Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1237

Search results for: interventions

1237 Mental Health and Technology: Evidence Review

Authors: Kylie Henderson

Abstract:

Adapting mental health interventions is important when providing support to those experiencing difficulties. This analysis aimed to explore and evaluate the effectiveness of various forms of mental health interventions. Literature that has analysed face-to-face (F2F), phone (Telehealth), mobile (mHealth) and online (e-interventions) interferences found all interventions were effective in reducing and treating symptoms of mental health disorders. F2F and Telehealth interventions facilitated greater engagement and client satisfaction. Due to accessibility and privacy, mHealth and e-interventions were the preferred methods of engagement with health services for youth and young adults. Regardless, these interventions still identified several barriers of high dropout, low adherence, and lack of awareness. Additionally, a large proportion of interventions lacked evidence-based foundations. Exploration of interventions that utilise a variety of interfaces, as well as incorporated evidence-based literature and clinician experience, show that they benefit those experiencing mental health difficulties. Applications like YourHealth+ provide a combination of interventions (F2F, mHealth, and e-interventions) to improve the wellbeing of job seekers and employment consults. Individuals that have used the application in conjunction with therapy have reported feeling more empowered and demonstrated improved wellbeing. Practitioners have also described improved confidence in their ability to provide support to clients. Therefore, it can be proposed that utilising a variety of interventions as well as incorporating literature and experience is beneficial to those experiencing mental health difficulties and to health practitioners.

Keywords: face-to-face, e-interventions, mHealth, YourHealth+

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1236 Elder Abuse Interventions: What We Know and What We Need to Know

Authors: Sepali Guruge

Abstract:

Background: There is an increase in interest among health care professionals and social workers in understanding how best to identify, mitigate, and prevent elder abuse. Purpose & method: Based on a recently completed scoping review of related literature, this paper will focus on the current state of knowledge on elder abuse interventions. Results: The results will be presented in light of the fact that limited literature exists on primary prevention of elder abuse. The existing literature on interventions to reduce or stop abuse will be critically examined in terms of their effectiveness. Particular attention will be paid to interventions such as relocation of older adults experiencing abuse, in-home assessments, empowerment and psycho-educational support for older adults. Conclusions: Overall, multi-stakeholder collaborative, community-based interventions should be designed to identify, mitigate, and prevent elder abuse.

Keywords: elder abuse, interventions, scoping review, prevention

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1235 Psychological Interventions as an Effective Treatment of Depression: A Critical Appraisal of the Literature

Authors: Brid Joy

Abstract:

This paper discusses some major psychological interventions and critiques their effectiveness in relation to the treatment of depression. Links are made between this evidence and the social work profession. This paper reviewed the relevant literature and evidence to ascertain the effectiveness of psychological interventions in the treatment of depression. Evidence suggests that psychological interventions are effective in the treatment of depression. However, a gulf between theory and practice remains and the difficulties in implementing evidence-based practice have been documented within this paper.

Keywords: psychological interventions, social work, depression, evidence based practice

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1234 Analysis of the Interventions Performed in Pediatric Cardiology Unit Based on Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC-6th): A Pilot Study

Authors: Ji Wen Sun, Nan Ping Shen, Yi Bei Wu

Abstract:

This study used Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC-6th) to identify the interventions performed in a pediatric cardiology unit, and then to analysis its frequency, time and difficulty, so as to give a brief review on what our nurses have done. The research team selected a 35 beds pediatric cardiology unit, and drawn all the nursing interventions in the nursing record from our hospital information system (HIS) from 1 October 2015 to 30 November 2015, using NIC-6th to do the matching and then counting their frequencies. Then giving each intervention its own time and difficulty code according to NIC-6th. The results showed that nurses in pediatric cardiology unit performed totally 43 interventions from 5394 statements, and most of them were in RN(basic) education level needed and less than 15 minutes time needed. There still had some interventions just needed by a nursing assistant but done by nurses, which should call for nurse managers to think about the suitable staffing. Thus, counting the summary of the product of frequency, time and difficulty for each intervention of each nurse can know one's performance. Acknowledgement Clinical Management Optimization Project of Shanghai Shen Kang Hospital Development Center (SHDC2014615); Hundred-Talent Program of Construction of Nursing Plateau Discipline (hlgy16073qnhb).

Keywords: nursing interventions, nursing interventions classification, nursing record, pediatric cardiology

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1233 A Systematic Literature Review of the Influence of New Media-Based Interventions on Drug Abuse

Authors: Wen Huei Chou, Te Lung Pan, Tsu Wen Yeh

Abstract:

New media have recently received increasing attention as a new communication form. The COVID-19 outbreak has pushed people’s lifestyles into the digital age, and the drug market has infiltrated formal e-commerce platforms. The self-media boom has fostered growth in online drug myths. To set the record straight, it is imperative to develop new media-based interventions. However, the usefulness of new media on this issue has not yet been fully examined. This study selected 13 articles on the development of new media-based interventions to prevent drug abuse from Airiti Library and Pub-Med as of October 3, 2021. The key conclusions are that (1) new media have a significantly positive influence on skills, self-efficacy, and behavior; (2) most interventions package traditional course learning into new media formats; and (3) new media can create a covert, interactive environment that cannot be replicated offline, which may merit attention in future research.

