Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 83

Search results for: gelatin

83 The Use of Gelatin in Biomedical Engineering: Halal Perspective

Authors: Syazwani Ramli, Norhidayu Muhamad Zain


Nowadays, the use of gelatin as biomaterials in tissue engineering are evolving especially in skin graft and wound dressing applications. Towards year 2018, Malaysia is in the way of planning to get the halal certification for biomedical device in order to cater the needs of Muslims and non-Muslims in Malaysia. However, the use of gelatins in tissue engineering are mostly derived from non-halal sources. Currently, gelatin production mostly comes from mammalian gelatin sources. Moreover, within these past years, just a few studies of the uses of gelatin in tissue engineering from halal perspective has been studied. Thus, this paper aims to give overview of the use of gelatin from different sources from halal perspectives. This review also discussing the current status of halal for the emerging biomedical devices. In addition, the different sources of gelatin used in tissue engineering are being identified and provides better alternatives for halal gelatin. Cold- water fish skin gelatin could be an effective alternative to substitute the mammalian sources. Therefore, this review is important because the information about the halal biomedical devices will delighted Muslim consumers and give better insight of halal gelatin in tissue engineering application.

Keywords: biomedical device, gelatin, halal, skin graft, tissue engineering

Procedia PDF Downloads 91
82 Quality Rabbit Skin Gelatin with Acetic Acid Extract

Authors: Wehandaka Pancapalaga


This study aimed to analyze the water content, yield, fat content, protein content, viscosity, gel strength, pH, melting and organoleptic rabbit skin gelatin with acetic acid extraction levels are different. The materials used in this study were Rex rabbit skin male. Treatments that P1 = the extraction of acetic acid 2% (v / v); P2 = the extraction of acetic acid 3% (v / v); P3 = the extraction of acetic acid 4 % (v / v). P5 = the extraction of acetic acid 5% (v / v). The results showed that the greater the concentration of acetic acid as the extraction of rabbit skin can reduce the water content and fat content of rabbit skin gelatin but increase the protein content, viscosity, pH, gel strength, yield and melting point rabbit skin gelatin. texture, color and smell of gelatin rabbits there were no differences with cow skin gelatin. The results showed that the quality of rabbit skin gelatin accordance Indonesian National Standard (SNI). Conclusion 5% acetic acid extraction produces the best quality gelatin.

Keywords: gelatin, skin rabbit, acetic acid extraction, quality

Procedia PDF Downloads 299
81 Characteristics of Edible Film Made from Skin and Bone Fish Gelatin, Spotted Oceanic Triggerfish (Canthidermis maculata) and Tilapia Fish (Oreochromis niloticus)

Authors: Normalina Arpi, Fahrizal Fahrizal, Dewi Yunita


Edible films can increase the shelf life of various food products by acting as water, oxygen, and lipid barrier. Fish gelatin as a film-forming agent has unique characteristics but varies depending on fish species. The purpose of this research is to characterize edible film made using skin and bone fish gelatin with the addition of plasticizer. Gelatin of spotted oceanic triggerfish (Canthidermis maculata) and tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) were used. Glycerol and sorbitol with concentration of 0.25 and 0.5 % were added as a plasticizer. Spotted oceanic triggerfish gelatin with sorbitol resulted film with higher tensile strength and oxygen permeability, whereas tilapia gelatin with glycerol produced an edible film with higher elongation and water vapor permeability. The edible film made of spotted oceanic triggerfish gelatin and 0.25% sorbitol had the best characteristics.

Keywords: edible film, fish gelatin , glycerol, sorbitol

Procedia PDF Downloads 67
80 Microstructure Analysis of Biopolymer Mixture (Chia-Gelatin) by Laser Confocal Microscopy

Authors: Emmanuel Flores Huicochea, Guadalupe Borja Mendiola, Jacqueline Flores Lopez, Rodolfo Rendon Villalobos


The usual procedure to investigate the properties of biodegradable films has been to prepare the film, measure the mechanical or transport properties and then decide whether the mixture has better properties than the individual components, instead of investigating whether the mixture has biopolymer-biopolymer interaction, then prepare the film and finally measure the properties of the film. The work investigates the presence of interaction biopolymer-biopolymer in a mixture of chia biopolymer and gelatin using Laser Confocal Microscopy (LCM). Previously, the chia biopolymer was obtained from chia seed. CML analysis of mixtures of chia biopolymer-gelatin without Na⁺ ions exhibited aggregates of different size, in the range of 100-400 μm, of defined color, for the two colors, but no mixing of color was observed. The increased of gelatin in the mixture decreases the size and number of aggregates. The tridimensional microstructure reveled that there are two layers of biopolymers, chia and gelatin well defined. The mixture chia biopolymer-gelatin with 10 mM Na⁺ and with a ratio 75:25 (chia-gelatin) showed lower aggregated size than others mixture with and without ions. This result could be explained because the chia biopolymer is a polyelectrolyte and the added sodium ions reduce the molecular rigidity by neutralizing the negative charges that the chia biopolymer possesses and therefore a better biopolymer-biopolymer interaction is allowed between the biopolymer of chia and gelatin.

Keywords: biopolymer-biopolymer interaction, confocal laser microscopy, CLM, microstructure, mixture chia-gelatin

Procedia PDF Downloads 70
79 The Characteristcs and Amino Acid Profile of Edible Coating Extracted from Pigskin Gelatin

Authors: Meity Sompie, Agnes Triasih, Wisje Ponto


Edible coating is thin layers that act as a barrier to the external factors and protect the food products. The addition of the plasticizer to the edible coating is required to overcome film caused by extensive intermolecular forces. The potential development of pigskin with different ages as a raw material for the manufacture of edible films had not been widely publicized. This research was aimed to determine the influence of gelatin concentration and different type of plasticizer on the edible coating characteristics extracted from pigskin gelatin. This study used Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with two factors and three replicates of treatments. The first factor was consisted of pigskin gelatin concentration ( 10, 20, and 30 %) and the second factor was different type of plasticizer (glycerol, sorbitol and PEG). The results show that the interaction between the use of gelatin concentrations and type of plasticizer had significant effect (P< 0.05) on the thickness, tensile strength, elongation, water vapor transmission rate (WVTR), water content and amino acid profile of edible coating. It was concluded that the edible coating from pigskin gelatin with plasticizer gliserol had the best film characteristics, and it can be applied as an edible coating.

