Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 502

Search results for: June E. Ayling

502 Rearrangement and Depletion of Human Skin Folate after UVA Exposure

Authors: Luai Z. Hasoun, Steven W. Bailey, Kitti K. Outlaw, June E. Ayling

Abstract:

Human skin color is thought to have evolved to balance sufficient photochemical synthesis of vitamin D versus the need to protect not only DNA but also folate from degradation by ultraviolet light (UV). Although the risk of DNA damage and subsequent skin cancer is related to light skin color, the effect of UV on skin folate of any species is unknown. Here we show that UVA irradiation at 13 mW/cm2 for a total exposure of 187 J/cm2 (similar to a maximal daily equatorial dose) induced a significant loss of total folate in epidermis of ex vivo white skin. No loss was observed in black skin samples, or in the dermis of either color. Interestingly, while the concentration of 5 methyltetrahydrofolate (5-MTHF) fell in white epidermis, a concomitant increase of tetrahydrofolic acid was found, though not enough to maintain the total pool. These results demonstrate that UVA indeed not only decreases folate in skin, but also rearranges the pool components. This could be due in part to the reported increase of NADPH oxidase activity upon UV irradiation, which in turn depletes the NADPH needed for 5-MTHF biosynthesis by 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase. The increased tetrahydrofolic acid might further support production of the nucleotide bases needed for DNA repair. However, total folate was lost at a rate that could, with strong or continuous enough exposure to ultraviolet radiation, substantially deplete light colored skin locally, and also put pressure on total body stores for individuals with low intake of folate.

Keywords: depletion, folate, human skin, ultraviolet

Procedia PDF Downloads 291
501 Hauntology of History: Intimate Revolt in Lou Ye’s Summer Palace

Authors: Yueming Li

Abstract:

This paper analyzes Lou Ye’s Summer Palace (2006), an autobiographical film of the Sixth Generation of Directors in Mainland China, from the approaches of inter-textual analysis and intellectual history. It highlights the film’s reconstruction of the June 4th Incident as an intermediary device for the revival and haunting of the 1980s’ New Enlightenment Movement. The paper demonstrates how the June 4th Incident unfolds as historical trauma and collective experience of the Generation through Lou’s flickering narrative in both plot organization and visual representation, under an individualized and internal viewpoint. It further proposes that these revenants of the June 4th Incident translate into “realms of memory,” which lend themselves for biographical and historical reconstruction of the June 4th Incident based on a politics of embodiment. Through this, Lou and his contemporaries acquire agency to actively respond to the June 4th Incident as an “intimate revolt.” In this sense, the film revisits the New Enlightenment Movement in that they similarly construct rebellious connotations in a seemingly depoliticized manner. As the paper examines how an autobiographical film reconstructs, revisits, and responds to a historical event and its absence, it answers how individuals’ agency intertwines with and counteracts their historical living contexts.

Keywords: new enlightenment movement, summer palace, the June 4th incident, the sixth generation of directors

Procedia PDF Downloads 22
500 Postharvest Studies Beyond Fresh Market Eating Quality: Phytochemical Changes in Peach Fruit During Ripening and Advanced Senescence

Authors: Mukesh Singh Mer, Brij Lal Attri, Raj Narayan, Anil Kumar

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Postharvest studies were conducted under the concept that fruit do not qualify for the fresh market may be used as a source of bioactive compounds. One peach (Prunus persica cvs Red June) were evaluated for their photochemical content and antioxidant capacity during the ripening and over ripening periods (advanced senescence) for 12 and 15 d, respectively. Firmness decreased rapidly during this period from an initial pre –ripe stage of 5.85 lb/in2 for peach until the fruit reached the fully ripe stage of lb/in2. In this study we evaluate the varietal performance in respect of the quality beyond fresh market eating and nutrition levels. The varieties are (T-1 F-16-23), (T-2 Florda king), (T-3 Nectarine), (T-4 Red June). The result pertaining are there the highest fruit length (68.50 mm), fruit breadth (71.38 mm), fruit weight (186.11 g) found in T4 Red June and fruit firmness (8.74 lb/in 2) found in T3-Nectarine. The acidity (1.66 %), ascorbic acid (440 mg/100 g), reducing sugar (19.77 %) and total sugar (51.73 %) found in T4- Red June, T-2 Florda King, T-3 Nectarine at harvesting time but decrease in fruit length ( 60.81 mm), fruit breadth (51.84 mm), fruit weight (143.03 g) found in T4 Red June and fruit firmness (6.29 lb/in 2) found in T3-Nectarine. The acidity (0.80 %), ascorbic acid (329.50 mg/100 g), reducing sugar (34.03 %) and total sugar (26.97 %) found in T1- F-16-23, T-2 Florda King, T-1 F-16-23 and T-3 Nectarine after 15 days in freeze conditions when will have been since reached beyond market. The study reveals that the size and yield good in Red June and the nutritional value higher in Florda King and Nectarine peach. Fruit firmness remained unchanged afterwards. In addition, total soluble solids in peach were basically similar during the ripening and over ripening periods. Further research on secondary metabolism regulation during ripening and advanced senescence is needed to obtain fruit as enriched dietary sources of bioactive compounds or for its use in alternative high value health markets including dietary supplements, functional foods cosmetics and pharmaceuticals.

Keywords: metabolism, acidity, ascorbic acid, pharmaceuticals

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499 Presence of Nesting Parrot (Psittacula krameri borealis) Order Psitaciforme, Family Psittacidea in District Mirpurkhas Sindh Pakistan

Authors: Aisha Liaquat Ali, Ghulam Sarwar Gachal, Muhammad Yusuf Sheikh

Abstract:

The parrot (Psittacula krameri borealis) commonly known as ‘Tota’ belongs to the order ‘Psittaciformes’ and family ‘Psittacidea’. Its range inhabits tropical to subtropical regions. The parrot (Psittacula krameri borealis) has been categorized as least concern species. The core aim of the present study is to investigate the nesting of parrot (Psittacula krameri borealis); site observation was done a different interval from various adjoining areas of District Mirpurkhas from June 2017 to May 2018. During the study period, altogether 15 nests were observed, number of nests were high in June’s month (33.3%), July (13.3%), August (20.0 %), March (13.3%), April (13.3%) while the lowest number of nest was observed in September’s month (6.6%) and the nest was absent from October to February. It investigates that the number of nests was high June’s month when temperature range between '20 °C' and '45 °C'.

