Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 682

Search results for: competition

682 Competition, Performance and Ethnicity: Explaining Corruption in Ghana and Kenya

Authors: Roxanne J. Kovacs

Abstract:

This paper shows that political corruption in Ghana and Kenya does not, as is assumed by a considerable part of the academic literature, depend on the level of party competition as such, but rather on the kinds of issues that parties compete about. Party competition in Ghana revolves around party performance, which gives political leaders a strong incentive to control corruption. In contrast, party competition in Kenya revolves around ethnic identities, which directly reduces competition based on candidate quality and therefore fosters corruption.

Keywords: corruption, electoral competition, Kenya, Ghana

Procedia PDF Downloads 195
681 A Study on Pre and Post Competitive State Anxiety among the Athletes

Authors: Vinay Choudhary, Ibakordor Patlong

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This study investigates and evaluates pre and post competitive anxiety, self-confidence, and performance of the athletes. The Cognitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 was administered to collect data from 73 athletes, both men, and women, before and after the competition, who participated in the Reliance Foundation Youth Sports (RFYS)-Athletics, held at Gachibowli Stadium, Hyderabad. A paired t-test was used to find the significant difference between the pre and post-competition. Results showed that the levels of cognitive state anxiety before the competition was low as compared after the competition and the levels of somatic state anxiety before the competition was high as compared after the competition whereas the levels of self-confidence before the competition was high as compared after the competition. This study concludes that the levels of cognitive state anxiety increases after the competition as athletes could not perform according to the performance expectations, on the contrary, the levels of somatic anxiety decrease as there was no pressure of performance on the athletes after the competition and the levels of self-confidence decreases after the competition as athletes could not reach their desired performance levels.

Keywords: anxiety, athletes, pre and post, CSAI-2, self-confidence, performance

Procedia PDF Downloads 38
680 Technological Improvements and the Challenges They Pose to Market Competition in the Philippines

Authors: Isabel L. Guidote

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Continued advancements and innovation in the technological arena may yield both beneficial and detrimental effects to market competition in the Philippines. This paper discusses recent developments in the digital sphere which have resulted in improved access to the Philippine market for both producers and consumers. Acknowledging that these developments are likely to disrupt or alter prevailing market conditions, this paper likewise tackles competition theories of harm that may arise as a result of such technological innovations, with reference to cases decided by foreign competition authorities and the European Commission. As the Philippine moves closer to the digital frontier, it is imperative that producers, consumers, and regulators alike be well-equipped to address the risks and challenges posed by these rapid advancements in technology.

Keywords: antitrust, competition law, market competition, technology

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679 Analyzing the Prospects and Challenges in Implementing the Legal Framework for Competition Regulation in Nigeria

Authors: Oluchukwu P. Obioma, Amarachi R. Dike

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Competition law promotes market competition by regulating anti-competitive conduct by undertakings. There is a need for a third party to regulate the market for efficiency and supervision, since, if the market is left unchecked, it may be skewed against the consumers and the economy. Competition law is geared towards the protection of consumers from economic exploitation. It is the duty of every rational government to optimally manage its economic system by employing the best regulatory practices over the market to ensure it functions effectively and efficiently. The Nigerian government has done this by enacting the Federal Competition and Consumer Protection Act, 2018 (FCCPA). This is a comprehensive legal framework with the objective of governing competition issues in Nigeria. Prior to its enactment, the competition law regime in Nigeria was grossly inadequate despite Nigeria being the biggest economy in Africa. This latest legislation has become a bold step in the right direction. This study will use the doctrinal methodology in analyzing the FCCPA, 2018 in order to discover the extent to which the Act will guard against anti-competitive practices and promote competitive markets for the benefit of the Nigerian economy and consumers. The study finds that although the FCCPA, 2018 provides for the regulation of competition in Nigeria, there is a need to effectively tackle the challenges to the implementation of the Act and the development of anti-trust jurisprudence in Nigeria. This study concludes that incisive implementation of competition law in Nigeria will help protect consumers and create a conducive environment for economic growth, development, and protection of consumers from obnoxious competition practices.

Keywords: anti-competitive practices, competition law, competition regulation, consumer protection.

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678 Correlation of the Rate of Imperfect Competition and Profit in Banking Markets

Authors: Jan Cernohorsky

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This article aims to assess the evolution of imperfect competition in selected banking markets, in particular in the banking markets of Slovakia, Poland, Hungary, Slovenia and Croatia. Another objective is to assess the evolution of the relationship of imperfect competition and profit development in the banking markets. The article first provides an overview of literature on the topic. It then measures the degree of imperfect competition in individual markets using the Herfindahl-Hirschman Index. The commonly used indicator of total assets was chosen as an indicator. Based on this measurement, the individual banking sectors are categorized into theoretical definitions of the various types of imperfect competition - namely all surveyed banking sectors falling within the theoretical definition of monopolistic competition. Subsequently, using correlation analysis, i.e., the Pearson correlation coefficient, or the Spearman correlation coefficient, the connection between the evolution of imperfect competition and the development of the gross profit on selected banking markets was surveyed. It was found that with the exception of the banking market in Slovenia, where there is a positive correlation; there is no correlation between the evolution of imperfect competition and profit development in the selected markets. This means a recommendation for the regulators that it is not appropriate to rationalize a higher degree of regulation in granting banking licenses on the size of the profits attained in the banking market, as the relationship between the degree of concentration in the banking market and the amount of profit according to our measurements does not exist.

