Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 94

Search results for: histology

94 Evaluation of Diagnostic Values of Culture, Rapid Urease Test, and Histopathology in the Diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori Infection and in vitro Effects of Various Antimicrobials against Helicobacter pylori

Authors: Recep Kesli, Huseyin Bilgin, Yasar Unlu, Gokhan Gungor


Aim: The aim of this study, was to investigate the presence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection by culture, histology, and RUT (Rapid Urease Test) in gastric antrum biopsy samples taken from patients presented with dyspeptic complaints and to determine resistance rates of amoxicillin, clarithromycin, levofloxacin and metronidazole against the H. pylori strains by E-test. Material and Methods: A total of 278 patients who admitted to Konya Education and Research Hospital Department of Gastroenterology with dyspeptic complaints, between January 2011-July 2013, were included in the study. Microbiological and histopathological examinations of biopsy specimens taken from antrum and corpus regions were performed. The presence of H. pylori in biopsy samples was investigated by culture (Portagerm pylori-PORT PYL, Pylori agar-PYL, GENbox microaer, bioMerieux, France), histology (Giemsa, Hematoxylin and Eosin staining), and RUT(CLOtest, Cimberly-Clark, USA). Antimicrobial resistance of isolates against amoxicillin, clarithromycin, levofloxacin, and metronidazole was determined by E-test method (bioMerieux, France). As a gold standard in the diagnosis of H. pylori; it was accepted that the culture method alone was positive or both histology and RUT were positive together. Sensitivity and specificity for histology and RUT were calculated by taking the culture as a gold standard. Sensitivity and specificity for culture were also calculated by taking the co-positivity of both histology and RUT as a gold standard. Results: H. pylori was detected in 140 of 278 of patients with culture and 174 of 278 of patients with histology in the study. H. pylori positivity was also found in 191 patients with RUT. According to the gold standard criteria, a false negative result was found in 39 cases by culture method, 17 cases by histology, and 8 cases by RUT. Sensitivity and specificity of the culture, histology, and RUT methods of the patients were 76.5 % and 88.3 %, 87.8 % and 63 %, 94.2 % and 57.2 %, respectively. Antibiotic resistance was investigated by E-test in 140 H. pylori strains isolated from culture. The resistance rates of H. pylori strains to the amoxicillin, clarithromycin, levofloxacin, and metronidazole was detected as 9 (6.4 %), 22 (15.7 %), 17 (12.1 %), 57 (40.7 %), respectively. Conclusion: In our study, RUT was found to be the most sensitive, culture was the most specific test between culture, histology, and RUT methods. Although we detected the specificity of the culture method as high, its sensitivity was found to be quite low compared to other methods. The low sensitivity of H. pylori culture may be caused by the factors affect the chances of direct isolation such as spoild bacterium, difficult-to-breed microorganism, clinical sample retrieval, and transport conditions.

Keywords: antimicrobial resistance, culture, histology, H. pylori, RUT

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93 Effect of Methanolic Extract of Punica granatum L. Fruit Rind on Kidney, Liver Marker Enzymes, Electrolytes, and Their Histology in Normal Healthy Rats

Authors: Y. A. Shettima, M. A. Tijjani, S. Modu, F. I. Abdulrahman, B. M. Abubakar


The toxicity profile of the methanolic extract of Punica granatum L. fruit rind was studied in normal rats. The rats were administered orally by intubating graded doses of 150, 250, 500 and 750 mg/kg body weight of the extract for 28 days and the effects on biochemical parameters and histology of the liver and kidney were evaluated. There was a significant increase (P<0.05) in the levels of liver enzymes of the rats that received the highest dose of 750 mg/kg body weight. The AST and ALT levels were 41.59±0.18 ALP and 9.25±0.29 IU/L, respectively, while the ALP level was 15.68±10 IU/L.There was a significant difference in the albumin and globulin levels; 3.72±0.05 and 4.05±0.13 g/dl, respectively. Serum urea and creatinine levels remained normal, as well as the electrolyte levels. The increase in sodium concentration observed was not statistically significant (P≥0.05) when the control group (131.50±3.11) was compared with the experimental groups (132.25±3.86, 132.75±3.86, 133.50±3.11 and 134.00±1.83). The increase in potassium concentration was not statistically significant (P≥0.05) when the control group with a value of 95.50±3.51 mmol/L was compared with the experimental groups 98.00±3.16, 99.25±2.22, 99.79±0.36 and 99.99±0.02 mmol/L. The increase observed in bicarbonate concentration was not statistically significant (P≥0.05) when the control group with a value of 20.75±1.71 mmol/L was compared with the experimental groups 21.68±0.62, 24.25±2.99, 24.50±3.42, 25.50±2.65 mmol/L.

Keywords: punical granatum, methanolic, ALT, AST, electrolytes, histology

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92 Replacement of Dietary Soybean Meal by Dried Grains with Solubles on Liver Histology of Rainbow Trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss

Authors: Baki Aydin, Erkan Gumus


The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of replacing dietary soybean meal by dried grains with solubles (DDGS) on liver histology of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. Five isoproteic (∼45% crude protein) and isocaloric (∼3570 kcal/kg digestible energy) diets were formulated: Conrol-1 (Fish meal control), Control-2, DDGS33, DDGS66 and DDGS100 which included 0%, 0%, 10%, 20% and 30% DDGS, respectively. Triplicate groups of fish with an average weight of 20.46 g were fed three times a day until apparent satiation during 84 days. The obtained results showed that diameters of hepatocyte nuclei were not statistically different among the groups. The histological examination of liver sections from the fish fed the Control-1 diet showed normal histology, mild cytoplasm vacuoles and appears to be central to hepatocyte nuclei. Fish fed diets containing soybean meal and DDGS presented variable levels of cytoplasmic vacuolization and some with eccentric hepatocyte nuclei. But, fish fed diet soybean meal based control (Control-2) showed the highest hepatocyte nuclei displacement, and cytoplasm vacuoles compared the DDGS30 diet. DDGS20 and DDGS30 fish also showed more regular hepatocytes than in Control-2 fish. The results of this study demonstrated that fish fed diets containing increasing DDGS levels exhibited less histomorphological changes compared the Control-2 diet.

Keywords: DDGS, soybean meal, rainbow trout, hepatocyte

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91 A 3-Year Evaluation Study on Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology and Corresponding Histology

Authors: Amjad Al Shammari, Ashraf Ibrahim, Laila Seada


Background and Objectives: Incidence of thyroid carcinoma has been increasing world-wide. In the present study, we evaluated diagnostic accuracy of Fine needle aspiration (FNA) and its efficiency in early detecting neoplastic lesions of thyroid gland over a 3-year period. Methods: Data have been retrieved from pathology files in King Khalid Hospital. For each patient, age, gender, FNA, site & size of nodule and final histopathologic diagnosis were recorded. Results: Study included 490 cases where 419 of them were female and 71 male. Male to female ratio was 1:6. Mean age was 43 years for males and 38 for females. Cases with confirmed histopathology were 131. In 101/131 (77.1%), concordance was found between FNA and histology. In 30/131 (22.9%), there was discrepancy in diagnosis. Total malignant cases were 43, out of which 14 (32.5%) were true positive and 29 (67.44%) were false negative. No false positive cases could be found in our series. Conclusion: FNA could diagnose benign nodules in all cases, however, in malignant cases, ultrasound findings have to be taken into consideration to avoid missing of a microcarcinoma in the contralateral lobe.