Keywords: District Mirpurkhas Sindh Pakistan, nesting, parrot (Psittacula krameri), presence

Procedia PDF Downloads 78
498 Print Media Framing of National Disasters: A Content Analysis of the Daily Graphic and Daily Guide

Authors: Abena Abokoma Asemanyi

Abstract:

The study examined how the National Disasters are framed in the print media: a study of Daily Graphic newspaper in Ghana. The communication theories employed to conduct this study was Agenda Setting Theory by McCombs and Shaw and the Framing theory by Goffman and Entman. The media’s coverage of National Disasters are of much concern to the general public. This research seeks to know how the Daily Graphic framed National Disasters that occurred in January 2015 and June 2015 respectively. The January 2015 National Disasters was termed as Fire Outbreaks while the June 2015 National Disasters was Twin Disasters. A total of 43 disaster news stories were analysed for this study. Out of the total number, 9 headline stories were analysed in the month of January 2015 and 34 headline stories were looked at in the month of June 2015. The study came up with five (5) themes. Through Content Analysis, the study also revealed that the theme of Action featured more than the other themes which are Fear, Violence, Sympathy and Confusion. Finally, the study showed the number of days disaster news headlines lasted in the Daily Graphic during the period stated above. It was revealed that the Fire Outbreaks in January 2015 appeared in the Daily Graphic for 8 days while the Twin Disasters appeared in 16 days in June 2015.

Keywords: national disaster framing, ghana, daily graphic, daily guide

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497 The Use of Facebook as a Social Media by Political Parties in the June 7 Election in Konya

Authors: Yasemin Gülşen Yılmaz, Süleyman Hakan Yılmaz, Muhammet Erbay

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Social media is among the most important means of communication. Social media offers individuals and groups with an opportunity for participatory socialization over the internet, which is free of any time and place restrictions. Social media is a kind of interactive communication and bilateral social network. Various communication contents can be shared and put into mass circulation easily and quickly through social media. These sharings are not only limited to individuals but also happen to groups, institutions, and different constitutions. Their contents consist of any type of written message, audio and video files. We are living in the social media era now. It is not surprising that social media which has extensive communication facilities and massive prevalence is used in politics. Therefore, the use of social media (Facebook) by political parties during the Turkish general elections held on June 7, 2015, has been chosen as our research subject. Four parties namely, AKP, CHP, MHP and HDP who have the majority of votes in Turkey and participate in elections in Konya have been selected for our study. Their provincial centers’ and parliamentary candidates` use of social media (Facebook) on the last three days prior to the election have been examined and subjected to a qualitative analysis by means of content analysis.

Keywords: social media, June 7 general elections, politics, Facebook

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496 Effects of Different Sowing Dates on Oil Yield of Castor (Ricinus communis L.)

Authors: Özden Öztürk, Gözde Pınar Gerem, Ayça Yenici, Burcu Haspolat

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Castor (Ricinus communis L.) is one of the important non-edible oilseed crops having immense industrial and medicinal value. Oil yield per unit area is the ultimate target in growing oilseed plants and sowing date is one of the important factors which have a clear role in the production of active substances particularly in oilseeds. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of sowing date on the seed and oil yield of castor in Central Anatolia in Turkey in 2011. The field experiment was set up in a completely randomized block design with three replication. Black Diamond-2 castor cultivar was used as plant material. The treatment was four sowing dates of May 10, May 25, June 10, June 25. In this research; seed yield, oil content and oil yield were investigated. Results showed that the effect of different sowing dates was significant on all of the characteristics. In general; delayed sowing dates, resulted in decreased seed yield, oil content and oil yield. The highest value of seed yield, oil content and oil yield (respectively, 2523.7 kg ha-1, 51.18% and 1292.2 kg ha-1) were obtained from the first sowing date (May 10) while the lowest seed yield, oil content and oil yield (respectively, 1550 kg ha-1, 43.67%, 677.3 kg ha-1) were recorded from the latest sowing date (June 25). Therefore, it can be concluded that early May could be recommended as an appropriate sowing date in the studied location and similar climates for achieved high oil yield of castor.

Keywords: castor bean, Ricinus communis L., sowing date, seed yield, oil content

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495 A Vaccination Program to Control an Outbreak of Acute Hepatitis A among MSM in Taiwan, 2016

Authors: Ying-Jung Hsieh, Angela S. Huang, Chu-Ming Chiu, Yu-Min Chou, Chin-Hui Yang

Abstract:

Background and Objectives: Hepatitis A is primarily acquired by the fecal-oral route through person-to-person contact or ingestion of contaminated food or water. During 2010 to 2014, an average of 83 cases of locally-acquired disease was reported to Taiwan’s notifiable disease system. Taiwan Centers for Disease Control (TCDC) identified an outbreak of acute hepatitis A which began in June 2015. Of the 126 cases reported in 2015, 103 (82%) cases were reported during June–December and 95 cases (92%) of them were male. The average age of all male cases was 31 years (median, 29 years; range, 15–76 years). Among the 95 male cases, 49 (52%) were also infected with HIV, and all reported to have had sex with other men. To control this outbreak, TCDC launched a free hepatitis A vaccination program in January 2016 for close contacts of confirmed hepatitis A cases, including family members, sexual partners, and household contacts. Effect of the vaccination program was evaluated. Methods: All cases of hepatitis A reported to the National Notifiable Disease Surveillance System were included. A case of hepatitis A was defined as a locally-acquired disease in a person who had acute clinical symptoms include fever, malaise, loss of appetite, nausea or abdominal discomfort compatible with hepatitis, and tested positive for anti-HAV IgM during June 2015 to June 2016 in Taiwan. The rate of case accumulation was calculated using a simple regression model. Results: During January–June 2016, there were 466 cases of hepatitis A reported; of the 243 (52%) who were also infected with HIV, 232 (95%) had a history of having sex with men. Of the 346 cases that were followed up, 259 (75%) provided information on contacts but only 14 (5%) of them provided the name of their sexual partners. Among the 602 contacts reported, 349 (58%) were family members, 14 (2%) were sexual partners, and 239 (40%) were other household contacts. Among the 602 contacts eligible for free hepatitis A vaccination, 440 (73%) received the vaccine. There were 87 (25%) cases that refused to disclose their close contacts. The average case accumulation rate during January–June 2016 was 21.7 cases per month, which was 6.8 times compared to the average case accumulation rate during June–December 2015 of 3.2 cases per month. Conclusions: Despite vaccination program aimed to provide free hepatitis A vaccine to close contacts of hepatitis A patients, the outbreak continued and even gained momentum in transmission. Refusal by hepatitis A patients to provide names of their close contacts and rejection of contacts to take the hepatitis A vaccine may have contributed to the poor effect of the program. Targeted vaccination efforts of all MSM may be needed to control the outbreak among this population in the short term. In the long term, universal vaccination program is needed to prevent the infection of hepatitis A.

