Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 33

Search results for: walkability

33 The Potential of Walkability in Evoking People’s Perception of Place Identity

Authors: Ibrahim Shinbira

Abstract:

In urban design, much has been discussed on the significance of the physical qualities in creating the place identity; however, the role of walkability as a physical quality that can evokes people's perception of place identity has not been adequately explored. This paper is based on the part findings of a doctoral research examining place identity in the city centre of Misurata, Libya. A number of 176 questionnaire and 23 face-to-face interviews were conducted with residents of the city to investigate physical qualities of place identity that evoked resident's perception. The finding demonstrates that walkability within the city centre is strong and it influences the users’ perception on the place identity. These were regarded as very important in sustaining the socio-cultural values, enjoyment, options, vitality and comfort. The paper concludes by establishing that walkability has a substantial contribution to the place identity, therefore should be considered in the design of urban places specifically the redevelopment one.

Keywords: perception, walkability, physical environment, place identity, residents

Procedia PDF Downloads 239
32 Walkability and Urban Social Identity

Authors: Reihaneh Rafiemanzelat

Abstract:

One of the most recent fields of investigation in urban issues focuses on the walkability in urban spaces. The paper aims to establish the theoretical relationship between the people's link with definite urban public spaces and the social identity processes derived from the relation with these places. The theoretical aspects which are examined for this purpose are: the concept of walkability and its developments and the social identity theories derived from walkable spaces. In fact, the paper presents the main results obtained from an empirical investigation which concern to the genesis of urban social identity in particular street as one of the main elements of public spaces in cities. İsmet İnönü Blvd which known as Salamis Street in Famagusta, North Cyprus is one of the main street in city whit high level of physical and social activities all the time. The urban social identity of users was analyzed, focusing on three main factors: walkability of space, social identification, and image of the space. These three factors were analyzed in relation to a series of items in the initial questionnaire, evaluation of existing natural resources, and environmental attitudes.

Keywords: walkability, urban public space, pedestrian, social activity, social identity

Procedia PDF Downloads 309
31 Stepping in Sustainability: Walkability an Upcoming Design Parameter for Transit Based Communities in Lahore, Pakistan

Authors: Sadaf Saeed

Abstract:

The consideration of walkability as an urban design parameter in conjunction with transit-oriented development is an established trend in the developed countries but an upcoming trend in developing countries. In Pakistan, the first Bus Rapid Transit (locally called as Metro Bus) has been introduced in the city of Lahore in 2013 where around 40 percent of the riders access to transit stations by walking. To what extent the aspect of walkability has been considered in the local scenario? To address this question, this paper presents an account of urban design parameters regarding pedestrian provisions and quality of walking environment between Metro Bus stations and users’ destination in the transit neighbourhoods (areas up to 500-meter radius). The primary and secondary data for objective and subjective walkability measurements has been used for neighbourhoods of five selected transit stations ranked against the predefined critical assessed factors (CAF). The multi-criteria approach including visual and geospatially-based parameters at street level, along with walkability index score at selected sites linked with CAF evaluation were the selected methods for this study. The acceptability of walkability as an urban design parameter for transit planning in terms of connectivity and social implications of the concept has also been analysed in the local context. The paper highlights that the aspect of walkability in Lahore is being derelict owing to the focus of government on other initiatives such as park and ride and feeder bus services for mobility of passengers. However, the pedestrian-friendly design parameters as a part of future transit planning can enhance social, liveable and interactive walking environment within transit neighbourhoods.

Keywords: walkability, sustainability, transit neighborhoods, social communities

Procedia PDF Downloads 66
30 Study on Influencing Factors of Walkability of Rail Transit Station Area

Authors: Yang Wenjuan, Xu Yilun

Abstract:

Based on the comparative analysis of the relevant evaluation methods of walking environment, this paper selects the combined evaluation method of macro urban morphology analysis and micro urban design quality survey, then investigates and analyzes the walking environment of three rail transit station area in Nanjing to explore the influence factor and internal relation of walkability of rail transit station area. Analysis shows that micro urban design factors have greater impact on the walkability of rail transit station area compared with macro urban morphology factors, the convenience is the key factor in the four aspects of convenience, security, identity and comfortability of the urban design factors, the convenience is not only affected by the block network form, but also related to the quality of the street space. The overall evaluation of walkability comes from the overlapping and regrouping of the walking environment at different levels, but some environmental factors play a leading role. The social attributes of pedestrians also partly influence their walking perception and evaluation.

Keywords: rail transit station area, walkability, evaluation, influence factors

Procedia PDF Downloads 111
29 Assessing the Walkability and Urban Design Qualities of Campus Streets

Authors: Zhehao Zhang

Abstract:

Walking has become an indispensable and sustainable way of travel for college students in their daily lives; campus street is an important carrier for students to walk and take part in a variety of activities, improving the walkability of campus streets plays an important role in optimizing the quality of campus space environment, promoting the campus walking system and inducing multiple walking behaviors. The purpose of this paper is to explore the effect of campus layout, facility distribution, and location site selection on the walkability of campus streets, and assess the street design qualities from the elements of imageability, enclosure, complexity, transparency, and human scale, and further examines the relationship between street-level urban design perceptual qualities and walkability and its effect on walking behavior in the campus. Taking Tianjin University as the research object, this paper uses the optimized walk score method based on walking frequency, variety, and distance to evaluate the walkability of streets from a macro perspective and measures the urban design qualities in terms of the calculation of street physical environment characteristics, as well as uses behavior annotation and street image data to establish temporal and spatial behavior database to analyze walking activity from the microscopic view. In addition, based on the conclusions, the improvement and design strategy will be presented from the aspects of the built walking environment, street vitality, and walking behavior.

Keywords: walkability, streetscapes, pedestrian activity, walk score

Procedia PDF Downloads 36
28 Urban Landscape for Walkability

Authors: Sara Khalifa, Dina Salem

Abstract:

Cities have become overly automobile-oriented which clearly accommodates driving at the expense of walking in an age of global concerns about emerging health issues (obesity, cancer, heart disease) and environmental disasters (global warming, depletion of resources) which makes sustainable solutions a necessity not an option. One of these sustainable solutions is creating walkable communities. Walking is a distinctive and fundamental human activity that plays an important role in achieving urban sustainability and yields incredible benefits to people and environment with its influence on transportation infrastructure, public health, economic development, and social equity. Considerable research supports the idea that the presence of green, natural settings and quality urban landscapes can enhance walking and other physical activity and travel behaviour. Stepping towards a sustainable future, requires rethinking our communities in terms of walkability enhancement for this purpose, this paper starts with defining walkable communities and their characteristics, benefits and related concepts then discusses the contribution of urban landscape quality in promoting walkability.