Keywords: edible coating, edible film, pigskin gelatin, plasticizer

Procedia PDF Downloads 79
78 Development of Cationic Gelatin Nanoparticles as an Antigen-Carrier for Mucosal Immunization

Authors: Ping-Lun Jiang, Hung-Jun Lin, Shen-Fu Lin, Mei-Yin Chien, Ting-Wei Li, Chun-Han Lin, Der-Zen Liu


Mucosal vaccine induces both mucosal (secretory IgA) and systemic immune responses and it is considered an ideal vaccination strategy for prevention of infectious diseases. One important point to be considered in mucosal vaccination is effective antigen delivery system which can manage effective delivery of antigen to antigen-presenting cells (APCs) of mucosal. In the present study, cationic gelatin nanoparticles were prepared as ideal carriers for more efficient antigen delivery. The average diameter of cationic gelatin nanoparticle was approximate 190 nm, and the zeta potential was about +45 mV, then ovalbumin (OVA) was physically absorbed onto cationic gelatin nanoparticle. The OVA absorption rate was near 95% the zeta potential was about +20 mV. We show that cationic gelatin nanoparticle effectively facilitated antigen uptake by mice bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (mBMDCs) and RAW264.7 cells and induced higher levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines. C57BL/6 mice twice immunized intranasally with OVA-absorbed cationic gelatin nanoparticle induced high levels of OVA-specific IgG in the serum and IgA in their in the nasal and lung wash fluid. These results indicate that nasal administration of cationic gelatin nanoparticles induced both mucosal and systemic immune responses and cationic gelatin nanoparticles might be a potential antigen delivery carrier for further clinical applications.

Keywords: antigen delivery, antigen-presenting cells, gelatin nanoparticle, mucosal vaccine

Procedia PDF Downloads 252
77 Impact of Autoclave Sterilization of Gelatin on Endotoxin Level and Physical Properties Compared to Surfactant Purified Gelatins

Authors: Jos Olijve


Introduction and Purpose: Endotoxins are found in the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria and have profound in vitro and in vivo responses. They can trigger strong immune responses and negatively affect various cellar activities particular cells expressing toll-like receptors. They are therefore unwanted contaminants of biomaterials sourced from natural raw materials, and their activity must be as low as possible. Collagen and gelatin are natural extracellular matrix components and have, due to their low allergenic potential, suitable biological properties, and tunable physical characteristics, high potential in biomedical applications. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of autoclave sterilization of gelatin on physical properties and endotoxin level compared to surfactant purified gelatin. Methods: Type A gelatin from Sigma-Aldrich (G1890) with endotoxin level of 35000 endotoxin units (EU) per gram gelatin and type A gelatins from Rousselot Gent with endotoxin activity of 30000 EU per gram were used. A 10 w/w% G1890 gelatin solution was autoclave sterilized during 30 minutes at 121°C and 1 bar over pressure. The physical properties and the endotoxin level of the sterilized G1890 gelatin were compared to a type A gelatin from Rousselot purified with Triton X100 surfactant. The Triton X100 was added to a concentration of 0.5 w/w% which is above the critical micellar concentration. The gelatin surfactant mixtures were kept for 30-45 minutes under constant stirring at 55-60°C. The Triton X100 was removed by active carbon filtration. The endotoxin levels of the gelatins were measured using the Endozyme recombinant factor C method from Hyglos GmbH (Germany). Results and Discussion: Autoclave sterilization significantly affect the physical properties of gelatin. Molecular weight of G1890 decreased from 140 to 50kDa, and gel strength decreased from 300 to 40g. The endotoxin level of the gelatin reduced after sterilization from 35000 EU/g to levels of 400-500 EU/g. These endotoxin levels are however still far above the upper endotoxin level of 0.05 EU/ml, which resembles 5 EU/g gelatin based on a 1% gelatin solution, to avoid cell proliferation alteration. Molecular weight and gel strength of Rousselot gelatin was not altered after Triton X100 purification and remained 150kDa and 300g respectively. The endotoxin levels of Triton X100 purified Rousselot gelatin was < 5EU/g gelatin. Conclusion: Autoclave sterilization of gelatin is, in comparison to Triton X100 purification, not efficient to inactivate endotoxin levels in gelatin to levels below the upper limit to avoid cell proliferation alteration. Autoclave sterilization gave a significant decrease in molecular weight and gel strength which makes autoclave sterilized gelatin, in comparison to Triton X100 purified gelatin, not suitable for 3D printing.

Keywords: endotoxin, gelatin, molecular weight, sterilization, Triton X100

Procedia PDF Downloads 47
76 Use of Fish Gelatin Based-Films as Edible Pouch to Extend the Shelf-Life of Dried Chicken Powder and Chicken Oil

Authors: Soottawat Benjakul, Phakawat Tongnuanchan, Thummanoon Prodpran


Edible pouches made from fish gelatin film incorporated without and with palm oil (PO), basil essential oil (BEO) or oil mixture (M) were prepared and used to store chicken powder and chicken skin oil in comparison with nylon/low-density polyethylene (Nylon/LDPE) pouch during storage of 15 days. The moisture content of chicken powder packaged in pouches from fish gelatin films incorporated without and with various oils increased during 15 days of storage (p > 0.05). However, there was a non-significant change in moisture content of sample packaged in Nylon/LDPE pouch (p > 0.05). Samples packaged in pouches from fish gelatin films incorporated with oils had lower moisture content than those stored in pouch from gelatin film without oil added throughout the storage (p < 0.05). This coincided with the higher increases in darkness and yellowness for the latter. All samples packaged in pouches made from all films had the slight increase in PV, whereas a drastic increase in TBARS was observed for all samples during 15 days of storage. During 15 days of storage, chicken skin oil packaged in Nylon/LDPE pouch had higher TBARS and p-anisidine value than those stored in pouches made from fish gelatin, regardless of oil incorporated (p< 0.05). Therefore, pouches from gelatin film incorporated with oils could lower water migration and lipid oxidation in fat containing foods and oils.