Keywords: hepatitis A, HIV, men who have sex with men, vaccination

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494 Community Involvement in Reducing Maternal and Perinatal Mortality in Cross River State, Nigeria: 'The Saving Mother Giving Life' Strategic Approach in Cross River State

Authors: Oluwayemisi Femi-Pius, Kazeem Arogundade, Eberechukwu Eke, Jimmy Eko

Abstract:

Introduction: Globally, community involvement in improving their own health has been widely adopted as a strategy in Sub-Saharan Africa principally to ensure equitable access to essential health care as well as improve the uptake of maternal and newborn health services especially in poor-resource settings. Method: The Saving Mother Giving Life (SMGL) Initiative implemented by Pathfinder International with funding support from USAID conducted a Health Facility Assessment (HFA) and found out that maternal mortality ratio in Cross River State was 812 per 100,000 live birth and perinatal mortality was 160 per 1000 live birth. To reduce maternal and perinatal mortality, Pathfinder International mobilized, selected and trained community members as community volunteers, traditional birth attendants, and emergency transport service volunteer drivers mainly to address the delay in decision making and reaching the health facility among pregnant women. Results: The results showed that maternal mortality ratio in Cross River State decrease by 25% from 812 per 100,000 live birth at baseline to 206 per 100,000 live birth at June 2018 and perinatal mortality reduced by 35% from 160 per 100,000 at baseline to 58 per 1000 live birth at June 2018. Data also show that ANC visit increased from 7,451 to 11,344; institutional delivery increased from 8,931 at baseline to 10,784 in June 2018. There was also a remarkable uptake of post-partum family planning from 0 at baseline to 233 in June 2018. Conclusion: There is clear evidence that community involvement yields positive maternal outcomes and is pivotal for sustaining most health interventions.

Keywords: maternal mortality, Nigeria, pathfinder international, perinatal mortality, saving mother giving life

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493 Meiobenthic Diversity off Pudimadaka, Bay of Bengal, East Coast of India with Special Reference to Free-Living Marine Nematodes

Authors: C. Annapurna, Rao M. Srinivasa, Bhanu C. H. Vijaya, M. Sivalakshmi, Rao P. V. Surya

Abstract:

A study on the community structure of meiobenthic fauna was undertaken during three cruises (June 2008, October 2008 and March 2009). Ten stations at depth between 10 and 40 m off Pudimadaka in Visakhapatnam (Lat.17º29′12″N and Long. 83º00′09″), East coast of India were investigated. Ninety species representing 3 major (meiofaunal) taxa namely foraminifera (2), copepoda (9), nematoda (58) and polychaeta (21) were encountered. Overall, meiofaunal (mean) abundance ranged from 2 individuals to 63 ind. 10cm-² with an average of 24.3 ind.10cm-2. The meiobenthic biomass varied between 0.135 to 0.48 mg.10cm-2 with an average 0.27 ± 0.12. On the whole, nematodes constituted 73.62% of the meiofauna in terms of numerical abundance. Shannon –Wiener index values were 2.053 ± 0.64 (June, 2008), 2.477 ± 0.177 (October 2008) and 2.2815±0.24 (March 2009). Multivariate analyses were used to define the most important taxon in nematode assemblages. Three nematode associations could be recognized off Pudimadaka coast, namely Laimella longicaudata, Euchromodora vulgaris and Sabatieria elongata assemblage (June, 2008); Catanema sp. and Leptosomatum sp. assemblage (October 2008) assemblage; Sabatieria sp. and Setosabatieria sp. assemblage (March 2009). Canonical correspondence analysis showed that temperature, organic matter, silt and mean particle diameter were important in controlling nematode community structure.

Keywords: meiofauna, marine nematode, biodiversity, community structure, India

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492 Metaphors in Egyptian News Headlines in Relation to the Egyptian Political Situation 2012-2013

Authors: Wesam Mohamed Abdel Khalek Ibrahim

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This paper examines the use of metaphors in Arabic political news discourse, focusing particularly on the headlines of the news articles relating to the Egyptian political situation in the period from June 2012 to October 2013. Metaphors are skilfully manipulated in the headlines to influence the public stance towards several events and entities including Egypt, Muslim Brotherhood (MB), Morsi, the June 30th uprising, Al-Sisi and the Armed Forces. The findings reveal that Arabic political news discourse shares basic features with its English counterpart, namely the use of metaphors as persuasive strategies and the presence of certain target domains. Insights gained from this study feed back into the conceptual metaphor theory by providing further evidence to the universality of metaphors.

Keywords: conceptual metaphor theory, political discourse, news discourse, Egyptian political situation

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491 Analysis of Technical Efficiency and Its Determinants among Cattle Fattening Enterprises in Kebbi State, Nigeria

Authors: Gona Ayuba, Isiaka Mohammed, Kotom Mohammed Baba, Mohammed Aabubakar Maikasuwa

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The study examined the technical efficiency and its determinants of cattle fattening enterprises in Kebbi state, Nigeria. Data were collected from a sample of 160 fatteners between June 2010 and June 2011 using the multistage random sampling technique. Translog stochastic frontier production function was employed for the analysis. Results of the analysis show that technical efficiency indices varied from 0.74 to 0.98%, with a mean of 0.90%, indicating that there was no wide gap between the efficiency of best technical efficient fatteners and that of the average fattener. The result also showed that fattening experience and herd size influenced the level of technical efficiency at 1% levels. It is recommended that credit agencies should ensure that credit made available to the fatteners is monitored to ensure appropriate utilization.

