Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 280

Search results for: depletion

280 Depletion Layer Parameters of Al-MoO3-P-CdTe-Al MOS Structures

Authors: A. C. Sarmah


The Al-MoO3-P-CdTe-Al MOS sandwich structures were fabricated by vacuum deposition method on cleaned glass substrates. Capacitance versus voltage measurements were performed at different frequencies and sweep rates of applied voltages for oxide and semiconductor films of different thicknesses. In the negative voltage region of the C-V curve a high differential capacitance of the semiconductor was observed and at high frequencies (<10 kHz) the transition from accumulation to depletion and further to deep depletion was observed as the voltage was swept from negative to positive. A study have been undertaken to determine the value of acceptor density and some depletion layer parameters such as depletion layer capacitance, depletion width, impurity concentration, flat band voltage, Debye length, flat band capacitance, diffusion or built-in-potential, space charge per unit area etc. These were determined from C-V measurements for different oxide and semiconductor thicknesses.

Keywords: debye length, depletion width, flat band capacitance, impurity concentration

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279 Perspectives of Renewable Energy in 21st Century in India: Statistics and Estimation

Authors: Manoj Kumar, Rajesh Kumar


With the favourable geographical conditions at Indian-subcontinent, it is suitable for flourishing renewable energy. Increasing amount of dependence on coal and other conventional sources is driving the world into pollution and depletion of resources. This paper presents the statistics of energy consumption and energy generation in Indian Sub-continent, which notifies us with the increasing energy demands surpassing energy generation. With the aggrandizement in demand for energy, usage of coal has increased, since the major portion of energy production in India is from thermal power plants. The increase in usage of thermal power plants causes pollution and depletion of reserves; hence, a paradigm shift to renewable sources is inevitable. In this work, the capacity and potential of renewable sources in India are analyzed. Based on the analysis of this work, future potential of these sources is estimated.

Keywords: depletion of reserves, energy consumption and generation, emmissions, global warming, renewable sources

Procedia PDF Downloads 345
278 Endothelial Progenitor Cell Biology in Ankylosing Spondylitis

Authors: Ashit Syngle, Inderjit Verma, Pawan Krishan


Aim: Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are unique populations which have reparative potential in overcoming the endothelial damage and reducing cardiovascular risk. Patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) have increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to investigate the endothelial progenitor cell population in AS patients and its potential relationships with disease variables. Methods: Endothelial progenitor cells were measured in peripheral blood samples from 20 AS and 20 healthy controls by flow cytometry on the basis of CD34 and CD133 expression. Disease activity was evaluated by using Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI). Functional ability was monitored by using Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI). Results: EPCs were depleted in AS patients as compared to the healthy controls (CD34+/CD133+: 0.027 ± 0.010 % vs. 0.044 ± 0.011 %, p<0.001). EPCs depletion were significantly associated with disease duration (r=-0.52, p=0.01) and BASDAI (r=-0.45, p=0.04). Conclusion: This is the first study to demonstrate endothelial progenitor cells depletion in AS patients. EPCs depletion inversely correlates with disease duration and disease activity, suggesting the pivotal role of inflammation in depletion of EPCs. EPC would possibly also serve as a therapeutic target for preventing cardiovascular disease in AS.

Keywords: ankylosing spondylitis, endothelial progenitor cells, inflammation, vascular damage

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277 AC Electro-Kinetics, Bipolar Current and Concentration-Polarization in a Microchannel-Nafion Membrane System

Authors: Sinwook Park, Gilad Yossifon


The presence of a floating electrode array located within the depletion layer formed due to concentration-polarization (CP) across a microchannel-membrane device, produces not only induced-charge electro-osmosis (ICEO) vortex and but also a bipolar current resulting from faradaic reactions. It has been shown that there exists an optimal SiO2 layer thickness of ~50nm which is sufficient to suppress bipolar currents (at least up to 5V applied voltage) but still enables ICEO vortices that stir the depletion layer, thereby affecting its I-V response. This effect is pronounced beyond the limiting current where the existence of the depletion layer results in increased local electric field due to decreased solution conductivity. This comprehensive study of the interaction of embedded electrodes with the induced CP in microchannel-perm selective medium systems, allows one to choose the thickness of the thin dielectric coating to either enhance the mixing as a means to control the diffuse layer, or suppress it, for example, in the case where electrodes are intended for local measurements of the solution conductivity with minimal invasion. In addition, the use of alternating-current electro-osmosis by activating electrodes results in further enhancement of the fluid stirring and opens new routes for on-demand spatiotemporal control of the CP length. In addition, the use of embedded heaters within the depletion layer generates electro-thermal vortices that in turn also control the CP length.

Keywords: AC electrokinetics, microchannel, concentration-polarization, bipolar current

Procedia PDF Downloads 190
276 Conservation of Energy in Households in Urban Areas in India

Authors: Aashee Garg, Anusha Agarwal


India, as a country is very rich in terms of natural resources however as citizens, we have not respected this fact and have been continuously exploiting nature’s gift to mankind. Further as the population is ever increasing, the load on the consumption of resources is unprecedented. This has led to the depletion of natural resources such as coal, oil, gas etc., apart from the pollution it causes. It is time that we shift from use of these conventional resources to more effective new ways of energy generation. We should develop and encourage usage of renewable resources such as wind and solar in households to conserve energy in place of the above mentioned nonrenewable energy sources. This paper deals with the most effective ways in which the households in India can conserve energy thus reducing effect on environment and depletion of limited resources.

