Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3466

Search results for: accuracy

3466 Improved Accuracy of Ratio Multiple Valuation

Authors: Julianto Agung Saputro, Jogiyanto Hartono


Multiple valuation is widely used by investors and practitioners but its accuracy is questionable. Multiple valuation inaccuracies are due to the unreliability of information used in valuation, inaccuracies comparison group selection, and use of individual multiple values. This study investigated the accuracy of valuation to examine factors that can increase the accuracy of the valuation of multiple ratios, that are discretionary accruals, the comparison group, and the composite of multiple valuation. These results indicate that multiple value adjustment method with discretionary accruals provides better accuracy, the industry comparator group method combined with the size and growth of companies also provide better accuracy. Composite of individual multiple valuation gives the best accuracy. If all of these factors combined, the accuracy of valuation of multiple ratios will give the best results.

Keywords: multiple, valuation, composite, accuracy

Procedia PDF Downloads 240
3465 Propagation of DEM Varying Accuracy into Terrain-Based Analysis

Authors: Wassim Katerji, Mercedes Farjas, Carmen Morillo


Terrain-Based Analysis results in derived products from an input DEM and these products are needed to perform various analyses. To efficiently use these products in decision-making, their accuracies must be estimated systematically. This paper proposes a procedure to assess the accuracy of these derived products, by calculating the accuracy of the slope dataset and its significance, taking as an input the accuracy of the DEM. Based on the output of previously published research on modeling the relative accuracy of a DEM, specifically ASTER and SRTM DEMs with Lebanon coverage as the area of study, analysis have showed that ASTER has a low significance in the majority of the area where only 2% of the modeled terrain has 50% or more significance. On the other hand, SRTM showed a better significance, where 37% of the modeled terrain has 50% or more significance. Statistical analysis deduced that the accuracy of the slope dataset, calculated on a cell-by-cell basis, is highly correlated to the accuracy of the input DEM. However, this correlation becomes lower between the slope accuracy and the slope significance, whereas it becomes much higher between the modeled slope and the slope significance.

Keywords: terrain-based analysis, slope, accuracy assessment, Digital Elevation Model (DEM)

Procedia PDF Downloads 411
3464 The Network Relative Model Accuracy (NeRMA) Score: A Method to Quantify the Accuracy of Prediction Models in a Concurrent External Validation

Authors: Carl van Walraven, Meltem Tuna


Background: Network meta-analysis (NMA) quantifies the relative efficacy of 3 or more interventions from studies containing a subgroup of interventions. This study applied the analytical approach of NMA to quantify the relative accuracy of prediction models with distinct inclusion criteria that are evaluated on a common population (‘concurrent external validation’). Methods: We simulated binary events in 5000 patients using a known risk function. We biased the risk function and modified its precision by pre-specified amounts to create 15 prediction models with varying accuracy and distinct patient applicability. Prediction model accuracy was measured using the Scaled Brier Score (SBS). Overall prediction model accuracy was measured using fixed-effects methods that accounted for model applicability patterns. Prediction model accuracy was summarized as the Network Relative Model Accuracy (NeRMA) Score which ranges from -∞ through 0 (accuracy of random guessing) to 1 (accuracy of most accurate model in concurrent external validation). Results: The unbiased prediction model had the highest SBS. The NeRMA score correctly ranked all simulated prediction models by the extent of bias from the known risk function. A SAS macro and R-function was created to implement the NeRMA Score. Conclusions: The NeRMA Score makes it possible to quantify the accuracy of binomial prediction models having distinct inclusion criteria in a concurrent external validation.

Keywords: prediction model accuracy, scaled brier score, fixed effects methods, concurrent external validation

Procedia PDF Downloads 160
3463 Does sustainability disclosure improve analysts’ forecast accuracy Evidence from European banks

Authors: Albert Acheampong, Tamer Elshandidy


We investigate the extent to which sustainability disclosure from the narrative section of European banks’ annual reports improves analyst forecast accuracy. We capture sustainability disclosure using a machine learning approach and use forecast error to proxy analyst forecast accuracy. Our results suggest that sustainability disclosure significantly improves analyst forecast accuracy by reducing the forecast error. In a further analysis, we also find that the induction of Directive 2014/95/European Union (EU) is associated with increased disclosure content, which then reduces forecast error. Collectively, our results suggest that sustainability disclosure improves forecast accuracy, and the induction of the new EU directive strengthens this improvement. These results hold after several further and robustness analyses. Our findings have implications for market participants and policymakers.

Keywords: sustainability disclosure, machine learning, analyst forecast accuracy, forecast error, European banks, EU directive

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3462 Contributing to Accuracy of Bid Cost Estimate in Construction Projects

Authors: Abdullah Alhomidan


This study is conducted to identify the main factors affecting accuracy of pretender cost estimate in building construction projects in Saudi Arabia from owners’ perspective. 44 factors affecting pretender cost estimate were identified through literature review and discussion with some construction experts. The results show that the top important factors affecting pretender cost estimate accuracy are: level of competitors in the tendering, material price changes, communications with suppliers, communications with client, and estimating method used.