Keywords: bank, banking system, imperfect competition, profitability

Procedia PDF Downloads 155
677 Tax Competition and Partial Tax Coordination under Fiscal Decentralization

Authors: Patricia Sanz-Cordoba, Bernd Theilen

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This article analyzes the conditions where decentralization and partial tax harmonization in a coalition of asymmetric jurisdictions plays a role in the fight of fiscal competition (i.e. the race to bottom). Starting from a centralized economies, we use the ZM-W model to analyze the fiscal competition and coordination among three countries. We find that the asymmetry of jurisdictions facilitates partial tax harmonization between jurisdictions when these asymmetries are not too large. Furthermore, when the asymmetries are large enough, the level of labor tax plays an important role in the decision of decentralize capital tax. Accordingly, decentralization is achievable when labor tax is low. This result indicates that decentralization and partial tax harmonization between jurisdictions can be possible results in order to fight the negative externalities from fiscal competition, and more in the European Union countries where the asymmetries are substantial.

Keywords: centralization, decentralization, fiscal competition, partial tax harmonization

Procedia PDF Downloads 133
676 The Effects of Techno-Economic Paradigm on Social Evolution

Authors: Derya Güler Aydin, Bahar Araz Takay

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Two different forms of competition theories can be distinguished: Those theories that emphasize the equilibrating forces created by competition, and those emphasizing the disequilibrating forces. This difference can be attributed, among other things, to the differences regarding the functioning of the market economy; that is to say, the basic problem here is whether competition should be understood as a static state or a dynamic process. This study aims to analyze the dynamic competition theories by K. Marx and J. A. Schumpeter and neo- Schumperians all of which focus on the dynamic role played by competition through creating disequilibria, endogenous structural change and social transformation as a distinguishing characteristic of the market system. With this aim, in the first section, after examining the static, neoclassical competition theory, both Marx‟s theory, which is based on profit rate differentials, and Schumpeter‟s theory, which is based on the notion of “creative destruction”, will be discussed. In the second section, the long-term fluctuations, based on creative gales of destruction, the concept will be examined under the framework of techno-economic paradigm. It is argued that the dynamic, even disequilibrium tendencies created by the competition process should be regarded in both understanding the working of capitalism and social transformation of the system.

Keywords: competition, techno-enomic paradigm, Schumpeter, social evolution

Procedia PDF Downloads 137
675 Competition Law as a “Must Have” Course in Legal Education

Authors: Noemia Bessa Vilela, Jose Caramelo Gomes

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All law student are familiarized, in the first years of their bachelor of laws with the concepts of “public goods” and “ private goods”; often, such legal concept does not exactly match such economic concept, and there are consequences are some sort of confusion being created. The list of goods that follow under each category is not exhaustive, nor are students given proper mechanisms to acknowledge that some legal fields can, on its own, be considered as a “public good”; this is the case of Competition. Legal authors consider that “competition law is used to promote public interest” and, as such, it is a “public good”; in economics theory, Competition is the first public good in a market economy, as the enabler of allocation efficiency. Competition law is the legal tool to support the proper functioning of the market economy and democracy itself. It is fact that Competition Law only applies to economic activities, still, competition is object of private litigation as an integral part of Public Law. Still, regardless of the importance of Competition Law in the economic activity and market regulation, most student complete their studies in law, join the Bar Associations and engage in their professional activities never having been given sufficient tools to deal with the increasing demands of a globalized world. The lack of knowledge of economics, market functioning and the mechanisms at their reach in order to ensure proper realization of their duties as lawyers/ attorneys-at-law would be tackled if Competition Law would be included as part of the curricula of Law Schools. Proper teaching of Competition Law would combine the foundations of Competition Law, doctrine, case solving and Case Law study. Students should to understand and apply the analytical model. Special emphasis should be given to EU Competition Law, namely the TFEU Articles 101 to 106. Damages Directive should also be part of the curriculum. Students must in the first place acquire and master the economic rationale as competition and the world of competition law are the cornerstone of sound and efficient market. The teaching of Competition Law in undergraduate programs in Law would contribute to fulfill the potential of the students who will deal with matters related to consumer protection, economic and commercial law issues both in private practice and as in-house lawyers for companies.

