Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 22

Search results for: Sven Eder

22 Low-Emission Commuting with Micro Public Transport: Investigation of Travel Times and CO₂ Emissions

Authors: Marcel Ciesla, Victoria Oberascher, Sven Eder, Stefan Kirchweger, Wolfgang E. Baaske, Gerald Ostermayer

Abstract:

The omnipresent trend towards sustainable mobility is a major challenge, especially for commuters in rural areas. The use of micro public transport systems is expected to significantly reduce pollutant emissions, as several commuters travel the first mile together with a single pick-up bus instead of their own car. In this paper, different aspects of such a micro public transport system are analyzed. The main findings of the investigations should be how the travel times of commuters change and how many CO₂ emissions can be saved if some of the commuters use public transport instead of their own vehicle.

Keywords: micro public transport, green transportation, sustainable mobility, low-emission commuting

Procedia PDF Downloads 41
21 Imaginations of the Silk Road in Sven Hedin’s Travel Writings: 1900-1936

Authors: Kexin Tan

Abstract:

The Silk Road is a concept idiosyncratic in nature. Western scholars co-created and conceptualized in its early days, transliterated into the countries along the Silk Road, redefined, reimagined, and reconfigured by the public in the second half of the twentieth century. Therefore, the image is not only a mirror of the discursive interactions between East and West but Self and Other. The travel narrative of Sven Hedin, through which the Silk Road was enriched in meanings and popularized, is the focus of this study. This article examines how the Silk Road was imagined in three key texts of Sven Hedin: The Silk Road, The Wandering Lake, and The Flight of “Big Horse”. Three recurring themes are extracted and analyzed: the Silk Road, the land of enigmas, the virgin land, and the reconnecting road. Ideas about ethnotypes and images drawn from theorists such as Joep Leerssen have been deployed in the analysis. This research tracks how the images were configured, concentrating on China’s ethnotypes, travel writing tropes, and the Silk Road discourse that preceded Sven Hedin. Hedin’s role in his expedition, his geopolitical viewpoints, and the commercial considerations of his books are also discussed in relation to the intellectual construct of the Silk Road. It is discovered that the images of the Silk Road and the discursive traditions behind it are mobile rather than static, inclusive than antithetical. The paradoxical characters of the Silk Road reveal the complexity of the socio-historical background of Hedin’s time, as well as the collision of discursive traditions and practical issues. While it is true that Hedin’s discursive construction of the Silk Road image embodies the bias of Self-West against Other-East, its characteristics such as fluidity and openness could probably offer a hint at its resurgence in the postcolonial era.

Keywords: the silk road, Sven Hedin, imagology, ethnotype, travelogue

Procedia PDF Downloads 40
20 Comprehensive Assessment of Energy Efficiency within the Production Process

Authors: S. Kreitlein, N. Eder, J. Franke

Abstract:

The importance of energy efficiency within the production process increases steadily. Unfortunately, so far no tools for a comprehensive assessment of energy efficiency within the production process exist. Therefore the Institute for Factory Automation and Production Systems of the Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nuremberg has developed two methods with the goal of achieving transparency and a quantitative assessment of energy efficiency: EEV (Energy Efficiency Value) and EPE (Energetic Process Efficiency). This paper describes the basics and state of the art as well as the developed approaches.

Keywords: energy efficiency, energy efficiency value, energetic process efficiency, production

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19 Teaching Students Collaborative Requirements Engineering: Case Study of Red:Wire

Authors: Dagmar Monett, Sven-Erik Kujat, Marvin Hartmann

Abstract:

This paper discusses the use of a template-based approach for documenting high-quality requirements as part of course projects in an undergraduate Software Engineering course. In order to ease some of the Requirements Engineering activities that are performed when defining requirements by using the template, a new CASE tool, RED:WIRE, was first developed and later tested by students attending the course. Two questionnaires were conceived around a study that aims to analyze the new tool’s learnability as well as other obtained results concerning its usability in particular and the Requirements Engineering skills developed by the students in general.