Keywords: drug abuse, interventions, new media, systematic review

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1232 Mental Health Clinicians’ Perceptions of Nature-Based Interventions Within Community Mental Health Services: Evidence from Australia

Authors: Rachel Tambyah, Katarzyna Olcoń, Julaine Allan, Pete Destry, Thomas Astell-Burt

Abstract:

The rising social and financial burden of mental illness indicates an urgent need to explore interventions that can be used as well as or instead of traditional treatments. Although there is growing evidence of the positive mental health outcomes of spending time in nature, the implementation of nature-based interventions (NBIs) within mental health services remains minimal. Based on interviews with mental health clinicians in Australia, this study demonstrated that clinicians supported the use of NBIs and would promote them to their clients.

Keywords: nature, nature-based interventions, mental health, mental health services, mental health clinicians

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1231 Nine Foundational Interventions for Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders

Authors: Jennie Long, Marjorie Bock

Abstract:

Although the professional literature related to Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) has focused on successful interventions and strategies, there is a lack of documentation regarding which of these methods and supports are most foundational and essential for classroom use. Specifically, literature does not define the core foundational interventions and strategies that would be elemental for educators to use with students with an ASD diagnosis. From the increase in prevalence of autism spectrum disorders, to the challenge students with ASD pose in classrooms, to the requirement to implement evidence-based practice, rises an enormous challenge in the field of education. Foundational interventions should be in place the first day the student enters the classroom. The nine interventions are foundational in nature and because of the dramatic increase in prevalence there is currently a need for classroom programs to provide the foundation of basic educational skills as well as the specialty skills specific to the area of ASD utilizing the most current research. This article presents nine evidence-based intervention categories for implementation with students on the spectrum.

Keywords: autism spectrum disorder, classroom, evidence-based, foundational

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1230 Understanding Primary School Students’ Beliefs Regarding the Adoption of Pro-Environmental Behaviors

Authors: Astrid de Leeuw, Pierre Valois

Abstract:

Environmental education is the key to enhancing or changing students’ ways of thinking and acting in order to create an environmentally robust future for all. The present study investigates the beliefs of 812 primary school students, which merit consideration when developing educational interventions. Results of multiple regression analyses reveal that educational interventions should focus on promoting students’ feelings of control over pro-environmental behaviors (PEB). For example, schools could provide recycling bins on the premises. Furthermore, it is critical to develop positive attitudes in students by stressing the various benefits of PEB for keeping our planet clean and protecting wildlife. Unfortunately, our results indicate that students believe that PEB is boring and annoying. Suggestions are offered for making PEB more interesting and relevant. Further research is needed to test the effectiveness of interventions based on the present results.

Keywords: pro-environmental behavior, primary school students, theory of planned behavior, beliefs, educational interventions

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1229 Nurse´s Interventions in Patients with Dementia During Clinical Practice: A Literature Review

Authors: Helga Martins, Idália Matias

Abstract:

Background: Dementia is an important research topic since that life expectancy worldwide is increasing, so people are getting older. The aging of populations has a major impact on the increase in dementia, and nurses play a major role in taking care of these patients. Therefore, the implementation of nursing interventions based on evidence is vital so that we are aware of what we can do in clinical practice in order to provide patient cantered care to patients with dementia. Aim: To identify the nurse´s interventions in patients with dementia during clinical practice. Method: Literature review grounded on an electronic search in the EBSCOhost platform (CINAHL Plus with Full Text, MEDLINE with Full Text, and Nursing & Allied Health Collection), using the search terms of "dementia" AND "nurs*" AND “interventions” in the abstracts. The inclusion criteria were: original papers published up to June 2021. A total of 153 results after de duplicate removal we kept 104. After the application of the inclusion criteria, we included 15 studies This literature review was performed by two independent researchers. Results: A total of 15 results about nurses’ interventions in patients with dementia were included in the study. The major interventions are therapeutic communication strategies, environmental management of stressors involving family/caregivers; strategies to promote patient safety, and assistance in activities of daily living in patients who are clinically deteriorated. Conclusion: Taking care of people with dementia is a complex and demanding task. Nurses are required to have a set of skills and competences in order to provide nursing interventions. We highlight that is necessary an awareness in nursing education regarding providing nursing care to patients with dementia.

Keywords: dementia, interventions, nursing, review

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1228 Behavior and Obesity: The Perception of Healthcare Professionals Concerning the Role of Behavior on Obesity

Authors: Saeed Wahass

Abstract:

Objective: Obesity is epidemic, affecting all societies and cultures. Most serious medical illnesses are attributed to obesity. For this reason, all healthcare systems worldwide have focused on obesity for both intervention and prevention. However, there is scientific evidence supporting that obesity is treatable through implementing different modalities of interventions. They include biological interventions like medications and bariatric surgeries and behavioral interventions. It seems healthcare professionals may suggest the quick and the easiest interventions for obesity like surgery, ignoring other modesties that might require efforts from their sides and patients as well. Searching on the onset, progression and prevention, behavior plays a major role. As a result, psychological interventions have become increasingly core for intervention and prevention of obesity. They are effective and cost effective in dealing with obesity. Methods: A questionnaire describing the role of behavior on obesity and the way it can be prevented and treated was distributed to a group of health professionals who are dealing with obesity e.g. bariatric surgeons, bariatric physicians, psychologists, health educators, nurses and social workers. Results: 88% of healthcare professionals believed that behavior plays a major role on the onset and progression of obesity, 95% of them recognized that obesity can be prevented with consideration for behavior factors. A major proportion (87%) of the respondents see that psychological interventions are effective and cost effective in treating obesity. Conclusions: It optimistically appears that the majority of healthcare professionals believe that behavior is a key component in understanding, preventing and treating obesity. This outcome may help in developing specific training courses for healthcare professionals, who are dealing with obesity concerning the way they can treat patients behaviorally and, moreover, educating the community.