Keywords: cost estimate, accuracy, pretender, estimating, bid estimate

Procedia PDF Downloads 515
3461 Satellite Image Classification Using Firefly Algorithm

Authors: Paramjit Kaur, Harish Kundra


In the recent years, swarm intelligence based firefly algorithm has become a great focus for the researchers to solve the real time optimization problems. Here, firefly algorithm is used for the application of satellite image classification. For experimentation, Alwar area is considered to multiple land features like vegetation, barren, hilly, residential and water surface. Alwar dataset is considered with seven band satellite images. Firefly Algorithm is based on the attraction of less bright fireflies towards more brightener one. For the evaluation of proposed concept accuracy assessment parameters are calculated using error matrix. With the help of Error matrix, parameters of Kappa Coefficient, Overall Accuracy and feature wise accuracy parameters of user’s accuracy & producer’s accuracy can be calculated. Overall results are compared with BBO, PSO, Hybrid FPAB/BBO, Hybrid ACO/SOFM and Hybrid ACO/BBO based on the kappa coefficient and overall accuracy parameters.

Keywords: image classification, firefly algorithm, satellite image classification, terrain classification

Procedia PDF Downloads 359
3460 Comparative Study of Accuracy of Land Cover/Land Use Mapping Using Medium Resolution Satellite Imagery: A Case Study

Authors: M. C. Paliwal, A. K. Jain, S. K. Katiyar


Classification of satellite imagery is very important for the assessment of its accuracy. In order to determine the accuracy of the classified image, usually the assumed-true data are derived from ground truth data using Global Positioning System. The data collected from satellite imagery and ground truth data is then compared to find out the accuracy of data and error matrices are prepared. Overall and individual accuracies are calculated using different methods. The study illustrates advanced classification and accuracy assessment of land use/land cover mapping using satellite imagery. IRS-1C-LISS IV data were used for classification of satellite imagery. The satellite image was classified using the software in fourteen classes namely water bodies, agricultural fields, forest land, urban settlement, barren land and unclassified area etc. Classification of satellite imagery and calculation of accuracy was done by using ERDAS-Imagine software to find out the best method. This study is based on the data collected for Bhopal city boundaries of Madhya Pradesh State of India.

Keywords: resolution, accuracy assessment, land use mapping, satellite imagery, ground truth data, error matrices

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3459 Lipschitz Classifiers Ensembles: Usage for Classification of Target Events in C-OTDR Monitoring Systems

Authors: Andrey V. Timofeev


This paper introduces an original method for guaranteed estimation of the accuracy of an ensemble of Lipschitz classifiers. The solution was obtained as a finite closed set of alternative hypotheses, which contains an object of classification with a probability of not less than the specified value. Thus, the classification is represented by a set of hypothetical classes. In this case, the smaller the cardinality of the discrete set of hypothetical classes is, the higher is the classification accuracy. Experiments have shown that if the cardinality of the classifiers ensemble is increased then the cardinality of this set of hypothetical classes is reduced. The problem of the guaranteed estimation of the accuracy of an ensemble of Lipschitz classifiers is relevant in the multichannel classification of target events in C-OTDR monitoring systems. Results of suggested approach practical usage to accuracy control in C-OTDR monitoring systems are present.

Keywords: Lipschitz classifiers, confidence set, C-OTDR monitoring, classifiers accuracy, classifiers ensemble

Procedia PDF Downloads 448
3458 Using Greywolf Optimized Machine Learning Algorithms to Improve Accuracy for Predicting Hospital Readmission for Diabetes

Authors: Vincent Liu


Machine learning algorithms (ML) can achieve high accuracy in predicting outcomes compared to classical models. Metaheuristic, nature-inspired algorithms can enhance traditional ML algorithms by optimizing them such as by performing feature selection. We compare ten ML algorithms to predict 30-day hospital readmission rates for diabetes patients in the US using a dataset from UCI Machine Learning Repository with feature selection performed by Greywolf nature-inspired algorithm. The baseline accuracy for the initial random forest model was 65%. After performing feature engineering, SMOTE for class balancing, and Greywolf optimization, the machine learning algorithms showed better metrics, including F1 scores, accuracy, and confusion matrix with improvements ranging in 10%-30%, and a best model of XGBoost with an accuracy of 95%. Applying machine learning this way can improve patient outcomes as unnecessary rehospitalizations can be prevented by focusing on patients that are at a higher risk of readmission.

