Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 322

Search results for: transdermal spray

322 Fabrication and Characterization of Transdermal Spray Using Film Forming Polymer

Authors: Paresh Patel, Harshit Patel

Abstract:

Superficial fungal skin infection is among the most common skin disease. The drug administration through skin has received attention due to several advantages: Avoidance of significant pre-systemic metabolism, drug levels within the therapeutic window, drugs with short biological half-lives, decreased side effects, the non-invasive character, and very high acceptance.

Keywords: transdermal spray, ketoconazole, Eudragit® RLPO, therapeutic window

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321 Formulation of Film Forming Transdermal Spray Containing Fluconazole Using Full Factorial Design

Authors: Paresh M. Patel, Amit A. Patel, R. H. Parikh

Abstract:

The present investigation was undertaken to fabricate modified transport fluconazole that belongs to BCS class II and have a poor applicability on topical infection. So to improve topical application, transdermal spray could play a vital role by using ethyl cellulose and Eudragit® S100 as film-forming polymers. Concentration of Eudragit® S100, ethyl cellulose and permeation enhancer (camphor and menthol) were selected as independent variables, whereas drying time, viscosity and in-vitro drug release were selected as dependent variables in factorial design. The viscosity, drying time and in-vitro drug release of the optimize batch B15 was 40.1 cps, 47 sec. and 90.79% respectively. The film of optimized batch was flexible and dermal-adhesive.

Keywords: Eudragit, ethyl cellulose, fluconazole, transdermal spray

Procedia PDF Downloads 366
320 Cold Spray Coating and Its Application for High Temperature

Authors: T. S. Sidhu

Abstract:

Amongst the existing coatings methods, the cold spray is new upcoming process to deposit coatings. As from the name itself, the cold spray coating takes place at very low temperature as compare to other thermal spray coatings. In all other thermal spray coating process the partial melting of the coating powder particles takes place before deposition, but cold spray process takes place in solid state. In cold spray process, the bonding of coating power with substrate is not metallurgical as in other thermal spray processes. Due to supersonic speed and less temperature of spray particles, solid state, dense, and oxide free coatings are produced. Due to these characteristics, the cold spray coatings have been used to protect the materials against hot corrosion. In the present study, the cold spray process, cold spray fundaments, its types, and its applications for high temperatures are discussed in the light of presently available literature. In addition, the assessment of cold spray with the competitive technologies has been conferred with available literature.

Keywords: cold spray coating, hot corrosion, thermal spray coating, high-temperature materials

Procedia PDF Downloads 139
319 Iontophoretic Drug Transport: An Non-Invasive Transdermal Approach

Authors: Ashish Jain, Shivam Tayal

Abstract:

There has been great interest in the field of Iontophoresis since few years due to its great applications in the field of controlled transdermal drug delivery system. It is an technique which is used to enhance the transdermal permeation of ionized high molecular weight molecules across the skin membrane especially Peptides & Proteins by the application of direct current of 1-4 mA for 20-40 minutes whereas chemical must be placed on electrodes with same charge. Iontophoresis enhanced the delivery of drug into the skin via pores like hair follicles, sweat gland ducts etc. rather than through stratum corneum. It has wide applications in the field of experimental, Therapeutic, Diagnostic, Dentistry etc. Medical science is using it to treat Hyperhidrosis (Excessive sweating) in hands and feet and to treat other ailments like hypertension, Migraine etc. Nowadays commercial transdermal iontophoretic patches are available in the market to treat different ailments. Researchers are keen to research in this field due to its vast applications and advantages.

Keywords: iontophoresis, novel drug delivery, transdermal, permeation enhancer

Procedia PDF Downloads 148
318 Transdermal Therapeutic System of Lercanıdipine Hydrochloride: Fabrication and in Vivo Evaluation

Authors: Jiji Jose, R. Narayanacharyulu, Molly Mathew, Jisha Prems

Abstract:

