Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1207

Search results for: cesarean section

1207 The Effect of Skin to Skin Contact Immediately to Maternal Breastfeeding Self-Efficacy after Cesarean Section

Authors: D. Triana, I. N. Rachmawati, L. Sabri

Abstract:

Maternal breastfeeding self-efficacy is positively associated with increased duration of breastfeeding in different cultures and age groups. This study aims to determine the effect of skin-to-skin contact immediately after the cesarean section on maternal breastfeeding self-efficacy. The research design is Posttest quasi-experimental research design only with control groups involving 52 women with consecutive sampling in Langsa-Aceh. The data collected through breastfeeding Self-Efficacy Scale-Short Form. The results of Independent t-test showed a significant difference in the mean values of maternal breastfeeding self-efficacy in the intervention group and the control group (59.00 ± 6.54; 49.62 ± 7.78; p= 0.001). Skin to skin contact is proven to affect the maternal breastfeeding self-efficacy after cesarean section significantly.

Keywords: breastfeeding self-efficacy, cesarean section, skin to skin contact, immediately

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1206 Tranexamic Acid in Prevention of Postpartum Haemorrhage in Elective Cesarean Section

Authors: Ajay Agrawal, Pravin Shah, Shailaja Chhetri, Pappu Rijal

Abstract:

Background and Objectives: Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) is a common and occasionally life-threatening complication of labour. Cesarean section (CS) is associated with more blood loss than vaginal delivery. There is a trend for increasing CS rates in both developed and developing countries. This could increase the risk of morbidity and mortality, especially among anemic women. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of preoperative administration of Intravenous Tranexamic Acid (TA) on blood loss during and after elective CS delivery. Materials and Methods: It is a prospective, randomized controlled study. 160 eligible pregnant women of 37 or more POG planned for CS were randomized into two groups either to receive 10ml(1gm) of tranexamic acid intravenously or 10ml of normal saline. Blood loss was measured during and for 24 hours after operation. Results: The mean estimated blood loss was significantly lower in women treated with TA compared with women in the placebo group (392.13 ml ± 10.06 versus 498.69 ml ± 15.87, respectively; p < 0.001). The mean difference in pre-operative and post-operative hemoglobin levels was statistically significant in the tranexamic acid group than in the control group (0.31 ± 0.18 versus 0.79 ± 0.23, respectively; p < 0.001). Conclusion: Pre-operative use of tranexamic acid is associated with reduced blood loss during and after elective cesarean section. In a developing country like ours where PPH is a major threat to the life of the mothers, it seems to be a promising option.

Keywords: blood loss, cesarean section, postpartum hemorrhage, tranexamic acid

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1205 Maternal Request: A Minor but Important Contributor to the Rising Rates of Caesarean Section: A Retrospective Observational Study

Authors: Katherine Russell

Abstract:

Background: Over recent decades the number of caesarean sections performed in the UK has continued to rise. The cause of the rising caesarean rate (CSR) is not well understood. However, one of the most heavily cited reasons is an increase in maternal request for caesarean section. Maternal request for caesarean section (CDMR) refers to a caesarean section performed on maternal request with no medical indication. The true rate of caesarean delivery on maternal request in the UK and its contribution to the caesarean section rate is not known. Methods: To elucidate current understanding of the cause of the rising caesarean section rate and the role of CDMR we conducted a systematic review of the literature. To determine the role of CDMR in the CSR at the PRH we conducted a retrospective observational study of the caesarean section rates and CDMR from 2009-2015. Results: We demonstrated a negative correlation between rates of elective sections and CDMR over the study period (-0.123). On average, there were more elective sections performed after 2011 (15.10% of all deliveries) than before 2011 (12.41% of all deliveries); this difference was statistically significant (p = < 0.001). There were more cases of CDMR after 2011 (1.39% of all deliveries) than before 2011 (0.85% of all deliveries). The difference in average rates of CDMR before and after 2011 was statistically significant (p ≤ 0.001). Conclusions: CDMR is only a minor contributor to the CSR at the PRH. However, it remains an important factor because it represents a target for the reduction of the CSR that is more manageable than other, more complex and ubiquitous causes of the rising CSR.

Keywords: cesarean section, maternal request for cesarean section, obstetrics, pre-natal health

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1204 The Implication of Augmentation Cystoplasty with Mitrofanoff Channel on Reproduction Age Group and Outcome of Pregnancy

Authors: Amal A. Qedrah, Sofia A. Malik, Madiha Akbar

Abstract:

The aim of this article is to share a rare clinical case of pregnancy and surgical delivery in a patient who has undergone augmentation cystoplasty with mitrofanoff channel in the past. Methods: This case report is about a woman who conceived naturally at the age of 27, previously underwent augmentation cystoplasty at the age of 10 years with mitrofanoff procedure using self-clean intermittent catheterization. Furthermore, this pregnancy was complicated by the presence of preeclampsia diagnosed at term and PROM. Following the failure of induction for intrapartum preeclampsia, the patient delivered a healthy baby via low transverse cesarean section at 38 weeks done at Latifa Hospital, Dubai. Conclusion: The procedure is done at a pediatric or young age, after which most patients reach reproductive age. There is no contraindication to pregnancy vaginally or surgically; however, this case was complicated by preeclampsia, due to which this patient was taken for a cesarean section. It is advisable to consult a urologist frequently along with taking regular bacteriological urine samples and blood samples with renal ultrasonography for the evaluation of the kidney. Antibacterial treatment or prophylaxis should be used during pregnancy if necessary and intermittent self-catherization is mostly performed routinely. It is also important to have a urologist on standby during the surgery in order to avoid and/or fix any complications that might come forth.

Keywords: augmentation cystoplasty, cesarean section, delivery, mitrofanoff channel

Procedia PDF Downloads 69
1203 Changing Trends in the Use of Induction Agents for General Anesthesia for Cesarean Section

Authors: Mahmoud Hassanin, Amita Gupta

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Background: During current practice, Thiopentone is not cost-effectively added to resources wastage, risk of drug error with antibiotics, short shelf life, infection risk, and risk of delay while preparing during category one cesarean section. There is no significant difference or preference to the other alternative as per current use. Aims and Objectives: Patient safety, Cost-effective use of trust resources, problem awareness, Consider improvising on the current practice. Methods: In conjunction with the local department survey results, many studies support the change. Results: More than 50%(15 from 29) are already using Propofol, more than 75% of the participant are willing to shift to Propofol if it becomes standard, and the cost analysis also revealed that Thiopentone 10 X500=£60 Propofol 10X200= £5.20, Cost of Thiopentone/year =£2190. Approximately GA in a year =35-40 could cost approximately £20 Propofol, given it is a well-established practice. We could save not only money, but it will be environmentally friendly also to avoid adding any carbon footprints. Recommendation: Thiopentone is rarely used as an induction agent for the category one Caesarean section in our obstetric emergency theatres. Most obstetric anesthetists are using Propofol. Keep both Propofol and thiopentone(powder not withdrawn) in the cat one cesarean section emergency drugs tray ready until the department completely changes the practice protocol. A further retrospective study is required to compare the outcomes for these induction agents through the local database.