Keywords: walkability, walkable community, liveable communities, urban landscape qualities

Procedia PDF Downloads 388
27 Neighbourhood Walkability and Quality of Life: The Mediating Role of Place Adherence and Social Interaction

Authors: Michał Jaśkiewicz

Abstract:

The relation between walkability, place adherence, social relations and quality of life was explored in a Polish context. A considerable number of studies have suggested that environmental factors may influence the quality of life through indirect pathways. The list of possible psychological mediators includes social relations and identity-related variables. Based on the results of Study 1, local identity is a significant mediator in the relationship between neighbourhood walkability and quality of life. It was assumed that pedestrian-oriented neighbourhoods enable residents to interact and that these spontaneous interactions can help to strengthen a sense of local identity, thus influencing the quality of life. We, therefore, conducted further studies, testing the relationship experimentally in studies 2a and 2b. Participants were exposed to (2a) photos of walkable/non-walkable neighbourhoods or (2b) descriptions of high/low-walkable neighbourhoods. They were then asked to assess the walkability of the neighbourhoods and to evaluate their potential social relations and quality of life in these places. In both studies, social relations with neighbours turned out to be a significant mediator between walkability and quality of life. In Study 3, we implemented the measure of overlapping individual and communal identity (fusion with the neighbourhood) and willingness to collective action as mediators. Living in a walkable neighbourhood was associated with identity fusion with that neighbourhood. Participants who felt more fused expressed greater willingness to engage in collective action with other neighbours. Finally, this willingness was positively related to the quality of life in the city. In Study 4, we used commuting time (an aspect of walkability related to the time that people spend travelling to work) as the independent variable. The results showed that a shorter average daily commuting time was linked to more frequent social interactions in the neighbourhood. Individuals who assessed their social interactions as more frequent expressed a stronger city identification, which was in turn related to quality of life. To sum up, our research replicated and extended previous findings on the association between walkability and well-being measures. We introduced potential mediators of this relationship: social interactions in the neighbourhood and identity-related variables.

Keywords: walkability, quality of life, social relations, analysis of mediation

Procedia PDF Downloads 204
26 A Spatial Autocorrelation Analysis of Women’s Mental Health and Walkability Index in Mashhad City, Iran, and Recommendations to Improve It

Authors: Mohammad Rahim Rahnama, Lia Shaddel

Abstract:

Today, along with the development of urbanism, its negative consequences on the health of citizens are emerging. Mental disorders are common in the big cities, while mental health enables individuals to become active citizens. Meanwhile, women have a larger share of mental problems. Depression and anxiety disorders have a higher prevalence rate among women and these disorders affect the health of future generations, too. Therefore, improving women’s mental health through the potentials offered by urban spaces are of paramount importance. The present study aims to first, evaluate the spatial autocorrelation of women’s mental health and walkable spaces and then present solutions, based on the findings, to improve the walkability index. To determine the spatial distribution of women’s mental health in Mashhad, Moran's I was used and 1000 questionnaire were handed out in various sub-districts of Mashhad. Moran's I was calculated to be 0.18 which indicates a cluster distribution pattern. The walkability index was calculated using the four variables pertaining to the length of walkable routes, mixed land use, retail floor area ratio, and household density. To determine spatial autocorrelation of mental health and the walkability index, bivariate Moran’s I was calculated. Moran's I was determined to be 0.37 which shows a direct spatial relationship between variables; 4 clusters in 9 sub-districts of Mashhad were created. In High-Low cluster, there was a negative spatial relationship and hence, to identify factors affecting walkability in urban spaces semi-structures interviews were conducted with 21 women in this cluster. The findings revealed that security is the major factor influencing women’s walking behavior in this cluster. In accordance with the findings, some suggestions are offered to improve the presence of women in this sub-district.

Keywords: Mashhad, spatial autocorrelation, women’s mental health, walkability index

Procedia PDF Downloads 24
25 Understanding Walkability in the Libyan Urban Space: Policies, Perceptions and Smart Design for Sustainable Tripoli

Authors: A. Abdulla Khairi Mohamed, Mohamed Gamal Abdelmonem, Gehan Selim

Abstract:

Walkability in civic and public spaces in Libyan cities is challenging due to the lack of accessibility design, informal merging into car traffic, and the general absence of adequate urban and space planning. The lack of accessible and pedestrian-friendly public spaces in Libyan cities has emerged as a major concern for the government if it is to develop smart and sustainable spaces for the 21st century. A walkable urban space has become a driver for urban development and redistribution of land use to ensure pedestrian and walkable routes between sites of living and workplaces. The characteristics of urban open space in the city centre play a main role in attracting people to walk when attending their daily needs, recreation and daily sports. There is significant gap in the understanding of perceptions, feasibility and capabilities of Libyan urban space to accommodate enhance or support the smart design of a walkable pedestrian-friendly environment that is safe and accessible to everyone. The paper aims to undertake observations of walkability and walkable space in the city of Tripoli as a benchmark for Libyan cities; assess the validity and consistency of the seven principal aspects of smart design, safety, accessibility and 51 factors that affect the walkability in open urban space in Tripoli, through the analysis of 10 local urban spaces experts (town planner, architect, transport engineer and urban designer); and explore user groups’ perceptions of accessibility in walkable spaces in Libyan cities through questionnaires. The study sampled 200 respondents in 2015-16. The results of this study are useful for urban planning, to classify the walkable urban space elements which affect to improve the level of walkability in the Libyan cities and create sustainable and liveable urban spaces.