Keywords: energy consumption, resources, India, renewable resources and environment

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275 Comparative Evaluation of Root Uptake Models for Developing Moisture Uptake Based Irrigation Schedules for Crops

Authors: Vijay Shankar


In the era of water scarcity, effective use of water via irrigation requires good methods for determining crop water needs. Implementation of irrigation scheduling programs requires an accurate estimate of water use by the crop. Moisture depletion from the root zone represents the consequent crop evapotranspiration (ET). A numerical model for simulating soil water depletion in the root zone has been developed by taking into consideration soil physical properties, crop and climatic parameters. The governing differential equation for unsaturated flow of water in the soil is solved numerically using the fully implicit finite difference technique. The water uptake by plants is simulated by using three different sink functions. The non-linear model predictions are in good agreement with field data and thus it is possible to schedule irrigations more effectively. The present paper describes irrigation scheduling based on moisture depletion from the different layers of the root zone, obtained using different sink functions for three cash, oil and forage crops: cotton, safflower and barley, respectively. The soil is considered at a moisture level equal to field capacity prior to planting. Two soil moisture regimes are then imposed for irrigated treatment, one wherein irrigation is applied whenever soil moisture content is reduced to 50% of available soil water; and other wherein irrigation is applied whenever soil moisture content is reduced to 75% of available soil water. For both the soil moisture regimes it has been found that the model incorporating a non-linear sink function which provides best agreement of computed root zone moisture depletion with field data, is most effective in scheduling irrigations. Simulation runs with this moisture uptake function result in saving 27.3 to 45.5% & 18.7 to 37.5%, 12.5 to 25% % &16.7 to 33.3% and 16.7 to 33.3% & 20 to 40% irrigation water for cotton, safflower and barley respectively, under 50 & 75% moisture depletion regimes over other moisture uptake functions considered in the study. Simulation developed can be used for an optimized irrigation planning for different crops, choosing a suitable soil moisture regime depending upon the irrigation water availability and crop requirements.

Keywords: irrigation water, evapotranspiration, root uptake models, water scarcity

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274 Investigation of Minor Actinide-Contained Thorium Fuel Impacts on CANDU-Type Reactor Neutronics Using Computational Method

Authors: S. A. H. Feghhi, Z. Gholamzadeh, Z. Alipoor, C. Tenreiro


Currently, thorium fuel has been especially noticed because of its proliferation resistance than long half-life alpha emitter minor actinides, breeding capability in fast and thermal neutron flux and mono-isotopic naturally abundant. In recent years, efficiency of minor actinide burning up in PWRs has been investigated. Hence, a minor actinide-contained thorium based fuel matrix can confront both proliferation resistance and nuclear waste depletion aims. In the present work, minor actinide depletion rate in a CANDU-type nuclear core modeled using MCNP code has been investigated. The obtained effects of minor actinide load as mixture of thorium fuel matrix on the core neutronics has been studiedwith comparingpresence and non-presence of minor actinide component in the fuel matrix.Depletion rate of minor actinides in the MA-contained fuel has been calculated using different power loads.According to the obtained computational data, minor actinide loading in the modeled core results in more negative reactivity coefficients. The MA-contained fuel achieves less radial peaking factor in the modeled core. The obtained computational results showed 140 kg of 464 kg initial load of minor actinide has been depleted in during a 6-year burn up in 10 MW power.

Keywords: minor actinide burning, CANDU-type reactor, MCNPX code, neutronic parameters

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273 Carbon Sequestering and Structural Capabilities of Eucalyptus Cloeziana

Authors: Holly Sandberg, Christina McCoy, Khaled Mansy


Eucalyptus Cloeziana, commonly known as Gympie Messmate, is a fast-growing hardwood native to Australia. Its quick growth makes it advantageous for carbon sequestering, while its strength class lends itself to structural applications. Market research shows that the demand for timber is growing, especially mass timber. An environmental product declaration, or EPD, for eucalyptus Cloeziana in the Australian market has been evaluated and compared to the EPD’s of steel and Douglas fir of the same region. An EPD follows a product throughout its life cycle, stating values for global warming potential, ozone depletion potential, acidification potential, eutrophication potential, photochemical ozone creation potential, and abiotic depletion potential. This paper highlights the market potential, as well as the environmental benefits and challenges to using Gympie Messmate as a structural building material. In addition, a case study is performed to compare steel, Douglas fir, and eucalyptus in terms of embodied carbon and structural weight within a single structural bay. Comparisons among the three materials highlight both the differences in structural capabilities as well as environmental impact.

Keywords: eucalyptus, timber, construction, structural, material

Procedia PDF Downloads 90
272 Genetic Algorithm Based Node Fault Detection and Recovery in Distributed Sensor Networks

Authors: N. Nalini, Lokesh B. Bhajantri


In Distributed Sensor Networks, the sensor nodes are prone to failure due to energy depletion and some other reasons. In this regard, fault tolerance of network is essential in distributed sensor environment. Energy efficiency, network or topology control and fault-tolerance are the most important issues in the development of next-generation Distributed Sensor Networks (DSNs). This paper proposes a node fault detection and recovery using Genetic Algorithm (GA) in DSN when some of the sensor nodes are faulty. The main objective of this work is to provide fault tolerance mechanism which is energy efficient and responsive to network using GA, which is used to detect the faulty nodes in the network based on the energy depletion of node and link failure between nodes. The proposed fault detection model is used to detect faults at node level and network level faults (link failure and packet error). Finally, the performance parameters for the proposed scheme are evaluated.

Keywords: distributed sensor networks, genetic algorithm, fault detection and recovery, information technology

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271 Amelioration of Arsenic and Mercury Induced Vasoconstriction by Eugenol, Linalool and Carvone

Authors: Swati Kundu, Seemi Farhat Basir, Luqman A. Khan


Acute and chronic exposure to arsenic and mercury is known to produce vasoconstriction. Pathways involved in this hypercontraction and their relative contribution are not understood. In this study, we measure agonist-induced contraction of isolated rat aorta exposed to arsenic and mercury aorta and delineate pathways mediating this effect. PE-induced hypercontraction of 37% and 32% was obtained with 25 µM As(III) and 6 nM Hg(II), respectively. Isometric contraction measurements in the presence of apocynin, verapamil and sodium nitroprusside indicates that the major cause of increased contraction is reactive oxygen species and depletion of nitric oxide. Calcium influx plays a minor role in both arsenic and mercury caused hypercontraction. In the unexposed aorta, eugenol causes relaxation by inhibiting ROS and elevating NO, linalool by blocking voltage dependent calcium channel (VDCC) and elevating NO, and carvone by blocking calcium influx through VDDC. Since arsenic and mercury caused hypercontraction is mediated by increased ROS and depletion of nitric oxide, we hypothesize that molecules which neutralize ROS or elevate NO will be better ameliorators. In line with this argument, we find eugenol to be the best ameliorator of arsenic and mercury hypercontraction followed by linalool and carvone.