Keywords: thiopentone, propofol, category 1 caesarean, induction agents

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1202 Delays for Emergency Cesarean Sections and Neonatal Outcomes in Three Rural District Hospitals in Rwanda: A Retrospective Cross-Sectional Study

Authors: J. Niyitegeka, G. Nshimirimana, A. Silverstein, J. Odhiambo, Y. Lin, T. Nkurunziza, R. Riviello, S. Rulisa, P. Banguti, H. Magge, M. Macharia, J. P. Dushime, R. Habimana, B. Hedt-Gauthier

Abstract:

In low-resource settings, women needing an emergency cesarean section experiences various delays in both reaching and receiving care that is often linked to poor neonatal outcomes. In this study, we quantified different measures of delays and assessed the association between these delays and neonatal outcomes at three rural district hospitals in Rwanda. This retrospective study included 441 neonates and their mothers who underwent emergency cesarean sections in 2015 at Butaro, Kirehe and Rwinkwavu District Hospitals. Four possible delays were measured: Time from start of labor to district hospital admission, travel time from a health center to the district hospital, time from admission to surgical incision, and time from the decision for the emergency cesarean section to surgical incision. Neonatal outcomes were categorized as unfavorable (APGAR < 7 or death) and favorable (APGAR ≥ 7). We assessed the relationship between each type of delay and neonatal outcomes using multivariate logistic regression. In our study, 38.7% (108 out of 279) of neonates’ mothers labored for 12 to 24 hours before hospital admission and 44.7% (159 of 356) of mothers were transferred from health centers that required 30 to 60 minutes of travel time to reach the district hospital. 48.1% (178 of 370) of caesarean sections started within five hours after admission and 85.2% (288 of 338) started more than thirty minutes after the decision for the emergency cesarean section was made. Neonatal outcomes were significantly worse among mothers with more than 90 minutes of travel time from the health center to the district hospital compared to health centers attached to the hospital (OR = 5.12, p = 0.02). Neonatal outcomes were also significantly different depending on decision to incision intervals; neonates with cesarean deliveries starting more than thirty minutes after decision had better outcomes than those started immediately (OR = 0.32, p = 0.04). Interventions that decrease barriers to access to maternal health care services can improve neonatal outcome after emergency cesarean section. Triaging could explain the inverse relationship between time from decision to incision and neonatal outcome; this must be studied more in the future.

Keywords: Africa, emergency obstetric care, rural health delivery, maternal and child health

Procedia PDF Downloads 167
1201 A Qualitative Review and Meta-Analyses of Published Literature Exploring Rates and Reasons Behind the Choice of Elective Caesarean Section in Pregnant Women With No Contraindication to Trial of Labor After One Previous Caesarean Section

Authors: Risheka Suthantirakumar, Eilish Pearson, Jacqueline Woodman

Abstract:

Background: Previous research has found a variety of rates and reasons for choosing medically unindicated elective repeat cesarean section (ERCS). Understanding the frequency and reasoning of ERCS, especially when unwarranted, could help healthcare professionals better tailor their advice and service. Therefore, our study conducted meta-analyses and qualitative analyses to identify the reasons and rates worldwide for choosing this procedure over the trial of labor after cesarean (TOLAC), also referred to in published literature as vaginal birth after cesarean (VBAC). Methods: We conducted a systematic review of published literature available on PubMed, EMBASE, and science.gov and conducted a blinded peer review process to assess eligibility. Search terms were created in collaboration with experts in the field. An inclusion and exclusion criteria were established prior to reviewing the articles. Included studies were limited to those published in English due to author constraints, although no international boundaries were used in the search. No time limit for the search was used in order to portray changes over time. Results: Our qualitative analyses found five consistent themes across international studies, which were socioeconomic and cultural differences, previous cesarean experience, perceptions of risk with vaginal birth, patients’ perceptions of future benefits, and medical advice and information. Our meta-analyses found variable rates of ERCS across international borders and within national populations. The average rate across all studies was 44% (CI 95% 36-51). Discussion: The studies included in our qualitative analysis demonstrated similar repetitive themes, which give validity to the findings across the studies included. We consider the rate variation across and within national populations to be partially a result of differing inclusion and eligibility assessment between different studies and argue that a proforma be utilized for future research to be comparable.

Keywords: elective cesarean section, VBAC, TOLAC, maternal choice

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1200 Unexpected Acute Respiratory Failure following Administration of Rocuronium Bromide during Cesarean Delivery in a Severely Preeclamptic Parturient Treated with Magnesium Sulfate

Authors: Joseph Carl Macalintal, Erlinda Armovit

Abstract:

Magnesium sulfate has been a mainstay in the management of preeclampsia and is associated with a decreased incidence of morbidity and mortality. The syndrome has an unpredictable course, sometimes rapidly evolving to full-blown disease. In patients with deteriorating status, it is indicated to terminate the pregnancy via cesarean section. The anesthesiologists would prefer to have the procedure done under regional anesthesia; however, there may be cases when neuraxial anesthesia is contraindicated, or a general anesthesia would permit prompt delivery of the fetus. A patient with severe preeclampsia was given magnesium sulfate intrapartum, wherein a primary cesarean section was indicated for arrest in cervical dilatation, and was performed under general anesthesia. The patient developed acute respiratory failure and the causes of this occurrence were investigated in this report. It was later found out that neither the hypermagnesemia nor the muscle relaxant alone caused the patient’s condition but the interaction between the two. The patient was managed expectantly at the intensive care unit (ICU) and was eventually extubated during the 1st post-operative day. Knowledge of this drug interaction would allow obstetricians to advise their patients and their family about the possibility of prolonged intubation and ICU admission. This would also bring to the anesthesiologists’ attention the need to decrease the dose of muscle relaxant and to prepare drugs for immediate decurarisation.

