has a similar influence on downstream as well as upstream and water offtakes.

Keywords: equitable water distribution, precise agriculture, sustainable agriculture, water shortage

Procedia PDF Downloads 354
8266 Managing City Pipe Leaks through Community Participation Using a Web and Mobile Application in South Africa

Authors: Mpai Mokoena, Nsenda Lukumwena

Abstract:

South Africa is one of the driest countries in the world and is facing a water crisis. In addition to inadequate infrastructure and poor planning, the country is experiencing high rates of water wastage due to pipe leaks. This study outlines the level of water wastage and develops a smart solution to efficiently manage and reduce the effects of pipe leaks, while monitoring the situation before and after fixing the pipe leaks. To understand the issue in depth, a literature review of journal papers and government reports was conducted. A questionnaire was designed and distributed to the general public. Additionally, the municipality office was contacted from a managerial perspective. The analysis from the study indicated that the majority of the citizens are aware of the water crisis and are willing to participate positively to decrease the level of water wasted. Furthermore, the response from the municipality acknowledged that more practical solutions are needed to reduce water wastage, and resources to attend to pipe leaks swiftly. Therefore, this paper proposes a specific solution for municipalities, local plumbers and citizens to minimize the effects of pipe leaks. The solution provides web and mobile application platforms to report and manage leaks swiftly. The solution is beneficial to the country in achieving water security and would promote a culture of responsibility toward water usage.

Keywords: urban distribution networks, leak management, mobile application, responsible citizens, water crisis, water security

Procedia PDF Downloads 60
8265 Assessment the Impact of Changes in Cultivation Pattern from Grape to Apple on Drying up of Urmia Lake

Authors: Nasser Karami

Abstract:

The Urmia grapes have been famous for centuries and have been among the most desirable in the production of wine. Interestingly, evidence shows that the Urmia region was the first place in the world where wine was produced and consumed. In fact, the grapes known as “Shiraz” and made popular by “Shiraz Wine” are the grapes cultivated as a local species especially in the West Azerbaijan watershed basin and exported to Europe. But after the Islamic Revolution, because the production, usage, and sale of wine were unlawful (under Islamic rule), they decided to cultivate apples instead of grapes. Before Islamic revolution, about 50 percent of the gardens were producing grapes, but the apple groves took up less than 1.5 percent (100 hectares). Three years after the revolution, in 1982, people were swept up in the revolutionary excitement and grape cultivation decreased, using less than 10 percent of the garden area. Important is the fact that an apple tree needs 12 times more water than a grapevine, it should be noted that in terms of water usage in the area, the agricultural area has not been increased by 2 or 4 times but rather by 12 times. Evaluation of this study showed that contrary to official reports, climate change isn’t major cause of drying up Urmia Lake and 65 percent of this environmental crisis happened due to spreading unsustainable agricultural in basin of this lake.

Keywords: cultivation pattern, unsustainable agriculture, urmia lake drying, water managment

Procedia PDF Downloads 266
8264 Challenges in Promoting Software Usability and Applying Principles of Usage-Centred Design in Saudi Arabia

Authors: Kholod J. Alotaibi, Andrew M. Gravell

Abstract:

A study was conducted in which 212 software developers in higher education institutions in Saudi Arabia were surveyed to gather an indication of their understanding of the concept of usability, their acceptance of its importance, and to see how well its principles are applied. Interviews were then held with 20 of these developers, and a demonstration of Usage-Centred Design was attempted, a highly usability focused software development methodology, at one select institution for its redesign of an e-learning exam system interface during the requirements gathering phase. The study confirms the need to raise awareness of usability and its importance, and for Usage-Centred Design to be applied in its entirety, also need to encourage greater consultation with potential end-users of software and collaborative practices. The demonstration of Usage-Centred Design confirmed its ability to capture usability requirements more completely and precisely than would otherwise be the case, and hence its usefulness for developers concerned with improving software usability. The concluding discussion delves on the challenges for promoting usability and Usage-Centred Design in light of the research results and findings and recommendations are made for the same.

