Search results for: urban environment
10428 Urban Furniture: Relationship between Metropolises Environment and Humans
Authors: Najmehossadat Enjoo
Abstract:Beautification means all mindfully measurements to improve quality of urban environment which makes the city more suitable for its inhabitants' life. Purpose of beautification is to provide an environment in which all citizens take pleasure. Beautification aims at urban environment's quality improvement. In space among buildings and constructions some supplementary elements are required to furnish urban life; equipment like house furniture makes life possible in a space surrounded with stones, concrete, and glass. Such elements regulate the flow of movement, rest, recreation and stress in a city and exhilarate it. Urban furniture is the common term used for such facilities and capabilities. Nowadays, experience and application of urban elements have proved that to what extent using proper equipment and furniture can positively affect the citizens and users of urban environments.
Keywords: urban servitudes, urban design, urban furniture, visage of cityProcedia PDF Downloads 350
10427 Research on the Mode and Strategy of Urban Renewal in the Old Urban Area of China: A Case Study of Chongqing City
Authors: Sun Ailu, Zhao Wanmin
Abstract:In the process of rapid urbanization, old urban renewal is an important task in China's urban construction. This study, using status survey and Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) method, taking Chongqing of China as an example, puts forward the problems faced by the old urban area from the aspects of function, facilities and environment. Further, this study summarizes the types of the old urban area and proposes space renewal strategies for three typical old urban areas, such as old residential area, old factory and old market. These old urban areas are confronted with the problems of functional layout confounding, lack of infrastructure and poor living environment. At last, this paper proposes spatial strategies for urban renewal, which are hoped to be useful for urban renewal management in China.
Keywords: old urban renewal, renewal mode, renewal strategy, Chongqing, ChinaProcedia PDF Downloads 115
10426 Application of RayMan Model in Quantifying the Impacts of the Built Environment and Surface Properties on Surrounding Temperature
Authors: Maryam Karimi, Rouzbeh Nazari
Abstract:Introduction: Understanding thermal distribution in the micro-urban climate has now been necessary for urban planners or designers due to the impact of complex micro-scale features of Urban Heat Island (UHI) on the built environment and public health. Hence, understanding the interrelation between urban components and thermal pattern can assist planners in the proper addition of vegetation to build-environment, which can minimize the UHI impact. To characterize the need for urban green infrastructure (UGI) through better urban planning, this study proposes the use of RayMan model to measure the impact of air quality and increased temperature based on urban morphology in the selected metropolitan cities. This project will measure the impact of build environment for urban and regional planning using human biometeorological evaluations (Tmrt). Methods: We utilized the RayMan model to estimate the Tmrt in an urban environment incorporating location and height of buildings and trees as a supplemental tool in urban planning and street design. The estimated Tmrt value will be compared with existing surface and air temperature data to find the actual temperature felt by pedestrians. Results: Our current results suggest a strong relationship between sky-view factor (SVF) and increased surface temperature in megacities based on current urban morphology. Conclusion: This study will help with Quantifying the impacts of the built environment and surface properties on surrounding temperature, identifying priority urban neighborhoods by analyzing Tmrt and air quality data at the pedestrian level, and characterizing the need for urban green infrastructure cooling potential.
Keywords: built environment, urban planning, urban cooling, extreme heatProcedia PDF Downloads 47
10425 Urban Resilience: Relation between COVID-19 and Urban Environment in Amman City
Authors: Layla Mujahed
Abstract:COVID-19 is an exam for all the city’s systems. It shows many gaps in the systems such as healthcare, economic, social, and environment. This pandemic is paving for a new era, an era of technology and it has changed people’s lives, such as physical, and emotional changes, and converting communication into digitalized. The effect of COVID-19 has covered all urban city parts. COVID-19 will not be the last pandemic our cities will face. For that, more researches focus on enhancing the quality of the urban environment. This pandemic encourages a rethinking of the environment’s role, especially in cities. Cities are trying to provide the best suitable strategies and regulations to prevent the spread of COVID-19, and an example of that is Amman city. Amman has a high increment in the number of COVID-19 infected people, while it has controlled the situation for months. For that, this paper studies the relation between COVID-19 and urban environmental studies cases about cities around the world, and learns from their models to face COVID-19. In Amman, people’s behavior has changed towards public transportation and public green spaces. New governmental regulations focus on increasing people’s mental awareness, supporting local businesses, and enhancing neighborhood planning that can help Amman to face any future pandemics.