Keywords: behavior, obesity, healthcare provider, psychological interventions

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1227 Meta-Analysis of Exercise Interventions for Children and Adolescents Diagnosed with Pediatric Metabolic Syndrome

Authors: James M. Geidner

Abstract:

Objective: The purpose of this meta-analysis was to examine the evidence for the effectiveness of exercise interventions on reducing metabolic components in children and/or adolescents diagnosed with Paediatric Metabolic Syndrome. Methods: A computerized search was made from four databases: PubMed, PsycInfo, SPORTDiscus, Cochrane Central Register. The analysis was restricted to children and adolescents with metabolic syndrome examining the effect of exercise interventions on metabolic components. Effect size and 95% confidence interval were calculated and the heterogeneity of the studies was estimated using Cochran’s Q-statistic and I2. Bias was assessed using multiple tools and statistical analyses. Results: Thirteen studies, consisting of 19 separate trials, were selected for the meta-analysis as they fulfilled the inclusion criteria (n=908). Exercise interventions resulted in decreased waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, fasting glucose, insulin resistance, triglycerides, and High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (HDL-C). Conclusions: This meta-analysis provides insights into the effectiveness of exercise interventions on markers of Paediatric Metabolic Syndrome in children and adolescents.

Keywords: metabolic syndrome, syndrome x, pediatric, meta-analysis

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1226 Cultural Boundaries and Mental Health Stigma: A Systemic Review of Interventions to Reduce Opposition of Mental Health Services in Asian American Families

Authors: Tanya L. Patimeteeporn, Murali D. Nair

Abstract:

There is a wide range of literature that suggests the factors that prevent Asian American families from utilizing mental health services. These factors arise from a combination of cultural perceptions of mental illness, and methods of treating them without the use of a mental health professional. Due to the increased awareness of Asian Americans’ stigmatization to mental health, there has been an effort to create culturally competent interventions for Asian American families that would reduce opposition to mental health services. Assessment of the effectiveness of these interventions reveals practices that integrate traditional healing methods with psychoeducation are more likely to promote receptiveness of mental health services by Asian American families. The documentary in this review, demonstrates these traditional healing methods from various ethnic enclaves in Los Angeles. In addition, mental health professionals who provide these interventions to Asian American families need to consider culture-bound syndromes and the various Asian health philosophies and belief systems in order to provide a culturally sensitive holistic treatment for their clients. However, because the literature on these interventions is limited, there is a need for a larger body of evidence to accurately assess the effectiveness of these culturally competent psychoeducation interventions.

Keywords: Asian American, cultural boundaries, intervention, mental health stigma, psychoeducation, traditional healing

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1225 Correlation between Early Government Interventions in the Northeastern United States and COVID-19 Outcomes

Authors: Joel Mintz, Kyle Huntley, Waseem Wahood, Samuel Raine, Farzanna Haffizulla

Abstract:

The effect of different state government interventions on COVID-19 health outcomes is currently unknown. Stay at home (SAH) orders, all non-essential business closures and school closures in the Northeastern US were examined. A linear correlation between the peak number of new daily COVID-19 positive tests, hospitalizations and deaths per capita and the elapsed time between government issued guidance and a fixed number of COVID-19 deaths in each state was performed. Earlier government interventions were correlated with lower peak healthcare burden. Statewide closures of schools and non-essential businesses showed significantly greater (p<.001) correlation to peak COVID-19 disease burden as compared to a statewide SAH. The implications of these findings require further study to determine the effectiveness of these interventions.

Keywords: Coronavirus, epidemiology, government intervention, public health, social distancing

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1224 Addressing Challenging Behaviours of Individuals with Positive Behaviour Support

Authors: Divi Sharma

Abstract:

The emergence of positive behaviour support (PBS) is directly linked to applied behaviour analysis that incorporates evidence-based approaches to addressing ethical challenges and improving autonomy, participation, and the overall quality of life of people living and learning in complex social environments. Its features include lifestyle improvement, collaboration with general caregivers, tracking progress with sound steps, comprehensive performance-based interventions, striving for contextual equality, and ensuring entry and implementation. This document aims to summarize its features with the support of case examples such as involving caregivers to play an active role in behavioural interventions, creating effective interventions within natural practices. Additionally, dealing with lifestyle changes, as well as a wide variety of behavioural changes, develop strong strategies which reduce professional dependence.

Keywords: positive behaviour support, quality of life, performance-based interventions, behavioural changes, participation

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1223 Reducing Later Life Loneliness: A Systematic Literature Review of Loneliness Interventions

Authors: Dhruv Sharma, Lynne Blair, Stephen Clune

Abstract:

Later life loneliness is a social issue that is increasing alongside an upward global population trend. As a society, one way that we have responded to this social challenge is through developing non-pharmacological interventions such as befriending services, activity clubs, meet-ups, etc. Through a systematic literature review, this paper suggests that currently there is an underrepresentation of radical innovation, and underutilization of digital technologies in developing loneliness interventions for older adults. This paper examines intervention studies that were published in English language, within peer reviewed journals between January 2005 and December 2014 across 4 electronic databases. In addition to academic databases, interventions found in grey literature in the form of websites, blogs, and Twitter were also included in the overall review. This approach yielded 129 interventions that were included in the study. A systematic approach allowed the minimization of any bias dictating the selection of interventions to study. A coding strategy based on a pattern analysis approach was devised to be able to compare and contrast the loneliness interventions. Firstly, interventions were categorized on the basis of their objective to identify whether they were preventative, supportive, or remedial in nature. Secondly, depending on their scope, they were categorized as one-to-one, community-based, or group based. It was also ascertained whether interventions represented an improvement, an incremental innovation, a major advance or a radical departure, in comparison to the most basic form of a loneliness intervention. Finally, interventions were also assessed on the basis of the extent to which they utilized digital technologies. Individual visualizations representing the four levels of coding were created for each intervention, followed by an aggregated visual to facilitate analysis. To keep the inquiry within scope and to present a coherent view of the findings, the analysis was primarily concerned the level of innovation, and the use of digital technologies. This analysis highlights a weak but positive correlation between the level of innovation and the use of digital technologies in designing and deploying loneliness interventions, and also emphasizes how certain existing interventions could be tweaked to enable their migration from representing incremental innovation to radical innovation for example. This analysis also points out the value of including grey literature, especially from Twitter, in systematic literature reviews to get a contemporary view of latest work in the area under investigation.

Keywords: ageing, loneliness, innovation, digital

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1222 The Effectiveness of Incidental Physical Activity Interventions Compared to Other Interventions in the Management of People with Low Back Pain: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Authors: Hosam Alzahrani, Martin Mackey, Emmanuel Stamatakis, Marina B. Pinheiro, Manuela Wicks, Debra Shirley

Abstract:

Objective: To investigate the effectiveness of incidental (non-structured) physical activity interventions compared with other commonly prescribed interventions for the management of people with low back pain (LBP). Methods: We performed a systematic review with meta-analyses of eligible randomized controlled trials obtained by searching Medline, Scopus, CINAHL, EMBASE, and CENTRAL. This review considered trials investigating the effect of incidental physical activity interventions compared to other interventions in people aged 18 years or over, diagnosed with non-specific LBP. Analyses were conducted separately for short-term (≤3 months), intermediate-term (> 3 and < 12 months), and long-term (≥ 12 months), for each outcome. The analyses were conducted using the weighted mean difference (WMD). The overall quality of evidence was assessed using the GRADE system. Meta-analyses were only performed for pain and disability outcomes as there was insufficient data on the other outcomes. Results: For pain, the pooled results did not show any significant effects between the incidental physical activity intervention and other interventions at any time point. For disability, incidental physical activity was not statistically more effective than other interventions at short-term; however, the pooled results favored incidental physical activity at intermediate-term (WMD= -6.05, 95% CI: -10.39 to -1.71, p=0.006) and long-term (WMD= -6.40 95% CI: -11.68 to -1.12, p=0.02) follow-ups among participants with chronic LBP. The overall quality of evidence was rated “moderate quality” based on the GRADE system. Conclusion: The incidental physical activity intervention provided intermediate and long disability relief for people with chronic LBP, although this improvement was small and not likely to be clinically important.

Keywords: physical activity, incidental, low back pain, systematic review, meta-analysis

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1221 Impact of Air Pollution and Climate on the Incidence of Emergency Interventions in Slavonski Brod

Authors: Renata Josipovic, Ante Cvitkovic

Abstract:

Particulate matter belongs to pollutants that can lead to respiratory problems or premature death due to exposure (long-term, short-term) to these substances, all depending on the severity of the effects. The importance of the study is to determine whether the existing climatic conditions in the period from January 1st to August 31st, 2018 increased the number of emergency interventions in Slavonski Brod with regard to pollutants hydrogen sulfide and particles less than 10 µm (PM10) and less than 2.5 µm (PM2.5). Analytical data of the concentration of pollutants are collected from the Croatian Meteorological and Hydrological Service, which monitors the operation of two meteorological stations in Slavonski Brod, as well as climatic conditions. Statistics data of emergency interventions were collected from the Emergency Medicine Department of Slavonski Brod. All data were compared (air pollution, emergency interventions) according to climatic conditions (air humidity and air temperature) and statistically processed. Statistical significance, although weak positive correlation PM2.5 (correlation coefficient 0.147; p = 0.036), determined PM10 (correlation coefficient 0.122; p = 0.048), hydrogen sulfide (correlation coefficient 0.141; p = 0.035) with max. temperature (correlation coefficient 0.202; p = 0.002) with number of interventions. The association between mean air humidity was significant but negative (correlation coefficient - 0.172; p = 0.007). The values of the influence of air pressure are not determined. As the problem of air pollution is very complex, coordinated action at many levels is needed to reduce air pollution in Slavonski Brod and consequences that can affect human health.

Keywords: emergency interventions, human health, hydrogen sulfide, particulate matter

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1220 The Effect of Reverse Trendelenburg Position on the Back Pain after Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions

Authors: Pramote Thangkratok

Abstract:

The aims of this experimental study were to investigate the effect of Reverse Trendelenburg Position on the Back Pain after Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions. In addition, to compare bleeding and hematoma occurrences at the Access site between experimental and control groups. The randomized controlled trial (RCT) was conducted in 70 patients who underwent Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions via the femoral artery and received post procedural care at the intermediate cardiac care unit, Bangkok Heart Hospital. From December 2015 to February 2016. The control group (35 patients) was to get standard care after the intervention, whereas the experimental group (35 patients) was Reverse Trendelenburg Position 30-45 degrees. The groups were not significantly different in terms of demographic characteristics, Age, Gender, BMI, blood pressure, heart rate. While not significantly different from each other, the intensity of back pain control group had a significantly higher pain score than experimental group. Vascular complications in terms of bleeding and hematoma were not significantly different between the control and experimental groups. The findings show that Reverse Trendelenburg Position after Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions would reduce or prevent the back pain without increasing the chance of bleeding and hematoma.

