Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5097

Search results for: single ion transport

5097 Single Ion Transport with a Single-Layer Graphene Nanopore

Authors: Vishal V. R. Nandigana, Mohammad Heiranian, Narayana R. Aluru

Abstract:

Graphene material has found tremendous applications in water desalination, DNA sequencing and energy storage. Multiple nanopores are etched to create opening for water desalination and energy storage applications. The nanopores created are of the order of 3-5 nm allowing multiple ions to transport through the pore. In this paper, we present for the first time, molecular dynamics study of single ion transport, where only one ion passes through the graphene nanopore. The diameter of the graphene nanopore is of the same order as the hydration layers formed around each ion. Analogous to single electron transport resulting from ionic transport is observed for the first time. The current-voltage characteristics of such a device are similar to single electron transport in quantum dots. The current is blocked until a critical voltage, as the ions are trapped inside a hydration shell. The trapped ions have a high energy barrier compared to the applied input electrical voltage, preventing the ion to break free from the hydration shell. This region is called “Coulomb blockade region”. In this region, we observe zero transport of ions inside the nanopore. However, when the electrical voltage is beyond the critical voltage, the ion has sufficient energy to break free from the energy barrier created by the hydration shell to enter into the pore. Thus, the input voltage can control the transport of the ion inside the nanopore. The device therefore acts as a binary storage unit, storing 0 when no ion passes through the pore and storing 1 when a single ion passes through the pore. We therefore postulate that the device can be used for fluidic computing applications in chemistry and biology, mimicking a computer. Furthermore, the trapped ion stores a finite charge in the Coulomb blockade region; hence the device also acts a super capacitor.

Keywords: graphene nanomembrane, single ion transport, Coulomb blockade, nanofluidics

Procedia PDF Downloads 192
5096 Intelligent Rescheduling Trains for Air Pollution Management

Authors: Kainat Affrin, P. Reshma, G. Narendra Kumar

Abstract:

Optimization of timetable is the need of the day for the rescheduling and routing of trains in real time. Trains are scheduled in parallel with the road transport vehicles to the same destination. As the number of trains is restricted due to single track, customers usually opt for road transport to use frequently. The air pollution increases as the density of vehicles on road transport is increased. Use of an alternate mode of transport like train helps in reducing air-pollution. This paper mainly aims at attracting the passengers to Train transport by proper rescheduling of trains using hybrid of stop-skip algorithm and iterative convex programming algorithm. Rescheduling of train bi-directionally is achieved on a single track with dynamic dual time and varying stops. Introduction of more trains attract customers to use rail transport frequently, thereby decreasing the pollution. The results are simulated using Network Simulator (NS-2).

Keywords: air pollution, AODV, re-scheduling, WSNs

Procedia PDF Downloads 259
5095 Steady State Charge Transport in Quantum Dots: Nonequilibrium Green's Function (NEGF) vs. Single Electron Analysis

Authors: Mahesh Koti

Abstract:

In this paper, we present a quantum transport study of a quantum dot in steady state in the presence of static gate potential. We consider a quantum dot coupled to the two metallic leads. The quantum dot under study is modeled through Anderson Impurity Model (AIM) with hopping parameter modulated through voltage drop between leads and the central dot region. Based on the Landauer's formula derived from Nonequilibrium Green's Function and Single Electron Theory, the essential ingredients of transport properties are revealed. We show that the results out of two approaches closely agree with each other. We demonstrate that Landauer current response derived from single electron approach converges with non-zero interaction through gate potential whereas Landauer current response derived from Nonequilibrium Green's Function (NEGF) hits a pole.

Keywords: Anderson impurity model (AIM), nonequilibrium Green's function (NEGF), Landauer's formula, single electron analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 377
5094 Innovative Methods of Improving Train Formation in Freight Transport

Authors: Jaroslav Masek, Juraj Camaj, Eva Nedeliakova

Abstract:

The paper is focused on the operational model for transport the single wagon consignments on railway network by using two different models of train formation. The paper gives an overview of possibilities of improving the quality of transport services. Paper deals with two models used in problematic of train formatting - time continuously and time discrete. By applying these models in practice, the transport company can guarantee a higher quality of service and expect increasing of transport performance. The models are also applicable into others transport networks. The models supplement a theoretical problem of train formation by new ways of looking to affecting the organization of wagon flows.