Keywords: technical efficiency, determinants, cattle, fattening enterprises

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490 Optimization of Tilt Angle for Solar Collectors: A Case Study for Bursa, Turkey

Authors: N. Arslanoglu

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This paper deals with the optimum tilt angle for the solar collector in order to collect the maximum solar radiation. The optimum angle for tilted surfaces varying from 0 to 90 in steps of 1was computed. In present study, a theoretical model is used to predict the global solar radiation on a tilted surface and to obtain the optimum tilt angle for a solar collector in Bursa, Turkey. Global solar energy radiation on the solar collector surface with an optimum tilt angle is calculated for specific periods. It is determined that the optimum slope angle varies between 0 (June) and 59 (December) throughout the year. In winter (December, January, and February) the tilt should be 55, in spring (March, April, and May) 19.6, in summer (June, July, and August) 5.6, and in autumn (September, October, and November) 44.3. The yearly average of this value was obtained to be 31.1 and this would be the optimum fixed slope throughout the year.

Keywords: Bursa, global solar radiation, optimum tilt angle, tilted surface

Procedia PDF Downloads 175
489 Spatial Distribution and Time Series Analysis of COVID-19 Pandemic in Italy: A Geospatial Perspective

Authors: Muhammad Farhan Ul Moazzam, Tamkeen Urooj Paracha, Ghani Rahman, Byung Gul Lee, Nasir Farid, Adnan Arshad

Abstract:

The novel coronavirus pandemic disease (COVID-19) affected the whole globe, though there is a lack of clinical studies and its epidemiological features. But as per the observation, it has been seen that most of the COVID-19 infected patients show mild to moderate symptoms, and they get better without any medical assistance due to a better immune system to generate antibodies against the novel coronavirus. In this study, the active cases, serious cases, recovered cases, deaths and total confirmed cases had been analyzed using the geospatial inverse distance weightage technique (IDW) within the time span of 2nd March to 3rd June 2020. As of 3rd June, the total number of COVID-19 cases in Italy were 231,238, total deaths 33,310, serious cases 350, recovered cases 158,951, and active cases were 39,177, which has been reported by the Ministry of Health, Italy. March 2nd-June 3rd, 2020 a sum of 231,238 cases has been reported in Italy out of which 38.68% cases reported in the Lombardia region with a death rate of 18%, which is high from its national mortality rate followed by Emilia-Romagna (14.89% deaths), Piemonte (12.68% deaths), and Vento (10% deaths). As per the total cases in the region, the highest number of recoveries has been observed in Umbria (92.52%), followed by Basilicata (87%), Valle d'Aosta (86.85%), and Trento (84.54%). The COVID-19 evolution in Italy has been particularly found in the major urban area, i.e., Rome, Milan, Naples, Bologna, and Florence. Geospatial technology played a vital role in this pandemic by tracking infected patient, active cases, and recovered cases. Geospatial techniques are very important in terms of monitoring and planning to control the pandemic spread in the country.

Keywords: COVID-19, public health, geospatial analysis, IDW, Italy

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488 Building a Stochastic Simulation Model for Blue Crab Population Evolution in Antinioti Lagoon

Authors: Nikolaos Simantiris, Markos Avlonitis

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This work builds a simulation platform, modeling the spatial diffusion of the invasive species Callinectes sapidus (blue crab) as a random walk, incorporating also generation, fatality, and fishing rates modeling the time evolution of its population. Antinioti lagoon in West Greece was used as a testbed for applying the simulation model. Field measurements from June 2020 to June 2021 on the lagoon’s setting, bathymetry, and blue crab juveniles provided the initial population simulation of blue crabs, as well as biological parameters from the current literature were used to calibrate simulation parameters. The scope of this study is to render the authors able to predict the evolution of the blue crab population in confined environments of the Ionian Islands region in West Greece. The first result of the simulation experiments shows the possibility for a robust prediction for blue crab population evolution in the Antinioti lagoon.

Keywords: antinioti lagoon, blue crab, stochastic simulation, random walk

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487 Levels of Microcystin in the Coastal Waters of Nigeria

Authors: Medina Kadiri

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Blue-green otherwise called cyanobacteria, produce an array of biotoxins grouped into five categories notably hapatotoxins, neurotoxins, cytotoxins, dermatotoxins, and irritant toxins. Microcystins which are examples of hepatotoxins produced by blue-green algae Microcystins comprise the most common group of the cyanobacterial toxins. Blue-green algae flourish in aquatic environments, whether marine, brackish or freshwater, producing blooms in different forms such as microscopic, mats, or unsightly odoriferous scums. Microcystins biotoxins cause a plethora of animal and human hazards such as liver damage/cirrhosis and cancer, kidney damage, dermatitis, tinnitus, gastroenteritis, sore throat, nausea, myalgia, neurological problems, respiratory irritation and death. Water samples were collected from coastal regions of Nigeria in March 2014, June 2014, October 2014 and January 2015 and analyzed with Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) kits. Microcystin biotoxin was recorded in all sites both during dry and wet seasons. The range of microcystins found was 0.000041-There was a seasonal trend of increasing microcystin concentrations from March till Octobers and a decrease thereafter. Generally in the oceanic waters, microcystin levels were highest at Cross Rivers in March and January, Barbeach in June and Lekki in October. In the adjoining riverine ecosystems, on the other hand, the highest concentrations of microcystin were observed at Akwa Ibom in March, June and October and in Bayelsa in January. Continuous monitoring and screening of coastal water bodies is suggested to minimize the health risks of cyanobacterial biotoxins to coastal communities of Nigeria.