Keywords: walkability, sustainability, liveability, accessibility

Procedia PDF Downloads 336
24 Method to Assessing Aspect of Sustainable Development-Walkability

Authors: Amna Ali Nasser Al-Saadi, Riken Homma, Kazuhisa Iki

Abstract:

Need to generate objective communication between researchers, Practitioners and policy makers are top concern of sustainability. Despite the fact that many places have successes in achieving some aspects of sustainable urban development, there are no scientific facts to convince policy makers in the rest of the world to apply their guides and manuals. This is because each of them was developed to fulfill the need of specific city. The question is, how to learn the lesson from each case study? And how distinguish between the potential criteria and negative one? And how quantify their effects in the future development? Walkability has been found as a solution to achieve healthy life style as well as social, environmental and economic sustainability. Moreover, it is complicated as every aspect of sustainable development. This research is stand on quantitative- comparative methodology in order to assess pedestrian oriented development. Three Analyzed Areas (AAs) were selected. One site is located in Oman in which hypotheses as motorized oriented development, while two sites are in Japan where the development is pedestrian friendly. The study used Multi-Criteria Evaluation Method (MCEM). Initially, MCEM stands on Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). The later was structured into main goal (walkability), objectives (functions and layout) and attributes (the urban form criteria). Secondly, the GIS were used to evaluate the attributes in multi-criteria maps. Since each criterion has different scale of measurement, all results were standardized by z-score and used to measure the co-relations among cr iteria. Different scenario was generated from each AA. After that, MCEM (AHP- OWA) based on GIS measured the walkability score and determined the priority of criteria development in the non-walker friendly environment. As results, the comparison criteria for z-score presented a measurable distinguished orientation of development. This result has been used to prove that Oman is motorized environment while Japan is walkable. Also, it defined the powerful criteria and week criteria regardless to the AA. This result has been used to generalize the priority for walkable development.

Keywords: walkability, sustainable development, multi- criteria evaluation method, gis

Procedia PDF Downloads 356
23 A Method to Assess Aspect of Sustainable Development: Walkability

Authors: Amna Ali Al-Saadi, Riken Homma, Kazuhisa Iki

Abstract:

Despite the fact that many places have successes in achieving some aspects of sustainable urban development, there are no scientific facts to convince decision makers. Also, each of them was developed to fulfill the need of specific city only. Therefore, objective method to generate the solutions from a successful case is the aim of this research. The questions were: how to learn the lesson from each case study; how to distinguish the potential criteria and negative one; snd how to quantify their effects in the future development. Walkability has been selected as a goal. This is because it has been found as a solution to achieve healthy life style as well as social, environmental and economic sustainability. Moreover, it has complication as every aspect of sustainable development. This research is stand on quantitative- comparative methodology in order to assess pedestrian oriented development. Three analyzed area (AAs) were selected. One site is located in Oman in which hypotheses as motorized oriented development, while two sites are in Japan where the development is pedestrian friendly. The study used Multi- criteria evaluation method (MCEM). Initially, MCEM stands on analytic hierarchy process (AHP). The later was structured into main goal (walkability), objectives (functions and layout) and attributes (the urban form criteria). Secondly, the GIS were used to evaluate the attributes in multi-criteria maps. Since each criterion has different scale of measurement, all results were standardized by z-score and used to measure the co-relations among criteria. As results, different scenario was generated from each AA. MCEM (AHP-OWA)-GIS measured the walkability score and determined the priority of criteria development in the non-walker friendly environment. The comparison criteria for z-score presented a measurable distinguished orientation of development. This result has been used to prove that Oman is motorized environment while Japan is walkable. Also, it defined the powerful criteria and week criteria regardless to the AA. This result has been used to generalize the priority for walkable development. In conclusion, the method was found successful in generate scientific base for policy decisions.

Keywords: walkability, policy decisions, sustainable development, GIS

Procedia PDF Downloads 329
22 Visual Design of Walkable City as Sidewalk Integration with Dukuh Atas MRT Station in Jakarta

Authors: Nadia E. Christiana, Azzahra A. N. Ginting, Ardhito Nurcahya, Havisa P. Novira

Abstract:

One of the quickest ways to do a short trip in urban areas is by walking, either individually, in couple or groups. Walkability nowadays becomes one of the parameters to measure the quality of an urban neighborhood. As a Central Business District and public transport transit hub, Dukuh Atas area becomes one of the highest numbers of commuters that pass by the area and interchange between transportation modes daily. Thus, as a public transport hub, a lot of investment should be focused to speed up the development of the area that would support urban transit activity between transportation modes, one of them is revitalizing pedestrian walkways. The purpose of this research is to formulate the visual design concept of 'Walkable City' based on the results of the observation and a series of rankings. To achieve this objective, it is necessary to accomplish several stages of the research that consists of (1) Identifying the system of pedestrian paths in Dukuh Atas area using descriptive qualitative method (2) Analyzing the sidewalk walkability rate according to the perception and the walkability satisfaction rate using the characteristics of pedestrians and non-pedestrians in Dukuh Atas area by using Global Walkability Index analysis and Multicriteria Satisfaction Analysis (3) Analyzing the factors that determine the integration of pedestrian walkways in Dukuh Atas area using descriptive qualitative method. The results achieved in this study is that the walkability level of Dukuh Atas corridor area is 44.45 where the value is included in the classification of 25-49, which is a bit of facility that can be reached by foot. Furthermore, based on the questionnaire, satisfaction rate of pedestrian walkway in Dukuh Atas area reached a number of 64%. It is concluded that commuters have not been fully satisfied with the condition of the sidewalk. Besides, the factors that influence the integration in Dukuh Atas area have been reasonable as it is supported by the utilization of land and modes such as KRL, Busway, and MRT. From the results of all analyzes conducted, the visual design and the application of the concept of walkable city along the pathway pedestrian corridor of Dukuh Atas area are formulated. Achievement of the results of this study amounted to 80% which needs to be done further review of the results of the analysis. The work of this research is expected to be a recommendation or input for the government in the development of pedestrian paths in maximizing the use of public transportation modes.

Keywords: design, global walkability index, mass rapid transit, walkable city

Procedia PDF Downloads 81
21 Determination of the Walkability Comfort for Urban Green Space Using Geographical Information System

Authors: Muge Unal, Cengiz Uslu, Mehmet Faruk Altunkasa

Abstract:

Walkability relates to the ability of the places to connect people with varied destinations within a reasonable amount of time and effort, and to offer visual interest in journeys throughout the network. So, the good quality of the physical environment and arrangement of walkway and sidewalk appear to be more crucial in influencing the pedestrian route choice. Also, proximity, connectivity, and accessibility are significant factor for walkability in terms of an equal opportunity for using public spaces. As a result, there are two important points for walkability. Firstly, the place should have a well-planned street network for accessible and secondly facilitate the pedestrian need for comfort. In this respect, this study aims to examine the both physical and bioclimatic comfort levels of the current condition of pedestrian route with reference to design criteria of a street to access the urban green spaces. These aspects have been identified as the main indicators for walkable streets such as continuity, materials, slope, bioclimatic condition, walkway width, greenery, and surface. Additionally, the aim was to identify the factors that need to be considered in future guidelines and policies for planning and design in urban spaces especially streets. Adana city was chosen as a study area. Adana is a province of Turkey located in south-central Anatolia. This study workflow can be summarized in four stages: (1) environmental and physical data were collected by referred to literature and used in a weighted criteria method to determine the importance level of these data , (2) environmental characteristics of pedestrian routes gained from survey studies are evaluated to hierarchies these criteria of the collected information, (3) and then each pedestrian routes will have a score that provides comfortable access to the park, (4) finally, the comfortable routes to park will be mapped using GIS. It is hoped that this study will provide an insight into future development planning and design to create a friendly and more comfort street environment for the users.

