Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 792

Search results for: skin affection

792 Prevalence and Potential Risk Factors Associated with Skin Affection in Donkeys

Authors: Mohamed Z. Sayed-Ahmed, Ahmed M. Ahdy, Emad E. Younis, Sabry A. El-Khodary

Abstract:

Little research information is available on the prevalence of diseases of donkeys in Egypt. Across sectional study was undertaken between March 2009 and February 2010 to verify the prevalence of skin affection of donkeys. A total of 1134 donkeys in northern Egypt were investigated. A questionnaire was constructed to verify the number of infected contact animals as well as the associated factors. Physical examination was carried out, and the distribution of skin lesions was recorded. Skin scraping and biopsy were obtained to perform bacteriological, mycological, and histopathological examinations. Thirty-five (3.09%) out of 1134 noticed donkeys had skin affections including mange (18/35), dermatophytosis (6/35), bacterial dermatitis (6/35) urticaria (2/35) and allergic dermatitis (3/35). The present results indicate that mange and dermatophytosis are the prevalent skin diseases in donkeys. Contact with other animal species of contaminated environment may contribute to the occurrence of the diseases.

Keywords: donkeys, Egypt, prevalence, skin affection

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791 Improved Skin Detection Using Colour Space and Texture

Authors: Medjram Sofiane, Babahenini Mohamed Chaouki, Mohamed Benali Yamina

Abstract:

Skin detection is an important task for computer vision systems. A good method for skin detection means a good and successful result of the system. The colour is a good descriptor that allows us to detect skin colour in the images, but because of lightings effects and objects that have a similar colour skin, skin detection becomes difficult. In this paper, we proposed a method using the YCbCr colour space for skin detection and lighting effects elimination, then we use the information of texture to eliminate the false regions detected by the YCbCr colour skin model.

Keywords: skin detection, YCbCr, GLCM, texture, human skin

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790 Analysis of Tactile Perception of Textiles by Fingertip Skin Model

Authors: Izabela L. Ciesielska-Wrόbel

Abstract:

This paper presents finite element models of the fingertip skin which have been created to simulate the contact of textile objects with the skin to gain a better understanding of the perception of textiles through the skin, so-called Hand of Textiles (HoT). Many objective and subjective techniques have been developed to analyze HoT, however none of them provide exact overall information concerning the sensation of textiles through the skin. As the human skin is a complex heterogeneous hyperelastic body composed of many particles, some simplifications had to be made at the stage of building the models. The same concerns models of woven structures, however their utilitarian value was maintained. The models reflect only friction between skin and woven textiles, deformation of the skin and fabrics when “touching” textiles and heat transfer from the surface of the skin into direction of textiles.

Keywords: fingertip skin models, finite element models, modelling of textiles, sensation of textiles through the skin

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789 Penetration Depth Study of Linear Siloxanes through Human Skin

Authors: K. Szymkowska, K. Mojsiewicz- Pieńkowska

Abstract:

Siloxanes are a common ingredients in medicinal products used on the skin, as well as cosmetics. It is widely believed that the silicones are not capable of overcoming the skin barrier. The aim of the study was to verify the possibility of penetration and permeation of linear siloxanes through human skin and determine depth penetration limit of these compounds. Based on the results it was found that human skin is not a barrier for linear siloxanes. PDMS 50 cSt was not identified in the dermis suggests that this molecular size of silicones (3780Da) is safe when it is used in the skin formulations.

Keywords: linear siloxanes, methyl siloxanes, skin penetration, skin permeation

Procedia PDF Downloads 300
788 Skin Care through Ayurveda

Authors: K. L. Virupaksha Gupta

Abstract:

Ayurveda offers a holistic outlook regarding skin care. Most Initial step in Ayurveda is to identify the skin type and care accordingly which is highly personalized. Though dermatologically there are various skin type classifications such Baumann skin types (based on 4 parameters i) Oily Vs Dry ii) Sensitive Vs Resistant iii) Pigmented Vs Non-Pigmented iv) Wrinkled Vs Tight (Unwrinkled) etc but Skin typing in Ayurveda is mainly determined by the prakriti (constitution) of the individual as well as the status of Doshas (Humors) which are basically of 3 types – i.e Vata Pitta and Kapha,. Difference between them is mainly attributed to the qualities of each dosha (humor). All the above said skin types can be incorporated under these three types. The skin care modalities in each of the constitution vary greatly. Skin of an individual of Vata constitution would be lustreless, having rough texture and cracks due to dryness and thus should be given warm and unctuous therapies and oil massage for lubrication and natural moisturizers for hydration. Skin of an individual of Pitta constitution would look more vascular (pinkish), delicate and sensitive with a fair complexion, unctuous and tendency for wrinkles and greying of hair at an early age and hence should be given cooling and nurturing therapies and should avoid tanning treatments. Skin of an individual of kapha constitution will have oily skin, they are delicate and look beautiful and radiant and hence these individuals would require therapies to mainly combat oily skin. Hence, the skin typing and skin care in Ayurveda is highly rational and scientific.