Keywords: FNA, hail, histopathology, thyroid

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90 Monitoring of Endocrine Disruptors in Surface Waters and Sediment from the River Nile (Egypt) by Yeast Assays

Authors: Alaa G. M. Osman, Khaled Y. AbouelFadl, Angela Krüger, Werner Kloas


In Egypt, no previous records are available regarding possible multiple hormonal activities in the aquatic systems and especially the river Nile. In this paper, the in vitro yeast estrogen screen (YES) and yeast androgen screen (YAS) were used to assess the multiple hormonal activities in surface waters and sediment from the Egyptian river Nile for the first time. This study sought to determine if river Nile water caused changes in gonadal histology of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus niloticus). All water samples exhibited extremely low levels of estrogenicity. Estrogenicity was not detected nearly in any of the sediment samples. Unlike the estrogenicity, significant androgenic activities were recorded in the water and sediment samples along the Nile course. The present study reports for the first time quantified anti-estrogenic and anti-androgenic activities with high levels in both water and sediment of the river Nile. The greatest anti-estrogenic and anti-androgenic activities were observed in sample from downstream river Nile. These results indicated that the anti-estrogenic and anti-androgenic activities along the Nile course were great and the pollution of the sites at the downstream was more serious than the upstream sites due to industrial activities at theses sites. Good correlations were observed among some hormonal activities, suggesting coexistence of these contaminants in the environmental matrices. There were no signs of sexual disruption in any of the gonads analysed from either male or female Nile tilapia, demonstrating that any hormonal activity present along the Nile course was not sufficient to induce adverse effects on reproductive development. Further investiga¬tion is necessary to identify the chemicals responsible for the hormonal activities in the river Nile and to examine the effect of very low levels of hormonally active chemicals on gonadal histology, as well as in the development of more sensitive biomarkers.

Keywords: multiple hormonal activities, YES, YAS, river Nile, Nile tilapia, gonadal histology

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89 Study of the Toxic Activity of the Entomopathogenic Fungus Beauveria bassiana on the Wistar Rat Rattus norvegicus

Authors: F. Haddadj, S. Hamdi, A. Milla, S. Zenia, A. Smai, H. Saadi, F. Marniche, B. Doumandji-Mitiche


The use of a biopesticide based on a microorganism scale requires particular care including safety against the useful auxiliary fauna and mammals among other human beings. Due to its persistence in soil and its apparent human and animal safety, Beauveria bassiana is a cryptogram used for controlling pests organizations, particularly in the locust where its effectiveness has been proven. This fungus is also called for greater respect for biotic communities and the environment. Indeed, biopesticides have several environmental benefits: biodegradability, their activity and selectivity decrease unintended non-target species effects, decreased resistance to some of them. It is in this sense that we contribute by presenting our work on the safety of B. bassiana against mammals. For this we conducted a toxicological study of this fungus strain on Wistar rats Rattus norvegicus, first its effect on weight gain. In a second time were performed histological target organ is the liver. After 20 days of treatment, the results of the toxicological studies have shown that B. bassiana caused no change in the physiological state of rats or weight gain, behavior and diet. On cuts in liver histology revealed no disturbance on the organ.

Keywords: B. bassiana, entomopathogenic fungus, histology, Rattus norvegicus

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88 The Diagnostic Utility and Sensitivity of the Xpert® MTB/RIF Assay in Diagnosing Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Bone Marrow Aspirate Specimens

Authors: Nadhiya N. Subramony, Jenifer Vaughan, Lesley E. Scott


In South Africa, the World Health Organisation estimated 454000 new cases of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) infection (MTB) in 2015. Disseminated tuberculosis arises from the haematogenous spread and seeding of the bacilli in extrapulmonary sites. The gold standard for the detection of MTB in bone marrow is TB culture which has an average turnaround time of 6 weeks. Histological examinations of trephine biopsies to diagnose MTB also have a time delay owing mainly to the 5-7 day processing period prior to microscopic examination. Adding to the diagnostic delay is the non-specific nature of granulomatous inflammation which is the hallmark of MTB involvement of the bone marrow. A Ziehl-Neelson stain (which highlights acid-fast bacilli) is therefore mandatory to confirm the diagnosis but can take up to 3 days for processing and evaluation. Owing to this delay in diagnosis, many patients are lost to follow up or remain untreated whilst results are awaited, thus encouraging the spread of undiagnosed TB. The Xpert® MTB/RIF (Cepheid, Sunnyvale, CA) is the molecular test used in the South African national TB program as the initial diagnostic test for pulmonary TB. This study investigates the optimisation and performance of the Xpert® MTB/RIF on bone marrow aspirate specimens (BMA), a first since the introduction of the assay in the diagnosis of extrapulmonary TB. BMA received for immunophenotypic analysis as part of the investigation into disseminated MTB or in the evaluation of cytopenias in immunocompromised patients were used. Processing BMA on the Xpert® MTB/RIF was optimised to ensure bone marrow in EDTA and heparin did not inhibit the PCR reaction. Inactivated M.tb was spiked into the clinical bone marrow specimen and distilled water (as a control). A volume of 500mcl and an incubation time of 15 minutes with sample reagent were investigated as the processing protocol. A total of 135 BMA specimens had sufficient residual volume for Xpert® MTB/RIF testing however 22 specimens (16.3%) were not included in the final statistical analysis as an adequate trephine biopsy and/or TB culture was not available. Xpert® MTB/RIF testing was not affected by BMA material in the presence of heparin or EDTA, but the overall detection of MTB in BMA was low compared to histology and culture. Sensitivity of the Xpert® MTB/RIF compared to both histology and culture was 8.7% (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.07-28.04%) and sensitivity compared to histology only was 11.1% (95% CI: 1.38-34.7%). Specificity of the Xpert® MTB/RIF was 98.9% (95% CI: 93.9-99.7%). Although the Xpert® MTB/RIF generates a faster result than histology and TB culture and is less expensive than culture and drug susceptibility testing, the low sensitivity of the Xpert® MTB/RIF precludes its use for the diagnosis of MTB in bone marrow aspirate specimens and warrants alternative/additional testing to optimise the assay.