Keywords: diabetes, machine learning, 30-day readmission, metaheuristic

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3457 The Impact of Major Accounting Events on Managerial Ability and the Accuracy of Environmental Capital Expenditure Projections of the Environmentally Sensitive Industries

Authors: Jason Chen, Jennifer Chen, Shiyu Li


We examine whether managerial ability (MA), the passing of Sarbanes-Oxley in 2002 (SOX), and corporate operational complexity affect the accuracy of environmental capital expenditure projections of the environmentally sensitive industries (ESI). Prior studies found that firms in the ESI manipulated their projected environmental capital expenditures as a tool to achieve corporate legitimation and suggested that human factors must be examined to determine whether they are part of the determinants. We use MA to proxy for the latent human factors to examine whether MA affects the accuracy of financial disclosures in the ESI. To expand Chen and Chen (2020), we further investigate whether (1) SOX and (2) firms with complex operations and financial reporting in conjunction with MA affect firms’ projection accuracy. We find, overall, that MA is positively correlated with firm’s projection accuracy in the annual 10-Ks. Furthermore, results suggest that SOX has a positive, yet temporary, effect on MA, and that leads to better accuracy. Finally, MA matters for firms with more complex operations and financial reporting to make less projection errors than their less-complex counterparts. These results suggest that MA is a determinant that affects the accuracy of environmental capital expenditure projections for the firms in the ESI.

Keywords: managerial ability, environmentally sensitive industries, sox, corporate operational complexity

Procedia PDF Downloads 99
3456 Research on Development and Accuracy Improvement of an Explosion Proof Combustible Gas Leak Detector Using an IR Sensor

Authors: Gyoutae Park, Seungho Han, Byungduk Kim, Youngdo Jo, Yongsop Shim, Yeonjae Lee, Sangguk Ahn, Hiesik Kim, Jungil Park


In this paper, we presented not only development technology of an explosion proof type and portable combustible gas leak detector but also algorithm to improve accuracy for measuring gas concentrations. The presented techniques are to apply the flame-proof enclosure and intrinsic safe explosion proof to an infrared gas leak detector at first in Korea and to improve accuracy using linearization recursion equation and Lagrange interpolation polynomial. Together, we tested sensor characteristics and calibrated suitable input gases and output voltages. Then, we advanced the performances of combustible gaseous detectors through reflecting demands of gas safety management fields. To check performances of two company's detectors, we achieved the measurement tests with eight standard gases made by Korea Gas Safety Corporation. We demonstrated our instruments better in detecting accuracy other than detectors through experimental results.

Keywords: accuracy improvement, IR gas sensor, gas leak, detector

Procedia PDF Downloads 350
3455 A Study of ZY3 Satellite Digital Elevation Model Verification and Refinement with Shuttle Radar Topography Mission

Authors: Bo Wang


As the first high-resolution civil optical satellite, ZY-3 satellite is able to obtain high-resolution multi-view images with three linear array sensors. The images can be used to generate Digital Elevation Models (DEM) through dense matching of stereo images. However, due to the clouds, forest, water and buildings covered on the images, there are some problems in the dense matching results such as outliers and areas failed to be matched (matching holes). This paper introduced an algorithm to verify the accuracy of DEM that generated by ZY-3 satellite with Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). Since the accuracy of SRTM (Internal accuracy: 5 m; External accuracy: 15 m) is relatively uniform in the worldwide, it may be used to improve the accuracy of ZY-3 DEM. Based on the analysis of mass DEM and SRTM data, the processing can be divided into two aspects. The registration of ZY-3 DEM and SRTM can be firstly performed using the conjugate line features and area features matched between these two datasets. Then the ZY-3 DEM can be refined by eliminating the matching outliers and filling the matching holes. The matching outliers can be eliminated based on the statistics on Local Vector Binning (LVB). The matching holes can be filled by the elevation interpolated from SRTM. Some works are also conducted for the accuracy statistics of the ZY-3 DEM.

Keywords: ZY-3 satellite imagery, DEM, SRTM, refinement

Procedia PDF Downloads 303
3454 Reliability of Diffusion Tensor Imaging in Differentiation of Salivary Gland Tumors