Keywords: COVID-19, urban environment, urban planning, urban resilienceProcedia PDF Downloads 62
10424 Analyzing Land use change and its impacts on the Urban Environment in a Fast Growing Metropolitan City of Pakistan
Authors: Muhammad Nasar-u-Minallah, Dagmar Haase, Salman Qureshi
Abstract:In a rapidly growing developing country cities are becoming more urbanized leading to modifications in urban climate. Rapid urbanization, especially unplanned urban land expansion, together with climate change has a profound impact on the urban settlement and urban thermal environment. Cities, particularly Pakistan are facing remarkably environmental issues and uneven development, and thus it is important to strengthen the investigation of urban environmental pressure brought by land-use changes and urbanization. The present study investigated the long term modification of the urban environment by urbanization utilizing Spatio-temporal dynamics of land-use change, urban population data, urban heat islands, monthly maximum, and minimum temperature of thirty years, multi remote sensing imageries, and spectral indices such as Normalized Difference Built-up Index and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index. The results indicate rapid growth in an urban built-up area and a reduction in vegetation cover in the last three decades (1990-2020). A positive correlation between urban heat islands and Normalized Difference Built-up Index, whereas a negative correlation between urban heat islands and the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index clearly shows how urbanization is affecting the local environment. The increase in air and land surface temperature temperatures is dangerous to human comfort. Practical approaches, such as increasing the urban green spaces and proper planning of the cities, have been suggested to help prevent further modification of the urban thermal environment by urbanization. The findings of this work are thus important for multi-sectorial use in the cities of Pakistan. By taking into consideration these results, the urban planners, decision-makers, and local government can make different policies to mitigate the urban land use impacts on the urban thermal environment in Pakistan.
Keywords: land use, urban environment, local climate, LahoreProcedia PDF Downloads 40
10423 Effect of Urban Informal Settlements and Outdoor Advertisement on the Quality of Built Environment and Urban Upgrading in Nigeria
Authors: Amao Funmilayo Lanrewaju, T. Ogunlade
Abstract:The paper examines the causes and characteristics of informal settlements and outdoor advertisement in the evaluation of quality of environment. The paper identifies the problems that have aided informal settlements to: Urbanization, poverty, growth of informal sector, non-affordability of land and housing shortage. The paper asserts that the informal settlements have serious adverse effects on the people’s health, their built environment and quality of life. The secondary data was obtained from books, journals and seminar papers. The paper argues that, although the urban upgrading possesses great potential for improving quality of built environment in informal settlements, there is a need to repackage the upgrading exercise so that majority can benefit from it. It is necessary to incorporate community participation into the urban upgrading in order to assist the very poor that cannot take care of their housing consumption needs. Therefore, government is encouraged to see informal settlements as a solution to new city planning rather than problem to the urban areas. This paper suggests the implementation of policies and planning, physical infrastructural development, social economic improvement, environment and health improvement. Government, private and communities interventions on informal settlements are required in order to prevent further decay for sustainable development.
Keywords: quality of environment, informal settlements, urban upgrading, outdoor advertisementProcedia PDF Downloads 398
10422 Review of Urban Vitality in China: Exploring the Theoretical Framework, Characteristics, and Assessment Systems
Abstract:As China's urban construction enters a new phase of 'stock optimization,' the key point of urban development has shifted to the development and reuse of existing public space. However, cities still face a series of challenges, such as the shortage of space quantity and insufficient space quality, which indirectly affect urban vitality. A review of the vitality of urban public space will significantly contribute to optimizing the quality of the urban built environment. It firstly analyses the research hotspots of urban vitality at home and abroad, based on a semi-systematic literature review. Then this paper summarizes the theoretical definitions of the vitality of urban public space and sorts out the influencing factors from the perspectives of society, environment, and users. Lastly, the paper concludes with the mainstream quantitative and evaluation methods, such as linear evaluation and integrated evaluation. This paper renders a multi-theoretical perspective to understand the characteristics and evaluation system of the vitality of public space, which helps to acknowledge the dynamic relationship between users, urban environment, and vitality. It also looks forward to providing optimal design strategies for constructing a vigorous public space in future cities.
Keywords: public space, quantification of vitality, spatial vitality, urban vitalityProcedia PDF Downloads 35
10421 Assessment of Sustainable Sanitation Systems: Urban Slums
Authors: Ali Hamza, Bertug Akintug
Abstract:Having an appropriate plan of sanitation systems is one of the critical issues for global urban slums. Poor sanitation systems in urban slums outcomes an enhanced vulnerability of severe diseases, low hygiene and environmental risks within our environment. Mentioning human excreta being one of the most highly risked pollutants among all the other major contributors of sanitation pollutants is increasing public health risks and amounts of pollution loads within the slum environment. Higher population growth, urge of urbanization and illegal status of urban slums makes it impossible to increase the level of performance of sanitation systems in urban slums. According to Sustainable Sanitation Alliance, design parameters for sanitation systems were set up to ensure sustainable environment. This paper reviews the characteristics of human excreta at present, treatment technologies, and procedures of processes that can be adopted feasibly in the urban slums. Keeping these factors as our significant concern of study, assessment of sustainable sanitation systems is done using sanitation chain concept in accordance to the pre-determined sustainability indicators and criteria which reflect the potential and feasible application of waterless sanitation systems bringing sustainable sanitation systems in urban slums.