Keywords: eclampsia, magnesium sulfate, preeclampsia, rocuronium bromide

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1199 Factors Affecting Cesarean Section among Women in Qatar Using Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey Database

Authors: Sahar Elsaleh, Ghada Farhat, Shaikha Al-Derham, Fasih Alam

Abstract:

Background: Cesarean section (CS) delivery is one of the major concerns both in developing and developed countries. The rate of CS deliveries are on the rise globally, and especially in Qatar. Many socio-economic, demographic, clinical and institutional factors play an important role for cesarean sections. This study aims to investigate factors affecting the prevalence of CS among women in Qatar using the UNICEF’s Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) 2012 database. Methods: The study has focused on the women’s questionnaire of the MICS, which was successfully distributed to 5699 participants. Following study inclusion and exclusion criteria, a final sample of 761 women aged 19- 49 years who had at least one delivery of giving birth in their lifetime before the survey were included. A number of socio-economic, demographic, clinical and institutional factors, identified through literature review and available in the data, were considered for the analyses. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression models, along with a multi-level modeling to investigate clustering effect, were undertaken to identify the factors that affect CS prevalence in Qatar. Results: From the bivariate analyses the study has shown that, a number of categorical factors are statistically significantly associated with the dependent variable (CS). When identifying the factors from a multivariate logistic regression, the study found that only three categorical factors -‘age of women’, ‘place at delivery’ and ‘baby weight’ appeared to be significantly affecting the CS among women in Qatar. Although the MICS dataset is based on a cluster survey, an exploratory multi-level analysis did not show any clustering effect, i.e. no significant variation in results at higher level (households), suggesting that all analyses at lower level (individual respondent) are valid without any significant bias in results. Conclusion: The study found a statistically significant association between the dependent variable (CS delivery) and age of women, frequency of TV watching, assistance at birth and place of birth. These results need to be interpreted cautiously; however, it can be used as evidence-base for further research on cesarean section delivery in Qatar.

Keywords: cesarean section, factors, multiple indicator cluster survey, MICS database, Qatar

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1198 Comparing the Effects of Ondansetron and Acupressure in PC6 Point on Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting in Patients Undergone Elective Cesarean Section: A Randomized Clinical Trial

Authors: Nasrin Galehdar, Sedigheh Nadri, Elham Nazari, Isan Darvishi, Abouzar Mohammadi

Abstract:

Background and aim:Nausea and vomiting are complications of cesarean section. The pharmacological and non-pharmacological approaches were applied to decrease postoperative nausea and vomiting. The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of Ondansetron and acupressure on postoperative nausea and vomiting in patients undergone an elective cesarean section. Materials and method: The study was designed as a randomized clinical trial. A total of 120 patients were allocated to two equal groups. Four mgs of Ondansetron was administered for the Ondansetron group after clamping the umbilical cord. The acupressure bracelets were fastened in the PC6 point for acupressure group for 15 minutes. The patients were monitored in terms of incidence, severity, and episodes of nausea and vomiting. The data obtained were analyzed by SPSS software version 18 with a significance level of 0.05. Results: There was no significant statistical difference in nausea severity among the groups intra-operatively, in the recovery and surgery wards. The incidence and episodes of vomiting were significantly higher in patients undergone acupressure intra-operatively, in the recovery and surgery wards (P< 0.05). No significant effect of acupressure was reported in reducing postoperative nausea and vomiting. Conclusion: No significant effect of acupressure was reported in reducing postoperative nausea and vomiting. Thus, it is suggested to perform the studies with larger size and comparing the effects of acupressure with other antiemetic medications.

Keywords: ondansetron, acupressure, nausea, vomiting

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1197 Effects of Umbilical Cord Clamping on Puppies Neonatal Vitality

Authors: Maria L. G. Lourenço, Keylla H. N. P. Pereira, Viviane Y. Hibaru, Fabiana F. Souza, Joao C. P. Ferreira, Simone B. Chiacchio, Luiz H. A. Machado

Abstract:

In veterinary medicine, the standard procedure during a caesarian section is clamping the umbilical cord immediately after birth. In human neonates, when the umbilical cord is kept intact after birth, blood continues to flow from the cord to the newborn, but this procedure may prove to be difficult in dogs due to the shorter umbilical cord and the number of newborns in the litter. However, a possible detachment of the placenta while keeping the umbilical cord intact may make the residual blood to flow to the neonate. This study compared the effects on neonatal vitality between clamping and no clamping the umbilical cord of dogs born through cesarean section, assessing them through Apgar and reflex scores. Fifty puppies delivered from 16 bitches were randomly allocated to receive clamping of the umbilical cord immediately (n=25) or to not receive the clamping until breathing (n=25). The neonates were assessed during the first five min of life and once again 10 min after the first assessment. The differences observed between the two moments were significant (p < 0.01) for both the Apgar and reflex scores. The differences observed between the groups (clamped vs. not clamped) were not significant for the Apgar score in the 1st moment (p=0.1), but the 2nd moment was significantly (p < 0.01) in the group not clamped, as well as significant (p < 0.05) for the reflex score in the 1st moment and 2nd moment (p < 0.05), revealing higher neonatal vitality in the not clamped group. The differences observed between the moments (1st vs. 2nd) of each group as significant (p < 0.01), revealing higher neonatal vitality in the 2nd moments. In the no clamping group, after removing the neonates together with the umbilical cord and the placenta, we observed that the umbilical cords were full of blood at the time of birth and later became whitish and collapsed, demonstrating the blood transfer. The results suggest that keeping the umbilical cord intact for at least three minutes after the onset breathing is not detrimental and may contribute to increase neonate vitality in puppies delivered by cesarean section.