Keywords: comfort level, geographical information system (GIS), walkability, weighted criteria method

Procedia PDF Downloads 206
20 Improvement to Pedestrian Walkway Facilities to Enhance Pedestrian Safety-Initiatives in India

Authors: Basavaraj Kabade, K. T. Nagaraja, Swathi Ramanathan, A. Veeraragavan, P. S. Reashma

Abstract:

Deteriorating quality of the pedestrian environment and the increasing risk of pedestrian crashes are major concerns for most of the cities in India. The recent shift in the priority to motorized transport and the abating condition of existing pedestrian facilities can be considered as prime reasons for the increasing pedestrian related crashes in India. Bengaluru City – the IT capital hub of the nation is not much different from this. The increase in number of pedestrian crashes in Bengaluru reflects the same. To resolve this issue and to ensure safe, sustainable and pedestrian friendly sidewalks, Govt. of Karnataka, India has implemented newfangled pedestrian sidewalks popularized programme named Tender S.U.R.E. (Specifications for Urban Road Execution) projects. Tender SURE adopts unique urban street design guidelines where the pedestrians are given prime preference. The present study presents an assessment of the quality and performance of the pedestrian side walk and the walkability index of the newly built pedestrian friendly sidewalks. Various physical and environmental factors affecting pedestrian safety are identified and studied in detail. The pedestrian mobility is quantified through Pedestrian Level of Service (PLoS) and the pedestrian walking comfort is measured by calculating the Walkability Index (WI). It is observed that the new initiatives taken in reference to improving pedestrian safety have succeeded in Bengaluru by attaining a level of Service of ‘A’ and with a good WI score.

Keywords: pedestrian safety, pedestrian level of service (PLoS), Right of Way (RoW), Tender S.U.R.E (Specifications for Urban Road Execution), walkability index (WI), walkway facilities

Procedia PDF Downloads 65
19 Evaluation of Neighbourhood Characteristics and Active Transport Mode Choice

Authors: Tayebeh Saghapour, Sara Moridpour, Russell George Thompson

Abstract:

One of the common aims of transport policy makers is to switch people’s travel to active transport. For this purpose, a variety of transport goals and investments should be programmed to increase the propensity towards active transport mode choice. This paper aims to investigate whether built environment features in neighbourhoods could enhance the odds of active transportation. The present study introduces an index measuring public transport accessibility (PTAI), and a walkability index along with socioeconomic variables to investigate mode choice behaviour. Using travel behaviour data, an ordered logit regression model is applied to examine the impacts of explanatory variables on walking trips. The findings indicated that high rates of active travel are consistently associated with higher levels of walking and public transport accessibility.

Keywords: active transport, public transport accessibility, walkability, ordered logit model

Procedia PDF Downloads 191
18 Perception of Neighbourhood-Level Built Environment in Relation to Youth Physical Activity in Malaysia

Authors: A. Abdullah, N. Faghih Mirzaei, S. Hany Haron

Abstract:

Neighbourhood environment walkability on reported physical activity (PA) levels of students of Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM) in Malaysia. Compared with previous generations, today’s young people spend less time playing outdoors and have lower participation rates in PA. Research suggests that negative perceptions of neighbourhood walkability may be a potential barrier to adolescents’ PA. The sample consisted of 200 USM students (to 24 years old) who live outside of the main campus and engage in PA in sport halls and sport fields of USM. The data were analysed using the t-test, binary logistic regression, and discriminant analysis techniques. The present study found that youth PA was affected by neighbourhood environment walkability factors, including neighbourhood infrastructures, neighbourhood safety (crime), and recreation facilities, as well as street characteristics and neighbourhood design variables such as facades of sidewalks, roadside trees, green spaces, and aesthetics. The finding also illustrated that active students were influenced by street connectivity, neighbourhood infrastructures, recreation facilities, facades of sidewalks, and aesthetics, whereas students in the less active group were affected by access to destinations, neighbourhood safety (crime), and roadside trees and green spaces for their PAs. These results report which factors of built environments have more effect on youth PA and they message to the public to create more awareness about the benefits of PA on youth health.

Keywords: fear of crime, neighbourhood built environment, physical activities, street characteristics design

Procedia PDF Downloads 112
17 Assessing Walkability in New Cities around Cairo

Authors: Lobna Ahmed Galal

Abstract:

Modal integration has given minimal consideration in cities of developing countries, as well as the declining dominance of public transport, and predominance of informal transport, the modal share of informal taxis in greater Cairo has increased from 6% in 1987 to 37% in 2001 and this has since risen even higher, informal and non-motorized modes of transport acting as a gap filler by feeding other modes of transport, not by design or choice, but often by lack of accessible and affordable public transport. Yet non-motorized transport is peripheral, with minimal priority in urban planning and investments, lacking of strong polices to support non-motorized transport, for authorities development is associated with technology and motorized transport, and promotion of non-motorized transport may be considered corresponding to development, as well as social stigma against non-motorized transport, as it is seen a travel mode for the poor. Cairo as a city of a developing country, has poor quality infrastructure for non-motorized transport, suffering from absence of dedicated corridors, and when existing they are often encroached for commercial purposes, widening traffic lanes at the expense of sidewalks, absence of footpaths, or being overcrowded, poor lighting, making walking unsafe and yet, lack of financial supply to such facilities as it is often considered beyond city capabilities. This paper will deal with the objective measuring of the built environment relating to walking, in some neighborhoods of new cities around Cairo, In addition to comparing the results of the objective measures of the built environment with the level of self-reported survey. The first paper's objective is to show how the index ‘walkability of community neighborhoods’ works in the contexts in neighborhoods of new cities around Cairo. The procedure of objective measuring is of a high potential to be carried out by using GIS.