Introduction: Lercanidipine hydrochloride (LD), an effective calcium channel blocker, widely used for the treatment of chronic stable angina and hypertension seems to be potential transdermal therapeutic system candidate, mainly due to its low oral bio availability, short half life and high first-pass metabolism. Objective: To develop transdermal therapeutic systems for LD and to evaluate its in vivo performance in rabbits. Methodology: Transdermal patches of LD were formulated using the polymer blend of eudragit RL100 (ERL) and polyvinyl pyrolidone (PVP) by casting method Propylene glycol (PG) and tween 80 were used as plasticizer and permeation enhancer respectively. The pharmaco kinetic parameters of LD after the administration of transdermal patches was compared with that of oral administration. The study was carried out in a two way crossover design in male New Zealand albino rabbits. Results: The formulation with ERL: PVP ratio 1:4 with 15% w/w PG as plasticizer and 4% w/w tween 80 as permeation enhancer showed the best drug release results. The pharmacokinetic parameters such as Cmax, tmax, mean residence time (MRT) and area under the curve (AUC 0-∞) were significantly different following transdermal administration compared to oral administration. The terminal half life of transdermally administered LD was found to similar that of oral administration. A sustained drug release over a period of 24 hrs was observed after transdermal administration. Conclusion: The fabricated transdermal delivery system have the potential to provide controlled and extended drug release, better bio availability and thus, this may improve the patient compliance.

Keywords: transdermal therapeutic system, lercanidipine hydrochloride, eudragit, skinpermeation

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317 The Effect of Backing Layer on Adhesion Properties of Single Layer Ketoprofen Transdermal Drug Delivery System

Authors: Maryam Hamedanlou, Shahla Hajializadeh

Abstract:

The transdermal drug delivery system is one of the types of novel drug delivery system that the drug is absorbed into the skin. The major considerations for designing and producing transdermal patch are small size, suitable drug release and good adhering. In this study, drug-in-adhesive transdermal patch contained non-steroidal anti-inflammatory ketoprofen is prepared. Also, the effect of non-woven fabric and plastic backing layers on adhesion properties is assessed. The results of the test, demonstrated the use of plastic backing layer increases tack and peel rather than non-woven fabric type. The balance tack with plastic backing layer patch is 6.7 (N/mm2), and the fabric one is 3.8 (N/mm2), and their peel is 9.2 (N/25mm) and 8.3 (N/25mm) by arrangement.

Keywords: transdermal drug delivery system, single layer patch of ketoprofen, plastic layer, fabric backing layer

Procedia PDF Downloads 158
316 Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer Characteristics Investigation in Spray Cooling Systems Using Nanofluids

Authors: Lee Derk Huan, Nur Irmawati

Abstract:

This paper aims to investigate the heat transfer and fluid flow characteristics of nanofluids used in spray cooling systems. The effect of spray height, type of nanofluids and concentration of nanofluids are numerically investigated. Five different nanofluids such as AgH2O, Al2O3, CuO, SiO2 and TiO2 with volume fraction range of 0.5% to 2.5% are used. The results revealed that the heat transfer performance decreases as spray height increases. It is found that TiO2 has the highest transfer coefficient among other nanofluids. In dilute spray conditions, low concentration of nanofluids is observed to be more effective in heat removal in a spray cooling system.

Keywords: numerical investigation, spray cooling, heat transfer, nanofluids

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315 Quantitative Characterization of Single Orifice Hydraulic Flat Spray Nozzle

Authors: Y. C. Khoo, W. T. Lai

Abstract:

The single orifice hydraulic flat spray nozzle was evaluated with two global imaging techniques to characterize various aspects of the resulting spray. The two techniques were high resolution flow visualization and Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). A CCD camera with 29 million pixels was used to capture shadowgraph images to realize ligament formation and collapse as well as droplet interaction. Quantitative analysis was performed to give the sizing information of the droplets and ligaments. This camera was then applied with a PIV system to evaluate the overall velocity field of the spray, from nozzle exit to droplet discharge. PIV images were further post-processed to determine the inclusion angle of the spray. The results from those investigations provided significant quantitative understanding of the spray structure. Based on the quantitative results, detailed understanding of the spray behavior was achieved.

Keywords: spray, flow visualization, PIV, shadowgraph, quantitative sizing, velocity field

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314 Sea-Spray Calculations Using the MESO-NH Model

Authors: Alix Limoges, William Bruch, Christophe Yohia, Jacques Piazzola

Abstract:

A number of questions arise concerning the long-term impact of the contribution of marine aerosol fluxes generated at the air-sea interface on the occurrence of intense events (storms, floods, etc.) in the coastal environment. To this end, knowledge is needed on sea-spray emission rates and the atmospheric dynamics of the corresponding particles. Our aim is to implement the mesoscale model MESO-NH on the study area using an accurate sea-spray source function to estimate heat fluxes and impact on the precipitations. Based on an original and complete sea-spray source function, which covers a large size spectrum since taking into consideration the sea-spray produced by both bubble bursting and surface tearing process, we propose a comparison between model simulations and experimental data obtained during an oceanic scientific cruise on board the navy ship Atalante. The results show the relevance of the sea-spray flux calculations as well as their impact on the heat fluxes and AOD.