Keywords: carvone, eugenol, linalool, mercury

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270 Effect of Nutrient Limitations in Phycocyanin Formation by Spirulina platensis

Authors: Hugo F. Lobaton


The cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis is a prokaryotic photoautotrophic microorganism that is successfully cultivated for the commercialization as whole biomass due to its high protein content and promising valuable substance. For instance, phycocyanin has recently drawn the interest of the food and cosmetic industries due to its bright blue colour and its strong antioxidant capacities. The phycocyanin (PC) is the main protein-pigment in S. platensis (4% to 20%). In batches, the rate of overproduction of metabolites by cyanobacteria is limited or activated by the depletion of required substrates. The aim of this study was to develop a kinetic law that describes phycocyanin formation during batch cultivation. S. platensis was cultivated in 1 L bubble column photobioreactor with 30°C and 700 µmol m⁻² s⁻¹. Culture samples were daily collected from the bubble columns in sterile conditions. The biomass (g l⁻¹) was measured directly after a biomass lyophilisation process, and phycocyanin extractions and measurements were done according to a well-established protocol. A kinetic law for phycocyanin formation that includes nitrate and bicarbonate limitations was proposed and linked to the biomass core model. The set of differential equations were solved in MATLAB. Concerning to product formation, the experimental results show that phycocyanin mass fraction is degraded as results of the complete nitrate depletion and nitrate additions during the cultivation help to keep constant this molecule until new macro-element limitation appear. According to the model, bicarbonate is this limitation.

Keywords: phycocyanin, nitrate, bicarbonate, spirulina

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269 Effect of Land Use and Abandonment on Soil Carbon and Nitrogen Depletion by Runoff in Shallow Soils under Semi-Arid Mediterranean Climate

Authors: Mohamed Emran, Giovanni Pardini, Maria Gispert, Mohamed Rashad


Land use and abandonment in semi-arid degraded ecosystems may cause regressive dynamics in vegetation cover affecting organic matter contents, soil nutrients and structural stability, thus reducing soil resistance to erosion. Mediterranean areas are generally subjected to climatic fluctuations, which modify soil conditions and hydrological processes, such as runoff and water infiltration within the upper soil horizons. Low erosion rates occur in very fragile and shallow soils with minor clay content progressively decrease organic carbon C and nitrogen N pools in the upper soil horizons. Seven soils were selected representing variant context of land use and abandonment at the Cap de Creus Peninsula, Catalonia, NE Spain, from recent cultivated vines and olive groves, mid abandoned forests standing under cork and pine trees, pasture to late abandoned Cistus and Erica scrubs. The aim of this work was to study the effect of changes in land use and abandonment on the depletion of soil organic carbon and nitrogen transported by runoff water in shallow soils after natural rainfall events during two years with different rainfall patterns (1st year with low rainfall and 2nd year with high rainfall) by i) monitoring the most significant soil erosion parameters at recorded rainfall events, ii) studying the most relevant soil physical and chemical characteristics on seasonal basis and iii) analysing the seasonal trends of depleted carbon and nitrogen and their interaction with soil surface compaction parameters. Significant seasonal variability was observed in the relevant soil physical and chemical parameters and soil erosion parameters in all soils to establish their evolution under land use and abandonment during two years of different rainfall patterns (214 and 487 mm per year), giving important indications on soil response to rainfall impacts. Erosion rates decreased significantly with the increasing of soil C and N under low and high rainfall. In cultivated soils, C and N depletion increased by 144% and 115%, respectively by 13% increase in erosion rates during the 1st year with respect to the 2nd year. Depleted C and N were proportionally higher in soils under vines and olive with vulnerable soil structure and low soil resilience leading to degradation, altering nutrients cycles and causing adverse impact on environmental quality. Statistical analysis underlined that, during the 1st year, soil surface was less effective in preserving stocks of organic resources leading to higher susceptibility to erosion with consequent C and N depletion. During the 2nd year, higher organic reserve and water storage occurred despite the increasing of C and N loss with an effective contribution from soil surface compaction parameters. The overall estimation during the two years indicated clear differences among soils under vines, olive, cork and pines, suggesting on the one hand, that current cultivation practices are inappropriate and that reforestation with pines may delay the achievement of better soil conditions. On the other hand, the natural succession of vegetation under Cistus, pasture and Erica suggests the recovery of good soil conditions.

Keywords: land abandonment, land use, nutrient's depletion, soil erosion

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268 Therapeutic Efficacy and Safety Profile of Tolvaptan Administered in Hyponatremia Patients

Authors: Sree Vennela P., V. Samyuktha Bhardwaj


Hyponatremia is an electrolyte disturbance in which the sodium ion concentration in the serum is lower than normal. Sodium is the dominant extracellular cation (positive ion) and cannot freely cross from the interstitial space through the cell membrane, into the cell. Its homeostasis (stability of concentration) inside the cell is vital to the normal function of any cell. Normal serum sodium levels are between 135 and 145 mEq/L. Hyponatremia is defined as a serum level of less than 135 mEq/L and is considered severe when the serum level is below 125 mEq/L. In the vast majority of cases, Hyponatremia occurs as a result of excess body water diluting the serum sodium (salt level in the blood). Hyponatremia is often a complication of other medical illnesses in which excess water accumulates in the body at a higher rate than can be excreted (for example in congestive heart failure, syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone, SIADH, or polydipsia). Sometimes it may be a result of over-hydration (drinking too much water).Lack of sodium (salt) is very rarely the cause of Hyponatremia, although it can promote Hyponatremia indirectly. In particular, sodium loss can lead to a state of volume depletion (loss of blood volume in the body), with volume depletion serving as a signal for the release of ADH (anti-diuretic hormone). As a result of ADH-stimulated water retention (too much water in the body), blood sodium becomes diluted and Hyponatremia results.