Keywords: higher education, competition law, legal education, law, market economy, industrial economics

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674 Transformation of Industrial Policy towards Industry 4.0 and Its Impact on Firms' Competition

Authors: Arūnas Burinskas

Abstract:

Although Europe is on the threshold of a new industrial revolution called Industry 4.0, many believe that this will increase the flexibility of production, the mass adaptation of products to consumers and the speed of their service; it will also improve product quality and dramatically increase productivity. However, as expected, all the benefits of Industry 4.0 face many of the inevitable changes and challenges they pose. One of them is the inevitable transformation of current competition and business models. This article examines the possible results of competitive conversion from the classic Bertrand and Cournot models to qualitatively new competition based on innovation. Ability to deliver a new product quickly and the possibility to produce the individual design (through flexible and quickly configurable factories) by reducing equipment failures and increasing process automation and control is highly important. This study shows that the ongoing transformation of the competition model is changing the game. This, together with the creation of complex value networks, means huge investments that make it particularly difficult for small and medium-sized enterprises. In addition, the ongoing digitalization of data raises new concerns regarding legal obligations, intellectual property, and security.

Keywords: Bertrand and Cournot Competition, competition model, industry 4.0, industrial organisation, monopolistic competition

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673 Development of Muay Thai Competition Management for Promoting Sport Tourism in the next Decade (2015-2024)

Authors: Supasak Ngaoprasertwong

Abstract:

The purpose of this research was to develop a model for Muay Thai competition management for promoting sport tourism in the next decade. Moreover, the model was appropriately initiated for practical use. This study also combined several methodologies, both quantitative research and qualitative research, to entirely cover all aspects of data, especially the tourists’ satisfaction toward Muay Thai competition. The data were collected from 400 tourists watching Muay Thai competition in 4 stadiums to create the model for Muay Thai competition to support the sport tourism in the next decade. Besides, Ethnographic Delphi Futures Research (EDFR) was applied to gather the data from certain experts in boxing industry or having significant role in Muay Thai competition in both public sector and private sector. The first step of data collection was an in-depth interview with 27 experts associated with Muay Thai competition, Muay Thai management, and tourism. The second step and the third step of data collection were conducted to confirm the experts’ opinions toward various elements. When the 3 steps of data collection were completely accomplished, all data were assembled to draft the model. Then the model was proposed to 8 experts to conduct a brainstorming to affirm it. According to the results of quantitative research, it found that the tourists were satisfied with personnel of competition at high level (x=3.87), followed by facilities, services, and safe high level (x=3.67). Furthermore, they were satisfied with operation in competition field at high level (x=3.62).Regarding the qualitative methodology including literature review, theories, concepts and analysis of qualitative research development of the model for Muay Thai competition to promote the sport tourism in the next decade, the findings indicated that there were 2 data sets as follows: The first one was related to Muay Thai competition to encourage the sport tourism and the second one was associated with Muay Thai stadium management to support the sport tourism. After the brain storming, “EE Muay Thai Model” was finally developed for promoting the sport tourism in the next decade (2015-2024).

Keywords: Muay Thai competition management, Muay Thai sport tourism, Muay Thai, Muay Thai for sport tourism management

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672 Fighting Competition Stress by Focusing the Psychological Training on the Vigor-Activity Mood States

Authors: Majid Al-Busafi, Alexe Cristina Ioana, Alexe Dan Iulian

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The specific competition and pre-competition stress in professional track and field determined an increasing engagement, from a biological and psychological point of view, of the middle distance and long distance runners, to obtain the top performances that would get them to win in a competition. Under these conditions, if the psychological stress is not properly managed, the negative effects can lead to a total drop in self-confidence, and can affect the value, the talent, and the self-trust, which generates an even higher stress. One of the means at our disposal is the psychological training, specially adapted to the athlete's individual characteristics, to the characteristics of the athletic event, or of the competition. This paper aims to highlight certain original aspects regarding the effects of a specific psychological training program on the mood states characterized by psychological activation, vigor, vitality. The subjects were represented by 12 professional middle distance and long distance runners, subjected to an applicative intervention to which they have participated voluntarily, over the course of 6 months (a competition season). The results indicated that The application of a psychological training program, adapted to the track and field competition system, over a period of time characterized by high competition stress, can determine an increase in the states of vigor and psychological activation, at the same time diminishing those moods that have negative effects on the performance, in the middle distance and long distance running events. This conclusion confirms the hypothesis of this research.