Keywords: CASE tool, requirements engineering, SOPHIST template, undergraduate course

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18 Trash Dash: An Educational Android Game Application for Proper Waste Segregation

Authors: Marylene S. Eder, Dorothy M. Jao, Paolo Marc Nicolas S. Laspiñas, Pukilan A. Malim, Sarah Jean D. Raterta

Abstract:

Trash Dash is an android game application developed to serve as an alternative tool to practice proper waste segregation for children ages 3 years old and above. The researchers designed the application using Unity 3D and developed the text file that served as the database of the game application. An observation of a pre-school teacher shows that children know how to throw their garbage but they do not know yet how to segregate wastes. After launching the mobile application to K-2 pupils 4 – 5 years of age, the researchers have noticed that children within this age are active and motivated to learn the difference between biodegradable and non-biodegradable. Based on the result of usability test conducted, it was concluded that the game is easy to use and children will most likely use this application frequently. Furthermore, the children may need assistance from their parents and teachers when playing the game. An actual testing of the application has been conducted to different devices as well as functionality test by Thwack Application and it can be concluded that the mobile application can be launched and installed on a device with a minimum API requirement of Gingerbread (2.3.1).

Keywords: waste segregation, android application, biodegradable, non-biodegradable

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17 Tsada-MobiMinder: A Location Based Alarm Mobile Reminder

Authors: Marylene S. Eder

Abstract:

Existing location based alarm applications has inability to give information to user’s particular direction to a specified place of destination and does not display a particular scenic spot from its current location going to the destination. With this problem, a location based alarm mobile reminder was developed. The application is implemented on Android based smart phones to provide services like providing routing information, helping to find nearby hotels, restaurants and scenic spots and offer many advantages to the mobile users to retrieve the information about their current location and process that data to get more useful information near to their location. It reminds the user about the location when the user enters some predefined location. All the user needs to have is the mobile phone with android platform with version 4.0 and above, and then the user can select the destination and find the destination on the application. The main objective of the project is to develop a location based application that provides tourists with real time information for scenic spots and provides alarm to a specified place of destination. This mobile application service will act as assistance for the frequent travelers to visit new places around the City.

Keywords: location based alarm, mobile application, mobile reminder, tourist’s spots

Procedia PDF Downloads 243
16 Effect of Slope Height and Horizontal Forces on the Bearing Capacity of Strip Footings near Slopes in Cohesionless Soil

Authors: Sven Krabbenhoft, Kristian Krabbenhoft, Lars Damkilde

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The problem of determining the bearing capacity of a strip foundation located near a slope of infinite height has been dealt with by several authors. Very often in practical problems the slope is of limited height, and furthermore the resulting load may be inclined at an angle to the horizontal, and in such cases the bearing capacity of the footing cannot be found using the existing methods. The present work comprises finite element based upper- and lower-bound calculations, using the geotechnical software OptumG2 to investigate the effect of the slope height and horizontal forces on the total bearing capacity, both without and with using superposition as presupposed in the traditional bearing capacity equation. The results for friction angles 30, 35 and 40 degrees, slope inclinations 1:2, 1:3 and 1:4, for selfweight and surcharge are given as charts showing the slope inclination factors suitable for design.

Keywords: footings, bearing capacity, slopes, cohesionnless soil

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15 Iraq Water Resources Planning: Perspectives and Prognoses

Authors: Nadhir Al-Ansari, Ammar A. Ali, Sven Knutsson

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Iraq is located in the Middle East. It covers an area of 433,970 square kilometres populated by about 32 million inhabitants. Iraq greatly relies in its water resources on the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. Recently, Iraq is suffering from water shortage problems. This is due to external and internal factors. The former includes global warming and water resources policies of neighbouring countries while the latter includes mismanagement of its water resources. The supply and demand are predicted to be 43 and 66.8 Billion Cubic Meters (BCM) respectively in 2015, while in 2025 it will be 17.61 and 77 BCM respectively. In addition, future prediction suggests that Tigris and Euphrates Rivers will be completely dry in 2040. To overcome this problem, prudent water management policies are to be adopted. This includes Strategic Water Management Vision, development of irrigation techniques, reduction of water losses, use of non-conventional water resources and research and development planning.

Keywords: Iraq, Tigris River, Euphrates River, water scarcity, water resources management

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14 The Depiction of Suburbia in US-American Independent Movies

Authors: Sven Weidner

Abstract:

In the last two decades, US-American Independent Cinema has been faced with numerous metamorphoses. With regard to style, content, film aesthetics and themes a large array is offered. And as a consequence of the increasing influence of the world wide web and absolutely new ways of production opportunities alter the indie-film scene fundamentally. While in the 90s many independent films were situated in urban spaces -for instance, films of Jim Jarmusch, Abel Ferrara or Quentin Tarantino- there is a tendency from the 2000s years on to go to rural America. Jeff Nichols, Debra Granik or Matthew Porterfield can be named. Suburbia the symbol of the American Dream and in particular of an emerging prosperity after the Second World War is an essential theme with some independent directors; among them indie icons Todd Solondz and Todd Haynes. Based on selected films of both of them the paper explores the formal and aesthetic structures (narrative, drama, montage, lighting, sound, color) of the pictures and how suburbia, its people, and its "perfect" families are shown and unmasked in all facets. Films are: "Happiness" (1998), "Life During Wartime" (2009) and "Far From Heaven" (2002).