Keywords: puppy vitality, newborn dog, cesarean section, Apgar score

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1196 Comparative Study for Neonatal Outcome and Umbilical Cord Blood Gas Parameters in Balanced and Inhalant Anesthesia for Elective Cesarean Section in Dogs

Authors: Agnieszka Antończyk, MałGorzata Ochota, Wojciech Niżański, ZdzisłAw Kiełbowicz

Abstract:

The goal of the cesarean section (CS) is the delivery of healthy, vigorous pups with the provision of surgical plane anesthesia, appropriate analgesia, and rapid recovery of the dam. In human medicine, spinal or epidural anesthesia is preferred for a cesarean section as associated with a lower risk of neonatal asphyxia and the need for resuscitation. Nevertheless, the specificity of veterinary patients makes the application of regional anesthesia as a sole technique impractical, thus to obtain patient compliance the general anesthesia is required. This study aimed to compare the influence of balanced (inhalant with epidural) and inhalant anesthesia on neonatal umbilical cord blood gas (UCBG) parameters and vitality (modified Apgar scoring). The bitches (31) undergoing elective CS were enrolled in this study. All females received a single dose of 0.2 mg/kg s.c. Meloxicam. Females were randomly assigned into two groups: Gr I (Isoflurane, n=16) and Gr IE (Isoflurane plus Epidural, n=15). Anesthesia was induced with propofol at 4-6 mg/kg to effect, and maintained with isoflurane in oxygen; in IE group epidural anesthesia was also done using lidocaine (3-4 mg/kg) into the lumbosacral space. CSs were performed using a standard mid-line approach. Directly after the puppy extraction, the umbilical cord was double clamped before the placenta detachment. The vessels were gently stretched between forceps to allow blood sampling. At least 100 mcl of mixed umbilical cord blood was collected into a heparinized syringe for further analysis. The modified Apgar scoring system (AS) was used to objectively score neonatal health and vitality immediately after birth (before first aid or neonatal care was instituted), at 5 and 20 min after birth. The neonates were scored as normal (AS 7-10), weak (AS 4-6), or critical (AS 0-3). During surgery, the IE group required a lower isoflurane concentration compared to the females in group I (MAC 1.05±0.2 and 1.4±0.13, respectively, p<0.01). All investigated UCBG parameters were not statistically different between groups. All pups had mild acidosis (pH 7.21±0.08 and 7.21±0.09 in Gr I and IE, respectively) with moderately elevated pCO2 (Gr I 57.18±11.48, Gr IE 58.74±15.07), HCO3- on the lower border (Gr I 22.58±3.24, Gr IE 22.83±3.6), lowered BE (Gr I -6.1±3.57, Gr IE -5.6±4.19) and mildly elevated level of lactates (Gr I 2.58±1.48, Gr IE2.53±1.03). The glucose levels were above the reference limits in both groups of puppies (74.50±25.32 in Gr I, 79.50±29.73 in Gr IE). The initial Apgar score results were similar in I and IE groups. However, the subsequent measurements of AS revealed significant differences between both groups. Puppies from the IE group received better AS scores at 5 and 20 min compared to the I group (6.86±2.23 and 8.06±2.06 vs 5.11±2.40 and 7.83±2.05, respectively). The obtained results demonstrated that administration of epidural anesthesia reduced the requirement for isoflurane in dams undergoing cesarean section and did not affect the neonatal umbilical blood gas results. Moreover, newborns from the epidural anesthesia group were scored significantly higher in AS at 5 and 20 min, indicating their better vitality and quicker improvement post-surgery.

Keywords: apgar scoring, balanced anesthesia, cesarean section, umbilical blood gas

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1195 Metastatic Ovarian Tumor Discovered Accidentally during Cesarean Section in a 34 Year Old Woman: A Case Report

Authors: Ghada E. Esheba, Ghufran Kheshaifaty, Kholoud Al-Harbi, Wafa'a Al-Harbi, Ala'a Al-Orabi, Moayad Turkistani

Abstract:

Krukenberg tumor is a rare metastatic ovarian carcinoma that usually occurs in female between 30 - 40 year old and rarely seen after menopause. Stomach is the most common primary site. Histopathological features of krukenberg tumors appear as diffuse stromal proliferation, mucus-production, and numerous signet-cells and these tumors spread mostly by lymphatic route. Treatment and prognostic factors are not well established. This study describes a 34 year old female with a unilateral ovarian mass discovered accidentally during cesarean section delivery and it was misdiagnosed as luteoma of pregnancy, but histopathological examination showed a diffuse infiltration of the ovary and omentum by signet ring cells. These findings were not correlated with luteoma of pregnancy or any other types of primary ovarian tumors like surface epithelial tumor, sex cord stromal tumor or germ cell tumor. However, after the analysis of immunohistochemical results (negative CK7, positive CK20 and CDX-2), the finding was the diagnostic of metastatic krukenberg tumor. Two weeks later, the patient was evaluated and a large gastric tumor was found in her stomach and she underwent gastrectomy.

Keywords: CK7, CK20, CDX-2, Krukenburg tumor, metastatic ovarian tumor

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1194 The Role of Uterine Artery Embolization in the Management of Postpartum Hemorrhage

Authors: Chee Wai Ku, Pui See Chin

Abstract:

As an emerging alternative to hysterectomy, uterine artery embolization (UAE) has been widely used in the management of fibroids and in controlling postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) unresponsive to other therapies. Research has shown UAE to be a safe, minimally invasive procedure with few complications and minimal effects on future fertility. We present two cases highlighting the use of UAE in preventing PPH in a patient with a large fibroid at the time of cesarean section and in the treatment of secondary PPH refractory to other therapies in another patient. We present a 36-year primiparous woman who booked at 18+6 weeks gestation with a 13.7 cm subserosal fibroid at the lower anterior wall of the uterus near the cervix and a 10.8 cm subserosal fibroid in the left wall. Prophylactic internal iliac artery occlusion balloons were placed prior to the planned classical midline cesarean section. The balloons were inflated once the baby was delivered. Bilateral uterine arteries were embolized subsequently. The estimated blood loss (EBL) was 400 mls and hemoglobin (Hb) remained stable at 10 g/DL. Ultrasound scan 2 years postnatally showed stable uterine fibroids 10.4 and 7.1 cm, which was significantly smaller than before. We present the second case of a 40-year-old G2P1 with a previous cesarean section for failure to progress. There were no antenatal problems, and the placenta was not previa. She presented with term labour and underwent an emergency cesarean section for failed vaginal birth after cesarean. Intraoperatively extensive adhesions were noted with bladder drawn high, and EBL was 300 mls. Postpartum recovery was uneventful. She presented with secondary PPH 3 weeks later complicated by hypovolemic shock. She underwent an emergency examination under anesthesia and evacuation of the uterus, with EBL 2500mls. Histology showed decidua with chronic inflammation. She was discharged well with no further PPH. She subsequently returned one week later for secondary PPH. Bedside ultrasound showed that the endometrium was thin with no evidence of retained products of conception. Uterotonics were administered, and examination under anesthesia was performed, with uterine Bakri balloon and vaginal pack insertion after. EBL was 1000 mls. There was no definite cause of PPH with no uterine atony or products of conception. To evaluate a potential cause, pelvic angiogram and super selective left uterine arteriogram was performed which showed profuse contrast extravasation and acute bleeding from the left uterine artery. Superselective embolization of the left uterine artery was performed. No gross contrast extravasation from the right uterine artery was seen. These two cases demonstrated the superior efficacy of UAE. Firstly, the prophylactic use of intra-arterial balloon catheters in pregnant patients with large fibroids, and secondly, in the diagnosis and management of secondary PPH refractory to uterotonics and uterine tamponade. In both cases, the need for laparotomy hysterectomy was avoided, resulting in the preservation of future fertility. UAE should be a consideration for hemodynamically stable patients in centres with access to interventional radiology.