Keywords: atmospheric models, sea-spray source, sea-spray dynamics, aerosols

Procedia PDF Downloads 29
313 Effect of Span 60, Labrasol, and Cholesterol on Labisia pumila Loaded Niosomes Quality

Authors: H. Binti Ya’akob, C. Siew Chin, A. Abd Aziz, I. Ware, M. Fauzi Abd Jalil, N. Rashidah Ahmed, R. Sabtu

Abstract:

Labisia pumila (LP) plant extract has the potential to be applied in cosmeceutical products due to its anti-photoaging properties. The main purpose of this study was to improve transdermal delivery of LP by encapsulating LP in niosomes. Niosomes loaded LPs were prepared by coacervation phase separation method using non-ionic surfactant (Span 60), labrasol, and cholesterol. The optimum formula obtained were Span 60, labrasol and cholesterol at the mole ratio of 6:1:4. At the optimum formulation, the niosome obtained significantly improved the quality of transdermal penetration of LP compared to free LP.

Keywords: Labisia pumila, niosomes, transdermal, quality

Procedia PDF Downloads 215
312 Iontophoretic Drug Transport of Some Anti-Diabetic Agents

Authors: Ashish Jain, Satish Nayak

Abstract:

Transdermal iontophoretic drug delivery system is viable drug delivery platform technology and has a strong market worldwide. Transdermal drug delivery system is particularly desirable for therapeutic agents that need prolonged administration at controlled plasma level. This makes appropriateness to antihypertensive and anti-diabetic agents for their transdermal development. Controlled zero order absorption, easily termination of drug delivery and easy to administration also support for popularity of transdermal delivery. In this current research iontophoretic delivery of various anti diabetic agents like glipizide, glibenclamide and glimepiride were carried out. The experiments were carried out at different drug concentrations and different current densities using cathodal iontophoresis. Diffusion cell for iontophoretic permeation study was modified according to Glikfield Design. Pig skin was used for in vitro permeation study and for the in-vivo study New Zealand rabbits were used. At all concentration level iontophoresis showed enhanced permeation rate compared to passive controls. Iontophoretic transports of selected drugs were found to be increased with the current densities. Results showed that target permeation rate for selected drugs could be achieved with the aid of iontophoresis by increasing the area in an appreciable range.

Keywords: transdermal, iontophoresis, pig skin, rabbits, glipizide, glibeclamide

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311 Design, Development and Characterization of Pioglitazone Transdermal Drug Delivery System

Authors: Dwarakanadha Reddy Peram, D. Swarnalatha, C. Gopinath

Abstract:

The main aim of this research work was to design and development characterization of Pioglitazone transdermal drug delivery system by using various polymers such as Olibanum with different concentration by solvent evaporation technique. The prepared formulations were evaluated for different physicochemical characteristics like thickness, folding endurance, drug content, percentage moisture absorption, percentage moisture loss, percentage elongation break test and weight uniformity. The diffusion studies were performed by using modified Franz diffusion cells. The result of dissolution studies shows that formulation, F3 (Olibanum with 50 mg) showed maximum release of 99.95 % in 12hrs, whereas F1 (Olibanum and EC backing membrane) showed minimum release of 93.65% in 12 hr. Based on the drug release and physicochemical values obtained the formulation F3 is considered as an optimized formulation which shows higher percentage of drug release of 99.95 % in 12 hr. The developed transdermal patches increase the therapeutic efficacy and reduced toxic effect of pioglitazone.