Keywords: US-independent cinema, Suburbia, film history, film analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 169
13 Analysis of Nonlinear Pulse Propagation Characteristics in Semiconductor Optical Amplifier for Different Input Pulse Shapes

Authors: Suchi Barua, Narottam Das, Sven Nordholm, Mohammad Razaghi

Abstract:

This paper presents nonlinear pulse propagation characteristics for different input optical pulse shapes with various input pulse energy levels in semiconductor optical amplifiers. For simulation of nonlinear pulse propagation, finite-difference beam propagation method is used to solve the nonlinear Schrödinger equation. In this equation, gain spectrum dynamics, gain saturation are taken into account which depends on carrier depletion, carrier heating, spectral-hole burning, group velocity dispersion, self-phase modulation and two photon absorption. From this analysis, we obtained the output waveforms and spectra for different input pulse shapes as well as for different input energies. It shows clearly that the peak position of the output waveforms are shifted toward the leading edge which due to the gain saturation of the SOA for higher input pulse energies. We also analyzed and compared the normalized difference of full-width at half maximum for different input pulse shapes in the SOA.

Keywords: finite-difference beam propagation method, pulse shape, pulse propagation, semiconductor optical amplifier

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12 Adsorption of Dyes and Iodine: Reaching Outstanding Kinetics with CuII-Based Metal–Organic Nanoballs

Authors: Eder Amayuelas, Begoña Bazán, M. Karmele Urtiaga, Gotzone Barandika, María I. Arriortua

Abstract:

Metal Organic Frameworks (MOFs) have attracted great interest in recent years, taking a lead role in the field of catalysis, drug delivery, sensors and absorption. In the past decade, promising results have been reported specifically in the field of adsorption, based on the topology and chemical features of this type of porous material. Thus, its application in industry and environment for the adsorption of pollutants is presented as a response to an increasingly important need. In this area, organic dyes are nowadays widely used in many industries including medicine, textile, leather, printing and plastics. The consequence of this fact is that dyes are present as emerging pollutants in soils and water where they remain for long periods of time due to their high stability, with a potential risk of toxicity in wildlife and in humans. On the other hand, the presence of iodine in soils, water and gas as a nuclear activity pollutant product or its extended use as a germicide is still a problem in many countries, which indicates the imperative need for its removal. In this context, this work presents the characterization as an adsorbent of the activated compound α[email protected] obtained from the already reported [Cu₂₄(m-BDC)₂₄(DMF)₂₀(H₂O)₄]•24DMF•40H₂O ([email protected]), where m-BDC is the 1,3-benzenedicarboxylic ligand and DMF is N,N′-dimethylformamide. The structure of [email protected] consists of Cu24 clusters arranged in such a way that 12 paddle-wheels are connected through m-BDC ligands. The clusters exhibit an internal cavity where crystallization molecules of DMF and water are located. Adsorption of dyes and iodine as pollutant examples has been carried out, focusing attention on the kinetics of the rapid process.

Keywords: adsorption, organic dyes, iodine, metal organic frameworks

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11 Long-Range Transport of Biomass Burning Aerosols over South America: A Case Study in the 2019 Amazon Rainforest Wildfires Season

Authors: Angel Liduvino Vara-Vela, Dirceu Luis Herdies, Debora Souza Alvim, Eder Paulo Vendrasco, Silvio Nilo Figueroa, Jayant Pendharkar, Julio Pablo Reyes Fernandez

Abstract:

Biomass-burning episodes are quite common in the central Amazon rainforest and represent a dominant source of aerosols during the dry season, between August and October. The increase in the occurrence of fires in 2019 in the world’s largest biomes has captured the attention of the international community. In particular, a rare and extreme smoke-related event occurred in the afternoon of Monday, August 19, 2019, in the most populous city in the Western Hemisphere, the São Paulo Metropolitan Area (SPMA), located in southeastern Brazil. The sky over the SPMA suddenly blackened, with the day turning into night, as reported by several news media around the world. In order to clarify whether or not the smoke that plunged the SPMA into sudden darkness was related to wildfires in the Amazon rainforest region, a set of 48-hour simulations over South America were performed using the Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) model at 20 km horizontal resolution, on a daily basis, during the period from August 16 to August 19, 2019. The model results were satisfactorily compared against satellite-based data products and in situ measurements collected from air quality monitoring sites. Although a very strong smoke transport coming from the Amazon rainforest was observed in the middle of the afternoon on August 19, its impact on air quality over the SPMA took place in upper levels far above the surface, where, conversely, low air pollutant concentrations were observed.