Keywords: Ayurveda, dermatology, Dosha, skin types

Procedia PDF Downloads 288
787 Towards Integrating Statistical Color Features for Human Skin Detection

Authors: Mohd Zamri Osman, Mohd Aizaini Maarof, Mohd Foad Rohani

Abstract:

Human skin detection recognized as the primary step in most of the applications such as face detection, illicit image filtering, hand recognition and video surveillance. The performance of any skin detection applications greatly relies on the two components: feature extraction and classification method. Skin color is the most vital information used for skin detection purpose. However, color feature alone sometimes could not handle images with having same color distribution with skin color. A color feature of pixel-based does not eliminate the skin-like color due to the intensity of skin and skin-like color fall under the same distribution. Hence, the statistical color analysis will be exploited such mean and standard deviation as an additional feature to increase the reliability of skin detector. In this paper, we studied the effectiveness of statistical color feature for human skin detection. Furthermore, the paper analyzed the integrated color and texture using eight classifiers with three color spaces of RGB, YCbCr, and HSV. The experimental results show that the integrating statistical feature using Random Forest classifier achieved a significant performance with an F1-score 0.969.

Keywords: color space, neural network, random forest, skin detection, statistical feature

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786 Fabrication of Optical Tissue Phantoms Simulating Human Skin and Their Application

Authors: Jihoon Park, Sungkon Yu, Byungjo Jung

Abstract:

Although various optical tissue phantoms (OTPs) simulating human skin have been actively studied, their completeness is unclear because skin tissue has the intricate optical property and complicated structure disturbing the optical simulation. In this study, we designed multilayer OTP mimicking skin structure, and fabricated OTP models simulating skin-blood vessel and skin pigmentation in the skin, which are useful in Biomedical optics filed. The OTPs were characterized with the optical property and the cross-sectional structure, and analyzed by using various optical tools such as a laser speckle imaging system, OCT and a digital microscope to show the practicality. The measured optical property was within 5% error, and the thickness of each layer was uniform within 10% error in micrometer scale.

Keywords: blood vessel, optical tissue phantom, optical property, skin tissue, pigmentation

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785 Classification of Red, Green and Blue Values from Face Images Using k-NN Classifier to Predict the Skin or Non-Skin

Authors: Kemal Polat

Abstract:

In this study, it has been estimated whether there is skin by using RBG values obtained from the camera and k-nearest neighbor (k-NN) classifier. The dataset used in this study has an unbalanced distribution and a linearly non-separable structure. This problem can also be called a big data problem. The Skin dataset was taken from UCI machine learning repository. As the classifier, we have used the k-NN method to handle this big data problem. For k value of k-NN classifier, we have used as 1. To train and test the k-NN classifier, 50-50% training-testing partition has been used. As the performance metrics, TP rate, FP Rate, Precision, recall, f-measure and AUC values have been used to evaluate the performance of k-NN classifier. These obtained results are as follows: 0.999, 0.001, 0.999, 0.999, 0.999, and 1,00. As can be seen from the obtained results, this proposed method could be used to predict whether the image is skin or not.

Keywords: k-NN classifier, skin or non-skin classification, RGB values, classification

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784 The Effect of Skin to Skin Contact Immediately to Maternal Breastfeeding Self-Efficacy after Cesarean Section

Authors: D. Triana, I. N. Rachmawati, L. Sabri

Abstract:

Maternal breastfeeding self-efficacy is positively associated with increased duration of breastfeeding in different cultures and age groups. This study aims to determine the effect of skin-to-skin contact immediately after the cesarean section on maternal breastfeeding self-efficacy. The research design is Posttest quasi-experimental research design only with control groups involving 52 women with consecutive sampling in Langsa-Aceh. The data collected through breastfeeding Self-Efficacy Scale-Short Form. The results of Independent t-test showed a significant difference in the mean values of maternal breastfeeding self-efficacy in the intervention group and the control group (59.00 ± 6.54; 49.62 ± 7.78; p= 0.001). Skin to skin contact is proven to affect the maternal breastfeeding self-efficacy after cesarean section significantly.

Keywords: breastfeeding self-efficacy, cesarean section, skin to skin contact, immediately

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783 A Convolutional Deep Neural Network Approach for Skin Cancer Detection Using Skin Lesion Images

Authors: Firas Gerges, Frank Y. Shih

Abstract:

Malignant melanoma, known simply as melanoma, is a type of skin cancer that appears as a mole on the skin. It is critical to detect this cancer at an early stage because it can spread across the body and may lead to the patient's death. When detected early, melanoma is curable. In this paper, we propose a deep learning model (convolutional neural networks) in order to automatically classify skin lesion images as malignant or benign. Images underwent certain pre-processing steps to diminish the effect of the normal skin region on the model. The result of the proposed model showed a significant improvement over previous work, achieving an accuracy of 97%.