Keywords: human excreta, sanitation chain, sustainable sanitation systems, urban slumsProcedia PDF Downloads 252
10420 Renewed Urban Waterfront: Spatial Conditions of a Contemporary Urban Space Typology
Authors: Beate Niemann, Fabian Pramel
Abstract:The formerly industrially or militarily used Urban Waterfront is a potential area for urban development. Extensive interventions in the urban space come along with the development of these previously inaccessible areas in the city. The development of the Urban Waterfront in the European City is not subject to any recognizable urban paradigm. In this study, the development of the Urban Waterfront as a new urban space typology is analyzed by case studies of Urban Waterfront developments in European Cities. For humans, perceptible spatial conditions are categorized and it is identified whether the themed Urban Waterfront Developments are congruent or incongruent urban design interventions and which deviations the Urban Waterfront itself induce. As congruent urban design, a design is understood, which fits in the urban fabric regarding its similar spatial conditions to the surrounding. Incongruent urban design, however, shows significantly different conditions in its shape. Finally, the spatial relationship of the themed Urban Waterfront developments and their associated environment are compared in order to identify contrasts between new and old urban space. In this way, conclusions about urban design paradigms of the new urban space typology are tried to be drawn.
Keywords: composition, congruence, identity, paradigm, spatial condition, urban design, urban development, urban waterfrontProcedia PDF Downloads 291
10419 Cultural Environment, Behavior and Diabetes Melitus Incident in Urban Area of Semarang, Indonesia
Authors: Oktia Woro Kasmini Handayani, Sri Ratna Rahayu, Efa Nugroho, Berta Kalswahermawati
Abstract:Diabetes occurs 10 years faster in the Southeast Asian region than the European region, which occurs in the most productive periods. Cultural differences as well as cultural transitions can be determinant factors of health cases in urban and rural areas. The purpose of this research is to analyze the effect of the cultural environment, behavior and the occurrence of diabetes mellitus in urban areas of Semarang, Indonesia. The research was conducted in the area of Semarang Regency, using a quantitative approach and supported by qualitative data, the population is DM type 2 patients, sample size of 200 people, with a purposive sampling technique. The independent variable consists of cultural environment, behavior, and the dependent variable is DM. The data is analyzed with regression test method. Cultural environment affects behavior positively, with t value of 4,690 and p (sig.) 0.000, this means sig <0.05, while the effect of behavior on Diabetes Mellitus obtained t value 2.950 with p-value (sig.) 0.003 this means that sig <0.05, thus it can be interpreted that the behavior has a significant effect on Diabetes Mellitus. The cultural environment directly affects the incidence of DM. It can also shape a person's behavior or lifestyle or habit, whether healthy or unhealthy one, which in turn causes symptoms of DM.
Keywords: Behavior, Cultural Environment, Diebetes Millitus, UrbanProcedia PDF Downloads 66
10418 The Aspect of Urban Inequality after Urban Redevelopment Projects
Authors: Sungik Kang, Ja-Hoon Koo
Abstract:Globally, urban environments have become unequal, and cities have been segmented by income class. It is predicted that urban inequality has arisen by urban redevelopment and reconstruction projects that improve the urban environment and innovate cities. This study aims to analyze the occurrence and characteristics of urban inequality by using the housing price and sale price and demonstrating the correlation with the urban redevelopment project. This study measures 14 years of urban inequality index for 25 autonomous districts in Seoul and analyzes the correlation between urban inequality with urban redevelopment projects. As a conclusion of this study, first, the urban inequality index of Seoul has been continuously rising since 2015. Trends from 2006 to 2019 have been in U-curved shape in between 2015. In 2019, Seoul's urban inequality index was 0.420, a level similar to that of the 2007 financial crisis. Second, the correlation between urban redevelopment and urban inequality was not statistically significant. Therefore, we judged that urban redevelopment's scale or project structure has nothing with urban inequality. Third, while district designation of urban reconstruction temporarily alleviates urban inequality, the completion of the project increases urban inequality. When designating a district, urban inequality is likely to decrease due to decreased outdated housing transactions. However, the correlation with urban inequality increases as expensive houses has been placed after project completion.
Keywords: urban inequality, urban redevelopment projects, urban reconstruction projects, housing price inequality, panel analysisProcedia PDF Downloads 130
10417 The Environment in Urban Planning and Management
Authors: Mahmood Salahi, Fatemeh Abbasi
Abstract:Increasing urbanization will be one of the defining features of the 21st century. This produces particular environmental challenges, but also creates opportunities for urban development that can contribute to broader goals of improving the quality of life for urban residents while achieving greater levels of global sustainability. Half of the world’s population already lives in urban areas, with a growing number of these people living in towns and cities in low and middle-income countries. As well as being a demographic phenomenon, urbanisation is intricately linked with economic, social and environmental transitions. The increasing proportion of the world’s population living in urban areas has been driven by the growing concentration of new investment and employment opportunities. In general, nations with the most rapid and sustained economic growth have urbanized most.2 Urban centres provide opportunities for a range of social and cultural activities, as well as being critical for innovations in science, technology and education. Indeed, urban areas are of critical importance for social and economic development: as the Cities Alliance recognizes, 'only sustained urban growth has the capacity to lift both rural and urban populations out of poverty'.