Keywords: train formation, wagon flows, marshalling yard, railway technology

Procedia PDF Downloads 346
5093 Low-Emission Commuting with Micro Public Transport: Investigation of Travel Times and CO₂ Emissions

Authors: Marcel Ciesla, Victoria Oberascher, Sven Eder, Stefan Kirchweger, Wolfgang E. Baaske, Gerald Ostermayer

Abstract:

The omnipresent trend towards sustainable mobility is a major challenge, especially for commuters in rural areas. The use of micro public transport systems is expected to significantly reduce pollutant emissions, as several commuters travel the first mile together with a single pick-up bus instead of their own car. In this paper, different aspects of such a micro public transport system are analyzed. The main findings of the investigations should be how the travel times of commuters change and how many CO₂ emissions can be saved if some of the commuters use public transport instead of their own vehicle.

Keywords: micro public transport, green transportation, sustainable mobility, low-emission commuting

Procedia PDF Downloads 109
5092 Reactive Transport Modeling in Carbonate Rocks: A Single Pore Model

Authors: Priyanka Agrawal, Janou Koskamp, Amir Raoof, Mariette Wolthers

Abstract:

Calcite is the main mineral found in carbonate rocks, which form significant hydrocarbon reservoirs and subsurface repositories for CO2 sequestration. The injected CO2 mixes with the reservoir fluid and disturbs the geochemical equilibrium, triggering calcite dissolution. Different combinations of fluid chemistry and injection rate may therefore result in different evolution of porosity, permeability and dissolution patterns. To model the changes in porosity and permeability Kozeny-Carman equation K∝〖(∅)〗^n is used, where K is permeability and ∅ is porosity. The value of n is mostly based on experimental data or pore network models. In pore network models, this derivation is based on accuracy of relation used for conductivity and pore volume change. In fact, at a single pore scale, this relationship is the result of the pore shape development due to dissolution. We have prepared a new reactive transport model for a single pore which simulates the complex chemical reaction of carbonic-acid induced calcite dissolution and subsequent pore-geometry evolution at a single pore scale. We use COMSOL Multiphysics package 5.3 for the simulation. COMSOL utilizes the arbitary-Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) method for the free-moving domain boundary. We examined the effect of flow rate on the evolution of single pore shape profiles due to calcite dissolution. We used three flow rates to cover diffusion dominated and advection-dominated transport regimes. The fluid in diffusion dominated flow (Pe number 0.037 and 0.37) becomes less reactive along the pore length and thus produced non-uniform pore shapes. However, for the advection-dominated flow (Pe number 3.75), the fast velocity of the fluid keeps the fluid relatively more reactive towards the end of the pore length, thus yielding uniform pore shape. Different pore shapes in terms of inlet opening vs overall pore opening will have an impact on the relation between changing volumes and conductivity. We have related the shape of pore with the Pe number which controls the transport regimes. For every Pe number, we have derived the relation between conductivity and porosity. These relations will be used in the pore network model to get the porosity and permeability variation.

Keywords: single pore, reactive transport, calcite system, moving boundary

Procedia PDF Downloads 268
5091 Numerical Design and Characterization of SiC Single Crystals Obtained with PVT Method

Authors: T. Wejrzanowski, M. Grybczuk, E. Tymicki, K. J. Kurzydlowski

Abstract:

In the present study, numerical simulations of heat and mass transfer in Physical Vapor Transport reactor during silicon carbide single crystal growth are addressed. Silicon carbide is a wide bandgap material with unique properties making it highly applicable for high power electronics applications. Because of high manufacturing costs improvements of SiC production process are required. In this study, numerical simulations were used as a tool of process optimization. Computer modeling allows for cost and time effective analysis of processes occurring during SiC single crystal growth and provides essential information needed for improvement of the process. Quantitative relationship between process conditions, such as temperature or pressure, and crystal growth rate and shape of crystallization front have been studied and verified using experimental data. Basing on modeling results, several process improvements were proposed and implemented.