Keywords: biotoxins, harmful algae, marine, microcystin, Nigeria

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486 First Survey of Seasonal Abundance and Daily Activity of Stomoxys calcitrans: In Zaouiet Sousse, the Sahel Area of Tunisia

Authors: Amira Kalifa, Faïek Errouissi

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The seasonal changes and the daily activity of Stomoxys calcitrans (Diptera: Muscidae) were examined, using Vavoua traps, in a dairy cattle farm in Zaouiet Sousse, the Sahel area of Tunisia during May 2014 to October 2014. Over this period, a total of 4366 hematophagous diptera were captured and Stomoxys calcitrans was the most commonly trapped species (96.52%). Analysis of the seasonal activity, showed that S.calcitrans is bivoltine, with two peaks: a significant peak is recorded in May-June, during the dry season, and a second peak at the end of October, which is quite weak. This seasonal pattern would depend on climatic factors, particularly the temperature of the manure and that of the air. The activity pattern of Stomoxys calcitrans was diurnal with seasonal variations. The daily rhythm shows a peak between 11:00 am to 15:00 pm in May and between 11:00 am to 17:00 pm in June. These vector flies are important pests of livestock in Tunisia, where they are known as a mechanical vector of several pathogens and have a considerable economic and health impact on livestock. A better knowledge of their ecology is a prerequisite for more efficient control measures.

Keywords: cattle farm, daily rhythm, Stomoxys calcitrans, seasonal activity

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485 First Occurrence of Histopathological Assessment in Gadoid Deep-Fish Phycis blennoides from the Southwestern Mediterranean Sea

Authors: Zakia Alioua, Amira Soumia, Zerouali-Khodja Fatiha

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In spite of a wide variety of contaminants such as heavy metals and organic compounds in addition to the importance of extended pollution, the deep-sea and its species are not in haven and being affected through contaminants exposure. This investigation is performed in order to provide data on the presence of pathological changes in the liver and gonads of the greater forkbeard. A total of 998 specimens of the teleost fish Phycis blennoides Brünnich, 1768 ranged from 5,7 to 62,7 cm in total length, were obtained from the commercial fisheries of Algerian ports. The sampling has been carried out monthly from December 2013 to June 2015 and from January to June 2016 caught by trawlers and longlines between 75 and 600 fathoms in the coast of Algeria. Individuals were sexed their gonads, and their livers were removed and processed for light microscopy and one case of atresia was identified. In whole, overall 0,002% of the specimens presented some degree of liver steatosis. For the gastric section, 442 selected stomachs contents were observed looking for parasitic infestation and enumerate 212 nematodes. A prospecting survey for metal contaminant was performed on the liver by atomic absorption spectrophotometry analysis.

Keywords: atresia, coast of Algeria, histopathology, nematode, Phycis blennoides, steatosis

Procedia PDF Downloads 159
484 Effects of Different Organic Manures on the Antioxidant Activity, Vitamin C and Nitrate Concentrations of Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var italica)

Authors: Sahriye Sonmez, Sedat Citak

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The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of different organic manures on antioxidant activity, vitamin C and nitrate concentrations of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var italica) plants. For this purpose, broccoli plants were grown on open field conditions in 2 successive years (2011-2013) including 4 different seasons [(Spring 1 (March-June, 2011), Autumn 1 (September 2011-January 2012), Spring 2 (March-June, 2012), Autumn 2 (September 2012-January 2013)]. Organic manures (Farm manure (FM), vermicompost (VC) and leonardite (L) and its mixture (50 % FM+50% L, 50 % VC+50% FM, 50% L+50% VC and 33% FM+33% VC+33% L), one chemical fertilizer and one control, collectively 9 applications was investigated. The results indicated that the vitamin C concentrations of broccoli plants ranged from 31.4-55.8 mg/100 g, 43-631 mg/kg in nitrate concentrations and 11.0-56.7 mg/ml as IC50 inhibition values in antioxidant activities of broccoli plants. Also, it was determined that the effective applications were at the 50 % VC+50% FM for vitamin C concentrations, at the chemical fertilizer for nitrate concentrations and at the 100 % FM for antioxidant activities.

Keywords: broccoli, chemical fertilizer, farm manure, leonardite, vermicompost

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483 Aspects of the Reproductive Biology of Brook Trout Neolissochilus stracheyi (Day, 1871) in Northern, Thailand

Authors: Thapanee Pholdee, Apinun Suvarnaraksha

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Reproductive biology of Brook trout, Neolissochilus stracheyi (Day, 1871), were sampled in the Northern of Thailand during October 2010 - September 2011 from the fisherman, using gillnet of various mesh sizes. For the study of relationships between total length and body weight, spawning seasons, sex ratio and fecundity. At least 66 fish samples were used every month. The result showed that the total 821 Brook trout had 7.4-61(23.32±5.91 cm). There were 353 males that had fish samples there were 8.5-45.1 cm of TL (22.36±5.91cm) and 468 females that had 7.4±61 cm of TL (24.04±7.09 cm). The relationships equation between total length and weight was W = 0.008TL³.⁰⁶⁴ (r² = 0.940) for total fish, W=0.007TL³.¹⁰⁷ (r² = 0.946) for females and W=0.010TL³.⁰⁰³ (r² = 0.930) for males. The relative condition factor (K) of male and female was 1.090±0.067 and 1.116±0.102 respectively. The max of GSI was in June for male and female. The spawning season was found all year round with three peaks: January, June, and August. Estimated fecundity of mature ovaries ranged from 220 to 3,500 eggs. The estimated average fecundity was 1404.55 ±651.51 eggs. The relationships between fecundity and total length revealed F= 121.1TL-2100 and relationships between fecundity and weight revealed F= 4.535 + 128.78. The results from studies can be further applied to the economic culture, conservation, and management of the Brook trout in Northern, Thailand.

Keywords: reproductive biology, Neolissochilus stracheyi, Northern Thailand, Brook trout

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482 An Audit on Optimum Utilisation of Preoperative Clinic

Authors: Vidya Iyer, Suresh Babu Loganathan, Yuan Hwa Lee, Kwong Fah Koh

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Introduction: It has been recommended that every patient undergoes careful preoperative evaluation in a preoperative clinic to improve theatre utilization, reduce bed occupancy and avoid unnecessary cancellation due to inadequate optimisation, communication and administrative errors. It also gives an opportunity to counsel patients regarding different aspects of anaesthesia. Methodology: A retrospective audit of all the patients seen in preoperative assessment clinic, referral letters of all the patients postponed / referred to other sub specialities in the perioperative period from June 2012 - June 2013 was done. In our clinic, we retrieved patient records who were awaiting surgery pending clearance by other sub specialities. Those patients, who could continue with their scheduled date of surgery after having been referred, were not included in the file. We also studied details of same day cancellations from the data base, during the same study period. The reasons for cancellation were examined and defined as avoidable and unavoidable. Results: Less than 0.5% was postponed from the scheduled day of surgery. Less than 0.5% was cancelled on the day of surgery. Conclusions: Patients who undergo pre anaesthetic evaluation in a well-established clinic results in adequate preoperative patient optimisation, avoids unnecessary preoperative admission, efficient theatre utilisation and greater patient satisfaction. The benefits are the result of guidelines and timely update of them which are used by the junior doctors and trainees who run the clinic and a dedicated specialist to supervise them.