Keywords: competition stress, psychological training, track and field, vigor-activity

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671 Interspecific Competition among Three Fruit Fly Species Infesting Watermelon and Zucchini (Cucurbitaceae)

Authors: Gbenonsi A. Fabrice, Mama Sambo Sahadatou, Layode B. F. Rodolphe, Totin A. Felicien, Onzo Alexis, Karlsson M. Frida

Abstract:

Interspecific competition occurs among arthropod pest species that share hosts, thereby influencing their population dynamics. In sub-Saharan Africa, the native fruit fly species Dacus vertebratus (Bezzi) and Dacus ciliatus (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae) and the exotic Zeugodacus cucurbitae (Coquillett) are concurrent pests in the same host fruits; hence competition among them is likely to occur. We explored interspecific competition among these three fruit fly species on zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L.) and watermelon (Citrullus lanatus Thunb) (Cucurbitaceae) to improve our understanding of the interaction between the species and their capacity to coexist. We exposed the vegetable fruits to different densities of fruit fly species and studied their behavioural activities, evaluating the extrinsic competition. To assess intrinsic competition and understand the effect of co-occurrence inside the fruits, eggs of the three fruit flies were pairwise inoculated into the same fruits. Results showed that the behaviour on the fruits differed between the species and that the interspecific competition affected their developmental time and larval survival in both watermelon and zucchini. Z. cucurbitae were more aggressive than the other species and managed to oviposit more frequently. Emergence was reduced for D. ciliatus and D. vertebratus when inoculated together with Z. cucurbitae in watermelon but not in zucchini. Physical confrontations were more common in zucchini than in watermelon and were more frequently won by Z. cucurbitae than D. vertebratus and D. ciliatus. Interspecific competition information obtained about behavioural differences and interaction effects, providing background for explaining the present fruit fly guild on certain Cucurbitaceae fruits in West Africa.

Keywords: behavioural activities, extrinsic competition, intrinsic competition, Tephritidae

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670 The Application of Animal Welfare for Madura Cow Racing Competition in Madura Island

Authors: Mustopa, Setyawan Wahyu Pradana

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This study aims to determine the application of animal welfare in Madura cow racing competition at Sumenep district, Madura Island. This study conducted by survey and discussion methods with 3 Madura cow owners in the competition. The animal welfare is going to be proved by observing the condition of the cage, the cleanliness of it, feeding and water, the health of the cow, also owner treatments for their Madura cow that will be served as a racer. Observations made using stable conditions ACRES form with assessment scores ranged from 1 = very poor, 2 = poor, 3 = regular, 4 = good and 5 = very good, animal welfare conditions seen by conducting observations and interviews with Madura cow owners. The result shows that the Madura cow competition has fulfilled the criteria of animal welfare application. Application of animal welfare principle by the owner of Madura cow terms of ACRES (Animal Concerns Research and Education Society) below standard, the average score obtained was 2.06, which is mean in a poor ratings. Besides considering the animal welfare application, Madura cow owners also do special treatments for their Madura cow with purpose to produce racers that are healthy and fast. Therefore, if the cow wins in Madura cow racing competition, it will purchase a high-value price.

Keywords: animal welfare, competition, Madura cow, racing

Procedia PDF Downloads 159
669 A Comparative Study on Achievement Motivation and Sports Competition Anxiety among the Students of Different Tier of Academic Hierarchy

Authors: Nitai Biswas, Prasenjit Kapas, Arumay Jana, Asish Paul

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Introduction: Motivation is basic drive for all kinds of action. It has direct influence on academic achievement and sports performance that builds urge to incentive values of success. In other words, it can be defined as the need for success to attain excellence. Anxiety in pre competition especially in sports formulates positive inward settings in mind to overcome the challenge. There is a tendency to perceive competitive situations as some threatening issues and to respond them with feelings of apprehension and tension. Aim: Aim of the study was to compare the achievement motivation and competition anxiety among three different classes of students. Methods and Materials: To conduct the study the researcher has taken 131 male subjects from three different classes as Extra Department, Bachelor of Physical Education-I and Master of Physical EducationII, aged 19-28 years. Achievement motivation and sports competition anxiety were measured by the questionnaire. To analyze the data mean, standard deviation for each parameter as descriptive statistics and one way analysis of variance as inferential statistics were employed. Results: From the result of the study in achievement motivation (p ≥ 0.05) and competition anxiety (p ≥ 0.05) no significant differences were found among the said three groups. Conclusion: The study concluded that all three groups had almost the same state of achievement motivation and sports competition anxiety.

Keywords: anxiety, sports psychology, sports competition anxiety, achievement motivation, academic hierarchy, E.D., B.P.Ed., M.P.Ed

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668 Price Regulation in Domestic Market: Incentives to Collude in the Deregulated Market

Authors: S. Avdasheva, D. Tsytsulina

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In many regulated industries over the world price cap as a method of price regulation replaces cost-plus pricing. It is a kind of incentive regulation introduced in order to enhance productive efficiency by strengthening sellers’ incentives for cost reduction as well as incentives for more efficient pricing. However pricing under cap is not neutral for competition in the market. We consider influence on competition on the markets where benchmark for cap is chosen from when sellers are multi-market. We argue that the impact of price cap regulation on market competition depends on the design of cap. More specifically if cap for one (regulated) market depends on the price of the supplier in other (non-regulated) market, there is sub-type of price cap regulation (known in Russian tariff regulation as ‘netback minus’) that enhance incentives to collude in non-regulated market.