Keywords: Finite Volume Method, semiconductors, Physica Vapor Transport, silicon carbide

Procedia PDF Downloads 389
5090 Flexible and Integrated Transport System in India

Authors: Aayushi Patidar, Nishant Parihar

Abstract:

One of the principal causes of failure in existing vehicle brokerage solutions is that they require the introduction of a single trusted third party to whom transport offers and requirements are sent, and which solves the scheduling problem. Advances in planning and scheduling could be utilized to address the scalability issues inherent here, but such refinements do not address the key need to decentralize decision-making. This is not to say that matchmaking of potential transport suppliers to consumers is not essential, but information from such a service should inform rather than determining the transport options for customers. The approach that is proposed, is the use of intelligent commuters that act within the system and to identify options open to users, weighing the evidence for desirability of each option given a model of the user’s priorities, and to drive dialogue among commuters in aiding users to solve their individual (or collective) transport goals. Existing research in commuter support for transport resource management has typically been focused on the provider. Our vision is to explore both the efficient use of limited transport resources and also to support the passengers in the transportation flexibility & integration among various modes in India.

Keywords: flexibility, integration, service design, technology

Procedia PDF Downloads 209
5089 Single Valued Neutrosophic Hesitant Fuzzy Rough Set and Its Application

Authors: K. M. Alsager, N. O. Alshehri

Abstract:

In this paper, we proposed the notion of single valued neutrosophic hesitant fuzzy rough set, by combining single valued neutrosophic hesitant fuzzy set and rough set. The combination of single valued neutrosophic hesitant fuzzy set and rough set is a powerful tool for dealing with uncertainty, granularity and incompleteness of knowledge in information systems. We presented both definition and some basic properties of the proposed model. Finally, we gave a general approach which is applied to a decision making problem in disease diagnoses, and demonstrated the effectiveness of the approach by a numerical example.

Keywords: single valued neutrosophic fuzzy set, single valued neutrosophic fuzzy hesitant set, rough set, single valued neutrosophic hesitant fuzzy rough set

Procedia PDF Downloads 82
5088 Dynamic Model Conception of Improving Services Quality in Railway Transport

Authors: Eva Nedeliakova, Jaroslav Masek, Juraj Camaj

Abstract:

This article describes the results of research focused on quality of railway freight transport services. Improvement of these services has a crucial importance in customer considering on the future use of railway transport. Processes filling the customer demands and output quality assessment were defined as a part of the research. In this, contribution is introduced the map of quality planning and the algorithm of applied methodology. It characterises a model which takes into account characters of transportation with linking a perception services quality in ordinary and extraordinary operation. Despite the fact that rail freight transport has its solid position in the transport market, lots of carriers worldwide have been experiencing a stagnation for a couple of years. Therefore, specific results of the research have a significant importance and belong to numerous initiatives aimed to develop and support railway transport not only by creating a single railway area or reducing noise but also by promoting railway services. This contribution is focused also on the application of dynamic quality models which represent an innovative method of evaluation quality services. Through this conception, time factor, expected and perceived quality in each moment of the transportation process can be taken into account.

Keywords: quality, railway, transport, service

Procedia PDF Downloads 352
5087 Rayleigh-Bénard-Taylor Convection of Newtonian Nanoliquid

Authors: P. G. Siddheshwar, T. N. Sakshath

Abstract:

In the paper we make linear and non-linear stability analyses of Rayleigh-Bénard convection of a Newtonian nanoliquid in a rotating medium (called as Rayleigh-Bénard-Taylor convection). Rigid-rigid isothermal boundaries are considered for investigation. Khanafer-Vafai-Lightstone single phase model is used for studying instabilities in nanoliquids. Various thermophysical properties of nanoliquid are obtained using phenomenological laws and mixture theory. The eigen boundary value problem is solved for the Rayleigh number using an analytical method by considering trigonometric eigen functions. We observe that the critical nanoliquid Rayleigh number is less than that of the base liquid. Thus the onset of convection is advanced due to the addition of nanoparticles. So, increase in volume fraction leads to advanced onset and thereby increase in heat transport. The amplitudes of convective modes required for estimating the heat transport are determined analytically. The tri-modal standard Lorenz model is derived for the steady state assuming small scale convective motions. The effect of rotation on the onset of convection and on heat transport is investigated and depicted graphically. It is observed that the onset of convection is delayed due to rotation and hence leads to decrease in heat transport. Hence, rotation has a stabilizing effect on the system. This is due to the fact that the energy of the system is used to create the component V. We observe that the amount of heat transport is less in the case of rigid-rigid isothermal boundaries compared to free-free isothermal boundaries.

Keywords: nanoliquid, rigid-rigid, rotation, single phase

Procedia PDF Downloads 138
5086 On Increase and Development Prospects of Competitiveness of Georgia’s Transport-Logistical System on the Contemporary Stage

Authors: Ketevan Goletiani

Abstract:

MMultimodal transport is Europe-Asia’s rational decision of the XXI century. Success prerequisite of this form of cargo carriage is not technologic decision, but the comprehensive attitude towards it. Integration of the transport industry must refer to both technical and organizational-economic fields. Support of the multimodal’s must be the priority of the transport policy in different organizations of Europe and Asia. The method of approach to the transport as a unified system has been changed to a certain extent in the market conditions. Nowadays the competition between the different kinds of transport is not to be considered as a competition of one kind of transport towards another one, but is to be considered as a stimulator of the transport development. Basically, transport logistic, as the recent methodology and organization of the rationally flow of cargos at the specialized logistic centres during their procession provides effective rise of such flow of cargos, decreases non-operating expenses and gives the opportunity to the transport companies to come along with the time, to meet market clients’ requirements. It is apparent that the advanced transport-forwarding and logistic firms are being analized.

Keywords: transport systems, multimodal transport, competition, transport logistics

Procedia PDF Downloads 280
5085 The Transport of Radical Species to Single and Double Strand Breaks in the Liver’s DNA Molecule by a Hybrid Method of Type Monte Carlo - Diffusion Equation

Authors: H. Oudira, A. Saifi

Abstract:

The therapeutic utility of certain Auger emitters such as iodine-125 depends on their position within the cell nucleus . Or diagnostically, and to maintain as low as possible cell damage, it is preferable to have radionuclide localized outside the cell or at least the core. One solution to this problem is to consider markers capable of conveying anticancer drugs to the tumor site regardless of their location within the human body. The objective of this study is to simulate the impact of a complex such as bleomycin on single and double strand breaks in the DNA molecule. Indeed, this simulation consists of the following transactions: - Construction of BLM -Fe- DNA complex. - Simulation of the electron’s transport from the metastable state excitation of Fe 57 by the Monte Carlo method. - Treatment of chemical reactions in the considered environment by the diffusion equation. For physical, physico-chemical and finally chemical steps, the geometry of the complex is considered as a sphere of 50 nm centered on the binding site , and the mathematical method used is called step by step based on Monte Carlo codes.

Keywords: concentration, yield, radical species, bleomycin, excitation, DNA

Procedia PDF Downloads 380
5084 Implementing a Mobility Platform to Connect Hubs in Rural Areas

Authors: E. Neidhardt

Abstract:

Mobility is not only an aspect of personal freedom, but for many people mobility is also a requirement to be able to satisfy the needs of daily life. They must buy food, get to work, or go to the doctor. Many people are dependent on public transport to satisfy their needs. Especially in rural areas with a low population density this is difficult. In these areas it is often not cost-effective to provide public transport with sufficient coverage and frequency. Therefore, the available public transport is unattractive. As a result, people use their own car, which is not desirable from a sustainable point of view. Children and some elderly people also do not have this option. Sometimes people organize themselves and volunteer transport services are created, which function similarly to the demand-oriented taxis. With a platform for demand-oriented transport, we want to make the available public transport more usable and attractive by linking scheduled transport with voluntary transport services.