Keywords: assessing, built environment, Cairo, walkability

Procedia PDF Downloads 272
16 Factors That Influence Choice of Walking Mode in Work Trips: Case Study of Rasht, Iran

Authors: Nima Safaei, Arezoo Masoud, Babak Safaei

Abstract:

In recent years, there has been a growing emphasis on the role of urban planning in walking capability and the effects of individual and socioeconomic factors on the physical activity levels of city dwellers. Although considerable number of studies are conducted about walkability and for identifying the effective factors in walking mode choice in developed countries, to our best knowledge, literature lacks in the study of factors affecting choice of walking mode in developing countries. Due to the high importance of health aspects of human societies and in order to make insights and incentives for reducing traffic during rush hours, many researchers and policy makers in the field of transportation planning have devoted much attention to walkability studies; they have tried to improve the effective factors in the choice of walking mode in city neighborhoods. In this study, effective factors in walkability that have proven to have significant impact on the choice of walking mode, are studied at the same time in work trips. The data for the study is collected from the employees in their workplaces by well-instructed people using questionnaires; the statistical population of the study consists of 117 employed people who commute daily from work to home in Rasht city of Iran during the beginning of spring 2015. Results of the study which are found through the linear regression modeling, show that people who do not have freedom of choice for choosing their living locations and need to be present at their workplaces in certain hours have lower levels of walking. Additionally, unlike some of the previous studies which were conducted in developed countries, coincidental effects of Body Mass Index (BMI) and the income level of employees, do not have a significant effect on the walking level in work travels.

Keywords: BMI, linear regression, transportation, walking, work trips

Procedia PDF Downloads 86
15 Walkability and Urban Centers: The Valuation of Public Open Spaces from a Sustainable Alternative

Authors: Ursula D'Almeida, Danielly Aliprandi

Abstract:

A car-based development is observed in our cities, what leads to social and environmental impacts, such as air pollution, excessive noises and the substitution of public open spaces for roads and parking lots. Concerning the efforts to promote a sustainable development, a key issue is the reduction of fossil fuels consumption. An alternative to the pollutant gases emission, especially from urban transportation, is the incentive for active transport. The promoting of non-motorized travels and locomotion ways that only depend on human propulsion meets the sustainable mobility notion. Walking is one of the healthiest, cleanest, most natural and economical means to move around. Also, it integrates part of public transportation travels. Since walking demands physical effort, it is sensitive to environmental conditions. In urban space, not always we come across pedestrian friendly road structures. Based on the theory of walkability, the present paper aims to discuss the walking conditions in city centers by analyzing the distribution of urban services and uses, and this also regarding sidewalks quality. The case study presented is the urban center in the medium-sized Brazilian city Campos dos Goytacazes, in Rio de Janeiro State. The study also brings contributions to the recovering of underused public open spaces, especially by encouraging their use and appropriation through valuing non-motorized travels conditions.

Keywords: active transport, historical center, sustainable mobility, walking

Procedia PDF Downloads 216
14 HydroParks: Directives for Physical Environment Interventions Battling Childhood Overweight in Berlin, Germany

Authors: Alvaro Valera Sosa

Abstract:

Background: In recent years, childhood overweight and obesity have become an increasing and challenging phenomenon in Berlin and Germany in general. The highest shares of childhood overweight in Berlin are district localities within the inner city ring with lowest socio-economic levels and the highest number of migration background populations. Most factors explaining overweight and obesity are linked to individual dispositions and nutrition balances. Among various strategies, to target drinking behaviors of children and adolescents has been proven to be effective. On the one hand, encouraging the intake of water – which does not contain energy and thus may support a healthy weight status – on the other hand, reducing the consumption of sugar-containing beverages – which are linked to weight gain and obesity. Anyhow, these preventive approaches have mostly developed into individual or educational interventions widely neglecting environmental modifications. Therefore, little is known on how urban physical environment patterns and features can act as influence factors for childhood overweight. Aiming the development of a physical environment intervention tackling children overweight, this study evaluated urban situations surrounding public playgrounds in Berlin where the issue is evident. It verified the presence and state of physical environmental conditions that can be conducive for children to engage physical activity and water intake. Methods: The study included public playgrounds for children from 0-12 y/o within district localities with the highest prevalence of childhood overweight, highest population density, and highest mixed uses. A systematic observation was realized to describe physical environment patterns and features that may affect children health behavior leading to overweight. Neighborhood walkability for all age groups was assessed using the Walkability for Health framework (TU-Berlin). Playground physical environment conditions were evaluated using Active Living Research assessment sheets. Finally, the food environment in the playground’s pedestrian catchment areas was reviewed focusing on: proximity to suppliers offering sugar-containing beverages, and physical access for 5 y/o children and up to drinking water following the Drinking Fountains and Public Health guidelines of the Pacific Institute. Findings: Out of 114 locations, only 7 had a child population over 3.000. Three with the lowest socio-economic index and highest percentage of migration background were selected. All three urban situations presented similar walkability: large trafficked avenues without buffer bordering at least one side of the playground, and important block to block disconnections for active travel. All three playgrounds rated equipment conditions from good to very good. None had water fountains at the reach of a 5 y/o. and all presented convenience stores and/or fast food outlets selling sugar-containing beverages nearby the perimeter. Conclusion: The three playground situations selected are representative of Berlin locations where most factors that influence children overweight are found. The results delivered urban and architectural design directives for an environmental intervention, used to study children health-related behavior. A post-intervention evaluation could prove associations between designed spaces and children overweight rate reduction creating a precedent in public health interventions and providing novel strategies for the health sector.

Keywords: children overweight, evaluation research, public playgrounds, urban design, urban health

Procedia PDF Downloads 56
13 Connectivity: Connecting ActivityRethinking Streets as Public Space under the Six Dimensions of Urban Space Design in the Context of Bangladesh

Authors: Manal Anis, Bin Bakhti Sayeed

Abstract:

With the encroachment of automobile upon our communities for decades and the concomitant urban sprawl resulting in a loss of public place, it was only a matter of time before people, realizing the role of streets in stimulating urban prosperity, would start reclaiming them to rebuild their communities. In order for this restoration of communities to take effect it is imperative that streets be freed from the dominance of motor vehicles. A holistic approach to pedestrian-friendly street environment can help build communities that embody the cities in which they are found. While the developed countries are finding more and more innovative ways to integrate walkable streets to foster communal living, the developing countries still have a long way to go. Since Dhaka is still struggling to balance the growing needs of accommodating automobiles for increased population with the loss of urban community life that comes with it, it is high time that alternate approaches are looked into. This study aims to understand streets as a living corridor through which one discovers and identifies with the city. The research area is chosen to be Manik Mia Avenue, overlooking the South Plaza of the National Parliament Building in Dhaka city. Being the site of supreme power, it is precisely this symbolic importance that the National Parliament Building has in the psyche of Bangladeshis, which has given Manik Mia Avenue a significant place in the country’s history. Above all, being an avenue it is essentially a neutral territory, universally accessible, inclusive and pluralist. The needs of the Avenue’s frequent users are analyzed with the help of a multi-method approach to survey consisting of an empirical study, a questionnaire survey and interview with relevant users. The research then tries to understand the concept of walkability by exploring the different ways in which the built environment influences walking. For this analysis, the six dimensions of Matthew Carmona are taken as a guideline for a holistic approach toward the different interacting facets of an urban public space. Based on the studies, a set of criteria is proposed to evaluate, plan and design streets that are more contextual in nature. The study concludes with how the existing street patterns of Dhaka city can be rethought and redesigned to cater to peoples’ need for a public place. The proposal is meant to be an inspiration for further studies in this respect in the context of Bangladesh.