Keywords: environment, urban planning, management, urbanizationProcedia PDF Downloads 406
10416 Impact of Green Roofs on Hot and Humid Climate-Vijayawada
Authors: Santhosh Kumar Sathi
Abstract:In India, Growth and spread of cities lead to the reduction of forests and green areas of the urban center with built structures. This is one of the reasons for increasing temperature about 2-5% in an urban environment and consequently also one of the key causes of urban heat island effects. Green roofs are one option that can reduce the negative impact of urban development providing numerous environmental benefits. In this paper, Vijayawada city is taken as case to study as it is experiencing rapid urbanization because of new capital Amaravati. That has resulted in remarkable urban heat island; which once recorded a highest temperature of 49°c. This paper focuses on the change in quality of the local environment with the introduction of green roofs. An in-depth study has to be carried out to understand the distribution of land surface temperature and land use of Vijayawada. Delineation of an area which has the highest temperature has been selected to adopt green roof retrofitting. Latest technologies of green roof retrofitting have to be implemented in the selected region. The results of the study indicate a significant temperature reduction in the local environment of that region, confirming the potential of green roofs as urban heat island mitigation strategy.
Keywords: energy consumption, green roofs, retrofitting, urban heat islandProcedia PDF Downloads 290
10415 Associations between Sharing Bike Usage and Characteristics of Urban Street Built Environment in Wuhan, China
Authors: Miao Li, Mengyuan Xu
Abstract:As a low-carbon travel mode, bicycling has drawn increasing political interest in the contemporary Chinese urban context, and the public sharing bikes have become the most popular ways of bike usage in China now. This research aims to explore the spatial-temporal relationship between sharing bike usage and different characteristics of the urban street built environment. In the research, street segments were used as the analytic unit of the street built environment defined by street intersections. The sharing bike usage data in the research include a total of 2.64 million samples that are the entire sharing bike distribution data recorded in two days in 2018 within a neighborhood of 185.4 hectares in the city of Wuhan, China. And these data are assigned to the 97 urban street segments in this area based on their geographic location. The built environment variables used in this research are categorized into three sections: 1) street design characteristics, such as street width, street greenery, types of bicycle lanes; 2) condition of other public transportation, such as the availability of metro station; 3) Street function characteristics that are described by the categories and density of the point of interest (POI) along the segments. Spatial Lag Models (SLM) were used in order to reveal the relationships of specific urban streets built environment characteristics and the likelihood of sharing bicycling usage in whole and different periods a day. The results show: 1) there is spatial autocorrelation among sharing bicycling usage of urban streets in case area in general, non-working day, working day and each period of a day, which presents a clustering pattern in the street space; 2) a statistically strong association between bike sharing usage and several different built environment characteristics such as POI density, types of bicycle lanes and street width; 3) the pattern that bike sharing usage is influenced by built environment characteristics depends on the period within a day. These findings could be useful for policymakers and urban designers to better understand the factors affecting bike sharing system and thus propose guidance and strategy for urban street planning and design in order to promote the use of sharing bikes.
Keywords: big data, sharing bike usage, spatial statistics, urban street built environmentProcedia PDF Downloads 86
10414 Sustainable Urban Landscape Practices: A New Concept to Reduce Ecological Degradation
Authors: Manjari Rai
Abstract:Urbanization is an inevitable process of development of human society and an outcome of economic development and scientific and technological progress. While urbanization process in promoting the development of human civilization, also no doubt, urban landscape has been a corresponding impact. Urban environment has suffered unprecedented damage majorly due to the increase in urban population density and heavy migration rate, traffic congestion, and environmental pollution. All this have however led to a major ecological degradation and imbalance. As lands are used for the rapid and unplanned urbanization, the green lands are diminished, and severe pollution is created by waste products. Plastic, the most alarming waste at landfill sites, is yet uncontrolled. Therefore, initiatives must be taken to reduce plastic mediated pollution and increase green application. However, increasing green land is not possible due to the landfill by urban structures. In order to create a harmonious environment, sustainable development in the urban landscape becomes a matter of prime focus. This paper thus discusses the concept of ecological design combined with the urban landscape design, green landscape design on urban structures and sustainable development through the use of recyclable waste materials which is also a low costing approach of urban landscape design.
Keywords: ecological, degradation sustainable, landscape, urbanProcedia PDF Downloads 291
10413 Cycle Slip Detection with Ultra-High Rate GNSS Observations in Urban Environment
Authors: Shengyue Ji, Kuan Liang, Ying Xu, Duojie Weng, Zhenjie Wang, Kaifei He, Wu Chen
Abstract:In an urban environment, GNSS is increasingly being used for precise navigation and positioning with RTK or PPP techniques. However, the performance is much worse than in open areas due to cycle slips caused by multipath from high-rise buildings. To achieve RTK or RTPPP in urban environments, one of the main challenges is cycle slip detection. Traditional methods can be unsatisfactory due to the effects of multipath. In this research, we aim to detect cycle slips based on ultra-high rate GNSS observations. We analyzed the characteristics of these observations and found that observation noise and multipath vary less compared to commonly used 1 Hz observations. Additionally, we can eliminate coordinate parameters in geometry-based mathematical model. We propose a new geometry-based method for cycle slip detection utilizing these characteristics. Only a single parameter related to the receiver clock is included, and no parameter related to coordinates is used, making the method more robust than traditionally used methods. Numerical experiments with 50 Hz GNSS observations showed our new method achieved almost a 100% success rate for cycle slip detection, even in an urban environment.