Keywords: bone marrow aspirate , extrapulmonary TB, low sensitivity, Xpert® MTB/RIF

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87 Predictive Value of ¹⁸F-Fdg Accumulation in Visceral Fat Activity to Detect Colorectal Cancer Metastases

Authors: Amil Suleimanov, Aigul Saduakassova, Denis Vinnikov


Objective: To assess functional visceral fat (VAT) activity evaluated by ¹⁸F-fluorodeoxyglucose (¹⁸F-FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) as a predictor of metastases in colorectal cancer (CRC). Materials and methods: We assessed 60 patients with histologically confirmed CRC who underwent 18F-FDG PET/CT after a surgical treatment and courses of chemotherapy. Age, histology, stage, and tumor grade were recorded. Functional VAT activity was measured by maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) using ¹⁸F-FDG PET/CT and tested as a predictor of later metastases in eight abdominal locations (RE – Epigastric Region, RLH – Left Hypochondriac Region, RRL – Right Lumbar Region, RU – Umbilical Region, RLL – Left Lumbar Region, RRI – Right Inguinal Region, RP – Hypogastric (Pubic) Region, RLI – Left Inguinal Region) and pelvic cavity (P) in the adjusted regression models. We also report the best areas under the curve (AUC) for SUVmax with the corresponding sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp). Results: In both adjusted for age regression models and ROC analysis, 18F-FDG accumulation in RLH (cutoff SUVmax 0.74; Se 75%; Sp 61%; AUC 0.668; p = 0.049), RU (cutoff SUVmax 0.78; Se 69%; Sp 61%; AUC 0.679; p = 0.035), RRL (cutoff SUVmax 1.05; Se 69%; Sp 77%; AUC 0.682; p = 0.032) and RRI (cutoff SUVmax 0.85; Se 63%; Sp 61%; AUC 0.672; p = 0.043) could predict later metastases in CRC patients, as opposed to age, sex, primary tumor location, tumor grade and histology. Conclusions: VAT SUVmax is significantly associated with later metastases in CRC patients and can be used as their predictor.

Keywords: ¹⁸F-FDG, PET/CT, colorectal cancer, predictive value

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86 Coherent Optical Tomography Imaging of Epidermal Hyperplasia in Vivo in a Mouse Model of Oxazolone Induced Atopic Dermatitis

Authors: Eric Lacoste


Laboratory animals are currently widely used as a model of human pathologies in dermatology such as atopic dermatitis (AD). These models provide a better understanding of the pathophysiology of this complex and multifactorial disease, the discovery of potential new therapeutic targets and the testing of the efficacy of new therapeutics. However, confirmation of the correct development of AD is mainly based on histology from skin biopsies requiring invasive surgery or euthanasia of the animals, plus slicing and staining protocols. However, there are currently accessible imaging technologies such as Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT), which allows non-invasive visualization of the main histological structures of the skin (like stratum corneum, epidermis, and dermis) and assessment of the dynamics of the pathology or efficacy of new treatments. Briefly, female immunocompetent hairless mice (SKH1 strain) were sensitized and challenged topically on back and ears for about 4 weeks. Back skin and ears thickness were measured using calliper at 3 occasions per week in complement to a macroscopic evaluation of atopic dermatitis lesions on back: erythema, scaling and excoriations scoring. In addition, OCT was performed on the back and ears of animals. OCT allows a virtual in-depth section (tomography) of the imaged organ to be made using a laser, a camera and image processing software allowing fast, non-contact and non-denaturing acquisitions of the explored tissues. To perform the imaging sessions, the animals were anesthetized with isoflurane, placed on a support under the OCT for a total examination time of 5 to 10 minutes. The results show a good correlation of the OCT technique with classical HES histology for skin lesions structures such as hyperkeratosis, epidermal hyperplasia, and dermis thickness. This OCT imaging technique can, therefore, be used in live animals at different times for longitudinal evaluation by repeated measurements of lesions in the same animals, in addition to the classical histological evaluation. Furthermore, this original imaging technique speeds up research protocols, reduces the number of animals and refines the use of the laboratory animal.

Keywords: atopic dermatitis, mouse model, oxzolone model, histology, imaging

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85 Detection the Abundance of Chicken Skin in Hamburger in Tehran

Authors: Ghazanfari Masoumeh, Hajimohammadi Bahador, Eskandari Soheyl, Karimian Khosroshahi Nader


Consumption of ready to cook meat products such as hamburgers, sausages and etc is being increased in the worldwide specially in the big cities , so safety and quality required for food products is very important and vital for consumers with consideration of meat price and increasing demands for meat products, possibility of substitution of cheep and unauthorized textures such as undesirable enclosures animals (massacre, lung tissue, breast of spleen, the organs abdominal cavity, gizzard chicken, skin, etc. ) have increased in the recent years, in this study 30 industrial and 30 handmade hamburgers in fast food restaurants detected out of Iranian national standard for hamburger No. 2304 in using the unauthorized textures. The purpose of this study was to determine using of chicken skin in produced hamburgers from chicken meat in Tehran base on histology methods. The rates of skin used were, 2 % in industrial and 9 % in handmade formula samples. Statistically using the unauthorized textures had significant higher rate in handmade (P < 0.05) in compare with the industrial samples. The results showed the handmade hamburgers with higher adulteration rate and non-compliance with the hamburger national standard could be a potentially health hazard.

Keywords: histology, adulteration, unauthorized textures, undesirable enclosures animals

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84 Effect of Diet Inulin Prebiotic on Growth, Reproductive Performance, Carcass Composition and Resistance to Environmental Stresses in Zebra Danio (Danio rerio)

Authors: Ehsan Ahmadifar


In this research, the effects of different levels (control group (T0), (T1)1, (T2)2 and (T3)3 gr Inulin per Kg diet) of prebiotic Inulin as nutritional supplement on Danio rerio were investigated for 4 month. Since the beginning of feeding larvae until adult (average weight: 67.1 g, length: 4.5 cm) were fed with experimental diets. The survival rate of fish had no significant effect on rate survival (P > 0.05). The highest food conversion ratio (FCR) was in control group and the lowest was observed in T3. Treatment of T3 significantly caused the best feed conversion ratio in Zebra fish (P < 0.05). By increasing the inulin diet during the experiment, specific growth rate increased. The highest and the lowest body weight gain and condition factor were observed in T3 and control, respectively (P < 0.05). Adding 3 gr inulin in Zebra fish diet can improve the performance of the growth indices and final biomass, also this prebiotic can be considered as a suitable supplement for Cyprinidae diet. In the first sampling stage for feeding fish, fat and muscle protein was significantly higher than the second sampling stage (P < 0.05). Given that the second stage fish were full sexual maturity, the amount of fat in muscle decreased (P < 0.05). Moisture and ash levels were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in the second stage sampling than the first stage. Overall, different stage of living affected on muscle chemical composition muscle. Reproductive performance in treatment T2 and T3 were significantly higher than other treatments (P < 0.05). According to the results, the prebiotic inulin does not have a significant impact on the sex ratio in zebrafish (P > 0.05). Based on histology of the gonads, the use of dietary inulin accelerates the process of gonad development in zebrafish.