Keywords: price regulation, competition, collusion

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667 Strategy, Intellectual Capital Disclosure, Competition, and Market Performance

Authors: Agnes Utari Widyaningdyah

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This study investigates the relationship between strategy, intellectual capital (IC) disclosure, and the firm’s performance by considering business competition as a moderating variable. The secondary sectors manufacturing firms in the Jakarta Stock Industrial Classification as sample because this group represents a knowledge-intensive firm according to the OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) criteria. Using path analysis, this study reveals that there is a significant influence of strategy toward IC disclosure. Firms with differentiation strategy tend to withhold its strategic information included IC because of afraid in losing their competitive advantage. The results also indicate that firms are more likely to withhold information about IC if they perceive that current or potential competition is strong. However, firms should consider that IC disclosure is a positive signal to the investor.

Keywords: strategy, IC disclosure, market performance, business competition

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666 The Impact of the EU Competition Law on the Asian Systems

Authors: Maria Casoria

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Throughout the last decade developing countries have been undergoing substantial reforms to promote the establishment of competition regimes, as consequence of the trade liberalization and the spread of a ‘competition awareness movement’ across the globe. The legislative trend affected the whole Asia. Notwithstanding the existence of extensive joint ventures, cartels and other collusive business relationships in this geographical area, almost all the countries have already passed or are committed to enforce specific laws in the field. The study dwells into legal solutions adopted in the five sub-regions in which the continent is commonly divided –i.e. Central, East, South, Southeast, and Western Asia- and, using a comparative methodology, shed lights on the main differences and similarities in place. The final outcome of the analysis is that, despite the undeniable divergences of approach, what links together the legislation in force in the region is the unveiled influence exercised by the European Union competition regulation. Consequently, in order to properly evaluate the deterrence of the rule of law in the sector concerned, it is fundamental to scrutinize the major role played by the EU and its policy for the evolution of pro-competitive practices in the continent.

Keywords: Asia, competition law, differences and similarities, European union, influences

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665 A Study of Competition Anxiety among Male and Female Volleyball Players of Gujarat

Authors: Mukesh R. Goswami

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Sports Competition Anxiety test (SCAT) constructed and standardized by Martens was Administrated on 30 National level (15 male, 15 female) Volleyball players of Gujarat. The age of subjects ranged between 19 to 22 years. The purpose of the study was to compare the level of Anxiety between male and female national level Volleyball players of Gujarat. Statistical analysis has been done by T-test and the significance of the result was seen on 0.05 level. The t-test showed that there was no significant difference found in mean difference among the male and the female National level Volleyball players in relation to sports competition anxiety.

Keywords: competition, anxiety, male and female volleyball players, sports

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664 Price Gouging in Time of Covid-19 Pandemic: When National Competition Agencies are Weak Institutions that Exacerbate the Effects of Exploitative Economic Behaviour

Authors: Cesar Leines

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The social effects of the pandemic are significant and diverse, most of those effects have widened the gap of economic inequality. Without a doubt, each country faces difficulties associated with the strengths and weaknesses of its own institutions that can address these causes and consequences. Around the world, pricing practices that have no connection to production costs have been used extensively in numerous markets beyond those relating to the supply of essential goods and services, and although it is not unlawful to adjust pricing considering the increased demand of certain products, shortages and disruption of supply chains, illegitimate pricing practices may arise and these tend to transfer wealth from consumers to producers that affect the purchasing power of the former, making people worse off. High prices with no objective justification indicate a poor state of the competitive process in any market and the impact of those underlying competition issues leading to inefficiency is increased when national competition agencies are weak and ineffective in enforcing competition in law and policy. It has been observed that in those countries where competition authorities are perceived as weak or ineffective, price increases of a wide range of products and services were more significant during the pandemic than those price increases observed in countries where the perception of the effectiveness of the competition agency is high. When a perception is created of a highly effective competition authority, one which enforces competition law and its non-enforcement activities result in the fulfillment of its substantive functions of protecting competition as the means to create efficient markets, the price rise observed in markets under its jurisdiction is low. A case study focused on the effectiveness of the national competition agency in Mexico (COFECE) points to institutional weakness as one of the causes leading to excessive pricing. There are many factors that contribute to its low effectiveness and which, in turn, have led to a very significant price hike, potentiated by the pandemic. This paper contributes to the discussion of these factors and proposes different steps that overall help COFECE or any other competition agency to increase the perception of effectiveness for the benefit of the consumers.