Keywords: Tolvaptan, hyponatremia, syndrome of insufficient anti diuretic hormone (SIADH), euvolemic hyponatremia

Procedia PDF Downloads 200
267 Phase Behavior Modelling of Libyan Near-Critical Gas-Condensate Field

Authors: M. Khazam, M. Altawil, A. Eljabri


Fluid properties in states near a vapor-liquid critical region are the most difficult to measure and to predict with EoS models. The principal model difficulty is that near-critical property variations do not follow the same mathematics as at conditions far away from the critical region. Libyan NC98 field in Sirte basin is a typical example of near critical fluid characterized by high initial condensate gas ratio (CGR) greater than 160 bbl/MMscf and maximum liquid drop-out of 25%. The objective of this paper is to model NC98 phase behavior with the proper selection of EoS parameters and also to model reservoir depletion versus gas cycling option using measured PVT data and EoS Models. The outcomes of our study revealed that, for accurate gas and condensate recovery forecast during depletion, the most important PVT data to match are the gas phase Z-factor and C7+ fraction as functions of pressure. Reasonable match, within -3% error, was achieved for ultimate condensate recovery at abandonment pressure of 1500 psia. The smooth transition from gas-condensate to volatile oil was fairly simulated by the tuned PR-EoS. The predicted GOC was approximately at 14,380 ftss. The optimum gas cycling scheme, in order to maximize condensate recovery, should not be performed at pressures less than 5700 psia. The contribution of condensate vaporization for such field is marginal, within 8% to 14%, compared to gas-gas miscible displacement. Therefore, it is always recommended, if gas recycle scheme to be considered for this field, to start it at the early stage of field development.

Keywords: EoS models, gas-condensate, gas cycling, near critical fluid

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266 Environmental Cost and Benefits Analysis of Different Electricity Option: A Case Study of Kuwait

Authors: Mohammad Abotalib, Hamid Alhamadi


In Kuwait, electricity is generated from two primary sources that are heavy fuel combustion and natural gas combustion. As Kuwait relies mainly on petroleum-based products for electricity generation, identifying and understanding the environmental trade-off of such operations should be carefully investigated. The life cycle assessment (LCA) tool is applied to identify the potential environmental impact of electricity generation under three scenarios by considering the material flow in various stages involved, such as raw-material extraction, transportation, operations, and waste disposal. The three scenarios investigated represent current and futuristic electricity grid mixes. The analysis targets six environmental impact categories: (1) global warming potential (GWP), (2) acidification potential (AP), (3) water depletion (WD), (4) acidification potential (AP), (4) eutrophication potential (EP), (5) human health particulate matter (HHPM), and (6) smog air (SA) per one kWh of electricity generated. Results indicate that one kWh of electricity generated would have a GWP (881-1030) g CO₂-eq, mainly from the fuel combustion process, water depletion (0.07-0.1) m³ of water, about 68% from cooling processes, AP (15.3-17.9) g SO₂-eq, EP (0.12-0.14) g N eq., HHPA (1.13- 1.33)g PM₂.₅ eq., and SA (64.8-75.8) g O₃ eq. The variation in results depend on the scenario investigated. It can be observed from the analysis that introducing solar photovoltaic and wind to the electricity grid mix improves the performance of scenarios 2 and 3 where 15% of the electricity comes from renewables correspond to a further decrease in LCA results.

Keywords: energy, functional uni, global warming potential, life cycle assessment, energy, functional unit

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265 Rearrangement and Depletion of Human Skin Folate after UVA Exposure

Authors: Luai Z. Hasoun, Steven W. Bailey, Kitti K. Outlaw, June E. Ayling


Human skin color is thought to have evolved to balance sufficient photochemical synthesis of vitamin D versus the need to protect not only DNA but also folate from degradation by ultraviolet light (UV). Although the risk of DNA damage and subsequent skin cancer is related to light skin color, the effect of UV on skin folate of any species is unknown. Here we show that UVA irradiation at 13 mW/cm2 for a total exposure of 187 J/cm2 (similar to a maximal daily equatorial dose) induced a significant loss of total folate in epidermis of ex vivo white skin. No loss was observed in black skin samples, or in the dermis of either color. Interestingly, while the concentration of 5 methyltetrahydrofolate (5-MTHF) fell in white epidermis, a concomitant increase of tetrahydrofolic acid was found, though not enough to maintain the total pool. These results demonstrate that UVA indeed not only decreases folate in skin, but also rearranges the pool components. This could be due in part to the reported increase of NADPH oxidase activity upon UV irradiation, which in turn depletes the NADPH needed for 5-MTHF biosynthesis by 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase. The increased tetrahydrofolic acid might further support production of the nucleotide bases needed for DNA repair. However, total folate was lost at a rate that could, with strong or continuous enough exposure to ultraviolet radiation, substantially deplete light colored skin locally, and also put pressure on total body stores for individuals with low intake of folate.

Keywords: depletion, folate, human skin, ultraviolet

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264 Influence of JHA and Ecdysteroid on Reproduction in Dysdercus similis (Hemiptera: Pyrrhocoridae)

Authors: Versha Sharma


Juvenile hormone analogue, fenoxycarb and ecdysterone, when applied at varying concentrations in the adult females of Dysdercus similis, in situ histochemical observations of treated ovarian and adipose tissues during the first gonotrophic cycle elicited drastic histomorphological changes in both tissues. The action and effect of both JHa and ecdysterone on ovarian development, vitellogenesis, the activity of follicular epithelium, chorion formation all were monitored in detail. SDS-PAGE electrophoretic analysis showed drastic downregulation on the protein profile of differently treated tissue samples. After exogenous JHa supply, resorption of the developing oocytes was also often noticed. Gradational decline and disappearance of different protein bands in treated both ovarian and adipose tissues noticed could be due to the depletion of specific metabolites essential for oocyte development and maturation. Natural products support both crop production and the environment that being effective in pest control, less toxic to non-target organisms and at the same time biodegradable. Hence, these could be utilized as an attractive alternative to the synthetic chemical insecticides for at least cotton bug pest management. Increasing IGR dosages is found to elicit both qualitative and quantitative depletion of protein metabolites and drastic histochemical changes in the gonads of the treated forms brought forth the production of a large number of immature mal-formed oocytes. Findings in greater detail could be discussed.