Keywords: inulin, zebrafish, reproduction, histology

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83 Antioxidant Potential of Pomegranate Rind Extract Attenuates Pain, Inflammation and Bone Damage in Experimental Rats

Authors: Ritu Karwasra, Surender Singh


Inflammation is an important physiological response of the body’s self-defense system that helps in eliminating and protecting organism from harmful stimuli and in tissue repair. It is a highly regulated protective response which helps in eliminating the initial cause of cell injury, and initiates the process of repair. The present study was designed to evaluate the ameliorative effect of pomegranate rind extract on pain and inflammation. Hydroalcoholic standardized rind extract of pomegranate at doses 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg and indomethacin (3 mg/kg) was tested against eddy’s hot plate induced thermal algesia, carrageenan (acute inflammation) and Complete Freund’s Adjuvant (chronic inflammation) induced models in Wistar rats. Parameters analyzed were inhibition of paw edema, measurement of joint diameter, levels of GSH, TBARS, SOD, TNF-α, radiographic imaging, tissue histology and synovial expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine receptor (TNF-R1). Radiological and light microscopical analysis were carried out to find out the bone damage in CFA-induced chronic inflammatory model. Findings of the present study revealed that pomegranate rind extract at a dose of 200 mg/kg caused a significant (p<0.05) reduction in paw swelling in both the inflammatory models. Nociceptive threshold was also significantly (p<0.05) improved. Immunohistochemical analysis of TNF-R1 in CFA-induced group showed elevated level, whereas reduction in level of TNF-R1 was observed in pomegranate (200 mg/kg). Henceforth, we might say that pomegranate produced a dose-dependent reduction in inflammation and pain along with the reduction in levels of oxidative stress markers and tissue histology, and the effect was found to be comparable to that of indomethacin. Thus, it can be concluded that pomegranate is a potential therapeutic target in the pathogenesis of inflammation and pain, and punicalagin is the major constituents found in rind extract might be responsible for the activity.

Keywords: carrageenan, inflammation, nociceptive-threshold, pomegranate, histopathology

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82 Use of Smartphone in Practical Classes to Facilitate Teaching and Learning of Microscopic Analysis and Interpretation of Tissues Sections

Authors: Lise P. Labéjof, Krisnayne S. Ribeiro, Nicolle P. dos Santos


An unrecorded experiment of use of the smartphone as a tool for practical classes of histology is presented in this article. Behavior, learning of the students of three science courses at the University were analyzed and compared as well as the mode of teaching of this discipline and the appreciation of the students, using either digital photographs taken by phone or drawings for record microscopic observations, analyze and interpret histological sections of human or animal tissues.

Keywords: cell phone, digital micrographies, learning of sciences, teaching practices

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81 Process Improvement and Redesign of the Immuno Histology (IHC) Lab at MSKCC: A Lean and Ergonomic Study

Authors: Samantha Meyerholz


MSKCC offers patients cutting edge cancer care with the highest quality standards. However, many patients and industry members do not realize that the operations of the Immunology Histology Lab (IHC) are the backbone for carrying out this mission. The IHC lab manufactures blocks and slides containing critical tissue samples that will be read by a Pathologist to diagnose and dictate a patient’s treatment course. The lab processes 200 requests daily, leading to the generation of approximately 2,000 slides and 1,100 blocks each day. Lab material is transported through labeling, cutting, staining and sorting manufacturing stations, while being managed by multiple techs throughout the space. The quality of the stain as well as wait times associated with processing requests, is directly associated with patients receiving rapid treatments and having a wider range of care options. This project aims to improve slide request turnaround time for rush and non-rush cases, while increasing the quality of each request filled (no missing slides or poorly stained items). Rush cases are to be filled in less than 24 hours, while standard cases are allotted a 48 hour time period. Reducing turnaround times enable patients to communicate sooner with their clinical team regarding their diagnosis, ultimately leading faster treatments and potentially better outcomes. Additional project goals included streamlining tech and material workflow, while reducing waste and increasing efficiency. This project followed a DMAIC structure with emphasis on lean and ergonomic principles that could be integrated into an evolving lab culture. Load times and batching processes were analyzed using process mapping, FMEA analysis, waste analysis, engineering observation, 5S and spaghetti diagramming. Reduction of lab technician movement as well as their body position at each workstation was of top concern to pathology leadership. With new equipment being brought into the lab to carry out workflow improvements, screen and tool placement was discussed with the techs in focus groups, to reduce variation and increase comfort throughout the workspace. 5S analysis was completed in two phases in the IHC lab, helping to drive solutions that reduced rework and tech motion. The IHC lab plans to continue utilizing these techniques to further reduce the time gap between tissue analysis and cancer care.

Keywords: engineering, ergonomics, healthcare, lean

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80 Mechanisms of Atiulcerogenic Activity of Costus speciosus Rhizome Extract in Ethanol-Induced Gastric Mucosal Injury in Rats

Authors: Somayeh Fani, Mahmood Ameen Abdulla


Costus speciosus is an important Malaysian medicinal plant commonly used traditionally in the treatment of many aliments. The present investigation is designed to elucidate preventive effects of ethanolic extracts of C. speciosus rhizome against absolute ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injury in Sprague-Dawley rats. Five groups of rats were orally pre-treated with vehicle, carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) as normal control group (Group 1), ethanol as ulcer control group (Group 2), omeprazole 20 mg/kg (reference group) (Group 3), and 250 and 500 mg/kg of C. speciosus extract (experimental groups) (Group 4 and 5), respectively. An hour later, CMC was given orally to Group 1 rats and absolute ethanol was given orally to Group 2-5 rats to generate gastric mucosal injury. After an additional hour, the rats were sacrificed. Grossly, ulcer control group exhibited severe of gastric mucosal hemorrhagic injury and increased in ulcer area, whereas groups pre-treated with omeprazole or plant’s rhizomes exhibited the significant reduction of gastric mucosal injury. Significant increase in the pH and mucous of gastric content was observed in rats re-treated with C. speciosus rhizome. Histology, ulcer control rats, demonstrated remarkable disruption of gastric mucosa, increased in edema and inflammatory cells infiltration of submucosal layer compared to rats pre-treated with rhizomes extract. Periodic acid Schiff staining for glycoprotein, rats pre-fed with C. speciosus C. displayed remarkably intense uptake of magenta color by glandular gastric mucosa compared with ulcer control rats. Immunostaining of gastric epithelium, rats pre-treatment with rhizome extract provide evidence of up-regulation of HSP70 and down-regulation of Bax proteins compared to ulcer control animals. Gastric tissue homogenate, C. speciosus significantly increased the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT), increased the level of non-protein sulfhydryl (NP-SH) and decreased the level of lipid peroxidation after ethanol administration. Acute toxicity test did not show any signs of toxicity. The mechanisms implicated the gasrtoprotective property of C. speciosus depend upon the antisecretory activity, increased in gastric mucus glycoprotein, up-regulation of HSP70 protein and down-regulation of Bax proteins, reduction in the lipid peroxidation and increase in the level of NP-SH and antioxidant enzymes activity in gastic homogenate.