Authors: Sally Salah El Menshawy, Ghada M. Ahmed GabAllah, Doaa Khedr M. Khedr


Background: Our study aims to detect the diagnostic role of DTI in the differentiation of salivary glands benign and malignant lesions. Results: Our study included 50 patients (25males and 25 females) divided into 4 groups (benign lesions n=20, malignant tumors n=13, post-operative changes n=10 and normal n=7). 28 patients were with parotid gland lesions, 4 patients were with submandibular gland lesions and only 1 case with sublingual gland affection. The mean fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of malignant salivary gland tumors (n = 13) (0.380±0.082 and 0.877±0.234× 10⁻³ mm² s⁻¹) were significantly different (P<0.001) than that of benign tumors (n = 20) (0.147±0.03 and 1.47±0.605 × 10⁻³ mm² s⁻¹), respectively. The mean FA and ADC of post-operative changes (n = 10) were (0.211±0.069 and 1.63±0.20× 10⁻³ mm² s⁻¹) while that of normal glands (n =7) was (0.251±0.034and 1.54±0.29× 10⁻³ mm² s⁻¹), respectively. Using ADC to differentiate malignant lesions from benign lesions has an (AUC) of 0.810, with an accuracy of 69.7%. ADC used to differentiate malignant lesions from post-operative changes has (AUC) of 1.0, and an accuracy of 95.7%. FA used to discriminate malignant from benign lesions has (AUC) of 1.0, and an accuracy of 93.9%. FA used to differentiate malignant from post-operative changes has (AUC) of 0.923, and an accuracy of 95.7%. Combined FA and ADC used to differentiate malignant from benign lesions has (AUC) of 1.0, and an accuracy of 100%. Combined FA and ADC used to differentiate malignant from post-operative changes has (AUC) of 1.0, and an accuracy of 100%. Conclusion: Combined FA and ADC can differentiate malignant tumors from benign salivary gland lesions.

Keywords: diffusion tensor imaging, MRI, salivary gland, tumors

Procedia PDF Downloads 67
3453 Using Machine Learning to Classify Different Body Parts and Determine Healthiness

Authors: Zachary Pan


Our general mission is to solve the problem of classifying images into different body part types and deciding if each of them is healthy or not. However, for now, we will determine healthiness for only one-sixth of the body parts, specifically the chest. We will detect pneumonia in X-ray scans of those chest images. With this type of AI, doctors can use it as a second opinion when they are taking CT or X-ray scans of their patients. Another ad-vantage of using this machine learning classifier is that it has no human weaknesses like fatigue. The overall ap-proach to this problem is to split the problem into two parts: first, classify the image, then determine if it is healthy. In order to classify the image into a specific body part class, the body parts dataset must be split into test and training sets. We can then use many models, like neural networks or logistic regression models, and fit them using the training set. Now, using the test set, we can obtain a realistic accuracy the models will have on images in the real world since these testing images have never been seen by the models before. In order to increase this testing accuracy, we can also apply many complex algorithms to the models, like multiplicative weight update. For the second part of the problem, to determine if the body part is healthy, we can have another dataset consisting of healthy and non-healthy images of the specific body part and once again split that into the test and training sets. We then use another neural network to train on those training set images and use the testing set to figure out its accuracy. We will do this process only for the chest images. A major conclusion reached is that convolutional neural networks are the most reliable and accurate at image classification. In classifying the images, the logistic regression model, the neural network, neural networks with multiplicative weight update, neural networks with the black box algorithm, and the convolutional neural network achieved 96.83 percent accuracy, 97.33 percent accuracy, 97.83 percent accuracy, 96.67 percent accuracy, and 98.83 percent accuracy, respectively. On the other hand, the overall accuracy of the model that de-termines if the images are healthy or not is around 78.37 percent accuracy.

Keywords: body part, healthcare, machine learning, neural networks

Procedia PDF Downloads 61
3452 Discussion as a Means to Improve Peer Assessment Accuracy

Authors: Jung Ae Park, Jooyong Park


Writing is an important learning activity that cultivates higher level thinking. Effective and immediate feedback is necessary to help improve students' writing skills. Peer assessment can be an effective method in writing tasks because it makes it possible for students not only to receive quick feedback on their writing but also to get a chance to examine different perspectives on the same topic. Peer assessment can be practiced frequently and has the advantage of immediate feedback. However, there is controversy about the accuracy of peer assessment. In this study, we tried to demonstrate experimentally how the accuracy of peer assessment could be improved. Participants (n=76) were randomly assigned to groups of 4 members. All the participant graded two sets of 4 essays on the same topic. They graded the first set twice, and the second set or the posttest once. After the first grading of the first set, each group in the experimental condition 1 (discussion group), were asked to discuss the results of the peer assessment and then to grade the essays again. Each group in the experimental condition 2 (reading group), were asked to read the assessment on each essay by an expert and then to grade the essays again. In the control group, the participants were asked to grade the 4 essays twice in different orders. Afterwards, all the participants graded the second set of 4 essays. The mean score from 4 participants was calculated for each essay. The accuracy of the peer assessment was measured by Pearson correlation with the scores of the expert. The results were analyzed by two-way repeated measure ANOVA. The main effect of grading was observed: Grading accuracy got better as the number of grading experience increased. Analysis of posttest accuracy revealed that the score variations within a group of 4 participants decreased in both discussion and reading conditions but not in the control condition. These results suggest that having students discuss their grading together can be an efficient means to improve peer assessment accuracy. By discussing, students can learn from others about what to consider in grading and whether their grading is too strict or lenient. Further research is needed to examine the exact cause of the grading accuracy.