Keywords: Amazon rainforest, biomass burning aerosols, São Paulo metropolitan area, WRF-Chem model

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10 Impact of Curvatures in the Dike Line on Wave Run-up and Wave Overtopping, ConDike-Project

Authors: Malte Schilling, Mahmoud M. Rabah, Sven Liebisch

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Wave run-up and overtopping are the relevant parameters for the dimensioning of the crest height of dikes. Various experimental as well as numerical studies have investigated these parameters under different boundary conditions (e.g. wave conditions, structure type). Particularly for the dike design in Europe, a common approach is formulated where wave and structure properties are parameterized. However, this approach assumes equal run-up heights and overtopping discharges along the longitudinal axis. However, convex dikes have a heterogeneous crest by definition. Hence, local differences in a convex dike line are expected to cause wave-structure interactions different to a straight dike. This study aims to assess both run-up and overtopping at convexly curved dikes. To cast light on the relevance of curved dikes for the design approach mentioned above, physical model tests were conducted in a 3D wave basin of the Ludwig-Franzius-Institute Hannover. A dike of a slope of 1:6 (height over length) was tested under both regular waves and TMA wave spectra. Significant wave heights ranged from 7 to 10 cm and peak periods from 1.06 to 1.79 s. Both run-up and overtopping was assessed behind the curved and straight sections of the dike. Both measurements were compared to a dike with a straight line. It was observed that convex curvatures in the longitudinal dike line cause a redirection of incident waves leading to a concentration around the center point. Measurements prove that both run-up heights and overtopping rates are higher than on the straight dike. It can be concluded that deviations from a straight longitudinal dike line have an impact on design parameters and imply uncertainties within the design approach in force. Therefore, it is recommended to consider these influencing factors for such cases.

Keywords: convex dike, longitudinal curvature, overtopping, run-up

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9 The Role of Leukocyte-Derived IL-10 on Postoperative ileus and Intestinal Macrophage Differentiation in Mice

Authors: Kathy Stein, Mariola Lysson, Anja Schmidt, Beatrix Schumak, Sabine Specht, Hicham Bouabe, Jürgen Heesemann, Axel Roers, Joerg C. Kalff, Sven Wehner

Abstract:

Objective: Postoperative ileus (POI) is a common complication of abdominal surgery. Monocyte infiltration is a hallmark of POI. The polarization of macrophages/monocytes in this process is not well understood. We aimed to investigate if and how M2 macrophage/monocyte differentiation is involved in POI pathogenesis. Design: POI was induced by intestinal manipulation (IM). C57Bl/6, CCR2-/-, IL-10 reporter (ITIB), IL-10-/- and LysMcre/IL-10fl/fl mice underwent IM. At various points in time leukocyte influx, gene and protein expression of cytokines, chemokines and M2 differentiation markers and intestinal motility were analyzed. Results: IM induced the postoperative expression of the M2 markers Arginase-1 and YM-1, predominantly in F4/80+Ly6C+ monocytes. Gene expression analyses indicated an IL-10-dependent, IL-4-independent M2 polarization of these monocytes. IL-10 dependency of M2 differentiation was confirmed in IL-10 deficient mice. Leukocytes, in the order of infiltrating monocytes, neutrophils, and resident macrophages were the main IL-10 producers during POI. IL-10 producing monocytes as well as M2 marker expression were almost absent in CCR2-deficient mice. However, postoperative IL-10 expression was not altered in CCR2-/- mice. The loss of M2 polarized monocytes neither protected CCR2-/- mice from nor affected resolution of POI. In contrast, IL-10 deficiency reduced postoperative neutrophil numbers and ameliorated POI. IL-10Ra expression was strongly induced in neutrophils but not in monocytes. Conclusion: We conclude that IL-10 counteracts POI resolution by activating IL-10Ra-expressing neutrophils in the late phase of disease while IL-10-dependent M2 differentiation is not pivotal to POI manifestation and resolution.