Keywords: edible pouch, fish gelatin, quality changes, storage stability

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75 Valorization of Seafood and Poultry By-Products as Gelatin Source and Quality Assessment

Authors: Elif Tugce Aksun Tumerkan, Umran Cansu, Gokhan Boran, Fatih Ozogul


Gelatin is a mixture of peptides obtained from collagen by partial thermal hydrolysis. It is an important and useful biopolymer that is used in the food, pharmacy, and photography products. Generally, gelatins are sourced from pig skin and bones, beef bone and hide, but within the last decade, using alternative gelatin resources has attracted some interest. In this study, functional properties of gelatin extracted from seafood and poultry by-products were evaluated. For this purpose, skins of skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis) and frog (Rana esculata) were used as seafood by-products and chicken skin as poultry by-product as raw material for gelatin extraction. Following the extraction of gelatin, all samples were lyophilized and stored in plastic bags at room temperature. For comparing gelatins obtained; chemical composition, common quality parameters including bloom value, gel strength, and viscosity in addition to some others like melting and gelling temperatures, hydroxyproline content, and colorimetric parameters were determined. The results showed that the highest protein content obtained in frog gelatin with 90.1% and the highest hydroxyproline content was in chicken gelatin with 7.6% value. Frog gelatin showed a significantly higher (P < 0.05) melting point (42.7°C) compared to that of fish (29.7°C) and chicken (29.7°C) gelatins. The bloom value of gelatin from frog skin was found higher (363 g) than chicken and fish gelatins (352 and 336 g, respectively) (P < 0.05). While fish gelatin had higher lightness (L*) value (92.64) compared to chicken and frog gelatins, redness/greenness (a*) value was significantly higher in frog skin gelatin. Based on the results obtained, it can be concluded that skins of different animals with high commercial value may be utilized as alternative sources to produce gelatin with high yield and desirable functional properties. Functional and quality analysis of gelatin from frog, chicken, and tuna skin showed by-product of poultry and seafood can be used as an alternative gelatine source to mammalian gelatine. The functional properties, including bloom strength, melting points, and viscosity of gelatin from frog skin were more admirable than that of the chicken and tuna skin. Among gelatin groups, significant characteristic differences such as gel strength and physicochemical properties were observed based on not only raw material but also the extraction method.

Keywords: chicken skin, fish skin, food industry, frog skin, gel strength

Procedia PDF Downloads 52
74 Viscoelastic Characterization of Gelatin/Cellulose Nanocrystals Aqueous Bionanocomposites

Authors: Liliane Samara Ferreira Leite, Francys Kley Vieira Moreira, Luiz Henrique Capparelli Mattoso


The increasing environmental concern regarding the plastic pollution worldwide has stimulated the development of low-cost biodegradable materials. Proteins are renewable feedstocks that could be used to produce biodegradable plastics. Gelatin, for example, is a cheap film-forming protein extracted from animal skin and connective tissues of Brazilian Livestock residues; thus it has a good potential in low-cost biodegradable plastic production. However, gelatin plastics are limited in terms of mechanical and barrier properties. Cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) are efficient nanofillers that have been used to extend physical properties of polymers. This work was aimed at evaluating the reinforcing efficiency of CNC on gelatin films. Specifically, we have employed the continuous casting as the processing method for obtaining the gelatin/CNC bionanocomposites. This required a first rheological study for assessing the effect of gelatin-CNC and CNC-CNC interactions on the colloidal state of the aqueous bionanocomposite formulations. CNC were isolated from eucalyptus pulp by sulfuric acid hydrolysis (65 wt%) at 55 °C for 30 min. Gelatin was solubilized in ultra-pure water at 85°C for 20 min and then mixed with glycerol at 20 wt.% and CNC at 0.5 wt%, 1.0 wt% and 2.5 wt%. Rotational measurements were performed to determine linear viscosity (η) of bionanocomposite solutions, which increased with increasing CNC content. At 2.5 wt% CNC, η increased by 118% regarding the neat gelatin solution, which was ascribed to percolation CNC network formation. Storage modulus (G’) and loss modulus (G″) further determined by oscillatory tests revealed that a gel-like behavior was dominant in the bionanocomposite solutions (G’ > G’’) over a broad range of temperature (20 – 85 °C), particularly at 2.5 wt% CNC. These results confirm effective interactions in the aqueous gelatin-CNC bionanocomposites that could substantially increase the physical properties of the gelatin plastics. Tensile tests are underway to confirm this hypothesis. The authors would like to thank the Fapesp (process n 2016/03080-3) for support.

Keywords: bionanocomposites, cellulose nanocrystals, gelatin, viscoelastic characterization

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73 Effect of Incorporation of Seaweed Extract in Gelatin Based Film on Physic-Chemical and Bioactive Properties of Film

Authors: Shekhar U. Kadam, S. K. Pankaj, Brijesh K. Tiwari, P. J. Cullen, Colm P. O’Donnell


Brown seaweed L. hyperborea is a rich source of phenolic compounds with antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. The aim of this work was to study the effect of incorporation of L. hyperborea extract to bovine gelatin film on the physicochemical and antioxidant properties of film. Films with fraction of 25% by weight of bovine gelatin sample were cast with addition of glycerol as a plasticizer. The total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of the films showed higher levels with addition of seaweed extract. Also film appearance properties such as film thickness, color and light transparency were evaluated. Film appearance was slightly modified whereas microstructure of films showed rough patches at 50% level of extract in the film. Hydrophilicity and glass transition temperature of the films also increased with increased level of seaweed extract. It was found that seaweed extract can be incorporated within gelatin and casein for development of biofunctional films.

Keywords: Laminaria hyperborea, ultrasound, seaweed extract, bovine gelatin film, antioxidant, phenolic compounds

Procedia PDF Downloads 359
72 Multilayered Assembly of Gelatin on Nanofibrous Matrix for 3-D Cell Cultivation

Authors: Ji Un Shin, Wei Mao, Hyuk Sang Yoo


Electrospinning is a versatile tool for fabricating nano-structured polymeric materials. Gelatin hydrogels are considered to be a good material for cell cultivation because of high water swellability as well as good biocompatibility. Three-dimensional (3-D) cell cultivation is a desirable method of cell cultivation for preparing tissues and organs because cell-to-cell interactions or cell-to-matrix interactions can be much enhanced through this approach. For this reason, hydrogels were widely employed as tissue scaffolds because they can support cultivating cells and tissue in multi-dimensions. Major disadvantages of hydrogel-based cell cultivation include low mechanical properties, lack of topography, which should be enhanced for successful tissue engineering. Herein we surface-immobilized gelatin on the surface of nanofibrous matrix for 3-D cell cultivation in topographical cues added environments. Electrospun nanofibers were electrospun with injection of poly(caprolactone) through a single nozzle syringe. Electrospun meshes were then chopped up with a high speed grinder to fine powders. This was hydrolyzed in optimized concentration of sodium hydroxide solution from 1 to 6 hours and harvested by centrifugation. The freeze-dried powders were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for revealing the morphology and fibrilar shaped with a length of ca. 20um was observed. This was subsequently immersed in gelatin solution for surface-coating of gelatin, where the process repeated up to 10 times for obtaining desirable coating of gelatin on the surface. Gelatin-coated nanofibrils showed high waterswellability in comparison to the unmodified nanofibrils, and this enabled good dispersion properties of the modified nanofibrils in aqueous phase. The degree of water-swellability was increased as the coating numbers of gelatin increased, however, it did not any meaning result after 10 times of gelatin coating process. Thus, by adjusting the gelatin coating times, we could successfully control the degree of hydrophilicity and water-swellability of nanofibrils.