Keywords: agency effectiveness, competition, institutional weakness, price gouging

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663 Knowledge Management for Competitiveness and Performances in Higher Educational Institutes

Authors: Jeyarajan Sivapathasundram

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Knowledge management has been recognised as an emerging factor for being competitive among institutions and performances in firms. As such, being recognised as knowledge rich institution, higher education institutes have to be recognised knowledge management based resources for achieving competitive advantages. Present research picked result out of postgraduate research conducted in knowledge management at non-state higher educational institutes of Sri Lanka. Besides, the present research aimed to discover knowledge management for competition and firm performances of higher educational institutes out of the result produced by the postgraduate study. Besides, the results are found in a pair that developed out of knowledge management practices and the reason behind the existence of the practices. As such, the present research has developed a filter to pick the pairs that satisfy its condition of competition and performance of the firm. As such, the pair, such as benchmarking is practised to be ethically competing through conducting courses. As the postgraduate research tested results of foreign researches in a qualitative paradigm, the finding of the present research are generalise fact for knowledge management for competitiveness and performances in higher educational institutes. Further, the presented research method used attributes which explain competition and performance in its filter to discover the pairs relevant to competition and performances. As such, the fact in regards to knowledge management for competition and performances in higher educational institutes are presented in the publication that the presentation is out of the generalised result. Therefore, knowledge management for competition and performance in higher educational institutes are generalised.

Keywords: competition in and among higher educational institutes, performances of higher educational institutes, noun based filtering, production out of generalisation of a research

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662 Competitive Condition and Market Power of Islamic Banks in Indonesia

Authors: Cupian

Abstract:

The expansion of Islamic banking industry seems to emphasize the banking competition in Indonesia where conventional and Islamic banks coexist. In addition, the 2007/2008 global financial crisis and deregulation have the effect on competitive conditions in Islamic banking market. In this context, this study aims at investigating competitive conditions and market power of Islamic banks in Indonesia using firm level data over the period 2006-2013. The study also attempts to identify the factors that represent the power of banking market to better study the degree of competition in this banking industry. Using samples of 27 Islamic commercial banks, the study uses a variety of structural and non-structural measures related to the traditional approach and the new empirical approach of the industrial organization (NEIO). The methodology is based on the set of measures of the competition and market power. The first measure is a set of concentration ratios (CR4) and Herfindahl-Hirschman index (HHI).The second measures are the Panzar and Ross H-statistic and the Lerner index based on econometric estimations with the aim of evaluating the market structure and measuring its power in terms of price setting. The results of the competition analysis suggest that the Islamic banking markets in Indonesia cannot be characterized by the bipolar cases of either perfect competition or monopoly over 2006-2013. That is, banks earned their revenues operating under conditions of monopolistic competition in that period. Overall, Islamic banks in Indonesia operate in a relatively less competitive environment or in high market power. It is also indicated that Islamic bank that hope to achieve higher returns should operate in the competitive environment.

Keywords: bank competition, islamic banks, market structure, profitability

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661 Market Competition and the Adoption of Clean Technology: Evidence from the Taxi Industry

Authors: Raúl Bajo-Buenestado

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This paper studies the impact of the intensity of market competition on firms' willingness to adopt green technologies —which has become particularly relevant in the light of the debate on whether competition policies should be relaxed to achieve certain environmental targets. We exploit the staggered rollout of different rail-hailing platforms (most notably, Uber) across different metropolitan areas in Spain as a natural experiment that provides time and city-specific exogenous variation in the intensity of competition to study the impact on taxi drivers' decisions to purchase “green” or “dirty” vehicles. It was shown that the entry of these platforms significantly increased the takeout of green vehicles among professional drivers in incumbent (dominant) conventional taxi companies and decreased that of dirty vehicles. The exact opposite effect is observed in the cities where these platforms were extremely unlikely to enter. Back of the envelope calculations suggest that the entry of Uber is associated with an extra green vehicle purchase in every four among taxi drivers, resulting in a substantial drop in the level of emissions from the taxi fleet —still mostly dominated diesel vehicles.

Keywords: technological change, green technology adoption, market competition, diffusion of technology, environmental externalities

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660 The Research of the Relationship between Triathlon Competition Results with Physical Fitness Performance