Keywords: usability, usage-centred, applying principles of usage-centred, Saudi Arabia

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8263 Domestic Solar Hot Water Systems in Order to Reduce the Electricity Peak Demand in Assalouyeh

Authors: Roya Moradifar, Bijan Honarvar, Masoumeh Zabihi

Abstract:

The personal residential camps of South Pars gas complex are one of the few places where electric energy is used for the bath water heating. The widespread use of these devices is mainly responsible for the high peak of the electricity demand in the residential sector. In an attempt to deal with this issue, to reduce the electricity usage of the hot water, as an option, solar hot water systems have been proposed. However, despite the high incidence of solar radiation on the Assaloyeh about 20 MJ/m²/day, currently, there is no technical assessment quantifying the economic benefits on the region. The present study estimates the economic impacts resulting by the deployment of solar hot water systems in residential camp. Hence, the feasibility study allows assessing the potential of solar water heating as an alternative to reduce the peak on the electricity demand. In order to examine the potential of using solar energy in Bidkhoon residential camp two solar water heater packages as pilots were installed for restaurant and building. Restaurant package was damaged due to maintenance problems, but for the building package, we achieved the result of the solar fraction total 83percent and max energy saving 2895 kWh, the maximum reduction in CO₂ emissions calculated as 1634.5 kg. The results of this study can be used as a support tool to spread the use solar water heaters and create policies for South Pars Gas Complex.

Keywords: electrical energy, hot water, solar, South Pars Gas complex

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8262 The Antecedents of Facebook Check in Adoption Intention: The Perspective of Social Influence

Authors: Hsiu-Hua Cheng

Abstract:

Recently, the competition between websites becomes intense. How to make users “adopt” their websites is an issue of urgent importance for online communities companies. Social procedures (such as social influence) can possibly explain how and why users’ technologies usage behaviors affect other people to use the technologies. This study proposes two types of social influences on the initial usage of Facebook Check In-friends and group members. Besides, this study indicates that Facebook friends’ previous usage of Facebook Check In and Facebook group members’ previous usage of Facebook Check In will positively influence focal actors’ Facebook Check In adoption intention. The article concludes with contributions to academic research and practice.

Keywords: social influence, adoption intention, facebook check in, previous usage behavior

Procedia PDF Downloads 368
8261 The Investigation of Counselors Attitudes toward Online Counseling upon Taking Clients Perspective

Authors: Omer Ozer, Murat Yikilmaz, Ahmet Altinok, Ferhat Bayolu

Abstract:

There is an increasing number of online counseling services, studies exploring clients’ and counselors’ attitudes toward online counseling services are needed to provide effective and efficient mental health counseling services. The purpose of this study is to investigate counselors’ attitudes toward online counseling in relation to counselors’ genders, their daily usage of computer, their total usage of computer, and their self-efficacy in computer usage. In this study, Personal Information Form, specific items from the Online Counseling Attitudes Scale, and the Face-to-Face Counseling Attitudes Scale were given to 193 counselors to measure attitudes toward online counseling. Data were analyzed by using independent samples t-test and one-way ANOVA. There were no statistically significant differences counselors’ attitudes toward online counseling and counselors’ gender, their daily usage of computer, their total usage of computer, and their self-efficacy in computer usage. The implications of these findings have been discussed in the literature review to provide some suggestions to researchers in the counseling profession.

Keywords: online counseling, counselor, attitude, counseling service

Procedia PDF Downloads 266
8260 Requirements Gathering for Improved Software Usability and the Potential for Usage-Centred Design

Authors: Kholod J. Alotaibi, Andrew M. Gravell

Abstract:

Usability is an important software quality that is often neglected at the design stage. Although methods exist to incorporate elements of usability engineering, there is a need for more balanced usability focused methods that can enhance the experience of software usability for users. In this regard, the potential for Usage-Centered Design is explored with respect to requirements gathering and is shown to lead to high software usability besides other benefits. It achieves this through its focus on usage, defining essential use cases, by conducting task modeling, encouraging user collaboration, refining requirements, and so on. The requirements gathering process in UgCD is described in detail.

Keywords: requirements gathering, usability, usage-centred design, computer science

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8259 Component Lifecycle and Concurrency Model in Usage Control (UCON) System

Authors: P. Ghann, J. Shiguang, C. Zhou

Abstract:

Access control is one of the most challenging issues facing information security. Access control is defined as, the ability to permit or deny access to a particular computational resource or digital information by an unauthorized user or subject. The concept of usage control (UCON) has been introduced as a unified approach to capture a number of extensions for access control models and systems. In UCON, an access decision is determined by three factors: Authorizations, obligations and conditions. Attribute mutability and decision continuity are two distinct characteristics introduced by UCON for the first time. An observation of UCON components indicates that, the components are predefined and static. In this paper, we propose a new and flexible model of usage control for the creation and elimination of some of these components; for example new objects, subjects, attributes and integrate these with the original UCON model. We also propose a model for concurrent usage scenarios in UCON.

Keywords: access control, concurrency, digital container, usage control

Procedia PDF Downloads 249