Keywords: deep learning, skin cancer, image processing, melanoma

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782 Estimating the Effect of Fluid in Pressing Process

Authors: A. Movaghar, R. A. Mahdavinejad

Abstract:

To analyze the effect of various parameters of fluid on the material properties such as surface and depth defects and/or cracks, it is possible to determine the affection of pressure field on these specifications. Stress tensor analysis is also able to determine the points in which the probability of defection creation is more. Besides, from pressure field, it is possible to analyze the affection of various fluid specifications such as viscosity and density on defect created in the material. In this research, the concerned boundary conditions are analyzed first. Then the solution network and stencil used are mentioned. With the determination of relevant equation on the fluid flow between notch and matrix and their discretion according to the governed boundary conditions, these equations can be solved. Finally, with the variation creations on fluid parameters such as density and viscosity, the affection of these variations can be determined on pressure field. In this direction, the flowchart and solution algorithm with their results as vortex and current function contours for two conditions with most applications in pressing process are introduced and discussed.

Keywords: pressing, notch, matrix, flow function, vortex

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781 Quality Rabbit Skin Gelatin with Acetic Acid Extract

Authors: Wehandaka Pancapalaga

Abstract:

This study aimed to analyze the water content, yield, fat content, protein content, viscosity, gel strength, pH, melting and organoleptic rabbit skin gelatin with acetic acid extraction levels are different. The materials used in this study were Rex rabbit skin male. Treatments that P1 = the extraction of acetic acid 2% (v / v); P2 = the extraction of acetic acid 3% (v / v); P3 = the extraction of acetic acid 4 % (v / v). P5 = the extraction of acetic acid 5% (v / v). The results showed that the greater the concentration of acetic acid as the extraction of rabbit skin can reduce the water content and fat content of rabbit skin gelatin but increase the protein content, viscosity, pH, gel strength, yield and melting point rabbit skin gelatin. texture, color and smell of gelatin rabbits there were no differences with cow skin gelatin. The results showed that the quality of rabbit skin gelatin accordance Indonesian National Standard (SNI). Conclusion 5% acetic acid extraction produces the best quality gelatin.

Keywords: gelatin, skin rabbit, acetic acid extraction, quality

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780 Dermatological Study on Risk Factors for Pruritic Skin: Skin Properties of Elderly

Authors: Dianis Wulan Sari, Takeo Minematsu, Mikako Yoshida, Hiromi Sanada

Abstract:

Introduction: Pruritus is diagnosed as itching without macroscopic abnormalities on skin. It is the most skin complaint of elderly people. In the present study, we conducted a dermatological study to examine the risk factors of pruritic skin and predicted how to prevent pruritus especially in the elderly population. Pruritus is caused several types of inflammation, including epidermal innate immunity based on keratinocyte responses and acquired immunity regulated by type 1 or 2 helper T (Th) cells. The triggers of pruritus differ among inflammation types, therefore we did separately assess the pruritus-associated factors of each inflammation type in an effort to contribute to the identification of intervention targets for preventing pruritus. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the factors related with actual condition of pruritic skin by examine the skin properties. Method: This study was conducted in elderly population of Indonesian nursing home. Basic characteristics and behaviors were obtained by interview. The properties of pruritic skin were collected by examination of skin biomarker using skin blotting as novel method of non-invasive skin assessment method and examination of skin barrier function using stratum corneum hydration and skin pH. Result: The average age of participants was 74 years with independent status was 66.8%. Age (β = -0.130, p = 0.044), cumulative lifetime sun exposure (β = 0.145, p = 0.026), bathing duration (β = 0.151, p = 0.022), clothing change frequency (β = 0.135, p = 0.029), and clothing type (β = -0.139, p = 0.021) were risk factors of pruritic skin in multivariate analysis. Conclusion: Risk factors of pruritic skin in elderly population were caused by internal factors such as skin senescence and external factors such as sun exposure, hygiene care and skin care behavior.

Keywords: aging, hygiene care, pruritus, skin care, sun exposure

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779 Skin Diseases in the Rural Areas in Nepal; Impact on Quality of Life

Authors: Dwarika P. Shrestha, Dipendra Gurung, Rushma Shrestha, Inger Rosdahl

Abstract:

Introduction: Skin diseases are one of the most common health problems in Nepal. The objectives of this study are to determine the prevalence of skin diseases and impact on quality of life in rural areas in Nepal. Materials and methods: A house-to-house survey was conducted, to obtain socio-demographic data and identify individuals with skin diseases, followed by health camps, where the villagers were examined. A pilot study was conducted in one village, which was then extended to 10 villages in 4 districts. To assess the impact on quality of life, the villagers were interviewed with Skin Disease Disability Index. This is a questionnaire developed and validated by the authors for use in Nepal. Results: In the pilot study, the overall prevalence of skin diseases was 20.1% (645/3207). In the additional 10 villages with 7348 (3651/3787 m/f) inhabitants, 1862 (721/1141 m/f, mean age 31.4 years) had one or more skin diseases. The overall prevalence of skin diseases was 25%. The most common skin disease categories were eczemas (13.7%, percentage among all inhabitants) pigment disorders (6.8%), fungal infections (4.9%), nevi (3.7%) and urticaria (2.9%). These five most common skin disease categories comprise 71% of all skin diseases seen in the study. The mean skin disease disability index score was 13.7, indicating very large impact on the quality of life. Conclusions: This population-based study shows that skin diseases are very common in the rural areas of Nepal and have significant impact on quality of life. Targeted intervention at the primary health care level should help to reduce the health burden due to skin diseases.