Keywords: pioglitazone, olibanum, transdermal drug delivery system, drug release percantage

Procedia PDF Downloads 113
310 Effect of Humidity on In-Process Crystallization of Lactose During Spray Drying

Authors: Amirali Ebrahimi, T. A. G. Langrish

Abstract:

The effect of various humidities on process yields and degrees of crystallinity for spray-dried powders from spray drying of lactose with humid air in a straight-through system have been studied. It has been suggested by Williams–Landel–Ferry kinetics (WLF) that a higher particle temperature and lower glass-transition temperature would increase the crystallization rate of the particles during the spray-drying process. Freshly humidified air produced by a Buchi-B290 spray dryer as a humidifier attached to the main spray dryer decreased the particle glass-transition temperature (Tg), while allowing the particle temperature (Tp) to reach higher values by using an insulated drying chamber. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and moisture sorption analysis were used to measure the degree of crystallinity for the spray-dried lactose powders. The results showed that higher Tp-Tg, as a result of applying humid air, improved the process yield from 21 ± 4 to 26 ± 2% and crystallinity of the particles by decreasing the latent heat of crystallization from 43 ± 1 to 30 ± 11 J/g and the sorption peak height from 7.3 ± 0.7% to 6 ± 0.7%.

Keywords: lactose, crystallization, spray drying, humid air

Procedia PDF Downloads 243
309 Press Hardening of Tubes with Additional Interior Spray Cooling

Authors: B. A. Behrens, H. J. Maier, A. Neumann, J. Moritz, S. Hübner, T. Gretzki, F. Nürnberger, A. Spiekermeier

Abstract:

Press-hardened profiles are used e.g. for automotive applications in order to improve light weight construction due to the high reachable strength. The application of interior water-air spray cooling contributes to significantly reducing the cycle time in the production of heat-treated tubes. This paper describes a new manufacturing method for producing press-hardened hollow profiles by means of an additional interior cooling based on a water-air spray. Furthermore, this paper provides the results of thorough investigations on the properties of press-hardened tubes in dependence of varying spray parameters.

Keywords: 22MnB5, press hardening, water-air spray cooling, hollow profiles, tubes

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308 Comparative Studies on Thin Film of ZnO Deposited by Spray Pyrolysis and Sputtering Technique

Authors: Musa Momoh, A. U. Moreh, A. M. Bayawa, Sanusi Abdullahi, I. Atiku

Abstract:

In this study, thin films of ZnO were synthesized by two techniques namely RF sputtering and spray pyrolysis. The films were deposited on corning glass. The primary materials used are 99.99% pure. The optical and structural properties of the samples were studied. It has been noted that the samples deposited by Spray pyrolysis have and average transmittance, refractive index and extinction coefficient as 80-90%, 1.33-1.44 and 13.11-27.52 respectively. Those deposited by sputtering method are 34-80%, 1.51-1.52 and 3.15-3.28. The XRD patterns of the samples show that they are polycrystalline.

Keywords: zinc oxide, spray pyrolysis, rf sputtering, optical properties, electrical properties

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307 A Randomised, Single-Dose, Two-Period, Cross-Over Phase I Pharmacokinetic Study to Compare TDS®-Diazepam with Rectal Diazepam in Healthy Adult Subjects

Authors: Faisal O. Al-Otaibi, Arthur T. Tucker, Richard M. Langford, Stuart Ratcliffe, Atholl Johnston, Terry D. Lee, Kenneth B. Kirby, Chandan A. Alam

Abstract:

The Transdermal Delivery System (TDS®) is a proprietary liquid formulation that can be applied to intact skin via a metered pump spray to facilitate drug delivery to the circulation. The aim of this study was to assess the ability of the TDS preparation to deliver diazepam systemically, and to characterize the pharmacokinetic profile of the drug in healthy adult subjects. We conducted a randomized, single-dose, two-period, crossover phase I (pharmacokinetic) comparative study in twelve healthy volunteers. All volunteers received both 10 mg TDS-diazepam topically to the upper chest and 10 mg of the rectal diazepam preparation (Diastat®, 10 mg diazepam gel), with a minimum washout of 14 days between dosing episodes. Both formulations were well tolerated in all volunteers. Following topical application of TDS-diazepam, the mean AUC0-72h was 1241 ng/mL.h and the Cmax 34 ng/mL. The values for rectal Diastat were 4109 ng/mL.h and 300 ng/mL respectively. This proof of concept study demonstrates that the TDS preparation successfully delivered diazepam systemically to adults. As expected, the concentration of diazepam following the TDS application was lower and not bioequivalent to rectal gel. Future development of this unique system is required.