Keywords: juvenile hormone, ecdysone, P. picta, Dysdercus similis

Procedia PDF Downloads 188
263 Water Dumpflood into Multiple Low-Pressure Gas Reservoirs

Authors: S. Lertsakulpasuk, S. Athichanagorn


As depletion-drive gas reservoirs are abandoned when there is insufficient production rate due to pressure depletion, waterflooding has been proposed to increase the reservoir pressure in order to prolong gas production. Due to high cost, water injection may not be economically feasible. Water dumpflood into gas reservoirs is a new promising approach to increase gas recovery by maintaining reservoir pressure with much cheaper costs than conventional waterflooding. Thus, a simulation study of water dumpflood into multiple nearly abandoned or already abandoned thin-bedded gas reservoirs commonly found in the Gulf of Thailand was conducted to demonstrate the advantage of the proposed method and to determine the most suitable operational parameters for reservoirs having different system parameters. A reservoir simulation model consisting of several thin-layered depletion-drive gas reservoirs and an overlying aquifer was constructed in order to investigate the performance of the proposed method. Two producers were initially used to produce gas from the reservoirs. One of them was later converted to a dumpflood well after gas production rate started to decline due to continuous reduction in reservoir pressure. The dumpflood well was used to flow water from the aquifer to increase pressure of the gas reservoir in order to drive gas towards producer. Two main operational parameters which are wellhead pressure of producer and the time to start water dumpflood were investigated to optimize gas recovery for various systems having different gas reservoir dip angles, well spacings, aquifer sizes, and aquifer depths. This simulation study found that water dumpflood can increase gas recovery up to 12% of OGIP depending on operational conditions and system parameters. For the systems having a large aquifer and large distance between wells, it is best to start water dumpflood when the gas rate is still high since the long distance between the gas producer and dumpflood well helps delay water breakthrough at producer. As long as there is no early water breakthrough, the earlier the energy is supplied to the gas reservoirs, the better the gas recovery. On the other hand, for the systems having a small or moderate aquifer size and short distance between the two wells, performing water dumpflood when the rate is close to the economic rate is better because water is more likely to cause an early breakthrough when the distance is short. Water dumpflood into multiple nearly-depleted or depleted gas reservoirs is a novel study. The idea of using water dumpflood to increase gas recovery has been mentioned in the literature but has never been investigated. This detailed study will help a practicing engineer to understand the benefits of such method and can implement it with minimum cost and risk.

Keywords: dumpflood, increase gas recovery, low-pressure gas reservoir, multiple gas reservoirs

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262 Iron Influx, Its Root-Shoot Relations and Utilization Efficiency in Wheat

Authors: Abdul Malik Dawlatzai, Shafiqullah Rahmani


Plant cultivars of the same species differ in their Fe efficiency. This paper studied the Fe influx and root-shoot relations of Fe at different growth stages in wheat. The four wheat cultivars (HD 2967, PDW 233, PBW 550 and PDW 291) were grown in pots in Badam Bagh agricultural researching farm, Kabul under two Fe treatments: (i) 0 mg Fe kg⁻¹ soil (soil with 2.7 mg kg⁻¹ of DTPA-extractable Fe) and (ii) 50 mg Fe kg⁻¹ soil. Root length (RL), shoot dry matter (SDM), Fe uptake, and soil parameters were measured at tillering and anthesis. Application of Fe significantly increased RL, root surface area, SDM, and Fe uptake in all wheat cultivars. Under Fe deficiency, wheat cv. HD 2967 produced 90% of its maximum RL and 75% of its maximum SDM. However, PDW 233 produced only 69% and 60%, respectively. Wheat cultivars HD 2967, and PDW 233 exhibited the highest and lowest value of root surface area and Fe uptake, respectively. The concentration difference in soil solution Fe between bulk soil and root surface (ΔCL) was maximum in wheat cultivar HD 2967, followed by PBW 550, PDW 291, and PDW 233. More depletion at the root surface causes steeper concentration gradients, which result in a high influx and transport of Fe towards root. Fe influx in all the wheat cultivars increased with the Fe application, but the increase was maximum, i.e., 4 times in HD 2967 and minimum, i.e., 2.8 times in PDW 233. It can be concluded that wheat cultivars HD 2967 and PBW 550 efficiently utilized Fe as compared to other cultivars. Additionally, iron efficiency of wheat cultivars depends upon uptake of each root segment, i.e., the influx, which in turn depends on depletion of Fe in the rhizosphere during vegetative phase and higher utilization efficiency of acquired Fe during reproductive phase that governs the ultimate grain yield.

Keywords: Fe efficiency, Fe influx, Fe uptake, Rhizosphere

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261 Using Groundwater Modeling System to Create a 3-D Groundwater Flow and Solute Transport Model for a Semiarid Region: A Case Study of the Nadhour Saouaf Sisseb El Alem Aquifer, Central Tunisia

Authors: Emna Bahri Hammami, Zammouri Mounira, Tarhouni Jamila


The Nadhour Saouaf Sisseb El Alem (NSSA) system comprises some of the most intensively exploited aquifers in central Tunisia. Since the 1970s, the growth in economic productivity linked to intensive agriculture in this semiarid region has been sustained by increasing pumping rates of the system’s groundwater. Exploitation of these aquifers has increased rapidly, ultimately causing their depletion. With the aim to better understand the behavior of the aquifer system and to predict its evolution, the paper presents a finite difference model of the groundwater flow and solute transport. The model is based on the Groundwater Modeling System (GMS) and was calibrated using data from 1970 to 2010. Groundwater levels observed in 1970 were used for the steady-state calibration. Groundwater levels observed from 1971 to 2010 served to calibrate the transient state. The impact of pumping discharge on the evolution of groundwater levels was studied through three hypothetical pumping scenarios. The first two scenarios replicated the approximate drawdown in the aquifer heads (about 17 m in scenario 1 and 23 m in scenario 2 in the center of NSSA) following an increase in pumping rates by 30% and 50% from their current values, respectively. In addition, pumping was stopped in the third scenario, which could increase groundwater reserves by about 7 Mm3/year. NSSA groundwater reserves could be improved considerably if the pumping rules were taken seriously.