Keywords: fertility preservation, secondary postpartum hemorrhage, uterine embolization, uterine fibroids

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1193 A Look into Surgical Site Infections: Impact of Collective Interventions

Authors: Lisa Bennett, Cynthia Walters, Cynthia Argani, Andy Satin, Geeta Sood, Kerri Huber, Lisa Grubb, Woodrow Noble, Melissa Eichelberger, Darlene Zinalabedini, Eric Ausby, Jeffrey Snyder, Kevin Kirchoff

Abstract:

Background: Surgical site infections (SSIs) within the obstetric population pose a variety of complications, creating clinical and personal challenges for the new mother and her neonate during the postpartum period. Our journey to achieve compliance with the SSI core measure for cesarean sections revealed many opportunities to improve these outcomes. Objective: Achieve and sustain core measure compliance keeping surgical site infection rates below the national benchmark pooled mean of 1.8% in post-operative patients, who delivered via cesarean section at the Johns Hopkins Bayview Medical Center. Methods: A root cause analysis was performed and revealed several environmental, pharmacologic, and clinical practice opportunities for improvement. A multidisciplinary approach led by the OB Safety Nurse, OB Medical Director, and Infectious Disease Department resulted in the implementation of fourteen interventions over a twenty-month period. Interventions included: post-operative dressing changes, standardizing operating room attire, broadening pre-operative antibiotics, initiating vaginal preps, improving operating room terminal cleaning, testing air quality, and re-educating scrub technicians on technique. Results: Prior to the implementation of our interventions, the SSI quarterly rate in Obstetrics peaked at 6.10%. Although no single intervention resulted in dramatic improvement, after implementation of all fourteen interventions, the quarterly SSI rate has subsequently ranged from to 0.0% to 2.70%. Significance: Taking an introspective look at current practices can reveal opportunities for improvement which previously were not considered. Collectively the benefit of these interventions has shown a significant decrease in surgical site infection rates. The impact of this quality improvement project highlights the synergy created when members of the multidisciplinary team work in collaboration to improve patient safety, and achieve a high quality of care.

Keywords: cesarean section, surgical site infection, collaboration and teamwork, patient safety, quality improvement

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1192 Transversal Connection Strengthening of T Section Beam Bridge with Brace System

Authors: Chen Chen

Abstract:

T section beam bridge has been widely used in China as it is low cost and easy to erect. Some of T section beam bridges only have end diagrams and the adjacent girders are connected by wet-joint along span, which leads to the damage of transversal connection becomes a serious problem in operation and maintenance. This paper presents a brace system to strengthen the transversal connection of T section beam bridge. The strengthening effect was discussed by experiments and finite element analysis. The results show that the proposed brace system can improve load transfer between adjacent girders. Based on experiments and FEA model, displacement of T section beam with proposed brace system reduced 14.9% and 19.1% respectively. Integral rigidity increased 19.4% by static experiments. The transversal connection of T section beam bridge can be improved efficiently.

Keywords: experiment, strengthening, T section beam bridge, transversal connection

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1191 A Saudi Woman with Tokophobia: A Case Report

Authors: Wid Kattan, Rahaf Albarraq

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Background: Tokophobia is a pathological fear of pregnancy that can lead to the avoidance of childbirth. It is classified as primary or secondary. This report describes a patient with tokophobia, as well as her presentation, risk factors, comorbidities, and treatment. Case Presentation: A 43-year-old Saudi woman experienced tokophobia upon becoming pregnant for the fifth time. She was assessed in two clinical interviews by a consultant psychiatrist specializing in women’s mental health. In addition, she completed several questionnaires for assessment of different aspects of her mental health: overall depression, perinatal depression, generalized anxiety, maternal functioning, and fear of childbirth (FOC). Several risk factors and comorbidities that may have contributed to the development of tokophobia in this patient were discussed, including traumatic experiences in previous deliveries, the unplanned nature of the pregnancy, perinatal depression, and pronounced symptoms of anxiety. A collaborative decision to perform a C-section was made, in line with obstetric guidelines and good mental health practice. Full symptomatic recovery was achieved immediately after delivery. Conclusions: We hope to increase clinical awareness of the assessment and management of tokophobia, which is a relatively new concept and, as yet, understudied.

Keywords: tokophobia, fear of childbirth, mental health, anxiety, case report, depression, fear of delivery, psychiatry, cesarean section, perinatal depression

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1190 Challenges and Implications for Choice of Caesarian Section and Natural Birth in Pregnant Women with Pre-Eclampsia in Western Nigeria

Authors: F. O. Adeosun, I. O. Orubuloye, O. O. Babalola

Abstract:

Although caesarean section has greatly improved obstetric care throughout the world, in developing countries there is a great aversion to caesarean section. This study was carried out to examine the rate at which pregnant women with pre-eclampsia choose caesarean section over natural birth. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 500 pre-eclampsia antenatal clients seen at the States University Teaching Hospitals in the last one year. The sample selection was purposive. Information on their educational background, beliefs and attitudes were collected. Data analysis was presented using simple percentages. Out of 500 women studied, 38% favored caesarean section while 62% were against it. About 89% of them understood what caesarean section is, 57.3% of those who understood what caesarean section is will still not choose it as an option. Over 85% of the women believed caesarean section is done for medical reasons. If caesarean section is given as an option for childbirth, 38% would go for it, 29% would try religious intervention, 5.5% would not choose it because of fear, while 27.5% would reject it because they believe it is culturally wrong. Majority of respondents (85%) who favored caesarean delivery are aware of the risk attached to choosing virginal birth but go an extra mile in sourcing funds for a caesarean session while over 64% cannot afford the cost of caesarean delivery. It is therefore pertinent to encourage research in prediction methods and prevention of occurrence, since this would assist patients to plan on how to finance treatment.