Keywords: interleukin-10, macrophages, neutrophils, postoperative ileus

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8 Immune Complex Components Act as Agents in Relapsing Fever Borrelia Mediated Rosette Formation

Authors: Mukunda Upreti, Jill Storry, Rafael Björk, Emilie Louvet, Johan Normark, Sven Bergström

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Borrelia duttonii and most other relapsing fever species are Gram-negative bacteria which cause a blood borne infection characterized by the binding of bacterium to erythrocytes. The bacteria associate with two or more erythrocytes to form clusters of cells into rosettes. Rosetting is a major virulence factor and the mechanism is believed to facilitate persistence of bacteria in the circulatory system and the avoidance of host immune cells through masking or steric hindrance effects. However, the molecular mechanisms of rosette formation are still poorly understood. This study aims at determining the molecules involved in the rosette formation phenomenon. Fractionated serum, using different affinity purification methods, was investigated as a rosetting agent and IgG and at least one other serum components were needed for rosettes to form. An IgG titration curve demonstrated that IgG alone is not enough to restore rosette formation level to the level whole serum gives. IgG hydrolysis by IdeS ( Immunoglobulin G-degrading enzyme of Streptococcus pyogenes) and deglycosylation using N-Glycanase proved that the whole IgG molecule regardless of saccharide moieties is critical for Borrelia induced rosetting. Complement components C3 and C4 were also important serum molecules necessary to maintain optimum rosetting rates. The deactivation of complement network and serum depletion with C3 and C4 significantly reduced the rosette formation rate. The dependency of IgG and complement components also implied involvement of the complement receptor (CR1). Rosette formation test with Knops null RBC and sCR1 confirmed that CR1 is also part of Borrelia induced rosette formation.

Keywords: complement components C3 and C4, complement receptor 1, Immunoglobulin G, Knops null, Rosetting

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7 Multidisciplinary Approach for a Tsunami Reconstruction Plan in Coquimbo, Chile

Authors: Ileen Van den Berg, Reinier J. Daals, Chris E. M. Heuberger, Sven P. Hildering, Bob E. Van Maris, Carla M. Smulders, Rafael Aránguiz

Abstract:

Chile is located along the subduction zone of the Nazca plate beneath the South American plate, where large earthquakes and tsunamis have taken place throughout history. The last significant earthquake (Mw 8.2) occurred in September 2015 and generated a destructive tsunami, which mainly affected the city of Coquimbo (71.33°W, 29.96°S). The inundation area consisted of a beach, damaged seawall, damaged railway, wetland and old neighborhood; therefore, local authorities started a reconstruction process immediately after the event. Moreover, a seismic gap has been identified in the same area, and another large event could take place in the near future. The present work proposed an integrated tsunami reconstruction plan for the city of Coquimbo that considered several variables such as safety, nature & recreation, neighborhood welfare, visual obstruction, infrastructure, construction process, and durability & maintenance. Possible future tsunami scenarios are simulated by means of the Non-hydrostatic Evolution of Ocean WAVEs (NEOWAVE) model with 5 nested grids and a higher grid resolution of ~10 m. Based on the score from a multi-criteria analysis, the costs of the alternatives and a preference for a multifunctional solution, the alternative that includes an elevated coastal road with floodgates to reduce tsunami overtopping and control the return flow of a tsunami was selected as the best solution. It was also observed that the wetlands are significantly restored to their former configuration; moreover, the dynamic behavior of the wetlands is stimulated. The numerical simulation showed that the new coastal protection decreases damage and the probability of loss of life by delaying tsunami arrival time. In addition, new evacuation routes and a smaller inundation zone in the city increase safety for the area.

Keywords: tsunami, Coquimbo, Chile, reconstruction, numerical simulation

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6 Preferences of Electric Buses in Public Transport; Conclusions from Real Life Testing in Eight Swedish Municipalities