Keywords: pumping, depletion, groundwater modeling system GMS, Nadhour Saouaf

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260 Optimizing Groundwater Pumping for a Complex Groundwater/Surface Water System

Authors: Emery A. Coppola Jr., Suna Cinar, Ferenc Szidarovszky


Over-pumping of groundwater resources is a serious problem world-wide. In addition to depleting this valuable resource, hydraulically connected sensitive ecological resources like wetlands and surface water bodies are often impacted and even destroyed by over-pumping. Effectively managing groundwater in a way that satisfy human demand while preserving natural resources is a daunting challenge that will only worsen with growing human populations and climate change. As presented in this paper, a numerical flow model developed for a hypothetical but realistic groundwater/surface water system was combined with formal optimization. Response coefficients were used in an optimization management model to maximize groundwater pumping in a complex, multi-layered aquifer system while protecting against groundwater over-draft, streamflow depletion, and wetland impacts. Pumping optimization was performed for different constraint sets that reflect different resource protection preferences, yielding significantly different optimal pumping solutions. A sensitivity analysis on the optimal solutions was performed on select response coefficients to identify differences between wet and dry periods. Stochastic optimization was also performed, where uncertainty associated with changing irrigation demand due to changing weather conditions are accounted for. One of the strengths of this optimization approach is that it can efficiently and accurately identify superior management strategies that minimize risk and adverse environmental impacts associated with groundwater pumping under different hydrologic conditions.

Keywords: numerical groundwater flow modeling, water management optimization, groundwater overdraft, streamflow depletion

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259 Passive Attenuation of Nitrogen Species at Northern Mine Sites

Authors: Patrick Mueller, Alan Martin, Justin Stockwell, Robert Goldblatt


Elevated concentrations of inorganic nitrogen (N) compounds (nitrate, nitrite, and ammonia) are a ubiquitous feature to mine-influenced drainages due to the leaching of blasting residues and use of cyanide in the milling of gold ores. For many mines, the management of N is a focus for environmental protection, therefore understanding the factors controlling the speciation and behavior of N is central to effective decision making. In this paper, the passive attenuation of ammonia and nitrite is described for three northern water bodies (two lakes and a tailings pond) influenced by mining activities. In two of the water bodies, inorganic N compounds originate from explosives residues in mine water and waste rock. The third water body is a decommissioned tailings impoundment, with N compounds largely originating from the breakdown of cyanide compounds used in the processing of gold ores. Empirical observations from water quality monitoring indicate nitrification (the oxidation of ammonia to nitrate) occurs in all three waterbodies, where enrichment of nitrate occurs commensurately with ammonia depletion. The N species conversions in these systems occurred more rapidly than chemical oxidation kinetics permit, indicating that microbial mediated conversion was occurring, despite the cool water temperatures. While nitrification of ammonia and nitrite to nitrate was the primary process, in all three waterbodies nitrite was consistently present at approximately 0.5 to 2.0 % of total N, even following ammonia depletion. The persistence of trace amounts of nitrite under these conditions suggests the co-occurrence denitrification processes in the water column and/or underlying substrates. The implications for N management in mine waters are discussed.

Keywords: explosives, mining, nitrification, water

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258 Endothelial Progenitor Cells Is a Determinant of Vascular Function and Atherosclerosis in Ankylosing Spondylitis

Authors: Ashit Syngle, Inderjit Verma, Pawan Krishan


Objective: Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) have reparative potential in overcoming the endothelial dysfunction and reducing cardiovascular risk. EPC depletion has been demonstrated in the setting of established atherosclerotic diseases. With this background, we evaluated whether reduced EPCs population are associated with endothelial dysfunction, subclinical atherosclerosis and inflammatory markers in ankylosing spondylitis (AS) patients without any known traditional cardiovascular risk factor in AS patients. Methods: Levels of circulating EPCs (CD34+/CD133+), brachial artery flow-mediated dilatation, carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and inflammatory markers i.e erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP), tissue necrosis factor (TNF)–α, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1 were assessed in 30 AS patients (mean age33.41 ± 10.25; 11 female and 19 male) who fulfilled the modified New York diagnostic criteria with 25 healthy volunteers (mean age 29.36± 8.64; 9 female and 16 male) matched for age and sex. Results: EPCs (CD34+/CD133+) cells were significantly (0.020 ± 0.001% versus 0.040 ± 0.010%, p<0.001) reduced in patients with AS compared to healthy controls. Endothelial function (7.35 ± 2.54 versus 10.27 ±1.73, p=0.002), CIMT (0.63 ± 0.01 versus 0.35 ± 0.02, p < 0.001) and inflammatory markers were also significantly (p < 0.01) altered as compared to healthy controls. Specifically, CD34+CD133+cells were inversely multivariate correlated with CRP and TNF-α and endothelial dysfunction was positively correlated with reduced number of EPC. Conclusion: Depletion of EPCs population is an independent predictor of endothelial dysfunction and early atherosclerosis in AS patients and may provide additional information beyond conventional risk factors and inflammatory markers.