Keywords: preoperative assessment, clinic, referrals, cancellation

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481 Outcome of Emergency Response Team System in In-Hospital Cardiac Arrest

Authors: Jirapat Suriyachaisawat, Ekkit Surakarn

Abstract:

Introduction: To improve early detection and mortality rate of In- Hospital Cardiac arrest, Emergency Response Team (ERT) system was planned and implemented since June 2009 to detect pre-arrest conditions and for any concerns. The ERT consisted of on duty physicians and nurses from emergency department. ERT calling criteria consisted of acute change of HR < 40 or > 130 beats per minute, systolic blood pressure < 90mmHg, respiratory rate <8 or > 28 breaths per minute, O2 saturation < 90%, acute change in conscious state, acute chest pain or worried about the patients. From the data on ERT system implementation in our hospital in early phase (during June 2009-2011), there was no statistic significance in difference in In-Hospital cardiac arrest incidence and overall hospital mortality rate. Since the introduction of the ERT service in our hospital, we have conducted continuous educational campaign to improve awareness in an attempt to increase use of the service. Methods: To investigate outcome of ERT system in In-Hospital cardiac arrest and overall hospital mortality rate. We conducted a prospective, controlled before-and after examination of the long term effect of a ERT system on the incidence of cardiac arrest. We performed Chi -square analysis to find statistic significance. Results: Of a total 623 ERT cases from June 2009 until December 2012, there were 72 calls in 2009, 196 calls in 2010 ,139 calls in 2011 and 245 calls in 2012.The number of ERT calls per 1000 admissions in year 2009-10 was 7.69, 5.61 in 2011 and 9.38 in 2013. The number of Code blue calls per 1000 admissions decreased significantly from 2.28 to 0.99 per 1000 admissions (P value < 0.001). The incidence of cardiac arrest decreased progressively from 1.19 to 0.34 per 1000 admissions and significant in difference in year 2012 (P value < 0.001). The overall hospital mortality rate decreased by 8 % from 15.43 to 14.43 per 1000 admissions (P value 0.095). Conclusions: ERT system implementation was associated with progressive reduction in cardiac arrests over three year period, especially statistic significant in difference in 4th year after implementation. We also found an inverse association between number of ERT use and the risk of occurrence of cardiac arrests, But we have not found difference in overall hospital mortality rate.

Keywords: emergency response team, ERT, cardiac arrest, emergency medicine

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480 Long-Term Outcome of Emergency Response Team System in In-Hospital Cardiac Arrest

Authors: Jirapat Suriyachaisawat, Ekkit Surakarn

Abstract:

Introduction: To improve early detection and mortality rate of in-hospital cardiac arrest, Emergency Response Team (ERT) system was planned and implemented since June 2009 to detect pre-arrest conditons and for any concerns. The ERT consisted of on duty physicians and nurses from emergency department. ERT calling criteria consisted of acute change of HR < 40 or > 130 beats per minute, systolic blood pressure < 90 mmHg, respiratory rate <8 or >28 breaths per minute, O2 saturation <90%, acute change in conscious state, acute chest pain or worry about the patients. From the data on ERT system implementation in our hospital in early phase (during June 2009-2011), there was no statistic significance in difference in in-hospital cardiac arrest incidence and overall hospital mortality rate. Since the introduction of the ERT service in our hospital, we have conducted continuous educational campaign to improve awareness in an attempt to increase use of the service. Methods: To investigate outcome of ERT system in in-hospital cardiac arrest and overall hospital mortality rate, we conducted a prospective, controlled before-and after examination of the long term effect of a ERT system on the incidence of cardiac arrest. We performed chi-square analysis to find statistic significance. Results: Of a total 623 ERT cases from June 2009 until December 2012, there were 72 calls in 2009, 196 calls in 2010, 139 calls in 2011 and 245 calls in 2012. The number of ERT calls per 1000 admissions in year 2009-10 was 7.69; 5.61 in 2011 and 9.38 in 2013. The number of code blue calls per 1000 admissions decreased significantly from 2.28 to 0.99 per 1000 admissions (P value < 0.001). The incidence of cardiac arrest decreased progressively from 1.19 to 0.34 per 1000 admissions and significant in difference in year 2012 (P value < 0.001 ). The overall hospital mortality rate decreased by 8 % from 15.43 to 14.43 per 1000 admissions (P value 0.095). Conclusions: ERT system implementation was associated with progressive reduction in cardiac arrests over three year period, especially statistic significant in difference in 4th year after implementation. We also found an inverse association between number of ERT use and the risk of occurrence of cardiac arrests, but we have not found difference in overall hospital mortality rate.

Keywords: cardiac arrest, outcome, in-hospital, ERT

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479 Extreme Heat and Workforce Health in Southern Nevada

Authors: Erick R. Bandala, Kebret Kebede, Nicole Johnson, Rebecca Murray, Destiny Green, John Mejia, Polioptro Martinez-Austria