Keywords: peer assessment, evaluation accuracy, discussion, score variations

Procedia PDF Downloads 231
3451 Variable-Fidelity Surrogate Modelling with Kriging

Authors: Selvakumar Ulaganathan, Ivo Couckuyt, Francesco Ferranti, Tom Dhaene, Eric Laermans


Variable-fidelity surrogate modelling offers an efficient way to approximate function data available in multiple degrees of accuracy each with varying computational cost. In this paper, a Kriging-based variable-fidelity surrogate modelling approach is introduced to approximate such deterministic data. Initially, individual Kriging surrogate models, which are enhanced with gradient data of different degrees of accuracy, are constructed. Then these Gradient enhanced Kriging surrogate models are strategically coupled using a recursive CoKriging formulation to provide an accurate surrogate model for the highest fidelity data. While, intuitively, gradient data is useful to enhance the accuracy of surrogate models, the primary motivation behind this work is to investigate if it is also worthwhile incorporating gradient data of varying degrees of accuracy.

Keywords: Kriging, CoKriging, Surrogate modelling, Variable- fidelity modelling, Gradients

Procedia PDF Downloads 514
3450 Factors Impacting Geostatistical Modeling Accuracy and Modeling Strategy of Fluvial Facies Models

Authors: Benbiao Song, Yan Gao, Zhuo Liu


Geostatistical modeling is the key technic for reservoir characterization, the quality of geological models will influence the prediction of reservoir performance greatly, but few studies have been done to quantify the factors impacting geostatistical reservoir modeling accuracy. In this study, 16 fluvial prototype models have been established to represent different geological complexity, 6 cases range from 16 to 361 wells were defined to reproduce all those 16 prototype models by different methodologies including SIS, object-based and MPFS algorithms accompany with different constraint parameters. Modeling accuracy ratio was defined to quantify the influence of each factor, and ten realizations were averaged to represent each accuracy ratio under the same modeling condition and parameters association. Totally 5760 simulations were done to quantify the relative contribution of each factor to the simulation accuracy, and the results can be used as strategy guide for facies modeling in the similar condition. It is founded that data density, geological trend and geological complexity have great impact on modeling accuracy. Modeling accuracy may up to 90% when channel sand width reaches up to 1.5 times of well space under whatever condition by SIS and MPFS methods. When well density is low, the contribution of geological trend may increase the modeling accuracy from 40% to 70%, while the use of proper variogram may have very limited contribution for SIS method. It can be implied that when well data are dense enough to cover simple geobodies, few efforts were needed to construct an acceptable model, when geobodies are complex with insufficient data group, it is better to construct a set of robust geological trend than rely on a reliable variogram function. For object-based method, the modeling accuracy does not increase obviously as SIS method by the increase of data density, but kept rational appearance when data density is low. MPFS methods have the similar trend with SIS method, but the use of proper geological trend accompany with rational variogram may have better modeling accuracy than MPFS method. It implies that the geological modeling strategy for a real reservoir case needs to be optimized by evaluation of dataset, geological complexity, geological constraint information and the modeling objective.

Keywords: fluvial facies, geostatistics, geological trend, modeling strategy, modeling accuracy, variogram

Procedia PDF Downloads 225
3449 Dimensional Accuracy of CNTs/PMMA Parts and Holes Produced by Laser Cutting

Authors: A. Karimzad Ghavidel, M. Zadshakouyan


Laser cutting is a very common production method for cutting 2D polymeric parts. Developing of polymer composites with nano-fibers makes important their other properties like laser workability. The aim of this research is investigation of the influence different laser cutting conditions on the dimensional accuracy of parts and holes from poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA)/carbon nanotubes (CNTs) material. Experiments were carried out by considering of CNTs (in four level 0,0.5, 1 and 1.5% wt.%), laser power (60, 80, and 100 watt) and cutting speed 20, 30, and 40 mm/s as input variable factors. The results reveal that CNTs adding improves the laser workability of PMMA and the increasing of power has a significant effect on the part and hole size. The findings also show cutting speed is effective parameter on the size accuracy. Eventually, the statistical analysis of results was done, and calculated mathematical equations by the regression are presented for determining relation between input and output factor.

Keywords: dimensional accuracy, PMMA, CNTs, laser cutting

Procedia PDF Downloads 269
3448 Accuracy Improvement of Traffic Participant Classification Using Millimeter-Wave Radar by Leveraging Simulator Based on Domain Adaptation

Authors: Tokihiko Akita, Seiichi Mita


A millimeter-wave radar is the most robust against adverse environments, making it an essential environment recognition sensor for automated driving. However, the reflection signal is sparse and unstable, so it is difficult to obtain the high recognition accuracy. Deep learning provides high accuracy even for them in recognition, but requires large scale datasets with ground truth. Specially, it takes a lot of cost to annotate for a millimeter-wave radar. For the solution, utilizing a simulator that can generate an annotated huge dataset is effective. Simulation of the radar is more difficult to match with real world data than camera image, and recognition by deep learning with higher-order features using the simulator causes further deviation. We have challenged to improve the accuracy of traffic participant classification by fusing simulator and real-world data with domain adaptation technique. Experimental results with the domain adaptation network created by us show that classification accuracy can be improved even with a few real-world data.