Keywords: reverse trendelenburg position, back pain, cardiovascular angiography, cardiovascular interventions

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1219 An Examination of Social Isolation and Loneliness in Adults with Hearing Loss

Authors: Christine Maleesha Withanachchi, Eithne Heffernan, Derek Hoare

Abstract:

Background: Social isolation (SI} is a major consequence of hearing loss (HL}. Isolation can lead to serious health problems (e.g., dementia and depression). Hearing Aids (HA) is the primary intervention for HL. However, these are less effective in social situations. Interventions are needed for SI in adults with hearing loss (AHL). Objectives: Investigated the relationship between HL and SI. Explored the views of AHL and hearing healthcare professionals (HHP) towards interventions for isolation. Methods: Individual and group semi-structured interviews were conducted. Interviews were conducted at the Nottingham Institute of Health Research (NIHR) Biomedical Research Centre (BRC). Six AHL and seven HHP were recruited via maximum variation sampling. The interview transcripts were analyzed using inductive thematic analysis. Results: Social impacts of HL: Most participants described that HL hurt them. This was in the form of social withdrawal, strain on relationships, and identity loss. Downstream effects of HL: Most audiologists acknowledged that isolation from HL could lead to depression. HL can also lead to exhaustion and unemployment. Impact of stigma: There are negative connotations around HL and HA (e.g. old age) and there is difficulty talking about isolation. The complexity of SI: There can be difficulty separating SI due to HL from SI due to other contributing factors (e.g. comorbidities). Potential intervention for isolation: Participants were unfamiliar with interventions for isolation and few, if any, were targeted for AHL specifically. Most participants thought an intervention should be patient-centered and run by an AHL in the community. Opinions differed regarding whether it should hear specific or generic. Implementation of intervention: Challenges to the implementation of an intervention for SI exist due to the sensitivity of the subject. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that SI is a major consequence of HL and uncovered novel findings related to its interventions. Uptake of interventions offered to AHL to reduce loneliness and social isolation is expected to be better if led by AHL in the community as opposed to HHP led interventions in the hospital or clinic settings.

Keywords: adults with hearing loss, hearing aids, interventions, social isolation

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1218 Commentary on Successful and Emerging Bullying Control Programs: A Comparison between Eighteen Bullying Interventions Applied Worldwide

Authors: Sohni Siddiqui, Anja Schultze-Krumbholz

Abstract:

Our lives now revolve more around online-related tasks, as the internet has become a necessity. One of the disturbance concerns with high internet usage is the multiplication of cyber-associated risky behaviors such as cyber aggression and/or cyberbullying. Cyber Bullying is an emerging issue that needs immediate attention from many stakeholders such as parents, doctors, school administrators, policymakers, researchers, and others, especially in the COVID-19 pandemic when online learning has been adopted as an instructional strategy, and there is a continuous rise in cyberbullying cases. The aim of the article is to review existing successful and emerging interventions designed to control bullying and cyberbullying by engaging individuals through teachers’ professional development and adopting a whole-school approach. The study identified the strengths and limitations of the programs and suggested improvements to existing interventions. Preparing interventions with a strong theoretical framework, integrating applications of emerging theories in interventions, promoting proactive and reactive strategies in combination, beginning with the baseline needs assessment surveys, reducing digital time and digital divide among parents and children, promoting the concept of lead trainer, peer trainer, and hot spots, focusing on physical activities, use of landmarks are some of the recommendations proposed by authors. In addition to face-to-face intervention, the researchers recommend updating and improving previous intervention programs with games and apps. Especially in the time of pandemic crises, when face-to-face interactions are limited and cyberbullying is triggered, the use of apps, web-based interventions, and games can be an effective way to control electronic perpetration and victimization.

Keywords: anti bullying programs, cyber bullying, individualized trainings, teachers’ professional development, whole school interventions

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1217 The Most Effective Interventions to Prevent Childhood Obesity

Authors: Sarah-Anne Schumann, Chintan Shah, Sandeep Ponniah, Syeachia Dennis

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Effective interventions to prevent childhood obesity include limiting sugar-sweetened beverage intake (SOR: B, longitudinal study), school and home based strategies to reduce total screen time and increase physical activity, behavioral and dietary counseling, and support for parents and families (SOR: A, meta-analysis of randomized and non-randomized controlled trials). Risk factors for childhood obesity include maternal pre-pregnancy weight, high infant birth weight, early infant rapid weight gain and maternal smoking during pregnancy which may provide opportunities to intervene and prevent childhood obesity (SOR: B, meta-analysis of observational studies).

Keywords: childhood, obesity, prevent obesity, interventions to prevent obesity

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1216 Mapping the Technological Interventions to the National Action Plan for Marine Litter Management 2018-2025: Addressing the Marine Plastic Litter at the Marine Tourism Destinations in Indonesia

Authors: Kaisar Akhir, Azhar Slamet

Abstract:

This study aims to provide recommendations for addressing marine plastic litter at the ocean tourism destinations in Indonesia sustainably through technological interventions in the framework of the National Action Plan for Marine Litter Management 2018-2025. In Indonesia, marine tourism is a rapidly growing economic sector. However, marine tourism destinations are facing a global challenge called marine plastic litter. Marine plastic litter is a threat to those destinations since it has potential impacts on the reduction of marine environmental sustainability, the health of tourists and local communities as well as tourism business income. Since 2018, the Indonesian government has passed and promulgated the National Plan of Action on Marine Litter Management 2018-2025. This national action plan consists of three important key aspects of interventions (i.e., societal effort, technological application, and institutional coordination) and five strategies for addressing marine litter in Indonesia, in particular, to address 70% of marine plastic litter by 2025. The strategies include 1) National movement for raising awareness of stakeholders, 2) Land-based litter management, 3) Litter management at the sea and coasts, 4) Funding mechanism, institutional strengthening, monitoring, and law enforcement, and 5) Research and development. In this study, technological interventions around the world and in Indonesia are reviewed and analyzed on their relevance to the national action plan based on five criteria. As a result, there are twelve kinds of technological interventions recommended to be implemented for addressing marine plastic litter in the marine tourism destinations in Indonesia.