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Summertemperature data from Clark County was collected and used to estimate two different heat-related indexes: the heat index (HI) and excess heat factor (EHF). These two indexes were used jointly with data of health-related deaths in Clark County to assess the effect of extreme heat on the exposed population. The trends of the heat indexes were then analyzed for the 2007-2016 decadeandthe correlation between heat wave episodes and the number of heat-related deaths in the area was estimated. The HI showed that this value has increased significantly in June, July, and August over the last ten years. The same trend was found for the EHF, which showed a clear increase in the severity and number of these events per year. The number of heat wave episodes increased from 1.4 per year during the 1980-2016 period to 1.66 per yearduring the 2007-2016 period. However, a different trend was found for heat-wave-event duration, which decreasedfrom an average of 20.4 days during the trans-decadal period (1980-2016) to 18.1 days during the most recent decade(2007-2016). The number of heat-related deaths was also found to increase from 2007 to 2016, with 2016 with the highest number of heat-related deaths. Both HI and the number of deaths showeda normal-like distribution for June, July, and August, with the peak values reached in late July and early August. The average maximum HI values better correlated with the number of deaths registered in Clark County than the EHF, probably because HI uses the maximum temperature and humidity in its estimation,whereas EHF uses the average medium temperature. However, it is worth testing the EHF of the study zone because it was reported to fit properly in the case of heat-related morbidity. For the overall period, 437 heat-related deaths were registered in Clark County, with 20% of the deaths occurring in June, 52% occurring in July, 18% occurring in August,and the remaining 10% occurring in the other months of the year. The most vulnerable subpopulation was people over 50 years old, for which 76% of the heat-related deaths were registered.Most of the cases were associated with heart disease preconditions. The second most vulnerable subpopulation was young adults (20-50), which accounted for 23% of the heat-related deaths. These deathswere associated with alcoholic/illegal drug intoxication.

Keywords: heat, health, hazards, workforce

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478 Strategy Management of Soybean (Glycine max L.) for Dealing with Extreme Climate through the Use of Cropsyst Model

Authors: Aminah Muchdar, Nuraeni, Eddy

Abstract:

The aims of the research are: (1) to verify the cropsyst plant model of experimental data in the field of soybean plants and (2) to predict planting time and potential yield soybean plant with the use of cropsyst model. This research is divided into several stages: (1) first calibration stage which conducted in the field from June until September 2015.(2) application models stage, where the data obtained from calibration in the field will be included in cropsyst models. The required data models are climate data, ground data/soil data,also crop genetic data. The relationship between the obtained result in field with simulation cropsyst model indicated by Efficiency Index (EF) which the value is 0,939.That is showing that cropsyst model is well used. From the calculation result RRMSE which the value is 1,922%.That is showing that comparative fault prediction results from simulation with result obtained in the field is 1,92%. The conclusion has obtained that the prediction of soybean planting time cropsyst based models that have been made valid for use. and the appropriate planting time for planting soybeans mainly on rain-fed land is at the end of the rainy season, in which the above study first planting time (June 2, 2015) which gives the highest production, because at that time there was still some rain. Tanggamus varieties more resistant to slow planting time cause the percentage decrease in the yield of each decade is lower than the average of all varieties.

Keywords: soybean, Cropsyst, calibration, efficiency Index, RRMSE

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477 An Investigation of Sentiment and Themes from Twitter for Brexit in 2016

Authors: Anas Alsuhaibani

Abstract:

Observing debate and discussion over social media has been found to be a promising tool to investigate different types of opinion. On 23 June 2016, Brexit voters in the UK decided to depart from the EU, with 51.9% voting to leave. On Twitter, there had been a massive debate in this context, and the hashtag Brexit was allocated as number six of the most tweeted hashtags across the globe in 2016. The study aimed to investigate the sentiment and themes expressed in a sample of tweets during a political event (Brexit) in 2016. A sentiment and thematic analysis was conducted on 1304 randomly selected tweets tagged with the hashtag Brexit in Twitter for the period from 10 June 2016 to 7 July 2016. The data were coded manually into two code frames, sentiment and thematic, and the reliability of coding was assessed for both codes. The sentiment analysis of the selected sample found that 45.63% of tweets conveyed negative emotions while there were only 10.43% conveyed positive emotions. It also surprisingly resulted that 29.37% were factual tweets, where the tweeter expressed no sentiment and the tweet conveyed a fact. For the thematic analysis, the economic theme dominated by 23.41%, and almost half of its discussion was related to business within the UK and the UK and global stock markets. The study reported that the current UK government and relation to campaign themes were the most negative themes. Both sentiment and thematic analyses found that tweets with more than one opinion or theme were rare, 8.29% and 6.13%, respectively.

Keywords: Brexit, political opinion mining, social media, twitter

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476 Studies on the Spontaneous Reductive Decomposition Behavior of Permanganate in the Water

Authors: Hyun Kyu Lee, Won Zin Oh, June Hyun Kim, Jin Hee Kim, Sang June Choi, Hak Soo Kim

Abstract:

The oxidative dissolution of chromium oxide by manganese oxides including permanganate have been widely studied not only for the chemical decontamination of nuclear power plant, but also for the environmental control of the toxic chromate caused by naturally occurring manganese dioxide. However, little attention has been made for the spontaneous reductive decomposition of permanganate in the water, which is a competing reaction with the oxidation of the chromium oxide by permanganate. The objective of this study is to investigate the spontaneous reductive decomposition behavior of permanganate in the water, depending on the variation of acidity, temperature and concentration. Results of the experiments showed that the permanganate reductive decomposition product is manganese dioxide, and this reaction accompanies with the same molar amount of hydrogen ion consumption. Therefore, at the neutral condition (ex. potassium permanganate solution without acidic chemicals), the permanganate do not reduce by itself at any condition of temperature, concentration within the experimental range. From the results, we confirmed that the oxidation reaction for the permanganate reduction is the water oxidation that is accompanying the oxygen evolution. The experimental results on the reductive decomposition behavior of permanganate in the water also showed that the degree and rate of permanganate reduction increases with the temperature, acidity and concentration. The spontaneous decomposition of the permanganates obtained in the studies would become a good reference to select the operational condition, such as temperature, acidity and concentration, for the chemical decontamination of nuclear power plants.