Keywords: demand-oriented, HubChain, living lab, public transport

Procedia PDF Downloads 62
5083 Magneto-Transport of Single Molecular Transistor Using Anderson-Holstein-Caldeira-Leggett Model

Authors: Manasa Kalla, Narasimha Raju Chebrolu, Ashok Chatterjee

Abstract:

We have studied the quantum transport properties of a single molecular transistor in the presence of an external magnetic field using the Keldysh Green function technique. We also used the Anderson-Holstein-Caldeira-Leggett Model to describe the single molecular transistor that consists of a molecular quantum dot (QD) coupled to two metallic leads and placed on a substrate that acts as a heat bath. The phonons are eliminated by the Lang-Firsov transformation and the effective Hamiltonian is used to study the effect of an external magnetic field on the spectral density function, Tunneling Current, Differential Conductance and Spin polarization. A peak in the spectral function corresponds to a possible excitation. In the presence of a magnetic field, the spin-up and spin-down states are degenerate and this degeneracy is lifted by the magnetic field leading to the splitting of the central peak of the spectral function. The tunneling current decreases with increasing magnetic field. We have observed that even the differential conductance peak in the zero magnetic field curve is split in the presence electron-phonon interaction. As the magnetic field is increased, each peak splits into two peaks. And each peak indicates the existence of an energy level. Thus the number of energy levels for transport in the bias window increases with the magnetic field. In the presence of the electron-phonon interaction, Differential Conductance in general gets reduced and decreases faster with the magnetic field. As magnetic field strength increases, the spin polarization of the current is increasing. Our results show that a strongly interacting QD coupled to metallic leads in the presence of external magnetic field parallel to the plane of QD acts as a spin filter at zero temperature.

Keywords: Anderson-Holstein model, Caldeira-Leggett model, spin-polarization, quantum dots

Procedia PDF Downloads 84
5082 Single-Cell Visualization with Minimum Volume Embedding

Authors: Zhenqiu Liu

Abstract:

Visualizing the heterogeneity within cell-populations for single-cell RNA-seq data is crucial for studying the functional diversity of a cell. However, because of the high level of noises, outlier, and dropouts, it is very challenging to measure the cell-to-cell similarity (distance), visualize and cluster the data in a low-dimension. Minimum volume embedding (MVE) projects the data into a lower-dimensional space and is a promising tool for data visualization. However, it is computationally inefficient to solve a semi-definite programming (SDP) when the sample size is large. Therefore, it is not applicable to single-cell RNA-seq data with thousands of samples. In this paper, we develop an efficient algorithm with an accelerated proximal gradient method and visualize the single-cell RNA-seq data efficiently. We demonstrate that the proposed approach separates known subpopulations more accurately in single-cell data sets than other existing dimension reduction methods.

Keywords: single-cell RNA-seq, minimum volume embedding, visualization, accelerated proximal gradient method

Procedia PDF Downloads 136
5081 Number of Parameters of Anantharam's Model with Single-Input Single-Output Case

Authors: Kazuyoshi Mori

Abstract:

In this paper, we consider the parametrization of Anantharam’s model within the framework of the factorization approach. In the parametrization, we investigate the number of required parameters of Anantharam’s model. We consider single-input single-output systems in this paper. By the investigation, we find three cases that are (1) there exist plants which require only one parameter and (2) two parameters, and (3) the number of parameters is at most three.

Keywords: linear systems, parametrization, coprime factorization, number of parameters

Procedia PDF Downloads 135
5080 Sustainability and Promotion of Inland Waterway Transportation Projects in Colombia: Case of the Magdalena River

Authors: David Julian Bernal Melgarejo

Abstract:

Inland Waterway Transportation (IWT) is playing an important role in national transport systems, water transportation is considered to be safe, energy efficient and environmentally friendly mode of transport, considering all the benefits of IWT the Colombian government is planning to restore the Magdalena’s River navigability, embrace waterway transportation in Colombia could strength competitiveness while reduce most of the transport externalities. However, the current situation of the Magdalena deplorable, the most important river of Colombia has been abandoned for decades and the solution is beyond of a single administrative entity. This paper analyzes the outcomes of the Navigation And Inland Waterway Action and Development in Europe (NAIADES) program as a prospective to develop a sustainable program in Colombia. In order to guarantee the long-term future, and the adaptability of the program a research based on individual interviews with stakeholders and policy experts were carried out, findings support the idea of lack of integration within governmental institution, develop marketing strategies and human resources.