Keywords: prevalence and pattern of skin diseases, impact on quality of life, rural Nepal, interventions

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778 Pufferfish Skin Collagens and Their Role in Inflation

Authors: Kirti, Samanta Sekhar Khora

Abstract:

Inflation serves different purposes in different organisms and adds beauty to their behavioral attributes. Pufferfishes are also known as blowfish, swellfish, and globefish due to their remarkable ability to puff themselves up like a balloon when threatened. This ability to inflate can be correlated with anatomical features that are unique to pufferfishes. Pufferfish skin provides a rigid framework to support the body contents and a flexible covering to allow whatever changes are necessary for remarkable inflation mechanism. Skin, the outer covering of animals is made up of collagen fibers arranged in more or less ordered arrays. The ventral skin of pufferfish stretches more than dorsal skin during inflation. So, this study is of much of the interest in comparing the structure and mechanical properties of these two skin regions. The collagen fibers were found to be arranged in different ordered arrays for ventral and dorsal skin and concentration of fibers were also found to be different for these two skin parts. Scanning electron microscopy studies of the ventral skin showed a unidirectional arrangement of the collagen fibers, which provide more stretching capacity. Dorsal skin, on the other hand, has an orthogonal arrangement of fibers. This provides more stiffness to the ventral skin at the time of inflation. In this study, the possible role of collagen fibers was determined which significantly contributed to the remarkable inflation mechanism of pufferfishes.

Keywords: collagen, histology, inflation, pufferfish, scanning electron microscopy, Small-Angle X-Ray Scattering (SAXS), transmission electron microscopy

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777 Empirical Analysis of the Love Languages in the Context of Relationship Satisfaction, Sexual Satisfaction and Empathy in Romantic Heterosexual Couples

Authors: Olha Mostova, Maciej Stolarski, Gerald Matthews

Abstract:

The present paper explores and tests Gary Chapman’s claims that (1) people vary in the ways they prefer to receive and express affection and (2) romantic partners, who communicate their feelings correspondingly to their partner’s preferences, experience greater relationship quality. The author proposes five distinct preferences for and tendencies to express love, including acts of service, physical touch, words of affirmation, quality time, and gifts. In the present study, partners (N = 100 romantic, heterosexual couples) completed measures assessing their preferences and behavioral tendencies reflecting 1) how they a) tend to express and b) prefer to receive signs of affection in correspondence to the five proposed categories; 2) relationship satisfaction; 3) sexual satisfaction and 4) empathy, which was expected to be the factor that leads to a better understanding of and responding to the partner’s needs. The degree of the within-couple match was calculated separately for each individual based on the discrepancies between one’s felt (preferred) and their partner’s expressed love language. The joint discrepancy indicator was a sum of such discrepancies across the five love languages. Conducted analyses provided evidence for significant associations between matching on love languages and both relationship and sexual satisfaction. In particular, people who expressed their affection in the way their partners preferred to receive it experienced greater satisfaction with their relationships and were more sexually satisfied compared to those who met their partner’s needs to a lesser extent. Other results provide some support for mediating effects of certain domains of empathy in the said associations among male but not female participants.

Keywords: affection, empathy, love languages, relationship satisfaction, romantic couples, sexual satisfaction

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776 Preparation and Characterization of Water-in-Oil Nanoemulsion of 5-Fluorouracil to Enhance Skin Permeation for Treatment of Skin Diseases.

Authors: P. S. Rajinikanth, Shobana Mariappan, Jestin Chellian

Abstract:

The objective of the study was to prepare and characterize a water-in-oil nano emulsion of 5-Fluorouracil (5FU) to enhance the skin penetration. The present study describes a nano emulsion of 5FU using Capyrol PGMC, Transcutol HP and PEG 400 as oil, surfactant and co-surfactant, respectively. The optimized formulations were further evaluated for heating cooling cycle, centrifugation studies, freeze thaw cycling, particle size distribution and zeta potential in order to confirm the stability of the optimized nano emulsions. The in-vitro characterization results showed that the droplets of prepared formulation were ~100 nm with ± 15 zeta potential. In vitro skin permeation studies was conducted in albino mice skin. Significant increase in permeability parameters was also observed in nano emulsion formulations (P<0.05). The steady-state flux (Jss), enhancement ration and permeability coefficient (Kp) for optimized nano emulsion formulation (FU2, FU1, 1:1 S mix were found to be 24.21 ±2.45 μg/cm2/h, 3.28±0.87 & 19.52±1.87 cm/h, respectively), which were significant compared with conventional gel. The in vitro and in vivo skin deposition studies in rat indicated that the amount of drug deposited from the nano emulsion (292.45 µg/cm2) in skin was significant (P<0.05) an increased as compared to a conventional 5FU gel (121.42 µg/cm2). The skin irritation study using rat skin showed that the mean irritation index of the nano emulsion reduced significantly (P<0.05) as compared with conventional gel contain 1% 5FU. The results from this study suggest that a water-in-oil nano emulsion could be safely used to promote skin penetration of 5FU following topical application.