Keywords: antioxidant, Costus speciosus, gastric ulcer, histology, omeprazole

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79 Barrier Membrane Influence Histology of Guided Bone Regenerations: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Authors: Laura Canagueral-Pellice, Antonio Munar-Frau, Adaia Valls-Ontanon, Joao Carames, Federico Hernandez-Alfaro, Jordi Caballe-Serrano


Objective: Guided bone regeneration (GBR) aims to replace the missing bone with a new structure to achieve long-term stability of rehabilitations. The aim of the present systematic review and meta-analysis is to determine the effect of barrier membranes on histological outcomes after GBR procedures. Moreover, the effect of the grafting material and tissue gain were analyzed. Materials & methods: Two independent reviewers performed an electronic search in Pubmed and Scopus, identifying all eligible publications up to March 2020. Only randomized controlled trials (RCTs) assessing a histological analysis of augmented areas were included. Results: A total of 6 publications were included for the present systematic review. A total of 110 biopsied sites were analysed; 10 corresponded to vertical bone augmentation procedures, whereas 100 analysed horizontal regeneration procedures. A mean tissue gain of 3 ± 1.48mm was obtained for horizontal defects. Histological assessment of new bone formation, residual particle and sub-epithelial connective tissue (SCT) was reported. The four main barrier membranes used were natural collagen membranes, e-PTFE, polylactic resorbable membranes and acellular dermal matrix membranes (AMDG). The analysis demonstrated that resorbable membranes result in higher values of new bone formation and lower values of residual particles and SCT. Xenograft resulted in lower new bone formation compared to allograft; however, no statistically significant differences were observed regarding residual particle and SCT. Overall, regeneration procedures adding autogenous bone, plasma derivate or growth factors achieved in general greater new bone formation and tissue gain. Conclusions: There is limited evidence favoring the effect of a certain type of barrier membrane in GBR. Data needs to be evaluated carefully; however, resorbable membranes are correlated with greater new bone formation values, especially when combined with allograft materials and/or the addition of autogenous bone, platelet reach plasma (PRP) or growth factors in the regeneration area. More studies assessing the histological outcomes of different GBR protocols and procedures testing different biomaterials are needed to maximize the clinical and histological outcomes in bone regeneration science.

Keywords: barrier membrane, graft material, guided bone regeneration, implant surgery, histology

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78 Bulbar Conjunctival Kaposi's Sarcoma Unmasked by Immune Reconstitution Syndrome

Authors: S. Mohd Afzal, R. O'Connell


Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is the most common HIV-related cancer, and ocular manifestations constitute at least 25% of all KS cases. However, ocular presentations often occur in the context of systemic KS, and isolated lesions are rare. We report a unique case of ocular KS masquerading as subconjunctival haemorrhage, and only developing systemic manifestations after initiation of HIV treatment. Case: A 49-year old man with previous hypertensive stroke and newly diagnosed HIV infection presented with an acutely red left eye following repeated bouts of coughing. Given the convincing history of poorly controlled hypertension and cough, a diagnosis of subconjunctival haemorrhage was made. Over the next week, his ocular lesion began to improve and he subsequently started anti-retroviral therapy. Prior to receiving anti-retroviral therapy, his CD4+ lymphocyte count was 194 cells/mm3 with HIV viral load greater than 1 million/ml. This rapidly improved to a viral load of 150 copies/ml within 2 weeks of starting treatment. However, a few days after starting HIV treatment, his ocular lesion recurred. Ophthalmic examination was otherwise normal. He also developed widespread lymphadenopathy and multiple dark lesions on his torso. Histology and virology confirmed KS, systemically triggered by Immune Reconstitution Syndrome (KS-IRIS). The patient has since undergone chemotherapy successfully. Discussion: Kaposi's sarcoma is an atypical tumour caused by human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8), also known as Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV). In immunosuppressed patients, KSHV can also cause lymphoproliferative disorders such as primary effusion lymphoma and Castleman's disease (in our patient’s case, this was excluded through histological analysis of lymph nodes). KSHV is one of the seven currently known human oncoviruses, and its pathogenesis is poorly understood. Up to 13% of patients with HIV-related KS experience worsening of the disease after starting anti-retroviral treatment, due to a sudden increase in CD4 cell counts. Histology remains the diagnostic gold standard. Current British HIV Association (BHIVA) guidelines recommend treatment using anti-retroviral drugs, with either intralesional vinblastine for local disease or systemic chemotherapy for disseminated KS. Conclusion: This case is unique as ocular KS as initial presentation is rare and our patient's diagnosis was only made after systemic lesions were triggered by immune reconstitution. KS should be considered as an important differential diagnosis for red eyes in all patients at risk of acquiring HIV infection.

Keywords: human herpesvirus 8, human immunodeficiency virus, immune reconstitution syndrome, Kaposi’s sarcoma, Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus

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77 A Diagnostic Accuracy Study: Comparison of Two Different Molecular-Based Tests (Genotype HelicoDR and Seeplex Clar-H. pylori ACE Detection), in the Diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori Infections

Authors: Recep Kesli, Huseyin Bilgin, Yasar Unlu, Gokhan Gungor


Aim: The aim of this study was to compare diagnostic values of two different molecular-based tests (GenoType® HelicoDR ve Seeplex® H. pylori-ClaR- ACE Detection) in detection presence of the H. pylori from gastric biopsy specimens. In addition to this also was aimed to determine resistance ratios of H. pylori strains against to clarytromycine and quinolone isolated from gastric biopsy material cultures by using both the genotypic (GenoType® HelicoDR, Seeplex ® H. pylori -ClaR- ACE Detection) and phenotypic (gradient strip, E-test) methods. Material and methods: A total of 266 patients who admitted to Konya Education and Research Hospital Department of Gastroenterology with dyspeptic complaints, between January 2011-June 2013, were included in the study. Microbiological and histopathological examinations of biopsy specimens taken from antrum and corpus regions were performed. The presence of H. pylori in all the biopsy samples was investigated by five differnt dignostic methods together: culture (C) (Portagerm pylori-PORT PYL, Pylori agar-PYL, GENbox microaer, bioMerieux, France), histology (H) (Giemsa, Hematoxylin and Eosin staining), rapid urease test (RUT) (CLOtest, Cimberly-Clark, USA), and two different molecular tests; GenoType® HelicoDR, Hain, Germany, based on DNA strip assay, and Seeplex ® H. pylori -ClaR- ACE Detection, Seegene, South Korea, based on multiplex PCR. Antimicrobial resistance of H. pylori isolates against clarithromycin and levofloxacin was determined by GenoType® HelicoDR, Seeplex ® H. pylori -ClaR- ACE Detection, and gradient strip (E-test, bioMerieux, France) methods. Culture positivity alone or positivities of both histology and RUT together was accepted as the gold standard for H. pylori positivity. Sensitivity and specificity rates of two molecular methods used in the study were calculated by taking the two gold standards previously mentioned. Results: A total of 266 patients between 16-83 years old who 144 (54.1 %) were female, 122 (45.9 %) were male were included in the study. 144 patients were found as culture positive, and 157 were H and RUT were positive together. 179 patients were found as positive with GenoType® HelicoDR and Seeplex ® H. pylori -ClaR- ACE Detection together. Sensitivity and specificity rates of studied five different methods were found as follows: C were 80.9 % and 84.4 %, H + RUT were 88.2 % and 75.4 %, GenoType® HelicoDR were 100 % and 71.3 %, and Seeplex ® H. pylori -ClaR- ACE Detection were, 100 % and 71.3 %. A strong correlation was found between C and H+RUT, C and GenoType® HelicoDR, and C and Seeplex ® H. pylori -ClaR- ACE Detection (r:0.644 and p:0.000, r:0.757 and p:0.000, r:0.757 and p:0.000, respectively). Of all the isolated 144 H. pylori strains 24 (16.6 %) were detected as resistant to claritromycine, and 18 (12.5 %) were levofloxacin. Genotypic claritromycine resistance was detected only in 15 cases with GenoType® HelicoDR, and 6 cases with Seeplex ® H. pylori -ClaR- ACE Detection. Conclusion: In our study, it was concluded that; GenoType® HelicoDR and Seeplex ® H. pylori -ClaR- ACE Detection was found as the most sensitive diagnostic methods when comparing all the investigated other ones (C, H, and RUT).