Authors: Chen Chan Wei

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of swim 1500m, 10000m run, VO2 max, and body fat on Olympic distance triathlon competition performance. The subjects were thirteen college triathletes with endurance training, with an average age, height and weight of 20.61±1.04 years (mean ± SD), 171.76±8.54 cm and 65.32±8.14 kg respectively. All subjects were required to take the tests of swim 1500m, run 10000m, VO2 max, body fat, and participate in the Olympic distance triathlon competition. First, the swim 1500m test was taken in the standardized 50m pool, with a depth of 2m, and the 10000m run test on the standardized 400m track. After three days, VO2 max was tested with the MetaMax 3B and body fat was measured with the DEXA machine. After two weeks, all 13 subjects joined the Olympic distance triathlon competition at the 2016 New Taipei City Asian Cup. The relationships between swim 1500m, 10000m run, VO2 max, body fat test, and Olympic distance triathlon competition performance were evaluated using Pearson's product-moment correlation. The results show that 10000m run and body fat had a significant positive correlation with Olympic distance triathlon performance (r=.830, .768), but VO2 max has a significant negative correlation with Olympic distance triathlon performance (r=-.735). In conclusion, for improved non-draft Olympic distance triathlon performance, triathletes should focus on running than swimming training and can be measure VO2 max to prediction triathlon performance. Also, managing body fat can improve Olympic distance triathlon performance. In addition, swimming performance was not significantly correlated to Olympic distance triathlon performance, possibly because the 2016 New Taipei City Asian Cup age group was not a drafting competition. The swimming race is the shortest component of Olympic distance triathlons. Therefore, in a non-draft competition, swimming ability is not significantly correlated with overall performance.

Keywords: triathletes, olympic, non-drafting, correlation

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659 Competition as an Appropriate Instructional Practice in the Physical Education Environment: Reflective Experiences

Authors: David Barney, Francis Pleban, Muna Muday

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The purpose of this study was to explore gender differences of former physical education students related to reflective experiences of competition in physical education learning environment. In the school environment, students are positioned in competitive situations, including in the physical education context. Therefore it is important to prepare future physical educators to address the role of competition in physical education. Participants for this study were 304 college-aged students and young adults (M = 1.53, SD = .500), from a private university and local community located in the western United States. When comparing gender, significant differences (p < .05) were reported for four (questions 5, 7, 12, and 14) of the nine scaling questions. Follow-up quantitative findings reported that males (41%) more than females (27%) witnessed fights in physical education environment during competitive games. Qualitative findings reported fighting were along the lines of verbal confrontation. Female participants tended to experience being excluded from games, when compared to male participants. Both male and female participants (total population; 95%, males; 98%; and females 92%) were in favor of including competition in physical education for students. Findings suggest that physical education teachers and physical education teacher education programs have a responsibility to develop gender neutral learning experiences that help students better appreciate the role competition plays, both in and out of the physical education classroom.

Keywords: competition, physical education, physical education teacher education, gender

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658 Experts' Opinions of Considerations for Competition Landings in Gymnastics

Authors: Helmut Geiblinger

Abstract:

Dismounts performed by elite gymnasts during competition require great courage and virtuoso displays of precisely organized movements and skills. The dismount and landing leave the final impression in a routine and are often the key to a successful evaluation by the judges. Landings require precise body control and the skillful dissipation of substantial body momentum. The aim of this research study was to investigate landing techniques and strategies used by elite male gymnasts through the eyes of gymnastics experts. It drew from the accrued knowledge and experience of 21 male expert participants who were elite coaches, elite gymnasts, international judges or combinations of these. The experts made a number of subtle points, many of which are not in the extant literature. The experts highlighted concerns about safety and the study concluded that on-going monitoring of the rules on competition landings within the Code of Points would be beneficial to the sport.

Keywords: controlled competition landings, landing technique, landing strategies, optimal body segment coordination

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657 Maximisation of Consumer Welfare in the Enforcement of Intellectual Property Rights in Competition Guidelines: The Malaysian Experience

Authors: Ida Madieha Abdul Ghani Azmi, Heng Gee Lim, Adlan Abdul Razak, Nasaruddin Abdul Rahman

Abstract:

The objective of competition law is to maximise consumer welfare through the regulation of anti-competitive behaviour that results in the distortion of the market. Intellectual property law also seeks to enhance consumer welfare in the long run by encouraging the development of useful devices and processes. Nevertheless, in some circumstances, the IP owners behave in such a way that makes it difficult for rival companies to sell substitute products and technology in the market. Intellectual property owners may also reach a dominant position in the market such that they are able to dictate unfair terms and conditions on other market players. Among the two major categories of anti-competitive behavior is the use of horizontal and vertical agreement to constrain effective competition and abuse of dominant position. As a result, many countries have regulated the conduct of the IP owners that are considered as anti-competitive including the US, Canada, and Singapore. This paper visits the proposed IP Guidelines recently drafted by the Malaysian Competition Commission and investigates to what extent it resolves most of the anti-competitive behavior of the IP owners. The paper concludes by suggesting some of the rules that could be prescribed by the Competition Commission in order to maintain the relevancy of competition law as the main check against the abuse of rights by the intellectual property owners.