Keywords: nano emulsion, controlled release, 5 fluorouracil, skin penetration, skin irritation

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775 The Effects of Topically-Applied Skin Moisturizer on Striae Gravidarum in East Indian Women

Authors: Dipanshu Sur, Ratnabali Chakravorty

Abstract:

Background: Striae result from rapid expansion of the underlying tissue, e.g. during puberty, pregnancy or rapid weight gain. Prior data indicate that the incidence of stretch marks in Indian women is 77%.The hormonal and genetic factors are associated with their appearance. Recently that has been found skin extensibility, elasticity and rupture were strongly influenced by the water content of dermis and epidermis cells. Objective: The objectives were to assess the effects of topical treatments applied during pregnancy on the later development of stretch marks. Materials and methods: An open, prospective, randomized study was done on 120 pregnant women in whom skin elasticity and hydration as well as striae presence or apparition were measured at baseline and periodically until delivery. Patients were randomly assigned to application in wet skin cream, or in dry skin conditions. Results: The average basal hydration was 42 ±13 IU and the final was 46 ± 6 IU (P = 0.0325; 95% CI: -7.66 to -0.34), which difference was statistically significant. By measuring the moisture in the control region (forearm) a basal reading of 40 ± 9 IU and end of study of 38 ± 6; (p = 0.1547; 95% CI: -0.77 to 4.77) and this difference was considered to be not statistically significant. It was observed that at the end of the study, 55% women without ridges; mild ridges 5%; 36% moderate, and 4%, severe ridges. The proportion of women without grooves was 54% when the cream was applied studied wet skin and 45% when the cream was applied on dry skin. Conclusion: It was shown that cream under study increased hydration and elasticity of abdominal skin consequently in all subjects. This effect is more significant (54%) when the cream is applied to damp skin.

Keywords: striae gravidarum, skin moisturizer, skin hydration, skin elasticity

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774 Clinical Factors of Quality Switched Ruby Laser Therapy for Lentigo Depigmentation

Authors: SunWoo Lee, TaeBum Lee, YoonHwa Park, YooJeong Kim

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Solar lentigines appear predominantly on chronically sun-exposed areas of skin, such as the face and the back of the hands. Among the several ways to lentigines treatment, quality-switched lasers are well-known effective treatment for removing solar lentigines. The present pilot study was therefore designed to assess the efficacy of quality-switched ruby laser treatment of such lentigines compare between pretreatment and posttreatment of skin brightness. Twenty-two adults with chronic sun-damaged skin (mean age 52.8 years, range 37–74 years) were treated at the Korean site. A 694 nm Q-switched ruby laser was used, with the energy density set from 1.4 to 12.5 J/cm2, to treat solar lentigines. Average brightness of skin color before ruby laser treatment was 137.3 and its skin color was brightened after ruby laser treatment by 150.5. Also, standard deviation of skin color was decreased from 17.8 to 16.4. Regarding the multivariate model, age and energy were identified as significant factors for skin color brightness change in lentigo depigmentation by ruby laser treatment. Their respective odds ratios were 1.082 (95% CI, 1.007–1.163), and 1.431 (95% CI, 1.051–1.946). Lentigo depigmentation treatment using ruby lasers resulted in a high performance in skin color brightness. Among the relative factors involve with ruby laser treatment, age and energy were the most effective factors which skin color change to brighter than pretreatment.

Keywords: depigmentation, lentigine, quality switched ruby laser, skin color

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773 How to Prevent From Skin Complications in Diabetes Type 2 in View Point of Student of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences

Authors: Zahra Abdi, Roghayeh Alipour, Babak Farahi Ghasraboonasr

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Introduction: Diabetes is a serious medical condition that requires constant care. People with type 2 diabetes may also be likely to experience dry, itchy skin and poor wound healing. Some people with diabetes will have a skin problems at some time in their lives and for those not yet diagnosed with diabetes, a skin problem can be an indication of the disease. our purpose was to assess the capability and knowledge of students of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences about prevent from skin complications in diabetes type 2. Methods: In this descriptive cross-sectional study, knowledge of 360 students of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences was evaluated about different ways to avoid skin complications in diabetes type 2. Data were analyzed by spss19.(P<0.05) was considered significant. Results: 360 students of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences participated in this study. 45% of students agree with the effect of Moisturize skin daily, If Diabetics have sensitive skin, choose a fragrance-free, dye-free moisturizer that won’t irritate skin. 52% believe that Protect skin from sun can be so useful, Sun exposure is drying and aging. Use sunscreen with SPF 30 or higher whenever you’re outside. Wear gloves when doing yardwork to protect the skin on your hands. 62% of students strongly agree with Carefully clean any cuts and scrapes, If diabetics notice any sign of infection skin that’s red, swollen, or warm to the touch, or has a foul-smelling drainage or pus should consulting with a doctor immediately. Diabetics should be careful about any injury that takes longer than normal to heal and they should consulting with doctor about them too. 72% of students believe that diabetics should be diligent about daily foot care. Clean and moisturize feet each day and check each foot closely, top and bottom, for wounds even a tiny cut, blisters, or cracked skin. Conclusions: The risk of getting these diabetes complications can be lessened by controlling blood sugar. Skin complications can cause serious consequences. Taking care of skin is so important and using these tips are remarkable effective and help diabetics to look after their skin easier.