Keywords: marine litter management, marine plastic litter, national action plan, ocean sustainability, ocean tourism destination, technological interventions

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1215 Application of a Theoretical framework as a Context for a Travel Behavior Change Policy Intervention

Authors: F. Moghtaderi, M. Burke, J. Troelsen

Abstract:

There has been a significant decline in active travel as well as the massive increase use of car-dependent travel mode in many countries during past two decades. Evidential risks for people’s physical and mental health problems are followed by this increased use of motorized travel mode. These problems range from overweight and obesity to increasing air pollution. In response to these rising concerns, local councils and other interested organizations around the world have introduced a variety of initiatives regarding reduce the dominance of cars for the daily journeys. However, the nature of these kinds of interventions, which related to the human behavior, make lots of complexities. People’s travel behavior and changing this behavior, has two different aspects. People’s attitudes and perceptions toward the sustainable and healthy modes of travel, and motorized travel modes (especially private car use) is one these two aspects. The other one related to people’s behavior change processes. There are no comprehensive model in order to guide policy interventions to increase the level of succeed of such interventions. A comprehensive theoretical framework is required in accordance to facilitate and guide the processes of data collection and analysis to achieve the best possible guidelines for policy makers. Regarding this gaps in the travel behavior change research, this paper attempted to identify and suggest a multidimensional framework in order to facilitate planning interventions. A structured mixed-method is suggested regarding the expand the scope and improve the analytic power of the result according to the complexity of human behavior. In order to recognize people’s attitudes, a theory with the focus on people’s attitudes towards a particular travel behavior was needed. The literature around the theory of planned behavior (TPB) was the most useful, and had been proven to be a good predictor of behavior change. Another aspect of the research, related to the people’s decision-making process regarding explore guidelines for the further interventions. Therefore, a theory was needed to facilitate and direct the interventions’ design. The concept of the transtheoretical model of behavior change (TTM) was used regarding reach a set of useful guidelines for the further interventions with the aim to increase active travel and sustainable modes of travel. Consequently, a combination of these two theories (TTM and TPB) had presented as an appropriate concept to identify and design implemented travel behavior change interventions.

Keywords: behavior change theories, theoretical framework, travel behavior change interventions, urban research

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1214 Impact of Positive Psychology Education and Interventions on Well-Being: A Study of Students Engaged in Pastoral Care

Authors: Inna R. Edara, Haw-Lin Wu

Abstract:

Positive psychology investigates human strengths and virtues and promotes well-being. Relying on this assumption, positive interventions have been continuously designed to build pleasure and happiness, joy and contentment, engagement and meaning, hope and optimism, satisfaction and gratitude, spirituality, and various other positive measures of well-being. In line with this model of positive psychology and interventions, this study investigated certain measures of well-being in a group of 45 students enrolled in an 18-week positive psychology course and simultaneously engaged in service-oriented interventions that they chose for themselves based on the course content and individual interests. Students’ well-being was measured at the beginning and end of the course. The well-being indicators included positive automatic thoughts, optimism and hope, satisfaction with life, and spirituality. A paired-samples t-test conducted to evaluate the impact of class content and service-oriented interventions on students’ scores of well-being indicators indicated statistically significant increase from pre-class to post-class scores. There were also significant gender differences in post-course well-being scores, with females having higher levels of well-being than males. A two-way between groups analysis of variance indicated a significant interaction effect of age by gender on the post-course well-being scores, with females in the age group of 56-65 having the highest scores of well-being in comparison to the males in the same age group. Regression analyses indicated that positive automatic thought significantly predicted hope and satisfaction with life in the pre-course analysis. In the post-course regression analysis, spiritual transcendence made a significant contribution to optimism, and positive automatic thought made a significant contribution to both hope and satisfaction with life. Finally, a significant test between pre-course and post-course regression coefficients indicated that the regression coefficients at pre-course were significantly different from post-course coefficients, suggesting that the positive psychology course and the interventions were helpful in raising the levels of well-being. The overall results suggest a substantial increase in the participants’ well-being scores after engaging in the positive-oriented interventions, implying a need for designing more positive interventions in education to promote well-being.  