Keywords: nano, fiber, cell, tissue

Procedia PDF Downloads 71
71 Effects of the Tomato Pomace Oil Extract on Physical and Antioxidant Properties of Gelatin Films

Authors: N. Jirukkakul, J. Sodtipinta


Tomatoes are widely consumed as fresh and processed products through the manufacturing industry. Therefore, tomato pomace is generated as a by-product accounting for about 5-13% of the whole tomato. Antioxidants still remain in tomato pomace and extraction of tomato oil may useful in edible film production. The edible film solution was prepared by mixing gelatin (2, 4 and 6%) with the distilled water and heating at 40oC for 30 min. Effect of tomato pomace oil was evaluated at 0, 0.5 and 1%. Film solution was poured in plate and dried overnight at 40oC before determining the physical properties, which are tensile strength, moisture content, color, solubility, and swelling power. The results showed that an increase gelatin concentration caused increasing of tensile strength, moisture content, solubility and swelling power. The edible film with tomato pomace oil extract appeared as the rough film with oil droplet dispersion. The addition of tomato pomace oil extract caused an increase in lightness, redness and yellowness, while tensile strength, moisture content, and solubility were decreased. Film with tomato pomace oil extract at 0.5 and 1% exhibited antioxidant properties but those properties were not significantly different (p<0.05) between film incorporated with tomato pomace oil extract 0.5 and 1%. The suitable condition for film production in this study, 4% of gelatin and 0.5% of tomato pomace oil extract, was selected for protecting oxidation of palm oil. At 15 days of the storage period, the palm oil which covered by gelatin film with tomato pomace oil extract had 22.45 milliequivalents/kg of peroxide value (PV), while, the palm oil which covered by polypropylene film and control had 24.79 and 26.67 milliequivalents/kg, respectively. Therefore, incorporation of tomato pomace oil extract in gelatin film was able to protect the oxidation of food products with high fat content.

Keywords: antioxidant, gelatin films, physical properties, tomato oil extract

Procedia PDF Downloads 163
70 Development of Essential Oil-Loaded Gelatin Hydrogels for Use as Antibacterial Wound Dressing

Authors: Piyachat Chuysinuan, Nitirat Chimnoi, Arthit Makarasen, Nanthawan Reuk-Ngam, Pitt Supaphol, Supanna Techasakul


In this work, biomaterial wound dressings was developed based on gelatin containing herbal substances (essential oil), a substance from the plant Eupatorium adenophorum Spreng (Crofton weed) that used as traditional wound healers. Gelatin hydrogel was prepared from a 10 wt-% gelatin solution. The oil in water (o/w) emulsion Eupatorium adenophorum of essential oil were prepared and used Pluronic F68 as a surfactant. The 10, 20, and 30 % v/v emulsion were mixed with gelatin solution and cast into film. These hydrogels were tested for their gel fraction, swelling and weight loss behavior. With an increase in the emulsion concentration the emulsion-loaded in hydrogels, the gel fraction were decreased due to the crosslink density, while the swelling and weight loss behavior were increased with an increasing in the emulsion content. The potential to use the emulsion-containing gelatin hydrogels as wound dressing was assessed on investigation the release characteristics of the as-loaded hydrogels. The E. adenophorum essential oil was first identified the chemical composition by using GC-MS analysis. The principal components of the oil were p-cymene (16.23%), bornyl acetate (11.84%), and amorpha-4, 7(11)-diene (10.51%). The hydrogel wound dressing containing essential oil was then characterized for their antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative in order to elucidate their potential for use as antibacterial wound dressings by using agar disk diffusion methods. The result showed that E. adenophorum essential oil and the emulsion-loaded gelatin hydrogel inhibited the growth of the test pathogens, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis and increased with increasing the initial amount of essential oil in the hydrogels which confirmed their application as antibacterial wound dressings. Furthermore, the potential use of these wound dressings was further assessed in terms of the indirect cytotoxicity, in vitro attachment and proliferation of dermal human fibroblasts cultured in the hydrogel wound dressings.

Keywords: hydrogel, antibacterial wound dressing, Eupatorium adenophorum essential oil, gelatin

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69 Development of Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy-Active Gelatin Based Hydrogels for Label Free Detection of Bio-Analytes

Authors: Zahra Khan


Hydrogels are a macromolecular network of hydrophilic copolymers with physical or chemical cross-linking structures with significant water uptake capabilities. They are a promising substrate for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) as they are both flexible and biocompatible materials. Conventional SERS-active substrates suffer from limitations such as instability and inflexibility, which restricts their use in broader applications. Gelatin-based hydrogels have been synthesised in a facile and relatively quick method without the use of any toxic cross-linking agents. Composite gel material was formed by combining the gelatin with simple polymers to enhance the functional properties of the gel. Gold nanoparticles prepared by a reproducible seed-mediated growth method were combined into the bulk material during gel synthesis. After gel formation, the gel was submerged in the analyte solution overnight. SERS spectra were then collected from the gel using a standard Raman spectrometer. A wide range of analytes was successfully detected on these hydrogels showing potential for further optimization and use as SERS substrates for biomedical applications.