Keywords: GNSS, cycle slip, ultra-high rate, urban environmentProcedia PDF Downloads 8
10412 Flexible Cities: A Multisided Spatial Application of Tracking Livability of Urban Environment
Authors: Maria Christofi, George Plastiras, Rafaella Elia, Vaggelis Tsiourtis, Theocharis Theocharides, Miltiadis Katsaros
Abstract:The rapidly expanding urban areas of the world constitute a challenge of how we need to make the transition to "the next urbanization", which will be defined by new analytical tools and new sources of data. This paper is about the production of a spatial application, the ‘FUMapp’, where space and its initiative will be available literally, in meters, but also abstractly, at a sensed level. While existing spatial applications typically focus on illustrations of the urban infrastructure, the suggested application goes beyond the existing: It investigates how our environment's perception adapts to the alterations of the built environment through a dataset construction of biophysical measurements (eye-tracking, heart beating), and physical metrics (spatial characteristics, size of stimuli, rhythm of mobility). It explores the intersections between architecture, cognition, and computing where future design can be improved and identifies the flexibility and livability of the ‘available space’ of specific examined urban paths.
Keywords: biophysical data, flexibility of urban, livability, next urbanization, spatial applicationProcedia PDF Downloads 69
10411 Research of Street Aspect Ratio on a Wind Environmental Perspective
Authors: Qi Kan, Xiaoyu Ying
Abstract:With a rapid urbanization in China, the high-density new urban-center districts have already changed the microclimate in the city. Because of the using characters of building the commercial pedestrian streets which have emerged massively making a large number of pedestrians appear in there, pedestrian comfort in the commercial streets of the new urban-center districts requires more attention. The different street spatial layout will change the wind environment in the street and then influence the pedestrian comfort. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models are used to study the correlation between the street aspect ratio and wind environment, under the simulation with relevant weather conditions. The results show that the wind speed in the city streets is inversely proportional to the street aspect ratio. The conclusion will provide an evaluation basis for urban planners and architects at the beginning stage of the design to effectively avoid the potential poor physical environment.
Keywords: street spatial layout, wind environment, street aspect ratio, pedestrian comfortProcedia PDF Downloads 107
10410 Evaluating the Impact of Urban Green Spaces on Urban Microclimate of Lahore: A Rapidly Urbanizing Metropolis of the Punjab-Pakistan
Authors: Muhammad Nasar-U-Minallah, Dagmar Haase, Salman Qureshi, Safdar Ali Shirazi
Abstract:Urban green spaces (UGS) play a key role in the urban ecology of an area since they provide significant ecological services to compensate for natural environment functions damaged by the rapid growth of urbanization. The transformation of urban green specs to impervious landscapes has been recognized as a key factor prompting the distinctive urban heat and associated microclimatic changes. There is no doubt that urban green spaces offer a range of ecosystem services that can help to mitigate the ill effects of urbanization, heat anomalies, and climate change. The present study attempts to appraise the impact of urban green spaces on the urban thermal environment for the development of the microclimatic conditions in Lahore, Pakistan. The influence of urban heat has been studied through Landsat 8 data. The land surface temperature (LST) of Lahore was computed through the Radiative transfer method (RTM). The spatial variation of land surface temperature is retrieved to describe their local heat effect on urban microclimate. The association between the LST, normalized difference vegetation index, and the normalized difference built-up index are investigated to explore the impact of the urban green spaces and impervious surfaces on urban microclimate. The results of this study show significant changes in (impervious land surface 18% increase) land use within the study area. However, conversion of natural green cover to commercial and residential uses considerably increases the LST. Furthermore, results show that green spaces were the major heat sinks while impervious landscapes were the major heat source in the study area. Urban green spaces reveal 1 to 3℃ lower LST associated with their surrounding urban built-up area. This study shows that urban green spaces will help to mitigate the effect of urban microclimate and it is significant for the sustainable urban environment as well as to improve the quality of life of the urban inhabitants.
Keywords: thermal environmental, urban green space, cooling effect, microclimate, LahoreProcedia PDF Downloads 45
10409 A Study of the Planning and Designing of the Built Environment under the Green Transit-Oriented Development
Authors: Wann-Ming Wey
Abstract:In recent years, the problems of global climate change and natural disasters have induced the concerns and attentions of environmental sustainability issues for the public. Aside from the environmental planning efforts done for human environment, Transit-Oriented Development (TOD) has been widely used as one of the future solutions for the sustainable city development. In order to be more consistent with the urban sustainable development, the development of the built environment planning based on the concept of Green TOD which combines both TOD and Green Urbanism is adapted here. The connotation of the urban development under the green TOD including the design toward environment protect, the maximum enhancement resources and the efficiency of energy use, use technology to construct green buildings and protected areas, natural ecosystems and communities linked, etc. Green TOD is not only to provide the solution to urban traffic problems, but to direct more sustainable and greener consideration for future urban development planning and design. In this study, we use both the TOD and Green Urbanism concepts to proceed to the study of the built environment planning and design. Fuzzy Delphi Technique (FDT) is utilized to screen suitable criteria of the green TOD. Furthermore, Fuzzy Analytic Network Process (FANP) and Quality Function Deployment (QFD) were then developed to evaluate the criteria and prioritize the alternatives. The study results can be regarded as the future guidelines of the built environment planning and designing under green TOD development in Taiwan.