Keywords: transdermal delivery system, diazepam, seizure, bioequivalence, pharmacokinetic

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306 Colour Formation and Maillard Reactions in Spray-Dried Milk Powders

Authors: Zelin Zhou, Timothy Langrish

Abstract:

Spray drying is the final stage of milk powder production. Traditionally, the quality of spray-dried milk powders has mainly been assessed using their physical properties, such as their moisture contents, while chemical changes occurring during the spray drying process have often been ignored. With growing concerns about food quality, it is necessary to establish a better understanding of heat-induced degradation due to the spray-drying process of skim milk. In this study, the extent of thermal degradation for skim milk in a pilot-scale spray dryer has been investigated using different inlet gas temperatures. The extent of heat-induced damage has been measured by the formation of advanced Maillard reaction products and the loss of soluble proteins at pH 4.6 as assessed by a fluorometric method. A significant increase in the extent of thermal degradation has been found when the inlet gas temperature increased from 170°C to 190°C, suggesting protein unfolding may play an important role in the kinetics of heat-induced degradation for milk in spray dryers. Colour changes of the spray-dried skim milk powders have also been analysed using a standard lighting box. Colourimetric analysis results were expressed in CIELAB colour space with the use of the E index (E) and the Chroma (C) for measuring the difference between colours and the intensity of the colours. A strong linear correlation between the colour intensity of the spray-dried skim milk powders and the formation of advanced Maillard reaction products has been observed.

Keywords: colour formation, Maillard reactions, spray drying, skim milk powder

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305 Effect of Temperature and Feed Solution on Microencapsulation of Quercetin by Spray Drying Technique

Authors: S. Lekhavat, U. Srimongkoluk, P. Ratanachamnong, G. Laungsopapun

Abstract:

Quercetin was encapsulated with whey protein and high methoxyl pectin by spray drying technique. Feed solution, consisting of 0.1875 0.125 and 0.0625 % w/w quercetin, respectively, was prepared and then sprays at outlet temperature of 70, 80 and 90 °C. Quercetin contents either in feed solution or in spray dried powder were determined by HPLC technique. Physicochemical properties such as viscosity and total soluble solid of feed solution as well as moisture content and water activity of spray dried powder were examined. Particle morphology was imaged using scanning electron microscope. The results showed that feed solution has total soluble solid and viscosity in range of 1.73-5.60 ºBrix and 2.58-8.15 cP, in that order. After spray drying, the moisture content and water activity value of powder are in range of 0.58-2.72 % and 0.18-0.31, respectively. Quercetin content in dried sample increased along with outlet drying temperature but decreased when total soluble solid increased. It was shown that particles are likely to shrivel when spray drying at high temperature. The suggested conditions for encapsulation of quercetin are feed solution with 0.0625 % (w/w) quercetin and spray drying at drying outlet temperature of 90°C.

Keywords: drying temperature, particle morphology, spray drying, quercetin

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304 Numerical Simulation and Analysis on Liquid Nitrogen Spray Heat Exchanger

Authors: Wenjing Ding, Weiwei Shan, Zijuan, Wang, Chao He

Abstract:

Liquid spray heat exchanger is the critical equipment of temperature regulating system by gaseous nitrogen which realizes the environment temperature in the range of -180 ℃~+180 ℃. Liquid nitrogen is atomized into smaller liquid drops through liquid nitrogen sprayer and then contacts with gaseous nitrogen to be cooled. By adjusting the pressure of liquid nitrogen and gaseous nitrogen, the flowrate of liquid nitrogen is changed to realize the required outlet temperature of heat exchanger. The temperature accuracy of shrouds is ±1 ℃. Liquid nitrogen spray heat exchanger is simulated by CATIA, and the numerical simulation is performed by FLUENT. The comparison between the tests and numerical simulation is conducted. Moreover, the results help to improve the design of liquid nitrogen spray heat exchanger.

Keywords: liquid nitrogen spray, temperature regulating system, heat exchanger, numerical simulation

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303 The Physics of Cold Spray Technology

Authors: Ionel Botef

Abstract:

Studies show that, for qualitative coatings, the knowledge of cold spray technology must focus on a variety of interdisciplinary fields and a framework for problem solving. The integrated disciplines include, but are not limited to, engineering, material sciences, and physics. Due to its importance, the purpose of this paper is to summarize the state of the art of this technology alongside its theoretical and experimental studies, and explore the role and impact of physics upon cold spraying technology.