Keywords: Helicobacter pylori, GenoType® HelicoDR, Seeplex ® H. pylori -ClaR- ACE Detection, antimicrobial resistance

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76 Influence of Dietary Boron on Gut Absorption of Nutrients, Blood Metabolites and Tissue Pathology

Authors: T. Vijay Bhasker, N. K. S Gowda, P. Krishnamoorthy, D. T. Pal, A. K. Pattanaik, A. K. Verma


Boron (B) is a newer trace element and its biological importance and dietary essentiality is unclear in animals. The available literature suggests its putative role in bone mineralization, antioxidant status and steroid hormone synthesis. A feeding trial was conducted in Wister strain (Rattus norvegicus) albino rats for duration of 90 days. A total of 84 healthy weaned (3-4 weeks) experimental rats were randomly divided into 7 dietary groups (4 replicates of three each) viz., A (Basal diet/ Control), B (Basal diet + 5 ppm B), C (Basal diet + 10 ppm B), D (Basal diet + 20 ppm B), E (Basal diet + 40 ppm B), F (Basal diet-Ca 50%), G (Basal diet-Ca 50% + 40 ppm B). Dietary level of calcium (Ca) was maintained at two levels, 100% and 50% of requirement. Sodium borate was used as source of boron along with other ingredients of basal diet while preparing the pelletized diets. All the rats were kept in proper ventilated laboratory animal house maintained at temperature (23±2º C) and humidity (50 to 70%). At the end of experiment digestibility trial was conducted for 5 days to estimate nutrient digestibility and gut absorption of minerals. Eight rats from each group were sacrificed to collect the vital organs (liver, kidney and spleen) to study histopathology. Blood sample was drawn by heart puncture to determine biochemical profile. The average daily feed intake (g/rat/day), water intake (ml/rat/day) and body weight gain (g/rat/day) were similar among the dietary groups. The digestibility (%) of organic matter and crude fat were significantly improved (P < 0.05) was by B supplementation. The gut absorption (%) Ca was significantly increased (P < 0.01) in B supplemented groups compared to control. However, digestibility of dry matter and crude protein, gut absorption of magnesium and phosphorus showed a non-significant increasing trend with B supplementation. The gut absorption (%) of B (P < 0.01) was significantly lowered (P<0.05) in supplemented groups compared to un-supplemented ones. The serum level of triglycerides (mg/dL), HDL-cholesterol (mg/dL) and alanine transaminase (IU/L) were significantly lowered (P < 0.05) in B supplemented groups. While serum level of glucose (mg/dL) and alkaline phosphatase (KA units) showed a non-significant decreasing trend with B supplementation. However the serum levels of total cholesterol (mg/dL) and aspartate transaminase (IU/L) were similar among dietary groups. The histology sections of kidney and spleen revealed no significant changes among the dietary groups and were observed to be normal in anatomical architecture. However, the liver histology revealed cell degenerative changes with vacuolar degeneration and nuclear condensation in Ca deficient groups. But the comparative degenerative changes were mild in 40 ppm B supplemented Ca deficient group. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of graded levels of boron in rats had a positive effect on metabolism and health by improving nutrient digestibility and gut absorption of Ca. This indicates the beneficial role of dietary boron supplementation.

Keywords: boron, calcium, nutrient utilization, histopathology

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75 Study the Effect of Dermal Application of Stone Hair Dye on Experimental Animals

Authors: Hatem Abdel Moniem Ahmed, Ragaa Mohamed Abdel Maaboud, Heba A. Mubarak


A commercially available Stone Hair Dye (SHD) was spread in Upper Egypt and used for dying woman's hair. Paraphenyl-diamine (PPD) is the main component of SHD and reported as a toxic substance. This work aims to study the systemic effects induced in experimental animals as a result of dermal application of SHD. 21 rats were divided into three groups, and doses of SHD and PPD were applied according to body weight (25 mg/100 g body weight) for 90 days. The results revealed that insignificant decrease in RBC count and Hb level, but there were significant increases in the WBC count, AST, ALT, GPT, and total protein while creatinine level was insignificantly increased. Hepatocytes showed a lot of degenerative changes in the form of vacuolated cytoplasm and irregular deeply stained nuclei with vascular congestion and lymphocytic infiltration, while renal affection indicated the occurrence of atrophy of glomerular capillaries, hyperplasia, and widening of bowman space.

Keywords: PPD, SHD, rats and histology, biochemistry and hematology

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74 Histogenesis of the Stomach of Pre-Hatching Quail: A Light and Electron Microscopic Study

Authors: Soha A Soliman, Yasser A Ahmed, Mohamed A Khalaf


Although the enormous literature describing the histology of the stomach of different avian species during the posthatching development, the available literature on the pre-hatching development of quail stomach development is scanty. Thus, the current study was undertaken to provide a careful description of the main histological events during the embryonic development of quail stomach. To achieve this aim, daily histological specimens from the stomach of quail of 4 days post-incubation till the day 17 (few hours before hatching) were examined with light microscopy. The current study showed that the primitive gut tube of the embryonic quail appeared at the 4th day post incubation, and both parts of stomach (proventriculus and gizzard) were similar in structure and composed of endodermal epithelium of pseudostratified type surrounded by undifferentiated mesenchymal tissue. The sequences of the developmental events in the gut tube were preceded in a cranio-caudal pattern. By the 5th day, the endodermal covering of the primitive proventriculus gave rise to sac-like invaginations. The primitive gizzard was distinguished into thick-walled bodies and thin-walled sacs. In the 6th day, the prospective proventricular glandular epithelium became canalized and the muscular layer was developed in the cranial part of the proventriculus, whereas the primitive muscular coat of the gizzard was represented by a layer of condensed mesenchyme. In the 7th day, the proventricular glandular epithelial invaginations increased in depth and number, while, the muscularis mucosa and the muscular layer began to be distinguished. In the 8th day, the myoblasts differentiated into spindle shaped smooth muscle fibers. In the 10th day, branching of the proventricular glands began. The branching continued later on. The surface and the glandular epithelium were transformed into simple columnar type in the 12th day. The epithelial covering of the gizzard gave rise to tubular invaginations lined by simple cuboidal epithelium and the surface epithelium became simple columnar. Canalization of the tubular glands was recognized in the 14th day. In the 15th day, the proventricular surface epithelium invaginated in an concentric manner around a central cavity to form immature secretory units. The central cavity was lined by eosinophilic cells which form the ductal epithelia. The peripheral lamellae were lined by basophilic cells; the undifferentiated oxyntico-peptic cells. Entero-endocrine cells stained positive for silver impregnation in the proventricular glands. The mucosal folding in the gizzard appeared in the 15th day to form the plicae and the sulci. The wall of the proventriculus and gizzard in the 17th day acquired the main histological features of post-hatching birds, but neither the surface nor the ductal epithelium were differentiated to mucous producing cells. The current results shoed be considered in the molecular developmental studies.