Keywords: endothelial progenitor cells, atherosclerosis, ankylosing spondylitis, cardiovascular

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257 Optimum Dewatering Network Design Using Firefly Optimization Algorithm

Authors: S. M. Javad Davoodi, Mojtaba Shourian


Groundwater table close to the ground surface causes major problems in construction and mining operation. One of the methods to control groundwater in such cases is using pumping wells. These pumping wells remove excess water from the site project and lower the water table to a desirable value. Although the efficiency of this method is acceptable, it needs high expenses to apply. It means even small improvement in a design of pumping wells can lead to substantial cost savings. In order to minimize the total cost in the method of pumping wells, a simulation-optimization approach is applied. The proposed model integrates MODFLOW as the simulation model with Firefly as the optimization algorithm. In fact, MODFLOW computes the drawdown due to pumping in an aquifer and the Firefly algorithm defines the optimum value of design parameters which are numbers, pumping rates and layout of the designing wells. The developed Firefly-MODFLOW model is applied to minimize the cost of the dewatering project for the ancient mosque of Kerman city in Iran. Repetitive runs of the Firefly-MODFLOW model indicates that drilling two wells with the total rate of pumping 5503 m3/day is the result of the minimization problem. Results show that implementing the proposed solution leads to at least 1.5 m drawdown in the aquifer beneath mosque region. Also, the subsidence due to groundwater depletion is less than 80 mm. Sensitivity analyses indicate that desirable groundwater depletion has an enormous impact on total cost of the project. Besides, in a hypothetical aquifer decreasing the hydraulic conductivity contributes to decrease in total water extraction for dewatering.

Keywords: groundwater dewatering, pumping wells, simulation-optimization, MODFLOW, firefly algorithm

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256 Environmental Degradation and Biodiversity Loss in Bangladesh

Authors: Mohammad Atiqur Rahman


The study aimed at inventorying the threatened biodiversity of Bangladesh and assessing the rate of loss of biodiversity caused due to environmental degradation for conservation management. The impact assessment of environmental depletion and rate of biodiversity loss determination have been made by a long term field investigation, examination of preserved herbarium specimens and survey of relevant floristic literature following the IUCN’s threatened criteria of assessing Red List Plants under the Flora Bangladesh Project. Biodiversity of Bangladesh, as evaluated, has been affected to a large extent during the last four and half decades due to spontaneous environmental degradation caused by frequent occurrence of cyclonic storms and tidal bores since 1970 and flooding, draught, unilateral diversion of trans-boundary waters by operating Farakka Barrage since 1975, indiscriminate destruction and over exploitation of natural resources, unplanned development and industrialization, overpopulation etc. Depletion of world’s largest mangrove biodiversity in Sundarbans, coastal and island biodiversity in southern part, agro-biodiversity and agro-fisheries all over the country, Haor and wetland biodiversity of plain lands, terrestrial and forest biodiversity in central and eastern hilly part of Bangladesh, as assessed, have greatly been occurred at a higher rate due to environmental degradation which in turn affect directly or indirectly the economy, food security and environmental health of the country. Complete inventory of 30 plant families resulted in the recognition of 45.18% species of Bangladesh as threatened environmentally and 13.23% species as possibly extinct from the flora since these have neither been reported or could be traced in the field for more than 100 years. The rate of extinction is determined to be 2.65% per 20 years. Hence the study indicates that the loss of biodiversity and environmental degradation in Bangladesh occurring at an alarming rate. The study focuses on the issues of environment, the extent of loss of different plant biodiversities in Bangladesh, prioritizing and implementing national conservation strategies for sustainable management of the environment.

Keywords: Bangladesh, biodiversity, conservation, environmental management

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255 Petrogeochemistry of Hornblende-Bearing Gabbro Intrusive, the Greater Caucasus

Authors: Giorgi Chichinadze, David Shengelia, Tamara Tsutsunava, Nikoloz Maisuradze, Giorgi Beridze


The Jalovchat gabbro intrusive is exposed on the northern and southern slopes of Main Range zone of the Greater Caucasus, on an area about 25km2. It is intruded in Precambrian crystalline schists and amphibolites intensively metamorphose them along the contact zone. The intrusive is represented by hornblende-bearing gabbro, gabbro-norites and norites including thin vein bodies of gabbro-pegmatites, anorthosites and micro-gabbros. Especially should be noted the veins of gabbro-pegmatites with the gigantic (up to 0.5m) hornblende crystals. From this point of view, the Jalovchat gabbroid intrusive is particularly interesting and by its unusual composition has no analog in the Caucasus overall. The comprehensive petrologic and geochemical study of the intrusive was carried out by the authors. The results of investigations are following. Amphiboles correspond to magnesiohastingsite and magnesiohornblende. In hastingsite and hornblende as a result of isovalent isomorphism of Fe2+ by Mg, content of the latter has been increased. By AMF and Na20+K diagrams the intrusive rocks correspond to tholeiitic basalts or to basalts close to it by composition. According to ACM-AMF double diagram the samples distributed in the fields of MORB and alkali cumulates. In TiO2/FeO+Fe2O3, Zr/Y-Zr and Ti-Cr/Ni diagrams and Ti-Cr-Y triangular diagram samples are arranged in the fields of island-arc and mid-oceanic basalts or along the trends reflecting mid-oceanic ridges or island arcs. K2O/TiO2 diagram shows that these rocks belong to normal and enriched MORB type. According to Th/Nb/Y ratio, the Jalovchat intrusive composition corresponds to depleted mantle, but by Sm/Y-Ce/Sm - to the MORB area. Th/Y and Nb/Y ratios coincide with the MORB composition, Th/Yb-Ta/Yb and La/Nb-Ti ratios correspond to N MORB, and Rb/Y and N/Y - to the lower crust formations. Exceptional are Ce/Pb-Ce and Nb/Th-Nb diagrams, showing the area of primitive mantle. Spidergrams are characterized by almost horizontal trend, weakly expressed Eu minimums and by a slight depletion of light REE. Similar are characteristic of typical tholeiit basalts. In comparison to MORB spidergrams, they are characterized by depletion of light REE. Their correlation to the spidergrams of Jalovchat intrusive proves that they are more depleted. The above cited points to the gradual depletion of mantle with the light REE in geological time. The RE and REE diagrams reveal unexpected regularity. In particular, petro-geochemical characteristics of Jalovchat gabbroid intrusive predominantly correspond to MORB, that usually is an anomalous phenomenon, since in ‘ophiolitic’ section magmatic formations represented mainly by gigantic prismatic hornblende-bearing gabbro and gabbro-pegmatite are not indicated. On the basis of petro-mineralogical and petro-geochemical data analysis, the authors consider that the Jalovchat intrusive belongs to the subduction geodynamic type. In the depleted mantle rich in water the MORB rock system has subducted, where the favorable conditions for crystallization of hornblende and especially for its gigantic crystals occurred. It is considered that the Jalovchat intrusive was formed in deep horizons of the Earth’s crust as a result of crystallization of water-bearing Bajocian basalt magma.

