Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9

Search results for: Kitti K. Outlaw

9 Rearrangement and Depletion of Human Skin Folate after UVA Exposure

Authors: Luai Z. Hasoun, Steven W. Bailey, Kitti K. Outlaw, June E. Ayling


Human skin color is thought to have evolved to balance sufficient photochemical synthesis of vitamin D versus the need to protect not only DNA but also folate from degradation by ultraviolet light (UV). Although the risk of DNA damage and subsequent skin cancer is related to light skin color, the effect of UV on skin folate of any species is unknown. Here we show that UVA irradiation at 13 mW/cm2 for a total exposure of 187 J/cm2 (similar to a maximal daily equatorial dose) induced a significant loss of total folate in epidermis of ex vivo white skin. No loss was observed in black skin samples, or in the dermis of either color. Interestingly, while the concentration of 5 methyltetrahydrofolate (5-MTHF) fell in white epidermis, a concomitant increase of tetrahydrofolic acid was found, though not enough to maintain the total pool. These results demonstrate that UVA indeed not only decreases folate in skin, but also rearranges the pool components. This could be due in part to the reported increase of NADPH oxidase activity upon UV irradiation, which in turn depletes the NADPH needed for 5-MTHF biosynthesis by 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase. The increased tetrahydrofolic acid might further support production of the nucleotide bases needed for DNA repair. However, total folate was lost at a rate that could, with strong or continuous enough exposure to ultraviolet radiation, substantially deplete light colored skin locally, and also put pressure on total body stores for individuals with low intake of folate.

Keywords: depletion, folate, human skin, ultraviolet

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8 Case Study of Gender Mainstreaming in Rand Water: A Journey of Transformation

Authors: Saki Makume


Misogyny is a serious problem in the world that is predominantly patriarchal. South Africa is a very unequal society, so are the companies in this country. After 1994, laws were promulgated to outlaw unfair discrimination, amongst them discrimination based on gender. The presentation aims to share the experiences and learnings of Rand Water through its transformation journey. The environment was so hostile to women in the workplace that policies and practices excluded or unfairly discriminated against women. The paper will be in the form of a case study, predominantly qualitative and to a lesser extent quantitative. The results will show that the number of women at Board, Executive and Management levels have increased; and policies amended to be gender sensitive. Policies were developed that specifically protected women’s rights e.g. sexual harassment. A program like TechnoGirl was introduced to lure girl learners to Rand Water.

Keywords: gender mainstreaming, policies, transformation, unfair discrimination

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7 Transcending or Going beyond the Concept of Race

Authors: Ovett Nwosimiri


Historically the concept of race has played a significant part in the existence of African philosophy. Race, as part of the historical events, has been used as a reason for colonization. In recent years, there has been a numerous work on the concept of race. Some philosophers have devoted their time to the discourse of race and to understand the ascription of the race. These philosophers have dedicated their time and energy to the concept of race. Philosophers, like Joshua Glasgow, W. E. B. Du Bois, Lucius Outlaw, Kwame Anthony Appiah, Naomi Zack, Emmanuel C. Eze and many others took up the task to explain the concept of race, and also to explain in their view whether the concept of race should be conserved or eliminated. According to the eliminativists, the concept of race should be eliminated. According to the conservationists, the concept of race should be conserved. The aim of this paper is to look at the possibility of transcending the concept of race. In order to do this, the paper will briefly explain Joshua Glasgow’ idea theory of ‘racial reconstructionism’, and it will propose a theory of ‘racial transcendentalism’ as a way of transcending the concept of race. The paper will argue that we should see the concept of race as a concept that has a future beyond the mere meaning and ideas that call for its elimination or conservation.

Keywords: conservationists, eliminativists, race, transcending

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6 Power Transformer Risk-Based Maintenance by Optimization of Transformer Condition and Transformer Importance

Authors: Kitti Leangkrua


This paper presents a risk-based maintenance strategy of a power transformer in order to optimize operating and maintenance costs. The methodology involves the study and preparation of a database for the collection the technical data and test data of a power transformer. An evaluation of the overall condition of each transformer is performed by a program developed as a result of the measured results; in addition, the calculation of the main equipment separation to the overall condition of the transformer (% HI) and the criteria for evaluating the importance (% ImI) of each location where the transformer is installed. The condition assessment is performed by analysis test data such as electrical test, insulating oil test and visual inspection. The condition of the power transformer will be classified from very poor to very good condition. The importance is evaluated from load criticality, importance of load and failure consequence. The risk matrix is developed for evaluating the risk of each power transformer. The high risk power transformer will be focused firstly. The computerized program is developed for practical use, and the maintenance strategy of a power transformer can be effectively managed.