Keywords: quail, proventriculus, gizzard, pre-hatching, histology

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73 Experimental Research of Canine Mandibular Defect Construction with the Controlled Meshy Titanium Alloy Scaffold Fabricated by Electron Beam Melting Combined with BMSCs-Encapsulating Chitosan Hydrogel

Authors: Wang Hong, Liu Chang Kui, Zhao Bing Jing, Hu Min


Objection We observed the repairment effection of canine mandibular defect with meshy Ti6Al4V scaffold fabricated by electron beam melting (EBM) combined with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) encapsulated in chitosan hydrogel. Method Meshy titanium scaffolds were prepared by EBM of commercial Ti6Al4V power. The length of scaffolds was 24 mm, the width was 5 mm and height was 8mm. The pore size and porosity were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Chitosan /Bio-Oss hydrogel was prepared by chitosan, β- sodium glycerophosphate and Bio-Oss power. BMMSCs were harvested from canine iliac crests. BMMSCs were seeded in titanium scaffolds and encapsulated in Chitosan /Bio-Oss hydrogel. The validity of BMMSCs was evaluated by cell count kit-8 (CCK-8). The osteogenic differentiation ability was evaluated by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and gene expression of OC, OPN and CoⅠ. Combination were performed by injecting BMMSCs/ Chitosan /Bio-Oss hydrogel into the meshy Ti6Al4V scaffolds and solidified. 24 mm long box-shaped bone defects were made at the mid-portion of mandible of adult beagles. The defects were randomly filled with BMMSCs/ Chitosan/Bio-Oss + titanium, Chitosan /Bio-Oss+titanium, titanium alone. Autogenous iliac crests graft as control group in 3 beagles. Radionuclide bone imaging was used to monitor the new bone tissue at 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks after surgery. CT examination was made on the surgery day and 4 weeks, 12 weeks and 24 weeks after surgery. The animals were sacrificed in 4, 12 and 24 weeks after surgery. The bone formation were evaluated by histology and micro-CT. Results: The pores of the scaffolds was interconnected, the pore size was about 1 mm, the average porosity was about 76%. The pore size of the hydrogel was 50-200μm and the average porosity was approximately 90%. The hydrogel were solidified under the condition of 37℃in 10 minutes. The validity and the osteogenic differentiation ability of BMSCs were not affected by titanium scaffolds and hydrogel. Radionuclide bone imaging shown an increasing tendency of the revascularization and bone regeneration was observed in all the groups at 2, 4, 8 weeks after operation, and there were no changes at 12weeks.The tendency was more obvious in the BMMSCs/ Chitosan/Bio-Oss +titanium group and autogenous group. CT, Micro-CT and histology shown that new bone formed increasingly with the time extend. There were more new bone regenerated in BMMSCs/ Chitosan /Bio-Oss + titanium group and autogenous group than the other two groups. At 24 weeks, the autogenous group was achieved bone union. The BMSCs/ Chitosan /Bio-Oss group was seen extensive new bone formed around the scaffolds and more new bone inside of the central pores of scaffolds than Chitosan /Bio-Oss + titanium group and titanium group. The difference was significantly. Conclusion: The titanium scaffolds fabricated by EBM had controlled porous structure, good bone conduction and biocompatibility. Chitosan /Bio-Oss hydrogel had injectable plasticity, thermosensitive property and good biocompatibility. The meshy Ti6Al4V scaffold produced by EBM combined BMSCs encapsulated in chitosan hydrogel had good capacity on mandibular bone defect repair.

Keywords: mandibular reconstruction, tissue engineering, electron beam melting, titanium alloy

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72 Gross and Histological Studies on the Thymus of the Grasscutter (Thyronomys swinderianus)

Authors: R. M. Korzerzer, J. O. Hambolu, S. O. Salami, S. B. Oladele


Twelve apparently healthy grasscutters between the ages of three and seven months were used for this study. The animals were purchased from local breeders in Oturkpo, Benue state, Nigeria and transported to the research laboratory in the Department of Veterinary Anatomy, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria by means of constructed cages. The animals were divided into three groups according to their ages and acclimatised. Sacrifice was done using chloroform gaseous inhalation anaesthesia. An incision was made at the neck region and the thymus located and identified by its prominent bilateral nature. Extirpated thymuses from each animal were immediately weighed and fixed in Bouin’s fluid for 48 hours. The tissues were then prepared using standard methods. Haematoxilin and eosin was used for routine histology and Rhodamine B aniline methylene blue was for studying the architecture of the elastic and reticular fibres of the thymus. Grossly, the thymus appeared as a bilateral organ on either side of the thoracic midline. The organ size decreased consistently as the animals advanced in age. Mean ± SEM values for thymic weights were 1.23 ± 0.048 g, 0.53 ± 0.019 g and 0.30 ± 0.042 g at three, five and seven months of age respectively.

Keywords: gross, histological, thymus, grasscutter

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71 A Nanofi Brous PHBV Tube with Schwann Cell as Artificial Nerve Graft Contributing to Rat Sciatic Nerve Regeneration across a 30-Mm Defect Bridge

Authors: Esmaeil Biazar


A nanofibrous PHBV nerve conduit has been used to evaluate its efficiency based on the promotion of nerve regeneration in rats. The designed conduits were investigated by physical, mechanical and microscopic analyses. The conduits were implanted into a 30-mm gap in the sciatic nerves of the rats. Four months after surgery, the regenerated nerves were evaluated by macroscopic assessments and histology. This polymeric conduit had sufficiently high mechanical properties to serve as a nerve guide. The results demonstrated that in the nanofibrous graft with cells, the sciatic nerve trunk had been reconstructed with restoration of nerve continuity and formatted nerve fibers with myelination. For the grafts especially the nanofibrous conduits with cells, muscle cells of gastrocnemius on the operated side were uniform in their size and structures. This study proves the feasibility of artificial conduit with Schwann cells for nerve regeneration by bridging a longer defect in a rat model.

Keywords: sciatic regeneration, Schwann cell, artificial conduit, nanofibrous PHBV, histological assessments

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70 Folliculitis Decalvans: Update

Authors: Abdullah Alyoussef


Folliculitis decalvans is a rare inflammatory scalp disorder. This paper gives an update to patient management and treatment modalities. Folliculitis decalvans is classified as primary neutrophilic cicatricial alopecia and predominantly occurs in middle-aged adults. The cause of folliculitis decalvans (FD) remains unknown. Staphylococcus aureus and a deficient host immune response seem to play an important role in the development of this disfiguring scalp disease. Lesions occur mainly in the vertex and occipital area. Clinically, the lesions present with follicular pustules, lack of ostia, diffuse and perifollicular erythema, follicular tufting, and, oftentimes, hemorrhagic crusts and erosions. Histology displays a mainly neutrophilic inflammatory infiltrate in early lesions and additionally lymphocytes and plasma cells in advanced lesions. Treatment is focused on the eradication of S. aureus and anti-inflammatory agents. Although the etiology of FD is unclear, S. aureus is almost always isolated from affected areas, and eradication is an important part of therapeutic management, in combination with systemic and ⁄ or topical anti-inflammatory treatment.