Keywords: inland waterway transportation, logistics, sustainability, multimodal transport systems, water transportation

Procedia PDF Downloads 383
5079 Competitor Analysis to Quantify the Benefits and for Different Use of Transport Infrastructure

Authors: Dimitrios J. Dimitriou, Maria F. Sartzetaki

Abstract:

Different transportation modes have key operational advantages and disadvantages, providing a variety of different transport options to users and passengers. This paper reviews key variables for the competition between air transport and other transport modes. The aim of this paper is to review the competition between air transport and other transport modes, providing results in terms of perceived cost for the users, for destinations high competitiveness for all transport modes. The competitor analysis variables include the cost and time outputs for each transport option, highlighting the level of competitiveness on high demanded Origin-Destination corridors. The case study presents the output of a such analysis for the OD corridor in Greece that connects the Capital city (Athens) with the second largest city (Thessaloniki) and the different transport modes have been considered (air, train, road). Conventional wisdom is to present an easy to handle tool for planners, managers and decision makers towards pricing policy effectiveness and demand attractiveness, appropriate to use for other similar cases.

Keywords: competitor analysis, transport economics, transport generalized cost, quantitative modelling

Procedia PDF Downloads 144
5078 Single Phase Fluid Flow in Series of Microchannel Connected via Converging-Diverging Section with or without Throat

Authors: Abhishek Kumar Chandra, Kaushal Kishor, Wasim Khan, Dhananjay Singh, M. S. Alam

Abstract:

Single phase fluid flow through series of uniform microchannels connected via transition section (converging-diverging section with or without throat) was analytically and numerically studied to characterize the flow within the channel and in the transition sections. Three sets of microchannels of diameters 100, 184, and 249 μm were considered for investigation. Each set contains 10 numbers of microchannels of length 20 mm, connected to each other in series via transition sections. Transition section consists of either converging-diverging section with throat or without throat. The effect of non-uniformity in microchannels on pressure drop was determined by passing water/air through the set of channels for Reynolds number 50 to 1000. Compressibility and rarefaction effects in transition sections were also tested analytically and numerically for air flow. The analytical and numerical results show that these configurations can be used in enhancement of transport processes. However, converging-diverging section without throat shows superior performance over with throat configuration.

Keywords: contraction-expansion flow, integrated microchannel, microchannel network, single phase flow

Procedia PDF Downloads 189
5077 Modeling and Characterization of the SiC Single Crystal Growth Process

Authors: T. Wejrzanowski, M. Grybczuk, E. Tymicki, K. J. Kurzydlowski

Abstract:

In the present study numerical simulations silicon carbide single crystal growth process in Physical Vapor Transport reactor are addressed. Silicon Carbide is a perspective material for many applications in modern electronics. One of the main challenges for wider applications of SiC is high price of high quality mono crystals. Improvement of silicon carbide manufacturing process has a significant influence on the product price. Better understanding of crystal growth allows for optimization of the process, and it can be achieved by numerical simulations. In this work Virtual Reactor software was used to simulate the process. Predicted geometrical properties of the final product and information about phenomena occurring inside process reactor were obtained. The latter is especially valuable because reactor chamber is inaccessible during the process due to high temperature inside the reactor (over 2000˚C). Obtained data was used for improvement of the process and reactor geometry. Resultant crystal quality was also predicted basing on crystallization front shape evolution and threading dislocation paths. Obtained results were confronted with experimental data and the results are in good agreement.