Keywords: hope, optimism, positive automatic thoughts, satisfaction with life, spirituality, well-being

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1213 Managing Climate Change: Vulnerability Reduction or Resilience Building

Authors: Md Kamrul Hassan

Abstract:

Adaptation interventions are the common response to manage the vulnerabilities of climate change. The nature of adaptation intervention depends on the degree of vulnerability and the capacity of a society. The coping interventions can take the form of hard adaptation – utilising technologies and capital goods like dykes, embankments, seawalls, and/or soft adaptation – engaging knowledge and information sharing, capacity building, policy and strategy development, and innovation. Hard adaptation is quite capital intensive but provides immediate relief from climate change vulnerabilities. This type of adaptation is not real development, as the investment for the adaptation cannot improve the performance – just maintain the status quo of a social or ecological system, and often lead to maladaptation in the long-term. Maladaptation creates a two-way loss for a society – interventions bring further vulnerability on top of the existing vulnerability and investment for getting rid of the consequence of interventions. Hard adaptation is popular to the vulnerable groups, but it focuses so much on the immediate solution and often ignores the environmental issues and future risks of climate change. On the other hand, soft adaptation is education oriented where vulnerable groups learn how to live with climate change impacts. Soft adaptation interventions build the capacity of vulnerable groups through training, innovation, and support, which might enhance the resilience of a system. In consideration of long-term sustainability, soft adaptation can contribute more to resilience than hard adaptation. Taking a developing society as the study context, this study aims to investigate and understand the effectiveness of the adaptation interventions of the coastal community of Sundarbans mangrove forest in Bangladesh. Applying semi-structured interviews with a range of Sundarbans stakeholders including community residents, tourism demand-supply side stakeholders, and conservation and management agencies (e.g., Government, NGOs and international agencies) and document analysis, this paper reports several key insights regarding climate change adaptation. Firstly, while adaptation interventions may offer a short-term to medium-term solution to climate change vulnerabilities, interventions need to be revised for long-term sustainability. Secondly, soft adaptation offers advantages in terms of resilience in a rapidly changing environment, as it is flexible and dynamic. Thirdly, there is a challenge to communicate to educate vulnerable groups to understand more about the future effects of hard adaptation interventions (and the potential for maladaptation). Fourthly, hard adaptation can be used if the interventions do not degrade the environmental balance and if the investment of interventions does not exceed the economic benefit of the interventions. Overall, the goal of an adaptation intervention should be to enhance the resilience of a social or ecological system so that the system can with stand present vulnerabilities and future risks. In order to be sustainable, adaptation interventions should be designed in such way that those can address vulnerabilities and risks of climate change in a long-term timeframe.

Keywords: adaptation, climate change, maladaptation, resilience, Sundarbans, sustainability, vulnerability

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1212 Co-produced Databank of Tailored Messages to Support Enagagement to Digitial Health Interventions

Authors: Menna Brown, Tania Domun

Abstract:

Digital health interventions are effective across a wide array of health conditions spanning physical health, lifestyle behaviour change, and mental health and wellbeing; furthermore, they are rapidly increasing in volume within both the academic literature and society as commercial apps continue to proliferate the digital health market. However, adherence and engagement to digital health interventions remains problematic. Technology-based personalised and tailored reminder strategies can support engagement to digital health interventions. Interventions which support individuals’ mental health and wellbeing are of critical importance in the wake if the COVID-19 pandemic. Student and young person’s mental health has been negatively affected and digital resources continue to offer cost effective means to address wellbeing at a population level. Develop a databank of digital co-produced tailored messages to support engagement to a range of digital health interventions including those focused on mental health and wellbeing, and lifestyle behaviour change. Qualitative research design. Participants discussed their views of health and wellbeing, engagement and adherence to digital health interventions focused around a 12-week wellbeing intervention via a series of focus group discussions. They worked together to co-create content following a participatory design approach. Three focus group discussions were facilitated with (n=15) undergraduate students at one Welsh university to provide an empirically derived, co-produced, databank of (n=145) tailored messages. Messages were explored and categorised thematically, and the following ten themes emerged: Autonomy, Recognition, Guidance, Community, Acceptance, Responsibility, Encouragement, Compassion, Impact and Ease. The findings provide empirically derived, co-produced tailored messages. These have been made available for use, via ‘ACTivate your wellbeing’ a digital, automated, 12-week health and wellbeing intervention programme, based on acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT). The purpose of which is to support future research to evaluate the impact of thematically categorised tailored messages on engagement and adherence to digital health interventions.

Keywords: digital health, engagement, wellbeing, participatory design, positive psychology, co-production

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1211 Serious Gaming for Behaviour Change: A Review

Authors: Ramy Hammady, Sylvester Arnab

Abstract:

Significant attention has been directed to adopt game interventions practically to change certain behaviours in many disciplines such as health, education, psychology through many years. That’s due to the intrinsic motivation that games can cause and the substantial impact the games can leave on the player. Many review papers were induced to highlight and measure the effectiveness of the game’s interventions on changing behaviours; however, most of these studies neglected the game design process itself and the game features and elements that can stimuli changing behaviours. Therefore, this paper aims to identify the most game design mechanics and features that are the most influencing on changing behaviour during or after games interventions. This paper also sheds light on the theories of changing behaviours that clearly can led the game design process. This study gives directions to game designers to spot the most influential game features and mechanics for changing behaviour games in order to exploit it on the same manner.

Keywords: behaviour change, game design, serious gaming, gamification, review

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1210 Sensory Interventions for Dementia: A Review

Authors: Leigh G. Hayden, Susan E. Shepley, Cristina Passarelli, William Tingo

Abstract:

Introduction: Sensory interventions are popular therapeutic and recreational approaches for people living with all stages of dementia. However, it is unknown which sensory interventions are used to achieve which outcomes across all subtypes of dementia. Methods: To address this gap, we conducted a scoping review of sensory interventions for people living with dementia. We conducted a search of the literature for any article published in English from 1 January 1990 to 1 June 2019, on any sensory or multisensory intervention targeted to people living with any kind of dementia, which reported on patient health outcomes. We did not include complex interventions where only a small aspect was related to sensory stimulation. We searched the databases Medline, CINHAL, and Psych Articles using our institutional discovery layer. We conducted all screening in duplicate to reduce Type 1 and Type 2 errors. The data from all included papers were extracted by one team member, and audited by another, to ensure consistency of extraction and completeness of data. Results: Our initial search captured 7654 articles, and the removal of duplicates (n=5329), those that didn’t pass title and abstract screening (n=1840) and those that didn’t pass full-text screening (n=281) resulted in 174 articles included. The countries with the highest publication in this area were the United States (n=59), the United Kingdom (n=26) and Australia (n=15). The most common type of interventions were music therapy (n=36), multisensory rooms (n=27) and multisensory therapies (n=25). Seven articles were published in the 1990’s, 55 in the 2000’s, and the remainder since 2010 (n=112). Discussion: Multisensory rooms have been present in the literature since the early 1990’s. However, more recently, nature/garden therapy, art therapy, and light therapy have emerged since 2008 in the literature, an indication of the increasingly diverse scholarship in the area. The least popular type of intervention is a traditional food intervention. Taste as a sensory intervention is generally avoided for safety reasons, however it shows potential for increasing quality of life. Agitation, behavior, and mood are common outcomes for all sensory interventions. However, light therapy commonly targets sleep. The majority (n=110) of studies have very small sample sizes (n=20 or less), an indicator of the lack of robust data in the field. Additional small-scale studies of the known sensory interventions will likely do little to advance the field. However, there is a need for multi-armed studies which directly compare sensory interventions, and more studies which investigate the use of layering sensory interventions (for example, adding an aromatherapy component to a lighting intervention). In addition, large scale studies which enroll people at early stages of dementia will help us better understand the potential of sensory and multisensory interventions to slow the progression of the disease.

Keywords: sensory interventions, dementia, scoping review

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1209 Getting It Right Before Implementation: Using Simulation to Optimize Recommendations and Interventions After Adverse Event Review

Authors: Melissa Langevin, Natalie Ward, Colleen Fitzgibbons, Christa Ramsey, Melanie Hogue, Anna Theresa Lobos

Abstract:

Description: Root Cause Analysis (RCA) is used by health care teams to examine adverse events (AEs) to identify causes which then leads to recommendations for prevention Despite widespread use, RCA has limitations. Best practices have not been established for implementing recommendations or tracking the impact of interventions after AEs. During phase 1 of this study, we used simulation to analyze two fictionalized AEs that occurred in hospitalized paediatric patients to identify and understand how the errors occurred and generated recommendations to mitigate and prevent recurrences. Scenario A involved an error of commission (inpatient drug error), and Scenario B involved detecting an error that already occurred (critical care drug infusion error). Recommendations generated were: improved drug labeling, specialized drug kids, alert signs and clinical checklists. Aim: Use simulation to optimize interventions recommended post critical event analysis prior to implementation in the clinical environment. Methods: Suggested interventions from Phase 1 were designed and tested through scenario simulation in the clinical environment (medicine ward or pediatric intensive care unit). Each scenario was simulated 8 times. Recommendations were tested using different, voluntary teams and each scenario was debriefed to understand why the error was repeated despite interventions and how interventions could be improved. Interventions were modified with subsequent simulations until recommendations were felt to have an optimal effect and data saturation was achieved. Along with concrete suggestions for design and process change, qualitative data pertaining to employee communication and hospital standard work was collected and analyzed. Results: Each scenario had a total of three interventions to test. In, scenario 1, the error was reproduced in the initial two iterations and mitigated following key intervention changes. In scenario 2, the error was identified immediately in all cases where the intervention checklist was utilized properly. Independently of intervention changes and improvements, the simulation was beneficial to identify which of these should be prioritized for implementation and highlighted that even the potential solutions most frequently suggested by participants did not always translate into error prevention in the clinical environment. Conclusion: We conclude that interventions that help to change process (epinephrine kit or mandatory checklist) were more successful at preventing errors than passive interventions (signage, change in memory aids). Given that even the most successful interventions needed modifications and subsequent re-testing, simulation is key to optimizing suggested changes. Simulation is a safe, practice changing modality for institutions to use prior to implementing recommendations from RCA following AE reviews.

Keywords: adverse events, patient safety, pediatrics, root cause analysis, simulation

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1208 Bioclimatic Design, Evaluation of Energy Behavior and Energy-Saving Interventions at the Theagenio Cancer Hospital

Authors: Emmanouel Koumoulas, Aikaterini Rokkou, Marios Moschakis

Abstract:

Theagenio" in Thessaloniki exists and works for three centuries now as a hospital. Since 1975, it has been operating as an Integrated Special Cancer Hospital and since 1985 it has been integrated into the National Health System. "Theagenio" Cancer Hospital is located at the central web of Thessaloniki residential complex and consists of two buildings, the "Symeonidio Research Center", which was completed in 1962 and the Nursing Ward, a project that was later completed in 1975. This paper examines the design of the Hospital Unit according to the requirements of the energy design of buildings. Initially, the energy characteristics of the Hospital are recorded, followed by a detailed presentation of the electromechanical installations. After the existing situation has been captured and with the help of the software TEE-KENAK, different scenarios for the energy upgrading of the buildings have been studied. Proposals for upgrading concern both the shell, e.g. installation of external thermal insulation, replacement of frames, addition of shading systems, etc. as well as electromechanical installations, e.g. use of ceiling fans, improvements in heating and cooling systems, interventions in lighting, etc. The simulation calculates the future energy status of the buildings and presents the economic benefits of the proposed interventions with reference to the environmental profits that arise.

Keywords: energy consumption in hospitals, energy saving interventions, energy upgrading, hospital facilities

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