Authors: Sven Borén, Lisiana Nurhadi, Henrik Ny

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From a theoretical perspective, electric buses can be more sustainable and can be cheaper than fossil fuelled buses in city traffic. The authors have not found other studies based on actual urban public transport in Swedish winter climate. Further on, noise measurements from buses for the European market were found old. The aims of this follow-up study was therefore to test and possibly verify in a real-life environment how energy efficient and silent electric buses are, and then conclude on if electric buses are preferable to use in public transport. The Ebusco 2.0 electric bus, fitted with a 311 kWh battery pack, was used and the tests were carried out during November 2014-April 2015 in eight municipalities in the south of Sweden. Six tests took place in urban traffic and two took place in more of a rural traffic setting. The energy use for propulsion was measured via logging of the internal system in the bus and via an external charging meter. The average energy use turned out to be 8% less (0,96 kWh/km) than assumed in the earlier theoretical study. This rate allows for a 320 km range in public urban traffic. The interior of the bus was kept warm by a diesel heater (biodiesel will probably be used in a future operational traffic situation), which used 0,67 kWh/km in January. This verified that electric buses can be up to 25% cheaper when used in public transport in cities for about eight years. The noise was found to be lower, primarily during acceleration, than for buses with combustion engines in urban bus traffic. According to our surveys, most passengers and drivers appreciated the silent and comfortable ride and preferred electric buses rather than combustion engine buses. Bus operators and passenger transport executives were also positive to start using electric buses for public transport. The operators did however point out that procurement processes need to account for eventual risks regarding this new technology, along with personnel education. The study revealed that it is possible to establish a charging infrastructure for almost all studied bus lines. However, design of a charging infrastructure for each municipality requires further investigations, including electric grid capacity analysis, smart location of charging points, and tailored schedules to allow fast charging. In conclusion, electric buses proved to be a preferable alternative for all stakeholders involved in public bus transport in the studied municipalities. However, in order to electric buses to be a prominent support for sustainable development, they need to be charged either by stand-alone units or via an expansion of the electric grid, and the electricity should be made from new renewable sources.

Keywords: sustainability, electric, bus, noise, greencharge

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5 Multi-Criteria Evolutionary Algorithm to Develop Efficient Schedules for Complex Maintenance Problems

Authors: Sven Tackenberg, Sönke Duckwitz, Andreas Petz, Christopher M. Schlick

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This paper introduces an extension to the well-established Resource-Constrained Project Scheduling Problem (RCPSP) to apply it to complex maintenance problems. The problem is to assign technicians to a team which has to process several tasks with multi-level skill requirements during a work shift. Here, several alternative activities for a task allow both, the temporal shift of activities or the reallocation of technicians and tools. As a result, switches from one valid work process variant to another can be considered and may be selected by the developed evolutionary algorithm based on the present skill level of technicians or the available tools. An additional complication of the observed scheduling problem is that the locations of the construction sites are only temporarily accessible during a day. Due to intensive rail traffic, the available time slots for maintenance and repair works are extremely short and are often distributed throughout the day. To identify efficient working periods, a first concept of a Bayesian network is introduced and is integrated into the extended RCPSP with pre-emptive and non-pre-emptive tasks. Thereby, the Bayesian network is used to calculate the probability of a maintenance task to be processed during a specific period of the shift. Focusing on the domain of maintenance of the railway infrastructure in metropolitan areas as the most unproductive implementation process at construction site, the paper illustrates how the extended RCPSP can be applied for maintenance planning support. A multi-criteria evolutionary algorithm with a problem representation is introduced which is capable of revising technician-task allocations, whereas the duration of the task may be stochastic. The approach uses a novel activity list representation to ensure easily describable and modifiable elements which can be converted into detailed shift schedules. Thereby, the main objective is to develop a shift plan which maximizes the utilization of each technician due to a minimization of the waiting times caused by rail traffic. The results of the already implemented core algorithm illustrate a fast convergence towards an optimal team composition for a shift, an efficient sequence of tasks and a high probability of the subsequent implementation due to the stochastic durations of the tasks. In the paper, the algorithm for the extended RCPSP is analyzed in experimental evaluation using real-world example problems with various size, resource complexity, tightness and so forth.

Keywords: maintenance management, scheduling, resource constrained project scheduling problem, genetic algorithms

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4 A Strategic Sustainability Analysis of Electric Vehicles in EU Today and Towards 2050

Authors: Sven Borén, Henrik Ny

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Ambitions within the EU for moving towards sustainable transport include major emission reductions for fossil fuel road vehicles, especially for buses, trucks, and cars. The electric driveline seems to be an attractive solution for such development. This study first applied the Framework for Strategic Sustainable Development to compare sustainability effects of today’s fossil fuel vehicles with electric vehicles that have batteries or hydrogen fuel cells. The study then addressed a scenario were electric vehicles might be in majority in Europe by 2050. The methodology called Strategic Lifecycle Assessment was first used, were each life cycle phase was assessed for violations against sustainability principles. This indicates where further analysis could be done in order to quantify the magnitude of each violation, and later to create alternative strategies and actions that lead towards sustainability. A Life Cycle Assessment of combustion engine cars, plug-in hybrid cars, battery electric cars and hydrogen fuel cell cars was then conducted to compare and quantify environmental impacts. The authors found major violations of sustainability principles like use of fossil fuels, which contribute to the increase of emission related impacts such as climate change, acidification, eutrophication, ozone depletion, and particulate matters. Other violations were found, such as use of scarce materials for batteries and fuel cells, and also for most life cycle phases for all vehicles when using fossil fuel vehicles for mining, production and transport. Still, the studied current battery and hydrogen fuel cell cars have less severe violations than fossil fuel cars. The life cycle assessment revealed that fossil fuel cars have overall considerably higher environmental impacts compared to electric cars as long as the latter are powered by renewable electricity. By 2050, there will likely be even more sustainable alternatives than the studied electric vehicles when the EU electricity mix mainly should stem from renewable sources, batteries should be recycled, fuel cells should be a mature technology for use in vehicles (containing no scarce materials), and electric drivelines should have replaced combustion engines in other sectors. An uncertainty for fuel cells in 2050 is whether the production of hydrogen will have had time to switch to renewable resources. If so, that would contribute even more to a sustainable development. Except for being adopted in the GreenCharge roadmap, the authors suggest that the results can contribute to planning in the upcoming decades for a sustainable increase of EVs in Europe, and potentially serve as an inspiration for other smaller or larger regions. Further studies could map the environmental effects in LCA further, and include other road vehicles to get a more precise perception of how much they could affect sustainable development.