Keywords: asset management, risk-based maintenance, power transformer, health index

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5 A Study on Al-Riba Al-Hukmi and Its Instances from View of Islam

Authors: Abolfazl Alishahi Ghalehjoughi, Bi Bi Zeinab Hoseni


Islam is a comprehensive religion, and has rules for any thing. Islam attaches respect and importance to properties as well, and outlaws some types of transaction. A type of transaction that is strictly forbidden by the Islam is riba (usury), for which special punishments is considered in the Qur’an and hadiths. Usury is divided into (riba qarzi) loan usury and riba muamili (transaction usury); sometimes, in transaction and interest free loan contracts, ziyadah aini (interest in kind and of the same kind as that of the object of transaction) is not stipulated, but performance of work, provision of an advantage or a service, or a respite is stipulated, in which case although no ziyadah aini is in place, the transaction still constitutes usury and is outlaw. For instance, if a bank stipulates in an interest free loan contract that it pays a person the interest free loan only if he/she deposits a sum in the bank, this is an instance of riba hukmi. Or, for muamilah sarfi (transaction is which object of transaction and consideration is gold or silver) to be legitimate, it necessary that both the object of transaction and the consideration be handed over between the parties, because if a party takes delivery of the considered or object of transaction while the other party does not, the party who has taken delivery will accrue a benefit, as he/she wins time until he/she makes delivery to the other party, and this tantamount to usury in muamilah sarfi. Or, if a person lends a sum to another person, while the lender is indebted to the borrower, if the lender stipulates that he/she lends such amount only if the borrower postpones the maturity date of the lender’s debt to borrower, which is in one month, for a particular period of time, such loan will constitute usury. This research first provides views on riba hukmi, and then proceeds to analysis of views, trying to study fundamentals and proof regarding prohibition of riba hukmi, and to analyze instances of riba hukmi according to religious and hadith books.

Keywords: Islam, riba, prohibition, riba hukmi

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4 Real-Time Multi-Vehicle Tracking Application at Intersections Based on Feature Selection in Combination with Color Attribution

Authors: Qiang Zhang, Xiaojian Hu


In multi-vehicle tracking, based on feature selection, the tracking system efficiently tracks vehicles in a video with minimal error in combination with color attribution, which focuses on presenting a simple and fast, yet accurate and robust solution to the problem such as inaccurately and untimely responses of statistics-based adaptive traffic control system in the intersection scenario. In this study, a real-time tracking system is proposed for multi-vehicle tracking in the intersection scene. Considering the complexity and application feasibility of the algorithm, in the object detection step, the detection result provided by virtual loops were post-processed and then used as the input for the tracker. For the tracker, lightweight methods were designed to extract and select features and incorporate them into the adaptive color tracking (ACT) framework. And the approbatory online feature selection algorithms are integrated on the mature ACT system with good compatibility. The proposed feature selection methods and multi-vehicle tracking method are evaluated on KITTI datasets and show efficient vehicle tracking performance when compared to the other state-of-the-art approaches in the same category. And the system performs excellently on the video sequences recorded at the intersection. Furthermore, the presented vehicle tracking system is suitable for surveillance applications.

Keywords: real-time, multi-vehicle tracking, feature selection, color attribution

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3 Faster Pedestrian Recognition Using Deformable Part Models

Authors: Alessandro Preziosi, Antonio Prioletti, Luca Castangia


Deformable part models achieve high precision in pedestrian recognition, but all publicly available implementations are too slow for real-time applications. We implemented a deformable part model algorithm fast enough for real-time use by exploiting information about the camera position and orientation. This implementation is both faster and more precise than alternative DPM implementations. These results are obtained by computing convolutions in the frequency domain and using lookup tables to speed up feature computation. This approach is almost an order of magnitude faster than the reference DPM implementation, with no loss in precision. Knowing the position of the camera with respect to horizon it is also possible prune many hypotheses based on their size and location. The range of acceptable sizes and positions is set by looking at the statistical distribution of bounding boxes in labelled images. With this approach it is not needed to compute the entire feature pyramid: for example higher resolution features are only needed near the horizon. This results in an increase in mean average precision of 5% and an increase in speed by a factor of two. Furthermore, to reduce misdetections involving small pedestrians near the horizon, input images are supersampled near the horizon. Supersampling the image at 1.5 times the original scale, results in an increase in precision of about 4%. The implementation was tested against the public KITTI dataset, obtaining an 8% improvement in mean average precision over the best performing DPM-based method. By allowing for a small loss in precision computational time can be easily brought down to our target of 100ms per image, reaching a solution that is faster and still more precise than all publicly available DPM implementations.