Keywords: gelatin, hydrogels, flexible materials, SERS

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68 Rapid Discrimination of Porcine and Tilapia Fish Gelatin by Fourier Transform Infrared- Attenuated Total Reflection Combined with 2 Dimensional Infrared Correlation Analysis

Authors: Norhidayu Muhamad Zain


Gelatin, a purified protein derived mostly from porcine and bovine sources, is used widely in food manufacturing, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries. However, the presence of any porcine-related products are strictly forbidden for Muslim and Jewish consumption. Therefore, analytical methods offering reliable results to differentiate the sources of gelatin are needed. The aim of this study was to differentiate the sources of gelatin (porcine and tilapia fish) using Fourier transform infrared- attenuated total reflection (FTIR-ATR) combined with two dimensional infrared (2DIR) correlation analysis. Porcine gelatin (PG) and tilapia fish gelatin (FG) samples were diluted in distilled water at concentrations ranged from 4-20% (w/v). The samples were then analysed using FTIR-ATR and 2DIR correlation software. The results showed a significant difference in the pattern map of synchronous spectra at the region of 1000 cm⁻¹ to 1100 cm⁻¹ between PG and FG samples. The auto peak at 1080 cm⁻¹ that attributed to C-O functional group was observed at high intensity in PG samples compared to FG samples. Meanwhile, two auto peaks (1080 cm⁻¹ and 1030 cm⁻¹) at lower intensity were identified in FG samples. In addition, using 2D correlation analysis, the original broad water OH bands in 1D IR spectra can be effectively differentiated into six auto peaks located at 3630, 3340, 3230, 3065, 2950 and 2885 cm⁻¹ for PG samples and five auto peaks at 3630, 3330, 3230, 3060 and 2940 cm⁻¹ for FG samples. Based on the rule proposed by Noda, the sequence of the spectral changes in PG samples is as following: NH₃⁺ amino acid > CH₂ and CH₃ aliphatic > OH stretch > carboxylic acid OH stretch > NH in secondary amide > NH in primary amide. In contrast, the sequence was totally in the opposite direction for FG samples and thus both samples provide different 2D correlation spectra ranged from 2800 cm-1 to 3700 cm⁻¹. This method may provide a rapid determination of gelatin source for application in food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic products.

Keywords: 2 dimensional infrared (2DIR) correlation analysis, Fourier transform infrared- attenuated total reflection (FTIR-ATR), porcine gelatin, tilapia fish gelatin

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67 Polarimetric Study of System Gelatin / Carboxymethylcellulose in the Food Field

Authors: Sihem Bazid, Meriem El Kolli, Aicha Medjahed


Proteins and polysaccharides are the two types of biopolymers most frequently used in the food industry to control the mechanical properties and structural stability and organoleptic properties of the products. The textural and structural properties of these two types of blend polymers depend on their interaction and their ability to form organized structures. From an industrial point of view, a better understanding of mixtures protein / polysaccharide is an important issue since they are already heavily involved in processed food. It is in this context that we have chosen to work on a model system composed of a fibrous protein mixture (gelatin)/anionic polysaccharide (sodium carboxymethylcellulose). Gelatin, one of the most popular biopolymers, is widely used in food, pharmaceutical, cosmetic and photographic applications, because of its unique functional and technological properties. Sodium Carboxymethylcellulose (NaCMC) is an anionic linear polysaccharide derived from cellulose. It is an important industrial polymer with a wide range of applications. The functional properties of this anionic polysaccharide can be modified by the presence of proteins with which it might interact. Another factor may also manage the interaction of protein-polysaccharide mixtures is the triple helix of the gelatin. Its complex synthesis method results in an extracellular assembly containing several levels. Collagen can be in a soluble state or associate into fibrils, which can associate in fiber. Each level corresponds to an organization recognized by the cellular and metabolic system. Gelatin allows this approach, the formation of gelatin gel has triple helical folding of denatured collagen chains, this gel has been the subject of numerous studies, and it is now known that the properties depend only on the rate of triple helices forming the network. Chemical modification of this system is quite controlled. Observe the dynamics of the triple helix may be relevant in understanding the interactions involved in protein-polysaccharides mixtures. Gelatin is central to any industrial process, understand and analyze the molecular dynamics induced by the triple helix in the transitions gelatin, can have great economic importance in all fields and especially the food. The goal is to understand the possible mechanisms involved depending on the nature of the mixtures obtained. From a fundamental point of view, it is clear that the protective effect of NaCMC on gelatin and conformational changes of the α helix are strongly influenced by the nature of the medium. Our goal is to minimize the maximum the α helix structure changes to maintain more stable gelatin and protect against denaturation that occurs during such conversion processes in the food industry. In order to study the nature of interactions and assess the properties of mixtures, polarimetry was used to monitor the optical parameters and to assess the rate of helicity gelatin.

Keywords: gelatin, sodium carboxymethylcellulose, interaction gelatin-NaCMC, the rate of helicity, polarimetry

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66 Electrospinning and Characterization of Silk Fibroin/Gelatin Nanofibre Mats

Authors: S. Mohammadzadehmoghadam, Y. Dong


In this study, Bombyx mori silk fibroin/gelatin (SF/GT) nanocomposite with different GT ratio (SF/GT 100/0, 90/10 and 70/30) were prepared by electrospinning process and crosslinked with glutaraldehyde (GA) vapor. Properties of crosslinked SF/GT nanocomposites were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), mechanical test, water uptake capacity (WUC) and porosity. From SEM images, it was found that fiber diameter increased as GT content increased. The results of mechanical test indicated that the SF/GT 70/30 nanocomposites had both the highest Young’s modulus of 342 MPa and the highest tensile strength of about 14 MPa. However, porosity and WUC decreased from 62% and 405% for pristine SF to 47% and 232% for SF/GT 70/30, respectively. This behavior can be related to higher degree of crosslinking as GT ratio increased which altered the structure and physical properties of scaffolds. This study showed that incorporation of GT into SF nanofibers can enhance mechanical properties of resultant nanocomposite, but the GA treatment should be optimized to control and fine-tune other properties to warrant their biomedical application.