Keywords: skin complications, diabetes type 2, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, diabetics

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772 Histamine Skin Reactivity Increased with Body Mass Index in Korean Children

Authors: Jeong Hong Kim, Ju Wan Kang

Abstract:

Objective: Histamine skin prick testing is most commonly used to diagnose immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated allergic diseases, and histamine reactivity is used as a standardized positive control in the interpretation of a skin prick test. However, reactivity to histamine differs among individuals for reasons that are poorly understood. The present study aimed to evaluate the potential association between body mass index (BMI) and histamine skin reactivity in children. Methods: A total of 451 children (246 boys, 205 girls) aged 7–8 years were enrolled in this study. The skin prick test was performed with 26 aeroallergens commonly found in Korea. Other information was collected, including sex, age, BMI, parental allergy history, and parental smoking status. Multivariate analysis was used to confirm the association between histamine skin reactivity and BMI. Results: The histamine wheal size was revealed to be associated with BMI (Spearman's Rho 0.161, p < 0.001). This association was confirmed by multivariate analysis, after adjusting for sex, age, parental allergy history, parental smoking status, and allergic sensitization (coefficient B 0.071, 95% confidence interval 0.030–0.112). Conclusions: Skin responses to histamine were primarily correlated with increased BMI. Further studies are needed to understand the clinical implication of BMI when interpreting the results of skin prick test.

Keywords: allergy, body mass index, histamine, skin prick test

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771 Rearrangement and Depletion of Human Skin Folate after UVA Exposure

Authors: Luai Z. Hasoun, Steven W. Bailey, Kitti K. Outlaw, June E. Ayling

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Human skin color is thought to have evolved to balance sufficient photochemical synthesis of vitamin D versus the need to protect not only DNA but also folate from degradation by ultraviolet light (UV). Although the risk of DNA damage and subsequent skin cancer is related to light skin color, the effect of UV on skin folate of any species is unknown. Here we show that UVA irradiation at 13 mW/cm2 for a total exposure of 187 J/cm2 (similar to a maximal daily equatorial dose) induced a significant loss of total folate in epidermis of ex vivo white skin. No loss was observed in black skin samples, or in the dermis of either color. Interestingly, while the concentration of 5 methyltetrahydrofolate (5-MTHF) fell in white epidermis, a concomitant increase of tetrahydrofolic acid was found, though not enough to maintain the total pool. These results demonstrate that UVA indeed not only decreases folate in skin, but also rearranges the pool components. This could be due in part to the reported increase of NADPH oxidase activity upon UV irradiation, which in turn depletes the NADPH needed for 5-MTHF biosynthesis by 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase. The increased tetrahydrofolic acid might further support production of the nucleotide bases needed for DNA repair. However, total folate was lost at a rate that could, with strong or continuous enough exposure to ultraviolet radiation, substantially deplete light colored skin locally, and also put pressure on total body stores for individuals with low intake of folate.

Keywords: depletion, folate, human skin, ultraviolet

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770 Fabrication and Characterization of Transdermal Spray Using Film Forming Polymer

Authors: Paresh Patel, Harshit Patel

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Superficial fungal skin infection is among the most common skin disease. The drug administration through skin has received attention due to several advantages: Avoidance of significant pre-systemic metabolism, drug levels within the therapeutic window, drugs with short biological half-lives, decreased side effects, the non-invasive character, and very high acceptance.

Keywords: transdermal spray, ketoconazole, Eudragit® RLPO, therapeutic window

Procedia PDF Downloads 275
769 Conjugated Chitosan-Carboxymethyl-5-Fluorouracil Nanoparticles for Skin Delivery