Keywords: Finite Volume Method, semiconductors, Physical Vapor Transport, silicon carbide

Procedia PDF Downloads 456
5076 Determining the Number of Single Models in a Combined Forecast

Authors: Serkan Aras, Emrah Gulay

Abstract:

Combining various forecasting models is an important tool for researchers to attain more accurate forecasts. A great number of papers have shown that selecting single models as dissimilar models, or methods based on different information as possible leads to better forecasting performances. However, there is not a certain rule regarding the number of single models to be used in any combining methods. This study focuses on determining the optimal or near optimal number for single models with the help of statistical tests. An extensive experiment is carried out by utilizing some well-known time series data sets from diverse fields. Furthermore, many rival forecasting methods and some of the commonly used combining methods are employed. The obtained results indicate that some statistically significant performance differences can be found regarding the number of the single models in the combining methods under investigation.

Keywords: combined forecast, forecasting, M-competition, time series

Procedia PDF Downloads 269
5075 Analysis of Advanced Modulation Format Using Gain and Loss Spectrum for Long Range Radio over Fiber System

Authors: Shaina Nagpal, Amit Gupta

Abstract:

In this work, all optical Stimulated Brillouin Scattering (SBS) generated single sideband with suppressed carrier is presented to provide better efficiency. The generation of single sideband and enhanced carrier power signal using the SBS technique is further used to strengthen the low shifted sideband and to suppress the upshifted sideband. These generated single sideband signals are able to work at high frequency ranges. Also, generated single sideband is validated over 90 km transmission using single mode fiber with acceptable bit error rate. The results for an equivalent are then compared so that the acceptable technique is chosen and also the required quality for the optimum performance of the system is reported.

Keywords: stimulated Brillouin scattering, radio over fiber, upper side band, quality factor

Procedia PDF Downloads 154
5074 Single Species vs Mixed Microbial Culture Degradation of Pesticide in a Membrane Bioreactor

Authors: Karan R. Chavan, Srivats Gopalan, Kumudini V. Marathe

Abstract:

In the current work, the comparison of degradation of malathion by single species, Pseudomonas Stutzeri, and Activated Sludge/Mixed Microbial Culture is studied in a Membrane Bioreactor. Various parameters were considered to study the effect of single species degradation compared to degradation by activated sludge. The experimental results revealed 85-90% reduction in the COD of the Malathion containing synthetic wastewater. Complete reduction of malathion was observed within 24 hours in both the cases. The critical flux was 10 LMH for both the systems. Fouling propensity, Cake and Membrane resistances were calculated thus giving an insight regarding the working of Membrane Bioreactor-based on single species and activated sludge.

Keywords: fouling, membrane bioreactor, mixed microbial culture, single species

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5073 Single-Molecule Analysis of Structure and Dynamics in Polymer Materials by Super-Resolution Technique

Authors: Hiroyuki Aoki

Abstract:

The physical properties of polymer materials are dependent on the conformation and molecular motion of a polymer chain. Therefore, the structure and dynamic behavior of the single polymer chain have been the most important concerns in the field of polymer physics. However, it has been impossible to directly observe the conformation of the single polymer chain in a bulk medium. In the current work, the novel techniques to study the conformation and dynamics of a single polymer chain are proposed. Since a fluorescence method is extremely sensitive, the fluorescence microscopy enables the direct detection of a single molecule. However, the structure of the polymer chain as large as 100 nm cannot be resolved by conventional fluorescence methods because of the diffraction limit of light. In order to observe the single chains, we developed the labeling method of polymer materials with a photo-switchable dye and the super-resolution microscopy. The real-space conformational analysis of single polymer chains with the spatial resolution of 15-20 nm was achieved. The super-resolution microscopy enables us to obtain the three-dimensional coordinates; therefore, we succeeded the conformational analysis in three dimensions. The direct observation by the nanometric optical microscopy would reveal the detailed information on the molecular processes in the various polymer systems.