Keywords: strategic, electric vehicles, sustainability, LCA

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3 Automated System: Managing the Production and Distribution of Radiopharmaceuticals

Authors: Shayma Mohammed, Adel Trabelsi

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Radiopharmacy is the art of preparing high-quality, radioactive, medicinal products for use in diagnosis and therapy. Radiopharmaceuticals unlike normal medicines, this dual aspect (radioactive, medical) makes their management highly critical. One of the most convincing applications of modern technologies is the ability to delegate the execution of repetitive tasks to programming scripts. Automation has found its way to the most skilled jobs, to improve the company's overall performance by allowing human workers to focus on more important tasks than document filling. This project aims to contribute to implement a comprehensive system to insure rigorous management of radiopharmaceuticals through the use of a platform that links the Nuclear Medicine Service Management System to the Nuclear Radio-pharmacy Management System in accordance with the recommendations of World Health Organization (WHO) and International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). In this project we attempt to build a web application that targets radiopharmacies, the platform is built atop the inherently compatible web stack which allows it to work in virtually any environment. Different technologies are used in this project (PHP, Symfony, MySQL Workbench, Bootstrap, Angular 7, Visual Studio Code and TypeScript). The operating principle of the platform is mainly based on two parts: Radiopharmaceutical Backoffice for the Radiopharmacian, who is responsible for the realization of radiopharmaceutical preparations and their delivery and Medical Backoffice for the Doctor, who holds the authorization for the possession and use of radionuclides and he/she is responsible for ordering radioactive products. The application consists of sven modules: Production, Quality Control/Quality Assurance, Release, General Management, References, Transport and Stock Management. It allows 8 classes of users: The Production Manager (PM), Quality Control Manager (QCM), Stock Manager (SM), General Manager (GM), Client (Doctor), Parking and Transport Manager (PTM), Qualified Person (QP) and Technical and Production Staff. Digital platform bringing together all players involved in the use of radiopharmaceuticals and integrating the stages of preparation, production and distribution, Web technologies, in particular, promise to offer all the benefits of automation while requiring no more than a web browser to act as a user client, which is a strength because the web stack is by nature multi-platform. This platform will provide a traceability system for radiopharmaceuticals products to ensure the safety and radioprotection of actors and of patients. The new integrated platform is an alternative to write all the boilerplate paperwork manually, which is a tedious and error-prone task. It would minimize manual human manipulation, which has proven to be the main source of error in nuclear medicine. A codified electronic transfer of information from radiopharmaceutical preparation to delivery will further reduce the risk of maladministration.

Keywords: automated system, management, radiopharmacy, technical papers

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2 Multiaxial Stress Based High Cycle Fatigue Model for Adhesive Joint Interfaces

Authors: Martin Alexander Eder, Sergei Semenov

Abstract:

Many glass-epoxy composite structures, such as large utility wind turbine rotor blades (WTBs), comprise of adhesive joints with typically thick bond lines used to connect the different components during assembly. Performance optimization of rotor blades to increase power output by simultaneously maintaining high stiffness-to-low-mass ratios entails intricate geometries in conjunction with complex anisotropic material behavior. Consequently, adhesive joints in WTBs are subject to multiaxial stress states with significant stress gradients depending on the local joint geometry. Moreover, the dynamic aero-elastic interaction of the WTB with the airflow generates non-proportional, variable amplitude stress histories in the material. Empiricism shows that a prominent failure type in WTBs is high cycle fatigue failure of adhesive bond line interfaces, which in fact over time developed into a design driver as WTB sizes increase rapidly. Structural optimization employed at an early design stage, therefore, sets high demands on computationally efficient interface fatigue models capable of predicting the critical locations prone for interface failure. The numerical stress-based interface fatigue model presented in this work uses the Drucker-Prager criterion to compute three different damage indices corresponding to the two interface shear tractions and the outward normal traction. The two-parameter Drucker-Prager model was chosen because of its ability to consider shear strength enhancement under compression and shear strength reduction under tension. The governing interface damage index is taken as the maximum of the triple. The damage indices are computed through the well-known linear Palmgren-Miner rule after separate rain flow-counting of the equivalent shear stress history and the equivalent pure normal stress history. The equivalent stress signals are obtained by self-similar scaling of the Drucker-Prager surface whose shape is defined by the uniaxial tensile strength and the shear strength such that it intersects with the stress point at every time step. This approach implicitly assumes that the damage caused by the prevailing multiaxial stress state is the same as the damage caused by an amplified equivalent uniaxial stress state in the three interface directions. The model was implemented as Python plug-in for the commercially available finite element code Abaqus for its use with solid elements. The model was used to predict the interface damage of an adhesively bonded, tapered glass-epoxy composite cantilever I-beam tested by LM Wind Power under constant amplitude compression-compression tip load in the high cycle fatigue regime. Results show that the model was able to predict the location of debonding in the adhesive interface between the webfoot and the cap. Moreover, with a set of two different constant life diagrams namely in shear and tension, it was possible to predict both the fatigue lifetime and the failure mode of the sub-component with reasonable accuracy. It can be concluded that the fidelity, robustness and computational efficiency of the proposed model make it especially suitable for rapid fatigue damage screening of large 3D finite element models subject to complex dynamic load histories.

Keywords: adhesive, fatigue, interface, multiaxial stress

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1 Describing Cognitive Decline in Alzheimer's Disease via a Picture Description Writing Task

Authors: Marielle Leijten, Catherine Meulemans, Sven De Maeyer, Luuk Van Waes

Abstract:

For the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), a large variety of neuropsychological tests are available. In some of these tests, linguistic processing - both oral and written - is an important factor. Language disturbances might serve as a strong indicator for an underlying neurodegenerative disorder like AD. However, the current diagnostic instruments for language assessment mainly focus on product measures, such as text length or number of errors, ignoring the importance of the process that leads to written or spoken language production. In this study, it is our aim to describe and test differences between cognitive and impaired elderly on the basis of a selection of writing process variables (inter- and intrapersonal characteristics). These process variables are mainly related to pause times, because the number, length, and location of pauses have proven to be an important indicator of the cognitive complexity of a process. Method: Participants that were enrolled in our research were chosen on the basis of a number of basic criteria necessary to collect reliable writing process data. Furthermore, we opted to match the thirteen cognitively impaired patients (8 MCI and 5 AD) with thirteen cognitively healthy elderly. At the start of the experiment, participants were each given a number of tests, such as the Mini-Mental State Examination test (MMSE), the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), the forward and backward digit span and the Edinburgh Handedness Inventory (EHI). Also, a questionnaire was used to collect socio-demographic information (age, gender, eduction) of the subjects as well as more details on their level of computer literacy. The tests and questionnaire were followed by two typing tasks and two picture description tasks. For the typing tasks participants had to copy (type) characters, words and sentences from a screen, whereas the picture description tasks each consisted of an image they had to describe in a few sentences. Both the typing and the picture description tasks were logged with Inputlog, a keystroke logging tool that allows us to log and time stamp keystroke activity to reconstruct and describe text production processes. The main rationale behind keystroke logging is that writing fluency and flow reveal traces of the underlying cognitive processes. This explains the analytical focus on pause (length, number, distribution, location, etc.) and revision (number, type, operation, embeddedness, location, etc.) characteristics. As in speech, pause times are seen as indexical of cognitive effort. Results. Preliminary analysis already showed some promising results concerning pause times before, within and after words. For all variables, mixed effects models were used that included participants as a random effect and MMSE scores, GDS scores and word categories (such as determiners and nouns) as a fixed effect. For pause times before and after words cognitively impaired patients paused longer than healthy elderly. These variables did not show an interaction effect between the group participants (cognitively impaired or healthy elderly) belonged to and word categories. However, pause times within words did show an interaction effect, which indicates pause times within certain word categories differ significantly between patients and healthy elderly.

Keywords: Alzheimer's disease, keystroke logging, matching, writing process

Procedia PDF Downloads 243