Keywords: caesarean section, choice, cost, pre eclampsia, prediction methods

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1189 Wind Turbine Powered Car Uses 3 Single Big C-Section Blades

Authors: K. Youssef, Ç. Hüseyin

Abstract:

The blades of a wind turbine have the most important job of any wind turbine component; they must capture the wind and convert it into usable mechanical energy. The objective of this work is to determine the mechanical power of single big C-section of vertical wind turbine for wind car in a two-dimensional model. The wind car has a vertical axis with 3 single big C-section blades mounted at an angle of 120°. Moreover, the three single big C-section blades are directly connected to wheels by using various kinds of links. Gears are used to convert the wind energy to mechanical energy to overcome the load exercised on the main shaft under low speed. This work allowed a comparison of drag characteristics and the mechanical power between the single big C-section blades with the previous work on 3 C-section and 3 double C-section blades for wind car. As a result obtained from the flow chart the torque and power curves of each case study are illustrated and compared with each other. In particular, drag force and torque acting on each types of blade was taken at an airflow speed of 4 m/s, and an angular velocity of 13.056 rad/s.

Keywords: blade, vertical wind turbine, drag characteristics, mechanical power

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1188 Research on Evaluation Method of Urban Road Section Traffic Safety Status Based on Video Information

Authors: Qiang Zhang, Xiaojian Hu

Abstract:

Aiming at the problem of the existing real-time evaluation methods for traffic safety status, a video information-based urban road section traffic safety status evaluation method was established, and the rapid detection method of traffic flow parameters based on video information is analyzed. The concept of the speed dispersion of the road section that affects the traffic safety state of the urban road section is proposed, and the method of evaluating the traffic safety state of the urban road section based on the speed dispersion of the road section is established. Experiments show that the proposed method can reasonably evaluate the safety status of urban roads in real-time, and the evaluation results can provide a corresponding basis for the traffic management department to formulate an effective urban road section traffic safety improvement plan.

Keywords: intelligent transportation system, road traffic safety, video information, vehicle speed dispersion

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1187 Behavior of Composite Construction Precast Reactive Powder RC Girder and Ordinary RC Deck Slab

Authors: Nameer A. Alwash, Dunia A. Abd AlRadha, Arshed M. Aljanaby

Abstract:

This study present an experimental investigation of composite behavior for hybrid reinforced concrete slab on girder from locale material in Iraq, ordinary concrete, NC, in slab and reactive powder concrete in girder ,RPC, with steel fibers of different types(straight, hook, and mix between its), tested as simply supported span subjected under two point loading, also study effects on overall behavior such as the ultimate load, crack width and deflection. The result shows that the most suitable for production girder from RPC by using 2% micro straight steel fiber, in terms of ultimate strength and min crack width. Also the results shows that using RPC in girder of composite section increased ultimate load by 79% when compared with same section made of NC, and increased the shear strength which erased the effect of changing reinforcement in shear, and using RPC in girder and epoxy (in shear transfer between composite section) (meaning no stirrups) equivalent presence of shear reinforcement by 90% when compared with same section using Φ[email protected] as shear reinforcement. And the result shows that changing the cross section girder shape of the composite section to inverted T, with same section area, increased the ultimate load by 5% when compared with same section of rectangular shape girder.

Keywords: reactive powder concrete, RPC, hybrid concrete, composite section, RC girder, RC slab, shear connecters, inverted T section, shear reinforcment, shear span over effective depth

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1186 Robson System Analysis in Kyiv Perinatal Centre

Authors: Victoria Bila, Iryna Ventskivska, Oleksandra Zahorodnia

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The goal of the study: To study the distribution of patients of the Kiyv Perinatal Center according to the Robson system and compare it with world data. Materials and methods: a comparison of the distribution of patients of Kiyv Perinatal center according to the Robson system for 2 periods - the first quarter of 2019 and 2020. For each group, 3 indicators were analyzed - the share of this group in the overall structure of patients of the Perinatal Center for the reporting period, the frequency of abdominal delivery in this group, as well as the contribution of this group to the total number of abdominal delivery. Obtained data were compared with those of the WHO in the guidelines for the implementation of the Robson system in 2017. Results and its discussion: The distribution of patients of the Perinatal Center into groups in the Robson classification is not much different from that recommended by the author. So, among all women, patients of group 1 dominate; this indicator does not change in dynamics. A slight increase in the share of group 2 (6.7% in 2019 and 9.3% - 2020) was due to an increase in the number of labor induction. At the same time, the number of patients of groups 1 and 2 in the Perinatal Center is greater than in the world population, which is determined by the hospitalization of primiparous women with reproductive losses in the past. The Perinatal Center is distinguished from the world population and the proportion of women of group 5 - it was 5.4%, in the world - 7.6%. The frequency of caesarean section in the Perinatal Center is within limits typical for most countries (20.5-20.8%). Moreover, the dominant groups in the structure of caesarean sections are group 5 (21-23.3%) and group 2 (21.9-22.9%), which are the reserve for reducing the number of abdominal delivery. In group 2, certain results have already been achieved in this matter - the frequency of cesarean section in 2019 here amounted to 67.8%, in the first quarter of 2020 - 51.6%. This happened due to a change in the leading method of induction of labor. Thus, the Robson system is a convenient and affordable tool for assessing the structure of caesarean sections. The analysis showed that, in general, the structure of caesarean sections in the Perinatal Center is close to world data, and the identified deviations have explanations related to the specialization of the Center.

Keywords: cesarian section, Robson system, Kyiv Perinatal Center, labor induction

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1185 Behavior Study of Concrete-Filled Thin-Walled Square Hollow Steel Stub Columns

Authors: Mostefa Mimoune

Abstract:

Test results on concrete-filled steel tubular stub columns under axial compression are presented. The study was mainly focused on square hollow section SHS columns; 27 columns were tested. The main experimental parameters considered were the thickness of the tube, columns length and cross section sizes. Existing design codes and theoretical model were used to predict load-carrying capacities of composite section to compare the accuracy of the predictions by using the recommendations of DTR-BC (Algerian code), CSA (Canadian standard), AIJ, EC4, DBJ, AISC, BS and EC4. Experimental results indicate that the studied parameters have significant influence on both the compressive load capacity and the column failure mode. All codes used in the comparison, provide higher resistance compared to those of tests. Equation method has been suggested to evaluate the axial capacity of the composite section seem to be in agreement with tests.