Keywords: abuse of dominant position, consumer welfare, intellectual property rights, vertical and horizontal agreements

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656 An Exemption for Vertical Restraint Regarding Intellectual Property Licensing: Case Study of Thailand

Authors: Sanpetchuda Krutkrua, Suphawatchara Malanond

Abstract:

Throughout the history of Antitrust regimes in Thailand, Thailand has been trying to prevent collusive practices in the market through the amendments of the Trade Competition Act, and Thailand just passed the current Trade Competition Act of B.E. 2560 in 2017 of which several aspects of the law were amended in order to enhance the prevention of collusive outcome through both vertical trade restraints and horizontal trade restraints. An agreement is vertical when it involves arrangements that are in a complementary relationship. In Section 55 of the Act, any agreements to reduce the price, quantity, or quality of the goods, agreements to assign a sole retailer for the goods, and the agreement to impose conditions on the retailers are not allowed. However, Section 56 provides exemptions for the vertical relationship between the business operators, the franchise agreement, and the licensing agreement as long as such agreements do not surpass the necessity to do so, create monopolization, or affect the consumers in terms of price, quality, quantity, or options. The paper aims to explore the extent of the exemption under Section 56 and sequential regulations in terms of the vertical trade restraints regarding intellectual property licensing, and, at the same time, compare with the exemptions under the European Union competition law, and Singapore competition law. Comparative legal analysis with leading jurisdiction will illustrate the application of the newly enacted Thai Competition Act in terms of its enforcement in the global impact of IP rights, which, by nature are de jure or de facto international protection.

Keywords: antitrust, competition law, vertical restraint, intellectual property, IP licensing

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655 Competition in Kenya: The Legal and Institutional Framework and an Appraisal of Key Market Players

Authors: Edwin Njoroge Kimani, Alan M. Munyao

Abstract:

Despite Kenya’s status as a regional economic powerhouse, it struggles with economic shocks that expose the consumers. This, however, seems not to affect major cooperates such as those in the telecommunication and energy sectors. Through their operations, they have not only been able to fluctuate prices at will but also they have been accused of curtailing their rivals from penetrating the market. This study, through literature review of the legal and institutional framework, reports and publications interrogates the law and uncovers the following; i) failings of the legal framework to define market dominance and abuse of such positions, ii) the participation of the state, iii) the inertia of the government to prosecute corporations that abuse their market dominance, iv) the role of the state as a market player and as a regulator through the Competition Authority of Kenya. This study concludes that the market distortion is as a result of weak legal and institutional framework as well as conflict of interest by the government. Not much has been researched in the field of competition law the greater East Africa. This research is intended to form part of the growing research in the field and inform legal reform.

Keywords: competition law, economic power, dominance, Kenya

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654 Statistical Randomness Testing of Some Second Round Candidate Algorithms of CAESAR Competition

Authors: Fatih Sulak, Betül A. Özdemir, Beyza Bozdemir

Abstract:

In order to improve symmetric key research, several competitions had been arranged by organizations like National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR). In recent years, the importance of authenticated encryption has rapidly increased because of the necessity of simultaneously enabling integrity, confidentiality and authenticity. Therefore, at January 2013, IACR announced the Competition for Authenticated Encryption: Security, Applicability, and Robustness (CAESAR Competition) which will select secure and efficient algorithms for authenticated encryption. Cryptographic algorithms are anticipated to behave like random mappings; hence, it is important to apply statistical randomness tests to the outputs of the algorithms. In this work, the statistical randomness tests in the NIST Test Suite and the other recently designed randomness tests are applied to six second round algorithms of the CAESAR Competition. It is observed that AEGIS achieves randomness after 3 rounds, Ascon permutation function achieves randomness after 1 round, Joltik encryption function achieves randomness after 9 rounds, Morus state update function achieves randomness after 3 rounds, Pi-cipher achieves randomness after 1 round, and Tiaoxin achieves randomness after 1 round.

Keywords: authenticated encryption, CAESAR competition, NIST test suite, statistical randomness tests

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653 Bank Competition: On the Relationship with Revenue Diversification and Funding Strategy from Selected ASEAN Countries

Authors: Oktofa Y. Sudrajad, Didier V. Caillie

Abstract:

Association of Southeast Asian Countries Nations (ASEAN) is moving forward to the next level of regional integration by the initiation of ASEAN Economic Community (AEC) which is already started in 2015, 8 years after its declaration for the creation of AEC in 2007. This commitment imposes financial integration in the region is one of the main agenda which will be achieved until 2025. Therefore, the commitment to financial integration including banking integration will bring new landscape in the competition and business model in this region. This study investigates the effect of competition on bank business model using a sample of 324 banks from seven members of Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) countries (Cambodia, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Vietnam). We use market power approach and Boone indicator as competition measures, while income diversification and bank funding strategies are employed as bank business model representation. Moreover, we also evaluate bank business model based by grouping the banks based on the main banking characteristics. We use unbalanced bank-specific annual panel data over the period of 2003 – 2015. Our empirical analysis shows that the banking industries in ASEAN countries adapt their business model by increasing non-interest income proportion due to the level of competition increase in the sector.

Keywords: bank business model, banking competition, Boone indicator, market power

Procedia PDF Downloads 117