Keywords: public space, six dimensions, street, urban, walkability

Procedia PDF Downloads 124
12 The Balance between the Two Characters of the Night: A Study on the Nightscape of Pei Ho Street and Yen Chow Street West in Sham Shui Po

Authors: Lei Danyang, Lu Jialiang

Abstract:

As nightlife is getting richer in urban area, urban nightscape has become an increasingly important part of the urban landscape. Understanding urban nightscape from the perspec­tive of pedestrian perception is very important to improve the livability and walkability of a city. The purpose of this study is to analyze the nightscapes of two different urban forms. The research methods are literature investigation and field investigation. From analyzing the lighting, sensory ex­perience, and night activities, this research studies the two streets, Pei Ho Street and Yen Chow Street West in Sham Shui Po. Results revealed that the two streets are on the two extremes of the two characters of the night and a better balance needs to be found between them. Because of the different land usage and stakeholders, the two streets should play different roles in the nightscape, so their balance points are also different. On the one hand, Pei Ho Street, which has a strong commercial atmos­phere, should not only retain its vitality and diversity but also ensure its function of relaxation at night; on the other hand, in Yen Chow Street West, it is necessary to develop its potential of reconnecting people with the darkness of the night while ensur­ing its safety. These findings may not only provide policymak­ers with information to help them improve the nightscape and livability of the Sham Shui Po area but also help bridge the gap between research and design. In the future, more attention should be paid to pedestrian preference and nightscape perception of vulnerable groups.

Keywords: Hong Kong, pedestrian perception, Sham Shui Po, urban form, urban nightscape

Procedia PDF Downloads 27
11 Cars in a Neighborhood: A Case of Sustainable Living in Sector 22 Chandigarh

Authors: Maninder Singh

Abstract:

The Chandigarh city is under the strain of exponential growth of car density across various neighborhood. The consumerist nature of society today is to be blamed for this menace because everyone wants to own and ride a car. Car manufacturers are busy selling two or more cars per household. The Regional Transport Offices are busy issuing as many licenses to new vehicles as they can in order to generate revenue in the form of Road Tax. The car traffic in the neighborhoods of Chandigarh has reached a tipping point. There needs to be a more empirical and sustainable model of cars per household, which should be based on specific parameters of livable neighborhoods. Sector 22 in Chandigarh is one of the first residential sectors to be established in the city. There is scope to think, reflect, and work out a method to know how many cars we need to sell our citizens before we lose the argument to traffic problems, parking problems, and road rage. This is where the true challenge of a planner or a designer of the city lies. Currently, in Chandigarh city, there are no clear visible answers to this problem. The way forward is to look at spatial mapping, planning, and design of car parking units to address the problem, rather than suggesting extreme measures of banning cars (short-term) or promoting plans for citywide transport (very long-term). This is a chance to resolve the problem with a pragmatic approach from a citizen’s perspective, instead of an orthodox development planner’s methodology. Since citizens are at the center of how the problem is to be addressed, acceptable solutions are more likely to emerge from the car and traffic problem as defined by the citizens. Thus, the idea and its implementation would be interesting in comparison to the known academic methodologies. The novel and innovative process would lead to a more acceptable and sustainable approach to the issue of number of car parks in the neighborhood of Chandigarh city.

Keywords: cars, Chandigarh, neighborhood, sustainable living, walkability

Procedia PDF Downloads 56
10 Analyzing the Street Pattern Characteristics on Young People’s Choice to Walk or Not: A Study Based on Accelerometer and Global Positioning Systems Data

Authors: Ebru Cubukcu, Gozde Eksioglu Cetintahra, Burcin Hepguzel Hatip, Mert Cubukcu

Abstract:

Obesity and overweight cause serious health problems. Public and private organizations aim to encourage walking in various ways in order to cope with the problem of obesity and overweight. This study aims to understand how the spatial characteristics of urban street pattern, connectivity and complexity influence young people’s choice to walk or not. 185 public university students in Izmir, the third largest city in Turkey, participated in the study. Each participant had worn an accelerometer and a global positioning (GPS) device for a week. The accelerometer device records data on the intensity of the participant’s activity at a specified time interval, and the GPS device on the activities’ locations. Combining the two datasets, activity maps are derived. These maps are then used to differentiate the participants’ walk trips and motor vehicle trips. Given that, the frequency of walk and motor vehicle trips are calculated at the street segment level, and the street segments are then categorized into two as ‘preferred by pedestrians’ and ‘preferred by motor vehicles’. Graph Theory-based accessibility indices are calculated to quantify the spatial characteristics of the streets in the sample. Six different indices are used: (I) edge density, (II) edge sinuosity, (III) eta index, (IV) node density, (V) order of a node, and (VI) beta index. T-tests show that the index values for the ‘preferred by pedestrians’ and ‘preferred by motor vehicles’ are significantly different. The findings indicate that the spatial characteristics of the street network have a measurable effect on young people’s choice to walk or not. Policy implications are discussed. This study is funded by the Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey, Project No: 116K358.