Keywords: axial loading, composite section, concrete-filled steel tubes, square hollow section

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1184 The Alarming Caesarean-Section Delivery Rate in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

Authors: Yibeltal T. Bayou, Yohana S. Mashalla, Gloria Thupayagale-Tshweneagae

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Background: According to the World Health Organization, caesarean section delivery rates of more than 10-15% caesarean section deliveries in any specific geographic region in the world are not justifiable. The aim of the study was to describe the level and analyse determinants of caesarean section delivery in Addis Ababa. Methods: Data was collected in Addis Ababa using a structured questionnaire administered to 901 women aged 15-49 years through a stratified two-stage cluster sampling technique. Binary logistic regression model was employed to identify predictors of caesarean section delivery. Results: Among the 835 women who delivered their last birth at healthcare facilities, 19.2% of them gave birth by caesarean section. About 9.0% of the caesarean section births were due to mother’s request or service provider’s influence without any medical indication. The caesarean section delivery rate was much higher than the recommended rate particularly among the non-slum residents (27.2%); clients of private healthcare facilities (41.1%); currently married women (20.6%); women with secondary (22.2%) and tertiary (33.6%) level of education; and women belonging to the highest wealth quintile household (28.2%). The majority (65.8%) of the caesarean section clients were not informed about the consequences of caesarean section delivery by service providers. The logistic regression model shows that older age (30-49), secondary and above education, non-slum residence, high-risk pregnancy and receiving adequate antenatal care were significantly positively associated with caesarean section delivery. Conclusion: Despite the unreserved effort towards achieving MDG 5 through safe skilled delivery assistance among others, the high caesarean section rate beyond the recommend limit, and the finding that caesarean sections done without medical indications were also alarming. The government and city administration should take appropriate measures before the problems become setbacks in healthcare provision. Further investigations should focus on the effect of caesarean section delivery on maternal and child health outcomes in the study area.

Keywords: Addis Ababa, caesarean section, mode of delivery, slum residence

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1183 A Mother’s Silent Adversary: A Case of Pregnant Woman with Cervical Cancer

Authors: Paola Millare, Nelinda Catherine Pangilinan

Abstract:

Background and Aim: Cervical cancer is the most commonly diagnosed gynecological malignancy during pregnancy. Owing to the rarity of the disease, and the complexity of all factors that have to be taken into consideration, standardization of treatment is very difficult. Cervical cancer is the second most common malignancy among women. The treatment of cancer during pregnancy is most challenging in the case of cervical cancer, since the pregnant uterus itself is affected. This report aims to present a case of cervical cancer in a pregnant woman and how to manage this case and several issues accompanied with it. Methods: This is a case of a 28 year-old, Gravida 4 Para 2 (1111), who presented with watery to mucoid, whitish, non-foul smelling and increasing in amount. Internal examination revealed normal external genitalia, parous outlet, cervix was transformed into a fungating mass measuring 5x4 cm, with left parametrial involvement, body of uterus was enlarged to 24 weeks size, no adnexal mass or tenderness. She had cervical punch biopsy, which revealed, adenocarcinoma, well-differentiated cervical tissue. Standard management for cases with stage 2B cervical carcinoma was to start radiation or radical hysterectomy. In the case of patients diagnosed with cervical cancer and currently pregnant, these kind of management will result to fetal loss. The patient still declined the said management and opted to delay the treatment and wait for her baby to reach at least term and proceed to cesarean section as route of delivery. Results: The patient underwent an elective cesarean section at 37th weeks age of gestation, with an outcome of a term, live baby boy APGAR score 7,9 birthweight 2600 grams. One month postpartum, the patient followed up and completed radiotherapy, chemotherapy and brachytherapy. She was advised to go back after 6 months for monitoring. On her last check up, an internal examination was done which revealed normal external genitalia, vagina admits 2 fingers with ease, there is a palpable fungating mass at the cervix measuring 2x2 cm. A repeat gynecologic oncologic ultrasound was done revealing cervical mass, endophytic, grade 1 color score with stromal invasion 35% post radiation reactive lymph nodes with intact paracolpium, pericervical, and parametrial involvement. The patient was then advised to undergo pelvic boost and for close monitoring of the cervical mass. Conclusion: Cervical cancer in pregnancy is rare but is a dilemma for women and their physicians. Treatment should be multidisciplinary and individualized following careful counseling. In this case, the treatment was clearly on the side of preventing the progression of cervical cancer while she is pregnant, however due to ethical reasons, the management deviates on the right of the patient to decide for her own health and her unborn child. The collaborative collection of data relating to treatment and outcome is strongly encouraged.

Keywords: cancer, cervical, ethical, pregnancy

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1182 Anaesthetic Management of Congenitally Corrected Transposition of Great Arteries with Complete Heart Block in a Parturient for Emergency Caesarean Section

Authors: Lokvendra S. Budania, Yogesh K Gaude, Vamsidhar Chamala

Abstract:

Introduction: Congenitally corrected transposition of great arteries (CCTGA) is a complex congenital heart disease where there are both atrioventricular and ventriculoarterial discordances, usually accompanied by other cardiovascular malformations. Case Report: A 24-year-old primigravida known case of CCTGA at 37 weeks of gestation was referred to our hospital for safe delivery. Her electrocardiogram showed HR-40/pm, echocardiography showed Ejection Fraction of 65% and CCTGA. Temporary pacemaker was inserted by cardiologist in catheterization laboratory, before giving trial of labour in view of complete heart block. She was planned for normal delivery, but emergency Caesarean section was planned due to non-reassuring foetal Cardiotocography Pre-op vitals showed PR-50 bpm with temporary pacemaker, Blood pressure-110/70 mmHg, SpO2-99% on room air. Nil per oral was inadequate. Patency of two peripheral IV cannula checked and left radial arterial line secured. Epidural Anaesthesia was planned, and catheter was placed at L2-L3. Test dose was given, Anaesthesia was provided with 5ml + 5ml of 2% Lignocaine with 25 mcg Fentanyl and further 2.5Ml of 0.5% Bupivacaine was given to achieve a sensory level of T6. Cesarean section was performed and baby was delivered. Cautery was avoided during this procedure. IV Oxytocin (15U) was added to 500 mL of ringer’s lactate. Hypotension was treated with phenylephrine boluses. Patient was shifted to post-operative care unit and later to high dependency unit for monitoring. Post op vitals remained stable. Temporary pacemaker was removed after 24 hours of surgery. Her post-operative period was uneventful and discharged from hospital. Conclusion: Rare congenital cardiac disorders require detail knowledge of pathophysiology and associated comorbidities with the disease. Meticulously planned and carefully titrated neuraxial techniques will be beneficial for such cases.