Keywords: cicatricial alopecia, folliculitis decalvans, tufted folliculitis, erosion

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69 Attenuation of Pancreatic Histology, Hematology and Biochemical Parameters in Type 2 Diabetic Rats Treated with Azadirachta excelsa

Authors: S. Nurdiana, A. S. Nor Haziqah, M. K. Nur Ezwa Khairunnisa, S. Nurul Izzati, Y. Siti Amna M. J. Norashirene, I. Nur Hilwani


Azadirachta excelsa or locally known as sentang are frequently used as a traditional medicine by diabetes patients in Malaysia. However, less attention has been given to their toxicity effect. Thus, the study is an attempt to examine the protective effect of A. excelsa on the pancreas and to determine possible toxicity mediated by the extract. Diabetes was induced experimentally in rats by high-fat-diet for 16 weeks followed by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin at dosage of 35 mg/kg of body weight. Declination of the fasting blood glucose level was observed after continuous administration of A. excelsa for 14 days twice daily. This is due to the refining structure of the pancreas. However, surprisingly, the plant extract reduced the leukocytes, erythrocytes, hemoglobin, MCHC and lymphocytes. In addition, the rat treated with the plant extract exhibited increment in AST and eosinocytes level. Overall, the finding shows that A. excelsa possesses antidiabetic activity by improving the structure of pancreatic islet of Langerhans but involved in ameliorating of hematology and biochemical parameters.

Keywords: Azadirachta excelsa, diabetes, pancreas, hemato-biochemical parameters

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68 Gonadotoxic and Cytotoxic Effect of Induced Obesity via Monosodium Glutamate on Mus musculus Testis Cytoarchitecture and Sperm Parameter

Authors: I. Nur Hilwani, R. Nasibah, S. Nurdiana, M. J. Norashirene


Impaired fertility may be the result of indirect consumption of anti-fertility agents through food. Monosodium glutamate (MSG) has been widely used as food additive, flavour enhancer and included in vaccines. This study focuses in determining the gonadotoxic and cytotoxic effect of MSG on selected sperm parameters such as sperm viability, sperm membrane integrity and testes cytoarchitecture of male mice via histological examination to determine its effect on spermatogenesis. Twenty-four Mus musculus were randomly divided into 4 groups and given intraperitoneal injections (IP) daily for 14 days of different MSG concentrations at 250, 500 and 1000mg/kg MSG to body weight to induce obesity. Saline was given to control group. Mice were sacrificed and analysis revealed abnormalities in values for sperm parameters and damages to testes cytoarchitecture of male mice. The results recorded decreased viability (p<0.05) and integrity of sperm membrane (p>0.05) with degenerative structures in seminiferous tubule of testes. The results indicated various implications of MSG on male mice reproductive system which has consequences in fertility potential.

Keywords: sperm parameter, testes histology, sperm viability, sperm membrane integrity

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67 Image Enhancement of Histological Slides by Using Nonlinear Transfer Function

Authors: D. Suman, B. Nikitha, J. Sarvani, V. Archana


Histological slides provide clinical diagnostic information about the subjects from the ancient times. Even with the advent of high resolution imaging cameras the image tend to have some background noise which makes the analysis complex. A study of the histological slides is done by using a nonlinear transfer function based image enhancement method. The method processes the raw, color images acquired from the biological microscope, which, in general, is associated with background noise. The images usually appearing blurred does not convey the intended information. In this regard, an enhancement method is proposed and implemented on 50 histological slides of human tissue by using nonlinear transfer function method. The histological image is converted into HSV color image. The luminance value of the image is enhanced (V component) because change in the H and S components could change the color balance between HSV components. The HSV image is divided into smaller blocks for carrying out the dynamic range compression by using a linear transformation function. Each pixel in the block is enhanced based on the contrast of the center pixel and its neighborhood. After the processing the V component, the HSV image is transformed into a colour image. The study has shown improvement of the characteristics of the image so that the significant details of the histological images were improved.

Keywords: HSV space, histology, enhancement, image

Procedia PDF Downloads 241
66 Study of Effects of Hydro-Alcoholic Extract of Asparagus Root (Asparagus officinalis) Ontestes Spermyogenesis Index of Laboratory Mouse

Authors: Hamid Karimi, Naegar Mahdavi, Hossein Tayefi Nasrabadi


Spermatozoids production rate and its quality are more important factors in the diagnosis of infertility. Also, spematozids activity have a more important role in fertilization. Some medicinal plants as Asparagus(Asparagus officinalis) has many antioxidant component. Therefore, They can affect testes tissue to production more and high-quality spermatozoids. In this survey, Asparagus root extract is studied on spermatogenesis index in the laboratory mouse testes. Hydro-alcoholic extract of asparagus root is prepared and examined on four group of the mature male mouse. Blank group without extract, group 1,100ml/kg dose, group 2, 200 ml/kg dose and group 3, 300ml/kg dose. Then, mice are euthanized, and testes are removed. Testes are weighted, and paraffinized blocks are prepared. TDI(Tubular Differentiation Index) and SPI(Spermiation Index) are studied on histological sections by light microscope. This study results were showed that TDI and SPI in treatments groups with 200 and 300 ml/kg dose had significant enhancement (P<0.05). Consequently, Extract of Asparagus root can enhance spermatozoid production and, therefore, cause improve fertility in male laboratory mice.

Keywords: histology, spermatozoid, ASP [aragus, testes

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65 Antioxidative Effect of Bauhinia acuminata Water Extract Consumption in Rat

Authors: Amornnat Thuppia, Pornrut Rabintossaporn, Suphaket Saenthaweesuk, Nuntiya Somparn


The aim of this present study was to determine the antioxidant effects and its mechanism of aqueous leaves extract of Bauhinia acuminata (BA) in rat. The extract was screened for its phytochemical contents and antioxidant activity in vitro. Moreover, the extract was studied in rats to evaluate its effects in vivo. Rats were orally administered with the extract at the dose of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg for 28 days. Phytochemical screening of plant extracts showed the presence of saponin, alkaloid, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, tannin and steroid compounds. The extract contained phenolic compounds 53.36 ± 1.01 mg of gallic acid equivalents per gram BA extract. The free radical scavenging activity assessed by DPPH assay gave IC50 of 44.47 ± 2.83 µg/mL, which is relatively lower than that of BHT with IC50 of 12.34 ± 1.14µg/mL. In the animals, the extract was well tolerated by the animals throughout the 28 days of study as shown by normal serum levels AST, ALP, ALT, BUN and Cr as well as normal histology of liver and pancreatic and kidney tissue. Significantly, reduction of serum oxidative stress markers malondialdehyde (MDA) was found in rat treated with BA extract compared with control. Taken together, this study provides evidence that Bauhinia acuminata (BA) exhibits direct antioxidant properties and induces cytoprotective enzyme in vivo.

Keywords: Bauhinia acuminata, antioxidant, malondialdehyde (MDA), oxidative marker

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