Keywords: surface engineering, cold spray, physics, modelling

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302 Tribological Behavior of Warm Rolled Spray Formed Al-6Si-1Mg-1Graphite Composite

Authors: Surendra Kumar Chourasiya, Sandeep Kumar, Devendra Singh

Abstract:

In the present investigation tribological behavior of Al-6Si-1Mg-1Graphite composite has been explained. The composite was developed through the unique spray forming route in the spray forming chamber by using N₂ gas at 7kg/cm² and the flight distance was 400 mm. Spray formed composite having a certain amount of porosity which was reduced by the deformations. The composite was subjected to the warm rolling (WR) at 250ºC up to 40% reduction. Spray forming composite shows the considerable microstructure refinement, equiaxed grains, distribution of silicon and graphite particles in the primary matrix of the composite. Graphite (Gr) was incorporated externally during the process that works as a solid lubricant. Porosity decreased after reduction and hardness increases. Pin on disc test has been performed to analyze the wear behavior which is the function of sliding distance for all percent reduction of the composite. 30% WR composite shows the better result of wear rate and coefficient of friction. The improved wear properties of the composite containing Gr are discussed in light of the microstructural features of spray formed the composite and the nature of the debris particles. Scanning electron microscope and optical microscope analysis of the present material supported the prediction of aforementioned changes.

Keywords: Al-6Si-1Mg-1Graphite, spray forming, warm rolling, wear

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301 Technology of Thermal Spray Coating Machining

Authors: Jana Petrů, Tomáš Zlámal, Robert Čep, Lenka Čepová

Abstract:

This article is focused on the thermal spray coating machining issue. Those are irreplaceable in many areas of nowadays industrial branches such as aerospace industry, mostly thanks to their excellent qualities in production and also in renovation of machinery parts. The principals of thermal spraying and elementary diversification are described in introduction. Plasma coating method of composite materials -cermets- is described more thoroughly. The second part describes thermal spray coating machining and grinding in detail. This part contains suggestion of appropriate grinding tool and assessment of cutting conditions used for grinding a given part. Conclusion describes a problem which occurred while grinding a cermet thermal spray coating with a specially designed grindstone and a way to solve this problem.

Keywords: coating, aerospace, plasma, grinding

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300 The Effect of Water Droplets Size in Fire Fighting Systems

Authors: Tassadit Tabouche

Abstract:

Water sprays pattern, and water droplets size (different droplets diameter) are a key factors in the success of the suppression by water spray. The effects of the two important factors are investigated in this study. However, the fire extinguishing mechanism in such devices is not well understood due to the complexity of the physical and chemical interactions between water spray and fire plume. in this study, 3D, unsteady, two phase flow CFD simulation approach is introduced to provide a quantitative analysis of the complex interactions occurring between water spray and fire plume. Lagrangian Discrete Phase Model (DPM) was used for water droplets and a global one-step reaction mechanism in combustion model was used for fire plume.

Keywords: droplets, water spray, water droplets size, 3D

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299 Granule Morphology of Zirconia Powder with Solid Content on Two-Fluid Spray Drying

Authors: Hyeongdo Jeong, Jong Kook Lee

Abstract:

Granule morphology and microstructure were affected by slurry viscosity, chemical composition, particle size and spray drying process. In this study, we investigated granule morphology of zirconia powder with solid content on two-fluid spray drying. Zirconia granules after spray drying show sphere-like shapes with a diameter of 40-70 μm at low solid contents (30 or 40 wt%) and specific surface area of 5.1-5.6 m²/g. But a donut-like shape with a few cracks were observed on zirconia granules prepared from the slurry of high solid content (50 wt %), green compacts after cold isostatic pressing under the pressure of 200 MPa have the density of 2.1-2.2 g/cm³ and homogeneous fracture surface by complete destruction of granules. After the sintering at 1500 °C for 2 h, all specimens have relative density of 96.2-98.3 %. With increasing a solid content from 30 to 50 wt%, grain size increased from 0.3 to 0.6 μm, but relative density was inversely decreased from 98.3 to 96.2 %.