Keywords: green TOD, built environment, fuzzy delphi technique, quality function deployment, fuzzy analytic network processProcedia PDF Downloads 308
10408 An Investigation of the Quantitative Correlation between Urban Spatial Morphology Indicators and Block Wind Environment
Authors: Di Wei, Xing Hu, Yangjun Chen, Baofeng Li, Hong Chen
Abstract:To achieve the research purpose of guiding the spatial morphology design of blocks through the indicators to obtain a good wind environment, it is necessary to find the most suitable type and value range of each urban spatial morphology indicator. At present, most of the relevant researches is based on the numerical simulation of the ideal block shape and rarely proposes the results based on the complex actual block types. Therefore, this paper firstly attempted to make theoretical speculation on the main factors influencing indicators' effectiveness by analyzing the physical significance and formulating the principle of each indicator. Then it was verified by the field wind environment measurement and statistical analysis, indicating that Porosity(P₀) can be used as an important indicator to guide the design of block wind environment in the case of deep street canyons, while Frontal Area Density (λF) can be used as a supplement in the case of shallow street canyons with no height difference. Finally, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was used to quantify the impact of block height difference and street canyons depth on λF and P₀, finding the suitable type and value range of λF and P₀. This paper would provide a feasible wind environment index system for urban designers.
Keywords: urban spatial morphology indicator, urban microclimate, computational fluid dynamics, block ventilation, correlation analysisProcedia PDF Downloads 66
10407 Improving Efficiencies of Planting Configurations on Draft Environment of Town Square: The Case Study of Taichung City Hall in Taichung, Taiwan
Authors: Yu-Wen Huang, Yi-Cheng Chiang
Abstract:With urban development, lots of buildings are built around the city. The buildings always affect the urban wind environment. The accelerative situation of wind caused of buildings often makes pedestrians uncomfortable, even causes the accidents and dangers. Factors influencing pedestrian level wind including atmospheric boundary layer, wind direction, wind velocity, planting, building volume, geometric shape of the buildings and adjacent interference effects, etc. Planting has many functions including scraping and slowing urban heat island effect, creating a good visual landscape, increasing urban green area and improve pedestrian level wind. On the other hand, urban square is an important space element supporting the entrance to buildings, city landmarks, and activity collections, etc. The appropriateness of urban square environment usually dominates its success. This research focuses on the effect of tree-planting on the wind environment of urban square. This research studied the square belt of Taichung City Hall. Taichung City Hall is a cuboid building with a large mass opening. The square belt connects the front square, the central opening and the back square. There is often wind draft on the square belt. This phenomenon decreases the activities on the squares. This research applies tree-planting to improve the wind environment and evaluate the effects of two types of planting configuration. The Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation analysis and extensive field measurements are applied to explore the improve efficiency of planting configuration on wind environment. This research compares efficiencies of different kinds of planting configuration, including the clustering array configuration and the dispersion, and evaluates the efficiencies by the SET*.
Keywords: micro-climate, wind environment, planting configuration, comfortableness, computational fluid dynamics (CFD)Procedia PDF Downloads 228
10406 Linkages of Environment with the Health Condition of Poor Women and Children in the Urban Areas of India
Authors: Barsharani Maharana
Abstract:India is the country that shelters the largest number of poor. One of the major areas of concern in India is the unsatisfactory situation of the poor in social developmental and health parameters, not only in rural areas which are partly devoid of the facilities but also in the urban areas where the facilities are insufficient to provide services of a satisfactory quality. Objectives: 1) to examine the association between the environmental condition and health condition among poor women in urban areas. 2) to find out the significance of the effect of environment on the child health among the poor children. 3) to present the scenario of poor among highly urbanized and less urbanized states with respect to the health and environment. Data: data from National Family Health survey-3 and census are used to fulfill the objectives. Methodology: In this study, the standard of living condition of people living in urban areas is computed by taking some household characteristics and assets. People possessing low standard of living are considered as poor. Bivariate and multivariate analysis are employed to examine the effect of environment on poor women and children. A geographical information system is used to present the health and environmental condition of poor in highly and less urbanized states. Results: The findings reveal that the poor women who are not accessed to improved source of water, and sanitation facility are facing more health problems. Children who are living in a dirty environment and are not accessed to improved source of drinking water, among them prevalence of diarrhea and fever is found to be high. As well, the health condition of poor in highly urbanized states is dreadful. Policy implications: Government should emphasize on the implementation of programs regarding the improvement in the infrastructural facilities and health care treatment of urban poor.