Keywords: permanganate reduction, spontaneous decomposition, water oxidation, acidity, temperature, permanganate concentration, chemical decontamination, nuclear power plant

Procedia PDF Downloads 249
475 Analysis of Sea Waves Characteristics and Assessment of Potential Wave Power in Egyptian Mediterranean Waters

Authors: Ahmed A. El-Gindy, Elham S. El-Nashar, Abdallah Nafaa, Sameh El-Kafrawy

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The generation of energy from marine energy became one of the most preferable resources since it is a clean source and friendly to environment. Egypt has long shores along Mediterranean with important cities that need energy resources with significant wave energy. No detailed studies have been done on wave energy distribution in the Egyptian waters. The objective of this paper is to assess the energy wave power available in the Egyptian waters for the choice of the most suitable devices to be used in this area. This paper deals the characteristics and power of the offshore waves in the Egyptian waters. Since the field observations of waves are not frequent and need much technical work, the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) interim reanalysis data in Mediterranean, with a grid size 0.75 degree, which is a relatively course grid, are considered in the present study for preliminary assessment of sea waves characteristics and power. The used data covers the period from 2012 to 2014. The data used are significant wave height (swh), mean wave period (mwp) and wave direction taken at six hourly intervals, at seven chosen stations, and at grid points covering the Egyptian waters. The wave power (wp) formula was used to calculate energy flux. Descriptive statistical analysis including monthly means and standard deviations of the swh, mwp, and wp. The percentiles of wave heights and their corresponding power are done, as a tool of choice of the best technology suitable for the site. The surfer is used to show spatial distributions of wp. The analysis of data at chosen 7 stations determined the potential of wp off important Egyptian cities. Offshore of Al Saloum and Marsa Matruh, the highest wp occurred in January and February (16.93-18.05) ± (18.08-22.12) kw/m while the lowest occurred in June and October (1.49-1.69) ± (1.45-1.74) kw/m. In front of Alexandria and Rashid, the highest wp occurred in January and February (16.93-18.05) ± (18.08-22.12) kw/m while the lowest occurred in June and September (1.29-2.01) ± (1.31-1.83) kw/m. In front of Damietta and Port Said, the highest wp occurred in February (14.29-17.61) ± (21.61-27.10) kw/m and the lowest occurred in June (0.94-0.96) ± (0.71-0.72) kw/m. In winter, the probabilities of waves higher than 0.8 m in percentage were, at Al Saloum and Marsa Matruh (76.56-80.33) ± (11.62-12.05), at Alexandria and Rashid (73.67-74.79) ± (16.21-18.59) and at Damietta and Port Said (66.28-68.69) ± (17.88-17.90). In spring, the percentiles were, at Al Saloum and Marsa Matruh, (48.17-50.92) ± (5.79-6.56), at Alexandria and Rashid, (39.38-43.59) ± (9.06-9.34) and at Damietta and Port Said, (31.59-33.61) ± (10.72-11.25). In summer, the probabilities were, at Al Saloum and Marsa Matruh (57.70-66.67) ± (4.87-6.83), at Alexandria and Rashid (59.96-65.13) ± (9.14-9.35) and at Damietta and Port Said (46.38-49.28) ± (10.89-11.47). In autumn, the probabilities were, at Al Saloum and Marsa Matruh (58.75-59.56) ± (2.55-5.84), at Alexandria and Rashid (47.78-52.13) ± (3.11-7.08) and at Damietta and Port Said (41.16-42.52) ± (7.52-8.34).

Keywords: distribution of sea waves energy, Egyptian Mediterranean waters, waves characteristics, waves power

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474 Vertical Structure and Frequencies of Deep Convection during Active Periods of the West African Monsoon Season

Authors: Balogun R. Ayodeji, Adefisan E. Adesanya, Adeyewa Z. Debo, E. C. Okogbue

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Deep convective systems during active periods of the West African monsoon season have not been properly investigated over better temporal and spatial resolution in West Africa. Deep convective systems are investigated over seven climatic zones of the West African sub-region, which are; west-coast rainforest, dry rainforest, Nigeria-Cameroon rainforest, Nigeria savannah, Central African and South Sudan (CASS) Savannah, Sudano-Sahel, and Sahel, using data from Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) Precipitation Feature (PF) database. The vertical structure of the convective systems indicated by the presence of at least one 40 dBZ and reaching (attaining) at least 1km in the atmosphere showed strong core (highest frequency (%)) of reflectivity values around 2 km which is below the freezing level (4-5km) for all the zones. Echoes are detected above the 15km altitude much more frequently in the rainforest and Savannah zones than the Sudano and Sahel zones during active periods in March-May (MAM), whereas during active periods in June-September (JJAS) the savannahs, Sudano and Sahel zones convections tend to reach higher altitude more frequently than the rainforest zones. The percentage frequencies of deep convection indicated that the occurrences of the systems are within the range of 2.3-2.8% during both March-May (MAM) and June-September (JJAS) active periods in the rainforest and savannah zones. On the contrary, the percentage frequencies were found to be less than 2% in the Sudano and Sahel zones, except during the active-JJAS period in the Sudano zone.

Keywords: active periods, convective system, frequency, reflectivity

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473 Tolerance of Some Warm Season Turfgrasses to Compaction under Shade and Sunlight Conditions of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

Authors: Mohammed A. Al-Yafrsi, Fahed A. Al-Mana

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A study was conducted to evaluate the compaction-tolerance ability of some warm season turfgrasses under shade and sunlight conditions in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Hybrid bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon): 'Tifway' and 'Tifsport', seashore paspalum (Paspalum vaginatum) and its cultivar 'Sea Isle 2000' were used. The study area was divided into two sections where one was exposed to sunlight and the other one was maintained under shade using green plastic grille (shade 70%). Turfgrasses were planted by sods in beds containing a mixture of sand, silt, and peat moss (4: 1: 1, v/v). The soil compaction was applied using a locally-made cylindrical roll (weighing 250 kg), passing four times over the growing turfgrasses for 3 days/week. The results revealed that compaction treatment led to a decrease in grass height, and it was the lowest (4.0 cm) for paspalum 'Sea Isle 2000' in February. At the shaded area, paspalum turfgrasses retained its high quality degree (4.0) in April, May, and June. In the sunlight area, the grass quality degree was the greatest (4.0) in 'Sea Isle 2000' and the lowest (3.0) in 'Tifsport'. Paspalum turfgrasses gave higher color degree (4) than bermuda grasses (2.5) in April, May, and June. The compaction also led to a decline in leaf area, fresh and dry weights of all grown turfgrasses. The grass density was high for paspalum turfgrasses indicating that their resistance to compaction was greater than bermudagrasses. It can be concluded that the best compaction and shade tolerant turfgrasses are 'Sea Isle 2000' and seashore paspalum.

Keywords: hybrid bermudagrass, seashore paspalum, soil compaction, shade area, sunlight condition

Procedia PDF Downloads 45