Keywords: electrospinning, gelatin, silk fibroin, mechanical properties, nanocomposites

Procedia PDF Downloads 57
65 Role of Nano Gelatin and Hydrogel Based Scaffolds in Odontogenic Differentiation of Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells

Authors: Husain S. Yawer, Vasim Raja Panwar, Nidhi Priya


The objective of this study is to evaluate and compare the role of nano-gelatin and Bioengineered Scaffolds on the attachment, proliferation, and osteogenic differentiation of human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs). Tooth decay and early fall have each been one of the most prevailing dental disorders which cause physical and emotional suffering and compromise the patient's quality of life. The design of novel scaffolding materials will be based on mimicking the architecture of natural dental extracellular matrix which may provide as in vivo environments for proper cell growth. This methodology will involve the combination of nano-fibred gelatin as well as biodegradable hydrogel based tooth scaffold. We have measured and optimized the Dental Pulp Stem Cells growth profile in cultures carried out on collagen-coated plastic surface, however, for tissue regeneration study, we aim to develop an enhanced microenvironment for stem cell growth and dental tissue regeneration. We believe biomimetic cell adhesion and scaffolds might provide a near in vivo growth environment for proper growth and differentiation of human DPSCs, which further help in dentin/pulp tissue regeneration.

Keywords: nano-gelatin, stem cells, dental pulp, scaffold

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64 Antioxidative Maillard Reaction Products Derived from Gelatin Hydrolysate of Unicorn Leatherjacket Skin

Authors: Supatra Karnjanapratum, Soottawat Benjakul


Gelatin hydrolysate, especially from marine resource, has been known to possess antioxidative activity. Nevertheless, the activity is still lower in comparison with the commercially available antioxidant. Maillard reactions can be use to increase antioxidative activity of gelatin hydrolysate, in which the numerous amino group could be involved in glycation. In the present study, gelatin hydrolysate (GH) from unicorn leatherjacket skin prepared using glycyl endopeptidase with prior autolysis assisted process was used for preparation of Maillard reaction products (MRPs) under dry condition. The impacts of different factors including, types of saccharides, GH to saccharide ratio, incubation temperatures, relative humidity (RH) and times on antioxidative activity of MRPs were investigated. MRPs prepared using the mixture of GH and galactose showed the highest antioxidative activity as determined by both ABTS radical scavenging activity and ferric reducing antioxidant power during heating (0-48 h) at 60 °C with 65% RH, compared with those derived from other saccharide tested. GH to galactose ratio at 2:1 (w/w) yielded the MRPs with the highest antioxidative activity, followed by the ratios of 1:1 and 1:2, respectively. When the effects of incubation temperatures (50, 60, 70 °C) and RH (55, 65, 75%) were examined, the highest browning index and the absorbance at 280 nm were found at 70 °C, regardless of RH. The pH and free amino group content of MRPs were decreased with the concomitant increase in antioxidative activity as the reaction time increased. Antioxidative activity of MRPs generally increased with increasing temperature and the highest antioxidative activity was found when RH of 55% was used. Based on electrophoresis of MRP, the polymerization along with the formation of high molecular weight material was observed. The optimal condition for preparing antioxidative MRPs was heating the mixture of GH and galactose (2:1) at 70 °C and 55% RH for 36 h. Therefore, antioxidative activity of GH was improved by Maillard reaction and the resulting MRP could be used as natural antioxidant in food products.

Keywords: antioxidative activity, gelatin hydrolysate, maillard reaction, unicorn leatherjacket

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63 Effects of Certain Natural Food Additives (Pectin, Gelatin and Whey Proteins) on the Qualities of Fermented Milk

Authors: Abderrahim Cheriguene, Fatiha Arioui


The experimental study focuses on the extraction of pectin, whey protein and gelatin, and the study of their functional properties. Microbiological, physicochemical and sensory approach integrated has been implanted to study the effect of the incorporation of these natural food additives in the matrix of a fermented milk type set yogurt, to study the stability of the product during the periods of fermentation and post-acidification over a period of 21 days at 4°C. Pectin was extracted in hot HCl solution. Thermo-precipitation was carried out to obtain the whey proteins while the gelatin was extracted by hydrolysis of the collagen from bovine ossein. The fermented milk was prepared by varying the concentration of the incorporated additives. The measures and controls carried performed periodically on fermented milk experimental tests were carried out: pH, acidity, viscosity, the enumeration of Streptococcus thermophilus, cohesiveness, adhesiveness, taste, aftertaste, whey exudation, and odor. It appears that the acidity, viscosity, and number of Streptococcus thermophilus increased with increasing concentration of additive added in the experimental tests. Indeed, it seems clear that the quality of fermented milk and storability is more improved than the incorporation rate is high. The products showed a better test and a firmer texture limiting the whey exudation.

Keywords: fermented milk, pectin, gelatin, whey proteins, functional properties, quality, conservation, valorization

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62 Preparation and Evaluation of Gelatin-Hyaluronic Acid-Polycaprolactone Membrane Containing 0.5 % Atorvastatin Loaded Nanostructured Lipid Carriers as a Nanocomposite Scaffold for Skin Tissue Engineering

Authors: Mahsa Ahmadi, Mehdi Mehdikhani-Nahrkhalaji, Jaleh Varshosaz, Shadi Farsaei


Gelatin and hyaluronic acid are commonly used in skin tissue engineering scaffolds, but because of their low mechanical properties and high biodegradation rate, adding a synthetic polymer such as polycaprolactone could improve the scaffold properties. Therefore, we developed a gelatin-hyaluronic acid-polycaprolactone scaffold, containing 0.5 % atorvastatin loaded nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) for skin tissue engineering. The atorvastatin loaded NLCs solution was prepared by solvent evaporation method and freeze drying process. Synthesized atorvastatin loaded NLCs was added to the gelatin and hyaluronic acid solution, and a membrane was fabricated with solvent evaporation method. Thereafter it was coated by a thin layer of polycaprolactone via spine coating set. The resulting scaffolds were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses. Moreover, mechanical properties, in vitro degradation in 7 days period, and in vitro drug release of scaffolds were also evaluated. SEM images showed the uniform distributed NLCs with an average size of 100 nm in the scaffold structure. Mechanical test indicated that the scaffold had a 70.08 Mpa tensile modulus which was twofold of tensile modulus of normal human skin. A Franz-cell diffusion test was performed to investigate the scaffold drug release in phosphate buffered saline (pH=7.4) medium. Results showed that 72% of atorvastatin was released during 5 days. In vitro degradation test demonstrated that the membrane was degradated approximately 97%. In conclusion, suitable physicochemical and biological properties of membrane indicated that the developed gelatin-hyaluronic acid-polycaprolactone nanocomposite scaffold containing 0.5 % atorvastatin loaded NLCs could be used as a good candidate for skin tissue engineering applications.