Keywords: environment, urban poor, health, sanitationProcedia PDF Downloads 218
10405 Environmental Impacts on Urban Agriculture in Algiers
Authors: Sara Bouzekri, Said Madani
Abstract:In many Mediterranean cities such as Algiers, the human activity, the strong mobility the urban sprawl, the air pollution, the problems of waste management, the wasting of the resources and the degradation of the environment weaken in an unquestionable way the farming. The question of sustainable action vis-a-vis these threats arises then in order to maintain a level of desired local development. The methodology is based on a multi-criteria method based on the AFOM diagnosis, which classifies agricultural strength indicators and those of threat, according to an analytical approach. In a sustainable development perspective, it will be appropriate to link the threat factors of the case study with the factors of climate change to see their impact on the future of agriculture. This will be accompanied by a SWOT analysis, which crosses the most significant criteria to arrive at the necessary recommendations based on future projects for urban agriculture.
Keywords: Algiers, environment, urban agriculture, threat factorsProcedia PDF Downloads 232
10404 Study on Influencing Factors of Walkability of Rail Transit Station Area
Authors: Yang Wenjuan, Xu Yilun
Abstract:Based on the comparative analysis of the relevant evaluation methods of walking environment, this paper selects the combined evaluation method of macro urban morphology analysis and micro urban design quality survey, then investigates and analyzes the walking environment of three rail transit station area in Nanjing to explore the influence factor and internal relation of walkability of rail transit station area. Analysis shows that micro urban design factors have greater impact on the walkability of rail transit station area compared with macro urban morphology factors, the convenience is the key factor in the four aspects of convenience, security, identity and comfortability of the urban design factors, the convenience is not only affected by the block network form, but also related to the quality of the street space. The overall evaluation of walkability comes from the overlapping and regrouping of the walking environment at different levels, but some environmental factors play a leading role. The social attributes of pedestrians also partly influence their walking perception and evaluation.
Keywords: rail transit station area, walkability, evaluation, influence factorsProcedia PDF Downloads 145
10403 High-Accuracy Satellite Image Analysis and Rapid DSM Extraction for Urban Environment Evaluations (Tripoli-Libya)
Authors: Abdunaser Abduelmula, Maria Luisa M. Bastos, José A. Gonçalves
Abstract:The modeling of the earth's surface and evaluation of urban environment, with 3D models, is an important research topic. New stereo capabilities of high-resolution optical satellites images, such as the tri-stereo mode of Pleiades, combined with new image matching algorithms, are now available and can be applied in urban area analysis. In addition, photogrammetry software packages gained new, more efficient matching algorithms, such as SGM, as well as improved filters to deal with shadow areas, can achieve denser and more precise results. This paper describes a comparison between 3D data extracted from tri-stereo and dual stereo satellite images, combined with pixel based matching and Wallis filter. The aim was to improve the accuracy of 3D models especially in urban areas, in order to assess if satellite images are appropriate for a rapid evaluation of urban environments. The results showed that 3D models achieved by Pleiades tri-stereo outperformed, both in terms of accuracy and detail, the result obtained from a Geo-eye pair. The assessment was made with reference digital surface models derived from high-resolution aerial photography. This could mean that tri-stereo images can be successfully used for the proposed urban change analyses.
Keywords: 3D models, environment, matching, pleiadesProcedia PDF Downloads 251
10402 Green Space and Their Possibilities of Enhancing Urban Life in Dhaka City, Bangladesh
Authors: Ummeh Saika, Toshio Kikuchi
Abstract:Population growth and urbanization is a global phenomenon. As the rapid progress of technology, many cities in the international community are facing serious problems of urbanization. There is no doubt that the urbanization will proceed to have significant impact on the ecology, economy and society at local, regional, and global levels. The inhabitants of Dhaka city suffer from lack of proper urban facilities. The green spaces are needed for different functional and leisure activities of the urban dwellers. Again growing densification, a number of green space are transferred into open space in the Dhaka city. As a result greenery of the city's decreases gradually. Moreover, the existing green space is frequently threatened by encroachment. The role of green space, both at community and city level, is important to improve the natural environment and social ties for future generations. Therefore, it seems that the green space needs to be more effective for public interaction. The main objective of this study is to address the effectiveness of urban green space (Urban Park) of Dhaka City. Two approaches are selected to fulfill the study. Firstly, analyze the long-term spatial changes of urban green space using GIS and secondly, investigate the relationship of urban park network with physical and social environment. The case study site covers eight urban parks of Dhaka metropolitan area of Bangladesh. Two aspects (Physical and Social) are applied for this study. For physical aspect, satellite images and aerial photos of different years are used to find out the changes of urban parks. And for social aspect, methods are used as questionnaire survey, interview, observation, photographs, sketch and previous information of parks to analyze about the social environment of parks. After calculation of all data by descriptive statistics, result is shown by maps using GIS. According to physical size, parks of Dhaka city are classified into four types: Small, Medium, Large and Extra Large parks. The observed result showed that the physical and social environment of urban parks varies with their size. In small size parks physical environment is moderate by newly tree plantation and area expansion. However, in medium size parks physical environment are poor, example- tree decrease, exposed soil increase. On the other hand, physical environment of large size and extra large size parks are in good condition, because of plenty of vegetation and well management. Again based on social environment, in small size parks people mainly come from surroundings area and mainly used as waiting place. In medium-size parks, people come to attend various occasion from different places. In large size and extra large size parks, people come from every part of the city area for tourism purpose. Urban parks are important source of green space. Its influence both physical and social environment of urban area. Nowadays green space area gradually decreases and transfer into open space. The consequence of this research reveals that changes of urban parks influence both physical and social environment and also impact on urban life.