Keywords: autonomous vehicles, deformable part model, dpm, pedestrian detection, real time

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2 The Role of Autophagy Modulation in Angiotensin-II Induced Hypertrophy

Authors: Kitti Szoke, Laszlo Szoke, Attila Czompa, Arpad Tosaki, Istvan Lekli


Autophagy plays an important role in cardiac hypertrophy, which is one of the most common causes of heart failure in the world. This self-degradative catabolic process, responsible for protein quality control, balancing sources of energy at critical times, and elimination of damaged organelles. The autophagic activity can be triggered by starvation, oxidative stress, or pharmacological agents, like rapamycin. This induced autophagy can promote cell survival during starvation or pathological stress. In this study, it is investigated the effect of the induced autophagic process on angiotensin induced hypertrophic H9c2 cells. In our study, it is used H9c2 cells as an in vitro model. To induce hypertrophy, cells were treated with 10000 nM angiotensin-II, and to activate autophagy, 100 nM rapamycin treatment was used. The following groups were formed: 1: control, 2: 10000 nM AT-II, 3: 100 nM rapamycin, 4: 100 nM rapamycin pretreatment then 10000 nM AT-II. The cell viability was examined via MTT (cell proliferation assay) assay. The cells were stained with rhodamine-conjugated phalloidin and DAPI to visualize F-actin filaments and cell nuclei then the cell size alteration was examined in a fluorescence microscope. Furthermore, the expression levels of autophagic and apoptotic proteins such as Beclin-1, p62, LC3B-II, Cleaved Caspase-3 were evaluated by Western blot. MTT assay result suggests that the used pharmaceutical agents in the tested concentrations did not have a toxic effect; however, at group 3, a slight decrement was detected in cell viability. In response to AT-II treatment, a significant increase was detected in the cell size; cells became hypertrophic. However, rapamycin pretreatment slightly reduced the cell size compared to group 2. Western blot results showed that AT-II treatment-induced autophagy, because the increased expression of Beclin-1, p62, LC3B-II were observed. However, due to the incomplete autophagy, the apoptotic Cleaved Caspase-3 expression also increased. Rapamycin pretreatment up-regulated Beclin-1 and LC3B-II, down-regulated p62 and Cleaved Caspase-3, indicating that rapamycin-induced autophagy can restore the normal autophagic flux. Taken together, our results suggest that rapamycin activated autophagy reduces angiotensin-II induced hypertrophy.

Keywords: angiotensin-II, autophagy, H9c2 cell line, hypertrophy, rapamycin

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1 The Product Innovation Using Nutraceutical Delivery System on Improving Growth Performance of Broiler

Authors: Kitti Supchukun, Kris Angkanaporn, Teerapong Yata


The product innovation using a nutraceutical delivery system on improving the growth performance of broilers is the product planning and development to solve the antibiotics banning policy incurred in the local and global livestock production system. Restricting the use of antibiotics can reduce the quality of chicken meat and increase pathogenic bacterial contamination. Although other alternatives were used to replace antibiotics, the efficacy was inconsistent, reflecting on low chicken growth performance and contaminated products. The product innovation aims to effectively deliver the selected active ingredients into the body. This product is tested on the pharmaceutical lab scale and on the farm-scale for market feasibility in order to create product innovation using the nutraceutical delivery system model. The model establishes the product standardization and traceable quality control process for farmers. The study is performed using mixed methods. Starting with a qualitative method to find the farmers' (consumers) demands and the product standard, then the researcher used the quantitative research method to develop and conclude the findings regarding the acceptance of the technology and product performance. The survey has been sent to different organizations by random sampling among the entrepreneur’s population including integrated broiler farm, broiler farm, and other related organizations. The mixed-method results, both qualitative and quantitative, verify the user and lead users' demands since they provide information about the industry standard, technology preference, developing the right product according to the market, and solutions for the industry problems. The product innovation selected nutraceutical ingredients that can solve the following problems in livestock; bactericidal, anti-inflammation, gut health, antioxidant. The combinations of the selected nutraceutical and nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) technology aim to improve chemical and pharmaceutical components by changing the structure of active ingredients into nanoparticle, which will be released in the targeted location with accurate concentration. The active ingredients in nanoparticle form are more stable, elicit antibacterial activity against pathogenic Salmonella spp and E.coli, balance gut health, have antioxidant and anti-inflammation activity. The experiment results have proven that the nutraceuticals have an antioxidant and antibacterial activity which also increases the average daily gain (ADG), reduces feed conversion ratio (FCR). The results also show a significant impact on the higher European Performance Index that can increase the farmers' profit when exporting. The product innovation will be tested in technology acceptance management methods from farmers and industry. The production of broiler and commercialization analyses are useful to reduce the importation of animal supplements. Most importantly, product innovation is protected by intellectual property.

Keywords: nutraceutical, nano structure lipid carrier, anti-microbial drug resistance, broiler, Salmonella

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