Keywords: atorvastatin, gelatin, hyaluronic acid, nano lipid carriers (NLCs), polycaprolactone, skin tissue engineering, solvent casting, solvent evaporation

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61 Protecting Physicochemical Properties of Black Cumin Seed (Nigella sativa) Oil and Developing Value Added Products

Authors: Zeliha Ustun, Mustafa Ersoz


In the study, a traditional herbal supplement black cumin seed (Nigella sativa) oil properties has been studied to protect the main quality parameters by a new supplement application. Black cumin seed and its oil is used as a dietary supplement and preferred traditional remedy in Africa, Asia and Middle East for centuries. Now it has been consuming by millions of people in America and Europe as natural supplements and/or phytotherapeutic agents to support immune system, asthma, allergic rinnitis etc. by the scientists’ advices. With the study, it is aimed to prove that soft gelatin capsules are a new and more practical way of usage for Nigella sativa oil that has a longer stability. With the study soft gelatin capsules formulation has been developed to protect cold pressed black cumin seed oil physicochemical properties for a longer period. The product design has been developed in laboratory and implemented in pilot scale soft gelatin capsule manufacturing. Physicochemical properties (peroxide value, free fatty acids, fatty acid composition, refractive index, iodine value, saponification value, unsaponifiable matters) of Nigella sativa oil soft gelatin capsules and Nigella sativa oil in liquid form in amber glass bottles have been compared and followed for 8 months. The main parameters for capsules and liquid form found that for free fatty acids 2.29±0.03, 3.92±0.11 % oleic acid, peroxide 23.11±1.18, 27.85±2.50 meqO2/kg, refractive index at 20 0C 1.4738±0.00, 1.4737±0.00, soap 0 ppm, moisture and volatility 0.32±0.01, 0.36±0.01 %, iodine value 123.00±0.00, 122.00±0.00 wijs, saponification value 196.25±0.46, 194.13±0.35 mg KOH/g and unsaponifiable matter 7.72±0.13, 6.88±0.36 g/kg respectively. The main fatty acids are found that linoleic acid 56.17%, oleic acid 24.64%, palmitic acid 11,94 %. As a result, it is found that cold pressed Nigella sativa oil soft gelatin capsules physicochemical properties are more stable than the Nigella sativa oil stored in glass bottles.

Keywords: black cumin seed (Nigella sativa) oil, cold press, nutritional supplements, soft gelatin capsule

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60 Development and Utilization of Keratin-Fibrin-Gelatin Composite Films as Potential Material for Skin Tissue Engineering Application

Authors: Sivakumar Singaravelu, Giriprasath Ramanathan, M. D. Raja, Uma Tirichurapalli Sivagnanam


The goal of the present study was to develop and evaluate composite film for tissue engineering application. The keratin was extracted from bovine horn and used for preparation of keratin (HK), physiologically clotted fibrin (PCF) and gelatin (G) blend films in different stoichiometric ratios (1:1:1, 1:1:2 and 1:1:3) by using solvent casting method. The composite films (HK-PCF-G) were characterized physiochemically using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The mechanical properties of the composite films were analyzed. The results of tensile strength show that ultimate strength and elongation were 10.72 Mpa and 4.83 MPA respectively for 1:1:3 ratio combination. The SEM image showed a slight smooth surface for 1:1:3 ratio combination compared to other films. In order to impart antibacterial activities, the composite films were loaded with Mupirocin (MP) to act against infection. The composite films acted as a suitable carrier to protect and release the drug in a controlled manner. This developed composite film would be a suitable alternative material for tissue engineering application.

Keywords: bovine horn, keratin, fibrin, gelatin, tensile strength

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59 Properties and Antimicrobial Activity of Fish Protein Isolate/Fish Skin Gelatin Film Containing Basil Leaf Essential Oil and Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles

Authors: Yasir Ali Arfat


Composite films based on fish protein isolate (FPI) and fish skin gelatin (FSG) blend incorporated with 50 and 100% (w/w, protein) basil leaf essential oil (BEO) in the absence and presence of 3% (w/w, protein) ZnO nanoparticles (ZnONP) were prepared and characterised. Tensile strength (TS) decreased, whilst elongation at break (EAB) increased as BEO level increased (p < 0.05). However, ZnONP addition resulted in higher TS but lower EAB (p < 0.05). The lowest water vapour permeability (WVP) was observed for the film incorporated with 100% BEO and 3% ZnONP (p < 0.05). BEO and ZnONP incorporation decreased transparency of FPI/FSG films (p < 0.05). FTIR spectra indicated that films added with BEO exhibited higher hydrophobicity. Both BEO and ZnONP had a marked impact on thermal stability of the films. Microstructural study revealed that presence of ZnONP prevented bilayer formation of film containing 100% BEO. FPI/FSG films incorporated with 100% BEO, especially in combination with ZnONP, exhibited strong antibacterial activity against food pathogenic and spoilage bacteria and thus could be used as an active food packaging material to ensure safety and to extend the shelf-life of packaged foods.

Keywords: bionanocomposite, fish protein isolate, fish skin gelatin, basil essential oil, ZnO nanoparticles, antimicrobial packaging

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58 Hydrogel Hybridizing Temperature-Cured Dissolvable Gelatin Microspheres as Non-Anchorage Dependent Cell Carriers for Tissue Engineering Applications

Authors: Dong-An Wang


All kinds of microspheres have been extensively employed as carriers for drug, gene and therapeutic cell delivery. Most therapeutic cell delivery microspheres rely on a two-step methodology: fabrication of microspheres and subsequent seeding of cells onto them. In this study, we have developed a novel one-step cell encapsulation technique using a convenient and instant water-in-oil single emulsion approach to form cell-encapsulated gelatin microspheres. This technology is adopted for hyaline cartilage tissue engineering, in which autologous chondrocytes are used as therapeutic cells. Cell viability was maintained throughout and after the microsphere formation (75-100 µm diameters) process that avoids involvement of any covalent bonding reactions or exposure to any further chemicals. Further encapsulation of cell-laden microspheres in alginate gels were performed under 4°C via a prompt process. Upon the formation of alginate constructs, they were immediately relocated into CO2 incubator where the temperature was maintained at 37°C; under this temperature, the cell-laden gelatin microspheres dissolved within hours to yield similarly sized cavities and the chondrocytes were therefore suspended within the cavities inside the alginate gel bulk. Hence, the gelatin cell-laden microspheres served two roles: as cell delivery vehicles which can be removable through temperature curing, and as porogens within an alginate hydrogel construct to provide living space for cell growth and tissue development as well as better permeability for mutual diffusions. These cell-laden microspheres, namely “temperature-cured dissolvable gelatin microsphere based cell carriers” (tDGMCs), were further encapsulated in a chondrocyte-laden alginate scaffold system and analyzed by WST-1, gene expression analyses, biochemical assays, histology and immunochemistry stains. The positive results consistently demonstrated the promise of tDGMC technology in delivering these non-anchorage dependent cells (chondrocytes). It can be further conveniently translated into delivery of other non-anchorage dependent cell species, including stem cells, progenitors or iPS cells, for regeneration of tissues in internal organs, such as engineered hepatogenesis or pancreatic regeneration.