Keywords: polymer materials, single molecule, super-resolution techniques, conformation

Procedia PDF Downloads 200
5072 Transport Infrastructure and Economic Growth in South Africa

Authors: Abigail Mosetsanagape Mooketsi, Itumeleng Pleasure Mongale, Joel Hinaunye Eita

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to analyse the impact of transport infrastructure on economic growth in South Africa through Engle Granger two step approach using the data from 1970 to 2013. GDP is used as a proxy for economic growth whilst rail transport (rail lines, rail goods transported) and air transport(air passengers carried, air freight) are used as proxies for transport infrastructure. The results showed that there is a positive long-run relationship between transport infrastructure and economic growth. The results show that South Africa’s economic growth can be boosted by providing transport infrastructure. The estimated models were simulated and the results that the model is a good fit. The findings of this research will be beneficial to policy makers, academics and it will also enhance the ability of the investors to make informed decisions about investing in South Africa.

Keywords: transport, infrastructure, economic growth, South Africa

Procedia PDF Downloads 285
5071 Effect of Installation of Long Cylindrical External Store on Performance, Stability, Control and Handling Qualities of Light Transport Aircraft

Authors: Ambuj Srivastava, Narender Singh

Abstract:

This paper presents the effect of installation of cylindrical external store on the performance, stability, control and handling qualities of light transport category aircraft. A pair of long cylindrical store was installed symmetrically on either side of the fuselage (port and starboard) ahead of the wing and below the fuselage bottom surface running below pilot and co-pilot window. The cylindrical store was installed as hanging from aircraft surface through specially designed brackets. The adjoining structure was sufficiently reinforced for bearing aerodynamic loads. The length to diameter ratio of long cylindrical store was ~20. Based on academic studies and flow simulation analysis, a considerable detrimental effect on single engine second segment climb performance was found which was later validated through extensive flight testing exercise. The methodology of progressive flight envelope opening was adopted. The certification was sought from Regional airworthiness authorities and for according approval.

Keywords: second segment climb, maximum operating speed, cruise performance (single engine and twin engine), minimum control speed, and additional trim required

Procedia PDF Downloads 151
5070 A Review on the Re-Usage of Single-Use Medical Devices

Authors: Lucas B. Naves, Maria José Abreu

Abstract:

Reprocessing single-use device has attracted interesting on the medical environment over the last decades. The reprocessing technique was sought in order to reduce the cost of purchasing the new medical device, which can achieve almost double of the price of the reprocessed product. In this manuscript, we have done a literature review, aiming the reuse of medical device that was firstly designed for single use only, but has become, more and more, effective on its reprocessing procedure. We also show the regulation, the countries which allows this procedure, the classification of these device and also the most important issue concerning the re-utilization of medical device, how to minimizing the risk of gram positive and negative bacteria, avoid cross-contamination, hepatitis B (HBV), and C (HCV) virus, and also human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).

Keywords: reusing, reprocessing, single-use medical device, HIV, hepatitis B and C

Procedia PDF Downloads 285
5069 High Efficiency ZPS-PWM Dual-Output Converters with EMI Reduction Method

Authors: Yasunori Kobori, Nobukazu Tsukiji, Nobukazu Takai, Haruo Kobayashi

Abstract:

In this paper, we study a Pulse-WidthModulation (PWM) controlled Zero-Voltage-Switching (ZVS) for single-inductor dual-output (SIDO) converters. This method can meet the industry demands for high efficiency due to ZVS and small size and low cost, thanks to single-inductor per multiple voltages. We show the single inductor single-output (SISO) ZVS buck converter with its operation and simulation and then the experimental results. Next proposed ZVS-PWM controlled SIDO converters are explained in the simulation. Finally we have proposed EMI reduction method with spread spectrum.

Keywords: DC-DC switching converter, zero-oltage switching control, single-inductor dual-output converter, EMI reduction, spread spectrum

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5068 Efficient Single Relay Selection Scheme for Cooperative Communication

Authors: Sung-Bok Choi, Hyun-Jun Shin, Hyoung-Kyu Song

Abstract:

This paper proposes a single relay selection scheme in cooperative communication. Decode and forward scheme is considered when a source node wants to cooperate with a single relay for data transmission. To use the proposed single relay selection scheme, the source node make a little different pattern signal which is not complex pattern and broadcasts it. The proposed scheme does not require the channel state information between the source node and candidates of the relay during the relay selection. Therefore, it is able to be used in many fields.

Keywords: relay selection, cooperative communication, df, channel codes

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