Keywords: millimeter-wave radar, object classification, deep learning, simulation, domain adaptation

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3447 Measurement of IMRT Dose Distribution in Rando Head and Neck Phantom using EBT3 Film

Authors: Pegah Safavi, Mehdi Zehtabian, Mohammad Amin Mosleh-Shirazi


Cancer is one of the leading causes of death in the world. Radiation therapy is one of the main choices for cancer treatment. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy is a new type of radiation therapy technique available for vital structures such as the parathyroid glands. It is very important to check the accuracy of the delivered IMRT treatment because any mistake may lead to more complications for the patient. This paper describes an experiment to determine the accuracy of a dose measured by EBT3 film. To test this method, the EBT3 film on the head and neck of the Rando phantom was irradiated by an IMRT device and the irradiation was repeated twice. Finally, the dose designed by the irradiation system was compared with the dose measured by the EBT3 film. Using this criterion, the accuracy of the EBT3 film was evaluated. When using this criterion, a 95% agreement was reached between the planned treatment and the measured values.

Keywords: EBT3, phantom, accuracy, cancer, IMRT

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3446 Single Imputation for Audiograms

Authors: Sarah Beaver, Renee Bryce


Audiograms detect hearing impairment, but missing values pose problems. This work explores imputations in an attempt to improve accuracy. This work implements Linear Regression, Lasso, Linear Support Vector Regression, Bayesian Ridge, K Nearest Neighbors (KNN), and Random Forest machine learning techniques to impute audiogram frequencies ranging from 125Hz to 8000Hz. The data contains patients who had or were candidates for cochlear implants. Accuracy is compared across two different Nested Cross-Validation k values. Over 4000 audiograms were used from 800 unique patients. Additionally, training on data combines and compares left and right ear audiograms versus single ear side audiograms. The accuracy achieved using Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) values for the best models for Random Forest ranges from 4.74 to 6.37. The R\textsuperscript{2} values for the best models for Random Forest ranges from .91 to .96. The accuracy achieved using RMSE values for the best models for KNN ranges from 5.00 to 7.72. The R\textsuperscript{2} values for the best models for KNN ranges from .89 to .95. The best imputation models received R\textsuperscript{2} between .89 to .96 and RMSE values less than 8dB. We also show that the accuracy of classification predictive models performed better with our best imputation models versus constant imputations by a two percent increase.

Keywords: machine learning, audiograms, data imputations, single imputations

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3445 Automatic Tagging and Accuracy in Assamese Text Data

Authors: Chayanika Hazarika Bordoloi


This paper is an attempt to work on a highly inflectional language called Assamese. This is also one of the national languages of India and very little has been achieved in terms of computational research. Building a language processing tool for a natural language is not very smooth as the standard and language representation change at various levels. This paper presents inflectional suffixes of Assamese verbs and how the statistical tools, along with linguistic features, can improve the tagging accuracy. Conditional random fields (CRF tool) was used to automatically tag and train the text data; however, accuracy was improved after linguistic featured were fed into the training data. Assamese is a highly inflectional language; hence, it is challenging to standardizing its morphology. Inflectional suffixes are used as a feature of the text data. In order to analyze the inflections of Assamese word forms, a list of suffixes is prepared. This list comprises suffixes, comprising of all possible suffixes that various categories can take is prepared. Assamese words can be classified into inflected classes (noun, pronoun, adjective and verb) and un-inflected classes (adverb and particle). The corpus used for this morphological analysis has huge tokens. The corpus is a mixed corpus and it has given satisfactory accuracy. The accuracy rate of the tagger has gradually improved with the modified training data.

Keywords: CRF, morphology, tagging, tagset

Procedia PDF Downloads 158
3444 Detection and Classification of Myocardial Infarction Using New Extracted Features from Standard 12-Lead ECG Signals

Authors: Naser Safdarian, Nader Jafarnia Dabanloo


In this paper we used four features i.e. Q-wave integral, QRS complex integral, T-wave integral and total integral as extracted feature from normal and patient ECG signals to detection and localization of myocardial infarction (MI) in left ventricle of heart. In our research we focused on detection and localization of MI in standard ECG. We use the Q-wave integral and T-wave integral because this feature is important impression in detection of MI. We used some pattern recognition method such as Artificial Neural Network (ANN) to detect and localize the MI. Because these methods have good accuracy for classification of normal and abnormal signals. We used one type of Radial Basis Function (RBF) that called Probabilistic Neural Network (PNN) because of its nonlinearity property, and used other classifier such as k-Nearest Neighbors (KNN), Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) and Naive Bayes Classification. We used PhysioNet database as our training and test data. We reached over 80% for accuracy in test data for localization and over 95% for detection of MI. Main advantages of our method are simplicity and its good accuracy. Also we can improve accuracy of classification by adding more features in this method. A simple method based on using only four features which extracted from standard ECG is presented which has good accuracy in MI localization.