Keywords: biomaterials, tissue engineering, microsphere, hydrogel, porogen, anchorage dependence

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57 Preparation of Natural Polymeric Scaffold with Desired Pore Morphology for Stem Cell Differentiation

Authors: Mojdeh Mohseni


In the context of tissue engineering, the effect of microtopography as afforded by scaffold morphology is an important design parameter. Since the morphology of pores can effect on cell behavior, in this study, porous Chitosan (CHIT) - Gelatin (GEL)- Alginate (ALG) scaffolds with microtubule orientation structure were manufactured by unidirectional freeze-drying method and the effect of pore morphology on differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) was investigated. This study showed that, the provided scaffold with natural polymer had good properties for cell behavior and the pores with highest orientation rate have produced appropriate substrate for the differentiation of stem cells.

Keywords: Chitosan, gelatin, Alginate, pore morphology, stem cell differentiation

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56 Synthesis and Properties of Chitosan-Graft-Polyacrylamide/Gelatin Superabsorbent Composites for Wastewater Purification

Authors: Hafida Ferfera-Harrar, Nacera Aiouaz, Nassima Dairi


Super absorbents polymers received much attention and are used in many fields because of their superior characters to traditional absorbents, e.g., sponge and cotton. So, it is very important but challenging to prepare highly and fast-swelling super absorbents. A reliable, efficient and low-cost technique for removing heavy metal ions from waste water is the adsorption using bio-adsorbents obtained from biological materials, such as polysaccharides-based hydrogels super absorbents. In this study, novel multi-functional super absorbent composites type semi-interpenetrating polymer networks (Semi-IPNs) were prepared via graft polymerization of acrylamide onto chitosan backbone in presence of gelatin, CTS-g-PAAm/Ge, using potassium persulfate and N,N’ -methylenebisacrylamide as initiator and cross linker, respectively. These hydrogels were also partially hydrolyzed to achieve superabsorbents with ampholytic properties and uppermost swelling capacity. The formation of the grafted network was evidenced by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and thermo gravimetric Analysis (TGA). The porous structures were observed by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). From TGA analysis, it was concluded that the incorporation of the Ge in the CTS-g-PAAm network has marginally affected its thermal stability. The effect of gelatin content on the swelling capacities of these super absorbent composites was examined in various media (distilled water, saline and pH-solutions).The water absorbency was enhanced by adding Ge in the network, where the optimum value was reached at 2 wt. % of Ge. Their hydrolysis has not only greatly optimized their absorption capacity but also improved the swelling kinetic. These materials have also showed reswelling ability. We believe that these super-absorbing materials would be very effective for the adsorption of harmful metal ions from waste water.

Keywords: chitosan, gelatin, superabsorbent, water absorbency

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55 Synthesis of Ni/Mesopore Silica-Alumina Catalyst for Hydrocracking of Pyrolyzed α-Cellulose

Authors: Wega Trisunaryanti, Hesty Kusumastuti, Iip Izul Falah, Muhammad Fajar Marsuki, Rahmad Nuryanto


Synthesis of Ni supported on mesopore silica-alumina (MSA) for hydrocracking of pyrolyzed α-cellulose had been carried out. The silica and alumina were extracted from Sidoarjo mud. Gelatin from catfish bone was used as a template for the mesopore design. The MSA was synthesized by using hydrothermal method at 100 °C for 24 h and calcined at 550 °C for 4 h then characterized by using X-Ray Diffraction Spectrometer (XRD) and Nitrogen Gas Sorption Analyzer (GAS). The Ni metal was loaded to the MSA by wet impregnation method. The catalytic activity in the hydrocracking reaction of pyrolyzed α-cellulose was carried out at 450 °C for 2 h. The MSA synthesized in this work is an amorphous material with specific surface area, total pore volume, and average pore diameter of 212.29 m²/g, 1.29 cm³/g, and 20.05 nm, respectively. The Ni/MSA catalyst produced 73.02 wt.% of liquid product in hydrocracking of pyrolyzed α-cellulose.

Keywords: catalyst, gelatin, hydrocracking, mesopore silica-alumina, α-cellulose

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54 Development and Characterization of Multiphase Hydrogel Systems for Wound Healing

Authors: Rajendra Jangde, Deependra Singh


Present work was based with objective to release of the antimicrobial and debriding agent in sustained manner at the wound surface. In order to provide a long-lasting antimicrobial action and moist environment on wound space, Biocompatible moist system was developed for complete healing. In the present study, a biocompatible moist system of PVA-gelatin hydrogel was developed capable of carrying multiple drugs- Quercetin and Cabopol in controlled manner for effective and complete wound healing. Carbopol and Quercetin were prepared by thin film hydration techniques and optimized system was incorporated in PVA-Gelatin slurry. PVA-Gelatin hydrogels were prepared by freeze thaw method. The prepared dispersion was casted into films to prepare multiphase hydrogel system and characterized by in vitro and in vivo studies. Results revealed the uniform dispersion of microspheres in a three-dimensional matrix of the PVA-Gelatin hydrogel observed at different magnifications. The in vitro release data showed typical biphasic release pattern, i.e., a burst release followed by a slower sustained release for 5 days. Prepared system was found to be stable under both normal and accelerated conditions. Histopathological study showed significant (p<0.05) increase in fibroblast cells, collagen fibres and blood vessels formation. All parameters such as wound contraction, tensile strength, histopathological and biochemical parameters- hydroxyproline content, protein level, etc. were observed significant (p<0.05) in comparison to control group. Present results suggest an accelerated re-epithelialization under moist wound environment with delivery of multiple drugs effective at different stages of wound healing cascade with minimum disturbance of wound bed.

Keywords: multiphase hydrogel, optimization quercetin, wound healing

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