Keywords: The Greater Caucasus, gabbro-pegmatite, hornblende-bearing gabbro, petrogenesis

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254 Globalisation, Growth and Sustainability in Sub-Saharan Africa

Authors: Ourvashi Bissoon


Sub-Saharan Africa in addition to being resource rich is increasingly being seen as having a huge growth potential and as a result, is increasingly attracting MNEs on its soil. To empirically assess the effectiveness of GDP in tracking sustainable resource use and the role played by MNEs in Sub-Saharan Africa, a panel data analysis has been undertaken for 32 countries over thirty-five years. The time horizon spans the period 1980-2014 to reflect the evolution from before the publication of the pioneering Brundtland report on sustainable development to date. Multinationals’ presence is proxied by the level of FDI stocks. The empirical investigation first focuses on the impact of trade openness and MNE presence on the traditional measure of economic growth namely the GDP growth rate, and then on the genuine savings (GS) rate, a measure of weak sustainability developed by the World Bank, which assumes the substitutability between different forms of capital and finally, the impact on the adjusted Net National Income (aNNI), a measure of green growth which caters for the depletion of natural resources is examined. For countries with significant exhaustible natural resources and important foreign investor presence, the adjusted net national income (aNNI) can be a better indicator of economic performance than GDP growth (World Bank, 2010). The issue of potential endogeneity and reverse causality is also addressed in addition to robustness tests. The findings indicate that FDI and openness contribute significantly and positively to the GDP growth of the countries in the sample; however there is a threshold level of institutional quality below which FDI has a negative impact on growth. When the GDP growth rate is substituted for the GS rate, a natural resource curse becomes evident. The rents being generated from the exploitation of natural resources are not being re-invested into other forms of capital namely human and physical capital. FDI and trade patterns may be setting the economies in the sample on a unsustainable path of resource depletion. The resource curse is confirmed when utilising the aNNI as well, thus implying that GDP growth measure may not be a reliable to capture sustainable development.

Keywords: FDI, sustainable development, genuine savings, sub-Saharan Africa

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253 Biosphere Compatibility and Sustainable Development

Authors: Zinaida I. Ivanova, Olga V. Yudenkova


The article addresses the pressing need to implement the principle of the biosphere compatibility as the core prerequisite for sustainable development. The co-authors argue that a careful attitude towards the biosphere, termination of its overutilization, analysis of the ratio between the biospheric potential of a specific area and its population numbers, coupled with population regulation techniques represent the factors that may solve the problems of ecological depletion. However these problems may only be tackled through the employment of the high-quality human capital, capable of acting with account for the principles of nature conservation.

Keywords: biosphere compatibility, eco-centered conscience, human capital, sustainable development

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252 Dynamic Reliability for a Complex System and Process: Application on Offshore Platform in Mozambique

Authors: Raed KOUTA, José-Alcebiades-Ernesto HLUNGUANE, Eric Châtele


The search for and exploitation of new fossil energy resources is taking place in the context of the gradual depletion of existing deposits. Despite the adoption of international targets to combat global warming, the demand for fuels continues to grow, contradicting the movement towards an energy-efficient society. The increase in the share of offshore in global hydrocarbon production tends to compensate for the depletion of terrestrial reserves, thus constituting a major challenge for the players in the sector. Through the economic potential it represents, and the energy independence it provides, offshore exploitation is also a challenge for States such as Mozambique, which have large maritime areas and whose environmental wealth must be considered. The exploitation of new reserves on economically viable terms depends on available technologies. The development of deep and ultra-deep offshore requires significant research and development efforts. Progress has also been made in managing the multiple risks inherent in this activity. Our study proposes a reliability approach to develop products and processes designed to live at sea. Indeed, the context of an offshore platform requires highly reliable solutions to overcome the difficulties of access to the system for regular maintenance and quick repairs and which must resist deterioration and degradation processes. One of the characteristics of failures that we consider is the actual conditions of use that are considered 'extreme.' These conditions depend on time and the interactions between the different causes. These are the two factors that give the degradation process its dynamic character, hence the need to develop dynamic reliability models. Our work highlights mathematical models that can explicitly manage interactions between components and process variables. These models are accompanied by numerical resolution methods that help to structure a dynamic reliability approach in a physical and probabilistic context. The application developed makes it possible to evaluate the reliability, availability, and maintainability of a floating storage and unloading platform for liquefied natural gas production.

Keywords: dynamic reliability, offshore plateform, stochastic process, uncertainties

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251 A Techno-Economic Evaluation of Bio Fuel Production from Waste of Starting Dates in South Algeria

Authors: Insaf Mehani, Bachir Bouchekima


The necessary reduction and progressive consumption of fossil fuels, whose scarcity is inevitable, involves mobilizing a set of alternatives.Renewable energy, including bio energy are an alternative to fossil fuel depletion and a way to fight against the harmful effects of climate change. It is possible to develop common dates of low commercial value, and put on the local and international market a new generation of products with high added values such as bio ethanol. Besides its use in chemical synthesis, bio ethanol can be blended with gasoline to produce a clean fuel while improving the octane.

Keywords: bioenergy, dates, bioethanol, renewable energy, south Algeria

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