Keywords: zirconia, solid content, granulation, spray drying

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298 Preparation of Amla (Phyllanthus emblica) Powder Using Spray Drying Technique

Authors: Shubham Mandliya, Pooja Pandey, H. N. Mishra

Abstract:

Amla (Phyllanthus emblica), a plant of Euphorbiaceous is widely distributed in subtropical and tropical areas of China, India, Indonesia, and Malaysia. Amla is very high in vitamin C content. Spray drying of fruit juices represents another alternative way to improve the physicochemical stability and increase their shelf life. Samples of amla powder were produced using the spray drying method to investigate the effect of inlet temperatures and maltodextrin levels. The spray dryer model used was a laboratory scale dryer and samples were run at different temperatures and concentrations. The response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the spray-drying process for the development of amla powder. The resultant powders were then analyzed for vitamin C, moisture, solubility and dispersibility. The spray dried amla powder contains higher amounts of vitamin C when compared to commercial fruit juice powders. SEM analysis revealed that lower maltodextrin levels and higher inlet air temperatures resulted in smaller but smoother particles. At lower temperature, vitamin C content is high as compared to higher temperature. Spray drying is an effective as well as an economic method which can be commercially used for making powder rather than by tray or solar drying as more fraction is retained with less cost.

Keywords: Amla powder, physiochemical properties, response surface methodology, spray drying

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297 Effect of Drop Impact Behavior on Spray Retention

Authors: Hassina Hafida Boukhalfa, Mathieu Massinon, Fréderic Lebeau, Mohamed Belhamra

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Drop behaviour during impact affects retention. The increase of adhesion is usually seen as the objective when applying crop protection products, while bouncing and shattering are seen as detrimental to spray retention. However, observation of drop impacts using high speed shadow graphy shows that fragmentation can occur in Wenzel wetting regime. In this case, a part of the drop sticks on the surface, what contributes to retention. Using simultaneous measurements of drop impacts with high speed imaging and of retention with fluorometry for 3 spray mixtures on excised barley leaves allowed us to observe that about 50% of the drops fragmented in Wenzel state remain on the leaf. Depending on spray mixture, these impact outcomes accounted for 25 to 50% of retention, the higher contribution being correlated with bigger VMD (Volume Median Diameter). This contribution is non-negligible and should be considered when a modelling of spray retention process is performed.

Keywords: drop impact, retention, fluorometry, high speed imaging

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296 Formulation, Evaluation and Statistical Optimization of Transdermal Niosomal Gel of Atenolol

Authors: Lakshmi Sirisha Kotikalapudi

Abstract:

Atenolol, the widely used antihypertensive drug is ionisable and degrades in the acidic environment of the GIT lessening the bioavailability. Transdermal route may be selected as an alternative to enhance the bioavailability. Half-life of the drug is 6-7 hours suggesting the requirement of prolonged release of the drug. The present work of transdermal niosomal gel aims to extend release of the drug and increase the bioavailability. Ethanol injection method was used for the preparation of niosomes using span-60 and cholesterol at different molar ratios following central composite design. The prepared niosomes were characterized for size, zeta-potential, entrapment efficiency, drug content and in-vitro drug release. Optimized formulation was selected by statistically analyzing the results obtained using the software Stat-Ease Design Expert. The optimized formulation also showed high drug retention inside the vesicles over a period of three months at a temperature of 4 °C indicating stability. Niosomes separated as a pellet were dried and incorporated into the hydrogel prepared using chitosan a natural polymer as a gelling agent. The effect of various chemical permeation enhancers was also studied over the gel formulations. The prepared formulations were characterized for viscosity, pH, drug release using Franz diffusion cells, and skin irritation test as well as in-vivo pharmacological activities. Atenolol niosomal gel preparations showed the prolonged release of the drug and pronounced antihypertensive activity indicating the suitability of niosomal gel for topical and systemic delivery of atenolol.

Keywords: atenolol, chitosan, niosomes, transdermal

Procedia PDF Downloads 168
295 Combined Effect of Vesicular System and Iontophoresis on Skin Permeation Enhancement of an Analgesic Drug

Authors: Jigar N. Shah, Hiral J. Shah, Praful D. Bharadia

Abstract:

The major challenge faced by formulation scientists in transdermal drug delivery system is to overcome the inherent barriers related to skin permeation. The stratum corneum layer of the skin is working as the rate limiting step in transdermal transport and reduce drug permeation through skin. Many approaches have been used to enhance the penetration of drugs through this layer of the skin. The purpose of this study is to investigate the development and evaluation of a combined approach of drug carriers and iontophoresis as a vehicle to improve skin permeation of an analgesic drug. Iontophoresis is a non-invasive technique for transporting charged molecules into and through tissues by a mild electric field. It has been shown to effectively deliver a variety of drugs across the skin to the underlying tissue. In addition to the enhanced continuous transport, iontophoresis allows dose titration by adjusting the electric field, which makes personalized dosing feasible. Drug carrier could modify the physicochemical properties of the encapsulated molecule and offer a means to facilitate the percutaneous delivery of difficult-to-uptake substances. Recently, there are some reports about using liposomes, microemulsions and polymeric nanoparticles as vehicles for iontophoretic drug delivery. Niosomes, the nonionic surfactant-based vesicles that are essentially similar in properties to liposomes have been proposed as an alternative to liposomes. Niosomes are more stable and free from other shortcoming of liposomes. Recently, the transdermal delivery of certain drugs using niosomes has been envisaged and niosomes have proved to be superior transdermal nanocarriers. Proniosomes overcome some of the physical stability related problems of niosomes. The proniosomal structure was liquid crystalline-compact niosomes hybrid which could be converted into niosomes upon hydration. The combined use of drug carriers and iontophoresis could offer many additional benefits. The system was evaluated for Encapsulation Efficiency, vesicle size, zeta potential, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), DSC, in-vitro release, ex-vivo permeation across skin and rate of hydration. The use of proniosomal gel as a vehicle for the transdermal iontophoretic delivery was evaluated in-vitro. The characteristics of the applied electric current, such as density, type, frequency, and on/off interval ratio were observed. The study confirms the synergistic effect of proniosomes and iontophoresis in improving the transdermal permeation profile of selected analgesic drug. It is concluded that proniosomal gel can be used as a vehicle for transdermal iontophoretic drug delivery under suitable electric conditions.

Keywords: iontophoresis, niosomes, permeation enhancement, transdermal delivery

Procedia PDF Downloads 296
294 Modeling and Simulating Drop Interactions in Spray Structure of High Torque Low Speed Diesel Engine

Authors: Rizwan Latif, Syed Adnan Qasim, Muzaffar Ali

Abstract:

Fuel direct injection represents one of the key aspects in the development of the diesel engines, the idea of controlling the auto-ignition and the consequent combustion of a liquid spray injected in a reacting atmosphere during a time scale of few milliseconds has been a challenging task for the engine community and pushed forward to a massive research in this field. The quality of the air-fuel mixture defines the combustion efficiency, and therefore the engine efficiency. A droplet interaction in dense as well as thin portion of the spray receives equal importance as other parameters in spray structure. Usually, these are modeled along with breakup process and analyzed alike. In this paper, droplet interaction is modeled and simulated for high torque low speed scenario. Droplet interactions may further be subdivided into droplet collision and coalescence, spray wall impingement, droplets drag, etc. Droplet collisions may occur in almost all spray applications, but especially in diesel like conditions such as high pressure sprays as utilized in combustion engines. These collisions have a strong influence on the mean droplet size and its spatial distribution and can, therefore, affect sub-processes of spray combustion such as mass, momentum and energy transfer between gas and droplets. Similarly, for high-pressure injection systems spray wall impingement is an inherent sub-process of mixture formation. However, its influence on combustion is in-explicit.

Keywords: droplet collision, coalescence, low speed, diesel fuel

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293 Diesel Engine Performance Optimization to Reduce Fuel Consumption and Emissions Issues

Authors: hadi kargar, bahador shabani

Abstract:

In this article, 16 cylinder motor combustion CFD modeling with a diameter of 165 mm and 195 mm along the way to help the FIRE software to optimize its function to work. A three-dimensional model of the processes that formed inside the cylinder made that involves mixing the fuel and air, ignition and spraying. In this three-dimensional model, all chemical species, density of air fuel spraying and spray with full profile intended to detailed results from mixing the fuel and air, igniting the ignition advance, spray, and mixed media in different times and get fit by moving the piston. Optimal selection of the model for the shape of the piston and spraying fuel specifications (including the management of spraying, the number of azhneh hole, start time of spraying and spraying angle) to achieve the best fuel consumption and minimal pollution. The spray hole 6 and 7 in three different configurations with five spraying and gives the best geometry and various performances in the simulation. 6 hole spray angle, finally spraying 72.5 degrees and two forms of spraying a better performance in comparison with other items of their own.

Keywords: spray, FIRE, CFD, optimize, diesel engine

Procedia PDF Downloads 322