Keywords: ECG signal processing, myocardial infarction, features extraction, pattern recognition

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3443 Vertical Accuracy Evaluation of Indian National DEM (CartoDEM v3) Using Dual Frequency GNSS Derived Ground Control Points for Lower Tapi Basin, Western India

Authors: Jaypalsinh B. Parmar, Pintu Nakrani, Ashish Chaurasia


Digital Elevation Model (DEM) is considered as an important data in GIS-based terrain analysis for many applications and assessment of processes such as environmental and climate change studies, hydrologic modelling, etc. Vertical accuracy of DEM having geographically dynamic nature depends on different parameters which affect the model simulation outcomes. Vertical accuracy assessment in Indian landscape especially in low-lying coastal urban terrain such as lower Tapi Basin is very limited. In the present study, attempt has been made to evaluate the vertical accuracy of 30m resolution open source Indian National Cartosat-1 DEM v3 for Lower Tapi Basin (LTB) from western India. The extensive field investigation is carried out using stratified random fast static DGPS survey in the entire study region, and 117 high accuracy ground control points (GCPs) have been obtained. The above open source DEM was compared with obtained GCPs, and different statistical attributes were envisaged, and vertical error histograms were also evaluated.

Keywords: CartoDEM, Digital Elevation Model, GPS, lower Tapi basin

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3442 Multichannel Surface Electromyography Trajectories for Hand Movement Recognition Using Intrasubject and Intersubject Evaluations

Authors: Christina Adly, Meena Abdelmeseeh, Tamer Basha


This paper proposes a system for hand movement recognition using multichannel surface EMG(sEMG) signals obtained from 40 subjects using 40 different exercises, which are available on the Ninapro(Non-Invasive Adaptive Prosthetics) database. First, we applied processing methods to the raw sEMG signals to convert them to their amplitudes. Second, we used deep learning methods to solve our problem by passing the preprocessed signals to Fully connected neural networks(FCNN) and recurrent neural networks(RNN) with Long Short Term Memory(LSTM). Using intrasubject evaluation, The accuracy using the FCNN is 72%, with a processing time for training around 76 minutes, and for RNN's accuracy is 79.9%, with 8 minutes and 22 seconds processing time. Third, we applied some postprocessing methods to improve the accuracy, like majority voting(MV) and Movement Error Rate(MER). The accuracy after applying MV is 75% and 86% for FCNN and RNN, respectively. The MER value has an inverse relationship with the prediction delay while varying the window length for measuring the MV. The different part uses the RNN with the intersubject evaluation. The experimental results showed that to get a good accuracy for testing with reasonable processing time, we should use around 20 subjects.

Keywords: hand movement recognition, recurrent neural network, movement error rate, intrasubject evaluation, intersubject evaluation

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3441 Mathematical Modeling of the Working Principle of Gravity Gradient Instrument

Authors: Danni Cong, Meiping Wu, Hua Mu, Xiaofeng He, Junxiang Lian, Juliang Cao, Shaokun Cai, Hao Qin


Gravity field is of great significance in geoscience, national economy and national security, and gravitational gradient measurement has been extensively studied due to its higher accuracy than gravity measurement. Gravity gradient sensor, being one of core devices of the gravity gradient instrument, plays a key role in measuring accuracy. Therefore, this paper starts from analyzing the working principle of the gravity gradient sensor by Newton’s law, and then considers the relative motion between inertial and non-inertial systems to build a relatively adequate mathematical model, laying a foundation for the measurement error calibration, measurement accuracy improvement.

Keywords: gravity gradient, gravity gradient sensor, accelerometer, single-axis rotation modulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 274
3440 D-Wave Quantum Computing Ising Model: A Case Study for Forecasting of Heat Waves