Keywords: physical environment, social environment, urban life, urban parksProcedia PDF Downloads 123
10401 The Impact of Urban Planning and French Reglementions on the Management of Algerian Environment
Authors: Sara Zatir, Kouide Brahimi, Amira Zatir
Abstract:The planning and the environment have long evolved at the same two parallel tracks. But today, we can design a layout without addressing its environmental impact on the landscape. And the role of The documents of the regulatory planning is to control the urbanization of a common and its effects indirectly on the urban environment, but what about the urban landscape? Algeria is like many countries in the world leans primarily on developing sustainable economy, it was officially declared in the Maghreb countries, with the enactment of Law No. 01-20 of 12 December 2001 on the organization and sustainable development of the territory, one of the purposes of this law is the protection, mapping values and rational use of, natural resources, heritage and the natural preservation for future generations. However, Algeria initiatives have recently been undertaken but it still have some infancy which can be detected by the cavity between the delineation instruments,regulations and. In this context, we should note the important role of public authorities in the situation of the living and its future. The idea is to find a balance from the unbalanced conditions (between present and future generations, between economic needs, and the needs of environmental protection and cultural, between individual and collective interests) and to develop new strategies management laws and the urban landscape.
Keywords: Algeria, sustainable, development urban landscapes, lawsProcedia PDF Downloads 354
10400 Adsorption and Transformation of Lead in Coimbatore Urban Soils
Authors: K. Sivasubramanin, S. Mahimairaja, S. Pavithrapriya
Abstract:Heavy metal pollution originating from industrial wastes is becoming a serious problem in many urban environments. These heavy metals, if not properly managed, could enter into the food chain and cause a serious health hazards in animals and humans. Industrial wastes, sewage sludge, and automobile emissions also contribute to heavy metal like Pb pollution in the urban environment. However, information is scarce on the heavy metal pollution in Coimbatore urban environment. Therefore, the current study was carried out to examine the extent of lead pollution in Coimbatore urban environment the maximum Pb concentration in Coimbatore urban environment was found in ukkadam, whose concentration in soils 352 mg kg-1. In many places, the Pb concentration was found exceeded the permissible limit of 100 mg kg-1. In laboratory, closed incubation experiment showed that the concentration of different species of Pb viz., water soluble Pb(H2O-Pb), exchangeable Pb(KNO3-Pb), organic-Pb(NaOH-Pb), and organic plus metal (Fe & Al) oxides bound-Pb(Na2 EDTA-Pb) was found significantly increased during the 15 days incubation, mainly due to biotransformation processes. Both the moisture content of soil and ambient temperature exerted a profound influence on the transformation of Pb. The results of a batch experiment has shown that the sorption data was adequately described by the Freundlich equation as indicated by the high correlation coefficients (R2= 0.64) than the Langmuir equation (R2 = 0.33). A maximum of 86 mg of Pb was found adsorbed per kilogram of soil. Consistently, a soil column experiment result had shown that only a small amount of Pb( < 1.0 µg g-1 soil) alone was found leached from the soil. This might be due to greater potential of the soil towards Pb adsorption.
Keywords: lead pollution, adsorption, transformation, heavy metal pollutionProcedia PDF Downloads 264
10399 The Impact of the Urban Planning and Environmental Problems over the Quality of Life Case Study: Median Zone of Bucharest's Sector 1, Romania
Authors: Cristian Cazacu, Bela Kobulniczky
Abstract:Even though nowadays the median area of the Bucharest’s Sector 1 owns one of the best reputations in terms of quality of life level, the problems in urban planning from the last twenty years, as well as those related to the urban environment, became more and more obvious and shrill. And all this happened as long as non-compliance with urban and spatial planning laws, corroborated with uncontrolled territorial expansion on certain areas and faulty management of public and private spaces were more acute. The action of all these factors has been felt more and more strongly in the territory in the last twenty years, generating the degradation of the quality of the urban environment and affecting in parallel the general level of the inhabitants¬’ quality of life. Our methodology is based on analyzing a wide range of environmental parameters and it is also based on using advanced resources and skills for mapping planning and environmental dysfunctions as well as the possibility of integrating information into GIS programs, all data sets corroborated with problems related to spatial planning management and inaccuracies of the urbanistic sector. In the end, we managed to obtain a calculated and realistic image of the dysfunctions and a quantitative view of their magnitude in the territory. We also succeeded to create a full general map of the degree of degradation of the urban environment by typologies of urban tissues. Moreover, the methods applied by us can also be used globally to calculate and create realistic images and intelligent maps over the quality of the environment in areas larger than this one. Our study shows that environmental degradation occurred differently in the urban tissues from our study area, depending on several factors, reviewing the faulty way in which the processes of recovery / urban regeneration of the gap in recent years have led to the creation of new territorial dysfunctions. The general, centralized results show that the analyzed space has a much wider range of problems than initially thought, although notoriety and social etiquette place them far above other spaces from the same city of study.
Keywords: environment, GIS, planning, urban tissuesProcedia PDF Downloads 67