Keywords: congenitally corrected transposition of great arteries, complete heart block, emergency LSCS, epidural anaesthesia

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1181 Single Phase Fluid Flow in Series of Microchannel Connected via Converging-Diverging Section with or without Throat

Authors: Abhishek Kumar Chandra, Kaushal Kishor, Wasim Khan, Dhananjay Singh, M. S. Alam

Abstract:

Single phase fluid flow through series of uniform microchannels connected via transition section (converging-diverging section with or without throat) was analytically and numerically studied to characterize the flow within the channel and in the transition sections. Three sets of microchannels of diameters 100, 184, and 249 μm were considered for investigation. Each set contains 10 numbers of microchannels of length 20 mm, connected to each other in series via transition sections. Transition section consists of either converging-diverging section with throat or without throat. The effect of non-uniformity in microchannels on pressure drop was determined by passing water/air through the set of channels for Reynolds number 50 to 1000. Compressibility and rarefaction effects in transition sections were also tested analytically and numerically for air flow. The analytical and numerical results show that these configurations can be used in enhancement of transport processes. However, converging-diverging section without throat shows superior performance over with throat configuration.

Keywords: contraction-expansion flow, integrated microchannel, microchannel network, single phase flow

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1180 Pipeline Construction in Oil and Gas Fields as per Kuwait Oil Company Procedures

Authors: Jasem Al-Safran

Abstract:

Nowadays Oil and Gas industry considered as one of the biggest industries around the world although it caused a lot of pollution to the world and it caused many damages to the mankind and the other creatures around the globe it still one of the biggest industries, it create millions of careers around the globe which reduced the poorness level and make the mankind life’s much more comfortable you may compare the humans life before the exploration of the oil and after the oil industries development. Construction project’s consist of 3 major sections also we call them EPC projects the first section is the detailed engineering, the second section is the procurements section and finally is the Construction section, each section required a specialized work force with a different skills in order to handle the work load for example in the oil sector and depending on the nature of the project and the project size the Construction team required mechanical engineer, civil engineer, electrical engineer and instrumentation engineer, also a work site supervisor for each disciplines also a huge number of labors, technicians and many equipment’s.

Keywords: Construction, EPC, Project, Work force

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1179 Determinants of Maternal Near-Miss among Women in Public Hospital Maternity Wards in Northern Ethiopia: A Facility Based Case-Control Study

Authors: Dejene Ermias Mekango, Mussie Alemayehu, Gebremedhin Berhe Gebregergs, Araya Abrha Medhanye, Gelila Goba

Abstract:

Background: Maternal near miss (MNM) can be used as a proxy indicator of maternal mortality ratio. There is a huge gap in life time risk between Sub-Saharan Africa and developed countries. In Ethiopia, a significant number of women die each year from complications during pregnancy, childbirth and the post-partum period. Besides, a few studies have been performed on MNM, and little is known regarding determinant factors. This study aims to identify determinants of MNM among women in Tigray region, Northern Ethiopia. Methods: a case-control study in hospital found in Tigray region, Ethiopia was conducted from January 30 - March 30, 2016. The sample included 103 cases and 205 controls recruited from women seeking obstetric care at six public hospitals. Clients having a life-threatening obstetric complication including haemorrhage, hypertensive diseases of pregnancy, dystocia, infections, and anemia or clinical signs of severe anemia in women without haemorrhage were taken as cases and those with normal obstetric outcomes were considered as controls. Cases were selected based on proportional to size allocation while systematic sampling was employed for controls. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20.0. Binary and multiple variable logistic regression (odds ratio) analyses were calculated with 95% CI. Results: The largest proportion of cases and controls was among the ages of20–29 years, accounting for37.9 %( 39) of cases and 31.7 %( 65) of controls. Roughly 90% of cases and controls were married. About two-thirds of controls and 45.6 %( 47) of cases had gestational age between 37-41 weeks. History of chronic medical conditions was reported in 55.3 %(57) of cases and 33.2%(68) of controls. Women with no formal education [AOR=3.2;95%CI:1.24, 8.12],being less than 16 years old at first pregnancy [AOR=2.5; 95%CI:1.12,5.63],induced labor[AOR=3; 95%CI:1.44, 6.17], history of Cesarean section (C-section) [AOR=4.6; 95%CI: 1.98, 7.61] or chronic medical disorder[AOR=3.5;95%CI:1.78, 6.93], and women who traveled more than 60 minutes before reaching their final place of care[AOR=2.8;95% CI: 1.19,6.35] all had higher odds of experiencing MNM. Conclusions: The Government of Ethiopia should continue its effort to address the lack of road and health facility access as well as education, which will help reduce MNM. Work should also be continued to educate women and providers about common predictors of MNM like the history of C-section, chronic illness, and teenage pregnancy. These efforts should be carried out at the facility, community, and individual levels. The targeted follow-up to women with a history of chronic disease and C-section could also be a practical way to reduce MNM.

Keywords: maternal near miss, severe obstetric hemorrhage, hypertensive disorder, c-section, Tigray, Ethiopia

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1178 Cold Formed Steel Sections: Analysis, Design and Applications

Authors: A. Saha Chaudhuri, D. Sarkar

Abstract:

In steel construction, there are two families of structural members. One is hot rolled steel and another is cold formed steel. Cold formed steel section includes steel sheet, strip, plate or flat bar. Cold formed steel section is manufactured in roll forming machine by press brake or bending operation. Cold formed steel (CFS), also known as Light Gauge Steel (LGS). As cold formed steel is a sustainable material, it is widely used in green building. Cold formed steel can be recycled and reused with no degradation in structural properties. Cold formed steel structures can earn credits for green building ratings such as LEED and similar programs. Cold formed steel construction satisfies international demand for better, more efficient and affordable buildings. Cold formed steel sections are used in building, car body, railway coach, various types of equipment, storage rack, grain bin, highway product, transmission tower, transmission pole, drainage facility, bridge construction etc. Various shapes of cold formed steel sections are available, such as C section, Z section, I section, T section, angle section, hat section, box section, square hollow section (SHS), rectangular hollow section (RHS), circular hollow section (CHS) etc. In building construction cold formed steel is used as eave strut, purlin, girt, stud, header, floor joist, brace, diaphragm and covering for roof, wall and floor. Cold formed steel has high strength to weight ratio and high stiffness. Cold formed steel is non shrinking and non creeping at ambient temperature, it is termite proof and rot proof. CFS is durable, dimensionally stable and non combustible material. CFS is economical in transportation and handling. At present days cold formed steel becomes a competitive building material. In this paper all these applications related present research work are described and how the CFS can be used as blast resistant structural system that is examined.

Keywords: cold form steel sections, applications, present research review, blast resistant design

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