Keywords: graph theory, walkability, accessibility, street network

Procedia PDF Downloads 61
9 A Meaning-Making Approach to Understand the Relationship between the Physical Built Environment of the Heritage Sites including the Intangible Values and the Design Development of the Public Open Spaces: Case Study Liverpool Pier Head

Authors: May Newisar, Richard Kingston, Philip Black

Abstract:

Heritage-led regeneration developments have been considered as one of the cornerstones of the economic and social revival of historic towns and cities in the UK. However, this approach has proved its deficiency within the development of Liverpool World Heritage site. This is due to the conflict between sustaining the tangible and intangible values as well as achieving the aimed economic developments. Accordingly, the development of such areas is influenced by a top-down approach which considers heritage as consumable experience and urban regeneration as the economic development for it. This neglects the heritage sites characteristics and values as well as the design criteria for public open spaces that overlap with the heritage sites. Currently, knowledge regarding the relationship between the physical built environment of the heritage sites including the intangible values and the design development of the public open spaces is limited. Public open spaces have been studied from different perspectives such as increasing walkability, a source of social cohesion, provide a good quality of life as well as understanding users’ perception. While heritage sites have been discussed heavily on how to maintain the physical environment, understanding the courses of threats and how to be protected. In addition to users’ experiences and motivations of visiting such areas. Furthermore, new approaches tried to overcome the gap such as the historic urban landscape approach. This approach is focusing on the entire human environment with all its tangible and intangible qualities. However, this research aims to understand the relationship between the heritage sites and public open spaces and how the overlap of the design and development of both could be used as a quality to enhance the heritage sites and improve users’ experience. A meaning-making approach will be used in order to understand and articulate how the development of Liverpool World Heritage site and its value could influence and shape the design of public open space Pier Head in order to attract a different level of tourists to be used as a tool for economic development. Consequently, this will help in bridging the gap between the planning and conservation areas’ policies through an understanding of how flexible is the system in order to adopt alternative approaches for the design and development strategies for those areas.

Keywords: historic urban landscape, environmental psychology, urban governance, identity

Procedia PDF Downloads 33
8 Walkability with the Use of Mobile Apps

Authors: Dimitra Riza

Abstract:

This paper examines different ways of exploring a city by using smart phones' applications while walking, and the way this new attitude will change our perception of the urban environment. By referring to various examples of such applications we will consider options and possibilities that open up with new technologies, their advantages and disadvantages, as well as ways of experiencing and interpreting the urban environment. The widespread use of smart phones gave access to information, maps, knowledge, etc. at all times and places. The city tourism marketing takes advantage of this event and promotes the city's attractions through technology. Mobile mediated walking tours, provide new possibilities and modify the way we used to explore cities, for instance by giving directions proper to find easily destinations, by displaying our exact location on the map, by creating our own tours through picking points of interest and interconnecting them to create a route. These apps act as interactive ones, as they filter the user's interests, movements, etc. Discovering a city on foot and visiting interesting sites and landmarks, became very easy, and has been revolutionized through the help of navigational and other applications. In contrast to the re-invention of the city as suggested by the Baudelaire's Flâneur in the 19th century, or to the construction of situations by the Situationists in 60s, the new technological means do not allow people to "get lost", as these follow and record our moves. In the case of strolling or drifting around the city, the option of "getting lost" is desired, as the goal is not the "wayfinding" or the destination, but it is the experience of walking itself. Getting lost is not always about dislocation, but it is about getting a feeling, free of the urban environment while experiencing it. So, on the one hand, walking is considered to be a physical and embodied experience, as the observer becomes an actor and participates with all his senses in the city activities. On the other hand, the use of a screen turns out to become a disembodied experience of the urban environment, as we perceive it in a fragmented and distanced way. Relations with the city are similar to Alberti’s isolated viewer, detached from any urban stage. The smartphone, even if we are present, acts as a mediator: we interact directly with it and indirectly with the environment. Contrary to the Flaneur and to the Situationists, who discovered the city with their own bodies, today the body itself is being detached from that experience. While contemporary cities turn out to become more walkable, the new technological applications tend to open out all possibilities in order to explore them by suggesting multiple routes. Exploration becomes easier, but Perception changes.

Keywords: body, experience, mobile apps, walking

Procedia PDF Downloads 289
7 Evaluating the Ability to Cycle in Cities Using Geographic Information Systems Tools: The Case Study of Greek Modern Cities

Authors: Christos Karolemeas, Avgi Vassi, Georgia Christodoulopoulou

Abstract:

Although the past decades, planning a cycle network became an inseparable part of all transportation plans, there is still a lot of room for improvement in the way planning is made, in order to create safe and direct cycling networks that gather the parameters that positively influence one's decision to cycle. The aim of this article is to study, evaluate and visualize the bikeability of cities. This term is often used as the 'the ability of a person to bike' but this study, however, adopts the term in the sense of bikeability as 'the ability of the urban landscape to be biked'. The methodology used included assessing cities' accessibility by cycling, based on international literature and corresponding walkability methods and the creation of a 'bikeability index'. Initially, a literature review was made to identify the factors that positively affect the use of bicycle infrastructure. Those factors were used in order to create the spatial index and quantitatively compare the city network. Finally, the bikeability index was applied in two case studies: two Greek municipalities that, although, they have similarities in terms of land uses, population density and traffic congestion, they are totally different in terms of geomorphology. The factors suggested by international literature were (a) safety, (b) directness, (c) comfort and (d) the quality of the urban environment. Those factors were quantified through the following parameters: slope, junction density, traffic density, traffic speed, natural environment, built environment, activities coverage, centrality and accessibility to public transport stations. Each road section was graded for the above-mentioned parameters, and the overall grade shows the level of bicycle accessibility (low, medium, high). Each parameter, as well as the overall accessibility levels, were analyzed and visualized through Geographic Information Systems. This paper presents the bikeability index, its' results, the problems that have arisen and the conclusions from its' implementation through Strengths-Weaknesses-Opportunities-Threats analysis. The purpose of this index is to make it easy for researchers, practitioners, politicians, and stakeholders to quantify, visualize and understand which parts of the urban fabric are suitable for cycling.