Authors: Mazita Mohd Diah, Anton V. Dolzhenko, Tin Wui Wong

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Nanoparticles, being small with a large specific surface area, increase solubility, enhance bioavailability, improve controlled release and enable precision targeting of the entrapped compounds. In this study, chitosan as polymeric permeation enhancer was conjugated to a polar pro-drug, carboxymethyl-5-fluorouracil (CMFU) to increase the skin drug permeation. Chitosan-CMFU conjugate was synthesized using chemical conjugation process through succinate linker. It was then transformed into nanoparticles via spray drying method. The conjugation was elucidated using Fourier Transform Infrared and Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance techniques. The nanoparticle size, size distribution, zeta potential, drug content, skin permeation and retention profiles were characterized. The conjugation was denoted using 1H NMR by new peaks at signal δ = 4.184 ppm (singlet, 2H for CH2) and 7.676-7.688 ppm (doublet, 1H for C6) attributed to CMFU in chitosan-CMFU NMR spectrum. The nanoparticles had profiles of particle size: 93.97 ±35.11 nm, polydispersity index: 0.40 ± 0.14, zeta potential: +18.25 ±2.95 mV and drug content: 6.20 ± 1.98 % w/w. Almost 80 % w/w CMFU in the form of nanoparticles permeated through the skin in 24 hours and close to 50 % w/w permeation occurred in first 1-2 hours. Without conjugation to chitosan and nanoparticulation, less than 40 % w/w CMFU permeated through the skin in 24 hours. The skin drug retention likewise was higher with chitosan-CMFU nanoparticles (15.34 ± 5.82 % w/w) than CMFU (2.24 ± 0.57 % w/w). CMFU, through conjugation with chitosan permeation enhancer and processed in nanogeometry, had its skin permeation and retention degree promoted.

Keywords: carboxymethyl-5-fluorouracil, chitosan, conjugate, skin permeation, skin retention

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768 Histopathological Spectrum of Skin Lesions in the Elderly: Experience from a Tertiary Hospital in Southeast Nigeria

Authors: Ndukwe, Chinedu O.

Abstract:

Background: There are only a few epidemiological studies published on skin disorders in the elderly within the Nigerian context and none from the Southeast Region of the country. In addition, none of these studies has considered the pattern and frequency of histopathologically diagnosed geriatric skin lesions. Hence, we attempted to determine the frequency as well as the age and gender distributions of histologically diagnosed dermatological diseases in the geriatric population from skin biopsies submitted to the histopathology department of a tertiary care hospital in Southeast Nigeria. Material and methods: This is a cross-sectional retrospective hospital-based study involving all skin biopsies of patients 60 years and above, received at the Department of Histopathology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi, Nigeria from January 2004 to December 2019. Results: During the study period, 751 skin biopsies were received in the histopathology department. Of these, 142 were from patients who were older than 60 years. Thus, the overall share of geriatric patients was 18.9%. The mean age at presentation was 71.1 ± 8.6 years. The M: F was 1:1 and most of the patients belonged to the age group of 60–69 years (69 cases, 48.6%). The mean age of the male patients was 72.1±9.5 years. In the female patients, it was 70.1±7.5 years. The commonest disease category was neoplasms (91, 64.1%). Most neoplasms were malignant. There were 67/142 (47.2%) malignant lesions. Commonest was Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) (30 cases) which is 21.1% of all geriatric skin biopsies and 44.8% of malignant skin biopsies. This is closely followed by melanoma (29 cases). Conclusion: Malignant neoplasms, benign neoplasms and papulosquamous disorders are the three commonest histologically diagnosed skin lesions in our geriatric population. The commonest skin malignancies in this group of patients are squamous cell carcinoma and malignant melanoma.

Keywords: geriatric, skin, Nigeria, histopathology

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767 Utilization of Soymilk Residue for Wheat Flour Substitution in Gyoza skin

Authors: Naruemon Prapasuwannakul

Abstract:

Soy milk residue is obtained as a byproduct from soy milk and tofu production with little economic value. It contains high protein and fiber as well as various minerals and phyto-chemical compounds. The objective of this research was to substitute soy milk residue for wheat flour in gyoza skin in order to enhance value of soy milk residue and increase protein and fiber content of gyoza skin. Wheat flour was replaced with soy milk residue from 0 to 40%. The soy milk residue prepared in this research contains 26.92% protein, 3.58% fiber, 2.88% lipid, 6.29% ash and 60.33% carbohydrate. The results showed that increasing soy milk residue decreased lightness (L*value), tensile strength and sensory attributes but increased redness (a*), yellowness (b*), protein and fiber contents of product. The result also showed that the gyoza skin substituted with 30% soy milk residue was the most acceptable (p≤0.05) and its protein and fiber content increased up to 45 % and 867 % respectively.

Keywords: Gyoza skin, sensory, soymilk residue, wheat flour

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766 An Image Processing Scheme for Skin Fungal Disease Identification

Authors: A. A. M. A. S. S. Perera, L. A. Ranasinghe, T. K. H. Nimeshika, D. M. Dhanushka Dissanayake, Namalie Walgampaya

Abstract:

Nowadays, skin fungal diseases are mostly found in people of tropical countries like Sri Lanka. A skin fungal disease is a particular kind of illness caused by fungus. These diseases have various dangerous effects on the skin and keep on spreading over time. It becomes important to identify these diseases at their initial stage to control it from spreading. This paper presents an automated skin fungal disease identification system implemented to speed up the diagnosis process by identifying skin fungal infections in digital images. An image of the diseased skin lesion is acquired and a comprehensive computer vision and image processing scheme is used to process the image for the disease identification. This includes colour analysis using RGB and HSV colour models, texture classification using Grey Level Run Length Matrix, Grey Level Co-Occurrence Matrix and Local Binary Pattern, Object detection, Shape Identification and many more. This paper presents the approach and its outcome for identification of four most common skin fungal infections, namely, Tinea Corporis, Sporotrichosis, Malassezia and Onychomycosis. The main intention of this research is to provide an automated skin fungal disease identification system that increase the diagnostic quality, shorten the time-to-diagnosis and improve the efficiency of detection and successful treatment for skin fungal diseases.