Authors: Dmytro Zubov, Francesco Volponi


In this paper, D-Wave quantum computing Ising model is used for the forecasting of positive extremes of daily mean air temperature. Forecast models are designed with two to five qubits, which represent 2-, 3-, 4-, and 5-day historical data respectively. Ising model’s real-valued weights and dimensionless coefficients are calculated using daily mean air temperatures from 119 places around the world, as well as sea level (Aburatsu, Japan). In comparison with current methods, this approach is better suited to predict heat wave values because it does not require the estimation of a probability distribution from scarce observations. Proposed forecast quantum computing algorithm is simulated based on traditional computer architecture and combinatorial optimization of Ising model parameters for the Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport dataset with 1-day lead-time on learning sample (1975-2010 yr). Analysis of the forecast accuracy (ratio of successful predictions to total number of predictions) on the validation sample (2011-2014 yr) shows that Ising model with three qubits has 100 % accuracy, which is quite significant as compared to other methods. However, number of identified heat waves is small (only one out of nineteen in this case). Other models with 2, 4, and 5 qubits have 20 %, 3.8 %, and 3.8 % accuracy respectively. Presented three-qubit forecast model is applied for prediction of heat waves at other five locations: Aurel Vlaicu, Romania – accuracy is 28.6 %; Bratislava, Slovakia – accuracy is 21.7 %; Brussels, Belgium – accuracy is 33.3 %; Sofia, Bulgaria – accuracy is 50 %; Akhisar, Turkey – accuracy is 21.4 %. These predictions are not ideal, but not zeros. They can be used independently or together with other predictions generated by different method(s). The loss of human life, as well as environmental, economic, and material damage, from extreme air temperatures could be reduced if some of heat waves are predicted. Even a small success rate implies a large socio-economic benefit.

Keywords: heat wave, D-wave, forecast, Ising model, quantum computing

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3439 Large-Scale Electroencephalogram Biometrics through Contrastive Learning

Authors: Mostafa ‘Neo’ Mohsenvand, Mohammad Rasool Izadi, Pattie Maes


EEG-based biometrics (user identification) has been explored on small datasets of no more than 157 subjects. Here we show that the accuracy of modern supervised methods falls rapidly as the number of users increases to a few thousand. Moreover, supervised methods require a large amount of labeled data for training which limits their applications in real-world scenarios where acquiring data for training should not take more than a few minutes. We show that using contrastive learning for pre-training, it is possible to maintain high accuracy on a dataset of 2130 subjects while only using a fraction of labels. We compare 5 different self-supervised tasks for pre-training of the encoder where our proposed method achieves the accuracy of 96.4%, improving the baseline supervised models by 22.75% and the competing self-supervised model by 3.93%. We also study the effects of the length of the signal and the number of channels on the accuracy of the user-identification models. Our results reveal that signals from temporal and frontal channels contain more identifying features compared to other channels.

Keywords: brainprint, contrastive learning, electroencephalo-gram, self-supervised learning, user identification

Procedia PDF Downloads 120
3438 Optimizing Communications Overhead in Heterogeneous Distributed Data Streams

Authors: Rashi Bhalla, Russel Pears, M. Asif Naeem


In this 'Information Explosion Era' analyzing data 'a critical commodity' and mining knowledge from vertically distributed data stream incurs huge communication cost. However, an effort to decrease the communication in the distributed environment has an adverse influence on the classification accuracy; therefore, a research challenge lies in maintaining a balance between transmission cost and accuracy. This paper proposes a method based on Bayesian inference to reduce the communication volume in a heterogeneous distributed environment while retaining prediction accuracy. Our experimental evaluation reveals that a significant reduction in communication can be achieved across a diverse range of dataset types.

Keywords: big data, bayesian inference, distributed data stream mining, heterogeneous-distributed data

Procedia PDF Downloads 113
3437 Neural Network based Risk Detection for Dyslexia and Dysgraphia in Sinhala Language Speaking Children

Authors: Budhvin T. Withana, Sulochana Rupasinghe


The educational system faces a significant concern with regards to Dyslexia and Dysgraphia, which are learning disabilities impacting reading and writing abilities. This is particularly challenging for children who speak the Sinhala language due to its complexity and uniqueness. Commonly used methods to detect the risk of Dyslexia and Dysgraphia rely on subjective assessments, leading to limited coverage and time-consuming processes. Consequently, delays in diagnoses and missed opportunities for early intervention can occur. To address this issue, the project developed a hybrid model that incorporates various deep learning techniques to detect the risk of Dyslexia and Dysgraphia. Specifically, Resnet50, VGG16, and YOLOv8 models were integrated to identify handwriting issues. The outputs of these models were then combined with other input data and fed into an MLP model. Hyperparameters of the MLP model were fine-tuned using Grid Search CV, enabling the identification of optimal values for the model. This approach proved to be highly effective in accurately predicting the risk of Dyslexia and Dysgraphia, providing a valuable tool for early detection and intervention. The Resnet50 model exhibited a training accuracy of 0.9804 and a validation accuracy of 0.9653. The VGG16 model achieved a training accuracy of 0.9991 and a validation accuracy of 0.9891. The MLP model demonstrated impressive results with a training accuracy of 0.99918, a testing accuracy of 0.99223, and a loss of 0.01371. These outcomes showcase the high accuracy achieved by the proposed hybrid model in predicting the risk of Dyslexia and Dysgraphia.

Keywords: neural networks, risk detection system, dyslexia, dysgraphia, deep learning, learning disabilities, data science

Procedia PDF Downloads 21