Keywords: accessibility, cycling, green spaces, spatial data, urban environment

Procedia PDF Downloads 27
6 Informal Green Infrastructure as Mobility Enabler in Informal Settlements of Quito

Authors: Ignacio W. Loor

Abstract:

In the context of informal settlements in Quito, this paper provides evidence that slopes and deep ravines typical of Andean cities, around which marginalized urban communities sit, constitute a platform for green infrastructure that supports mobility for pedestrians in an incremental fashion. This is informally shaped green infrastructure that provides connectivity to other mobility infrastructures such as roads and public transport, which permits relegated dwellers reach their daily destinations and reclaim their rights to the city. This is relevant in that walking has been increasingly neglected as a viable mean of transport in Latin American cities, in favor of rather motorized means, for which the mobility benefits of green infrastructure have remained invisible to policymakers, contributing to the progressive isolation of informal settlements. This research leverages greatly on an ecological rejuvenation programme led by the municipality of Quito and the Andean Corporation for Development (CAN) intended for rehabilitating the ecological functionalities of ravines. Accordingly, four ravines in different stages of rejuvenation were chosen, in order to through ethnographic methods, capture the practices they support to dwellers of informal settlements across different stages, particularly in terms of issues of mobility. Then, by presenting fragments of interviews, description of observed phenomena, photographs and narratives published in institutional reports and media, the production process of mobility infrastructure over unoccupied slopes and ravines, and the roles that this infrastructure plays in the mobility of dwellers and their quotidian practices are explained. For informal settlements, which normally feature scant urban infrastructure, mobility embodies an unfavourable driver for the possibilities of dwellers to actively participate in the social, economic and political dimensions of the city, for which their rights to the city are widely neglected. Nevertheless, informal green infrastructure for mobility provides some alleviation. This infrastructure is incremental, since its features and usability gradually evolves as users put into it knowledge, labour, devices, and connectivity to other infrastructures in different dimensions which increment its dependability. This is evidenced in the diffusion of knowledge of trails and routes of footpaths among users, the implementation of linking stairs and bridges, the improved access by producing public spaces adjacent to the ravines, the illuminating of surrounding roads, and ultimately, the restoring of ecological functions of ravines. However, the perpetuity of this type of infrastructure is also fragile and vulnerable to the course of urbanisation, densification, and expansion of gated privatised spaces.

Keywords: green infrastructure, informal settlements, urban mobility, walkability

Procedia PDF Downloads 59
5 Seeking Compatibility between Green Infrastructure and Recentralization: The Case of Greater Toronto Area

Authors: Sara Saboonian, Pierre Filion

Abstract:

There are two distinct planning approaches attempting to transform the North American suburb so as to reduce its adverse environmental impacts. The first one, the recentralization approach, proposes intensification, multi-functionality and more reliance on public transit and walking. It thus offers an alternative to the prevailing low-density, spatial specialization and automobile dependence of the North American suburb. The second approach concentrates instead on the provision of green infrastructure, which rely on natural systems rather than on highly engineered solutions to deal with the infrastructure needs of suburban areas. There are tensions between these two approaches as recentralization generally overlooks green infrastructure, which can be space consuming (as in the case of water retention systems), and thus conflicts with the intensification goals of recentralization. The research investigates three Canadian planned suburban centres in the Greater Toronto Area, where recentralization is the current planning practice, despite rising awareness of the benefits of green infrastructure. Methods include reviewing the literature on green infrastructure planning, a critical analysis of the Ontario provincial plans for recentralization, surveying residents’ preferences regarding alternative suburban development models, and interviewing officials who deal with the local planning of the three centres. The case studies expose the difficulties in creating planned suburban centres that accommodate green infrastructure while adhering to recentralization principles. Until now, planners have been mostly focussed on recentralization at the expense of green infrastructure. In this context, the frequent lack of compatibility between recentralization and the space requirements of green infrastructure explains the limited presence of such infrastructures in planned suburban centres. Finally, while much attention has been given in the planning discourse to the economic and lifestyle benefits of recentralization, much less has been made of the wide range of advantages of green infrastructure, which explains limited public mobilization over the development of green infrastructure networks. The paper will concentrate on ways of combining recentralization with green infrastructure strategies and identify the aspects of the two approaches that are most compatible with each other. The outcome of such blending will marry high density, public-transit oriented developments, which generate walkability and street-level animation, with the presence of green space, naturalized settings and reliance on renewable energy. The paper will advance a planning framework that will fuse green infrastructure with recentralization, thus ensuring the achievement of higher density and reduced reliance on the car along with the provision of critical ecosystem services throughout cities. This will support and enhance the objectives of both green infrastructure and recentralization.

Keywords: environmental-based planning, green infrastructure, multi-functionality, recentralization

Procedia PDF Downloads 38
4 A Quasi-Systematic Review on Effectiveness of Social and Cultural Sustainability Practices in Built Environment

Authors: Asif Ali, Daud Salim Faruquie

Abstract:

With the advancement of knowledge about the utility and impact of sustainability, its feasibility has been explored into different walks of life. Scientists, however; have established their knowledge in four areas viz environmental, economic, social and cultural, popularly termed as four pillars of sustainability. Aspects of environmental and economic sustainability have been rigorously researched and practiced and huge volume of strong evidence of effectiveness has been founded for these two sub-areas. For the social and cultural aspects of sustainability, dependable evidence of effectiveness is still to be instituted as the researchers and practitioners are developing and experimenting methods across the globe. Therefore, the present research aimed to identify globally used practices of social and cultural sustainability and through evidence synthesis assess their outcomes to determine the effectiveness of those practices. A PICO format steered the methodology which included all populations, popular sustainability practices including walkability/cycle tracks, social/recreational spaces, privacy, health & human services and barrier free built environment, comparators included ‘Before’ and ‘After’, ‘With’ and ‘Without’, ‘More’ and ‘Less’ and outcomes included Social well-being, cultural co-existence, quality of life, ethics and morality, social capital, sense of place, education, health, recreation and leisure, and holistic development. Search of literature included major electronic databases, search websites, organizational resources, directory of open access journals and subscribed journals. Grey literature, however, was not included. Inclusion criteria filtered studies on the basis of research designs such as total randomization, quasi-randomization, cluster randomization, observational or single studies and certain types of analysis. Studies with combined outcomes were considered but studies focusing only on environmental and/or economic outcomes were rejected. Data extraction, critical appraisal and evidence synthesis was carried out using customized tabulation, reference manager and CASP tool. Partial meta-analysis was carried out and calculation of pooled effects and forest plotting were done. As many as 13 studies finally included for final synthesis explained the impact of targeted practices on health, behavioural and social dimensions. Objectivity in the measurement of health outcomes facilitated quantitative synthesis of studies which highlighted the impact of sustainability methods on physical activity, Body Mass Index, perinatal outcomes and child health. Studies synthesized qualitatively (and also quantitatively) showed outcomes such as routines, family relations, citizenship, trust in relationships, social inclusion, neighbourhood social capital, wellbeing, habitability and family’s social processes. The synthesized evidence indicates slight effectiveness and efficacy of social and cultural sustainability on the targeted outcomes. Further synthesis revealed that such results of this study are due weak research designs and disintegrated implementations. If architects and other practitioners deliver their interventions in collaboration with research bodies and policy makers, a stronger evidence-base in this area could be generated.

Keywords: built environment, cultural sustainability, social sustainability, sustainable architecture

Procedia PDF Downloads 315