Keywords: Circularity Index, Grey Level Run Length Matrix, Grey Level Co-Occurrence Matrix, Local Binary Pattern, Object detection, Ring Detection, Shape Identification

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765 Anatomical, Light and Scanning Electron Microscopical Study of Ostrich (Struthio camelus) Integument

Authors: Samir El-Gendy, Doaa Zaghloul

Abstract:

The current study dealt with the gross and microscopic anatomy of the integument of male ostrich in addition to the histological features of different areas of skin by light and SEM. The ostrich skin is characterized by prominent feather follicles and bristles. The number of feather follicles was determined per cm2 in different regions. The integument of ostrich had many modifications which appeared as callosities and scales, nail and toe pads. They were sternal, pubic and Achilles tendon callosities. The vacuolated epidermal cells were seen mainly in the skin of legs and to a lesser extent in the skin of back and Achilles areas. Higher lipogenic potential was expressed by epidermis from glabrous areas of ostrich skin. The dermal papillae were found in the skin of feathered area of neck and back and this was not a common finding in bird's skin which may give resistance against shearing forces in these regions of ostrich skin. The thickness of the keratin layer of ostrich varied, being thick and characteristically loose in the skin at legs, very thin and wavy at neck, while at Achilles skin area, scale and toe pad were thick and more compact, with the thickest very dense and wavy keratin layer at the nail. The dermis consisted of superficial layer of dense irregular connective tissue characterized by presence of many vacuoles of different sizes just under the basal lamina of the epithelium of epidermis and deep layer of dense regular connective tissue. This result suggested presence of fat droplets in this layer which may be to overcome the lack of good barrier of cutaneous water loss in epidermis.

Keywords: ostrich, light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, integument, skin modifications

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764 The Impact of a Model's Skin Tone and Ethnic Identification on Consumer Decision Making

Authors: Shanika Y. Koreshi

Abstract:

Sri Lanka housed the lingerie product development and manufacturing subsidiary to renowned brands such as La Senza, Marks & Spencer, H&M, Etam, Lane Bryant, and George. Over the last few years, they have produced local brands such as Amante to cater to the local and regional customers. Past research has identified factors such as quality, price, and design to be vital when marketing lingerie to consumers. However, there has been minimum research that looks into the ethnically targeted market and skin colour within the Asian population. Therefore, the main aim of the research was to identify whether consumer preference for lingerie is influenced by the skin tone of the model wearing it. Moreover, the secondary aim was to investigate if the consumer preference for lingerie is influenced by the consumer’s ethnic identification with the skin tone of the model. An experimental design was used to explore the above aims. The participants constituted of 66 females residing in the western province of Sri Lanka and were gathered via convenience sampling. Six computerized images of a real model were used in the study, and her skin tone was digitally manipulated to express three different skin tones (light, tan and dark). Consumer preferences were measured through a ranking order scale that was constructed via a focus group discussion and ethnic identity was measured by the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure-Revised. Wilcoxon signed-rank test, Friedman test, and chi square test of independence were carried out using SPSS version 20. The results indicated that majority of the consumers ethnically identified and preferred the tan skin over the light and dark skin tones. The findings support the existing literature that states there is a preference among consumers when models have a medium skin tone over a lighter skin tone. The preference for a tan skin tone in a model is consistent with the ethnic identification of the Sri Lankan sample. The study implies that lingerie brands should consider the model's skin tones when marketing the brand to different ethnic backgrounds.

Keywords: consumer preference, ethnic identification, lingerie, skin tone

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763 Substantiate the Effects of Reactive Dyes and Aloe Vera on the Ultra Violet Protective Properties on Cotton Woven and Knitted Fabrics

Authors: Neha Singh

Abstract:

The incidence of skin cancer has been rising worldwide due to excessive exposure to sun light. Climatic changes and depletion of ozone layer allow the easy entry of UV rays on earth, resulting skin damages such as sunburn, premature skin ageing, allergies and skin cancer. Researches have suggested many modes for protection of human skin against ultraviolet radiation; avoidance to outdoor activities, using textiles for covering the skin, sunscreen and sun glasses. However, this paper gives an insight about how textile material specially woven and knitted cotton can be efficiently utilized for protecting human skin from the harmful ultraviolet radiations by combining reactive dyes with Aloe Vera. Selection of the fabric was based on their utility and suitability as per the climate condition of the country for the upper and lower garment. A standard dyeing process was used, and Aloe Vera molecules were applied by in-micro encapsulation technique. After combining vat dyes with Aloe Vera excellent UPF (Ultra violet Protective Factor) was observed. There is a significant change in the UPF of vat dyed cotton fabric after treatment with Aloe Vera.

Keywords: UV protection, aloe vera, protective clothing, reactive dyes, cotton, woven and knits

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