Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 30

Search results for: low-emission commuting

30 Comparison of Nitrogen Dioxide Pollution for Different Commuting Modes in Kaunas

Authors: A. Dėdelė, A. Miškinytė

Abstract:

The assessment of air pollution exposure in different microenvironments is important for better understanding the relationship between health effects caused by air pollution. The recent researches revealed that the level of air pollution in transport microenvironment contributes considerably to the total exposure of air pollution. The aim of the study was to determine air pollution of nitrogen dioxide and to assess the exposure of NO2 dependence on the chosen commuting mode using a global positioning system (GPS). The same travel destination was chosen and 30 rides in three different commuting modes: cycling, walking, and public transport were made. Every different mean of transport is associated with different route. GPS device and travel diary data were used to track all routes of different commuting modes. Air pollution of nitrogen dioxide was determined using the ADMS-Urban dispersion model. The average annual concentration of nitrogen dioxide was modeled for 2011 year in Kaunas city. The geographical information systems were used to visualize the travel routes, to create maps indicating the route of different commuting modes and to combine modelled nitrogen dioxide data. The results showed that there is a significant difference between the selected commuting mode and the exposure of nitrogen dioxide. The concentrations in the microenvironments were 22.4 μg/m3, 21.4 μg/m3, and 25.9 μg/m3 for cycling, walking and public transport respectively. Of all the modes of commuting, the highest average exposure of nitrogen dioxide was found travelling by public transport, while the lowest average concentration of NO2 was determined by walking.

Keywords: nitrogen dioxide, dispersion model, commuting mode, GPS

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29 Super Mario Guide: An Updated Roadmap on Research with Travel Subjective Well-Being

Authors: Wu Hu

Abstract:

There is an increasing amount of research bridging the gap between transportation and subjective well-being (SWB). However, travel SWB research in this area is still sporadic. Therefore, we are in need of a more systematic body of work that examines travel SWB considering various work occupations, working conditions, commuting variabilities, and other related variables, and develops updated qualitative and quantitative methods to inform the transportation design. In this Super Mario Guide, the author reflects on the related elements involved with travel SWB under four categories (having Super Mario as the protagonist): 1. the starting point including variables like living conditions; 2. the commuter including the commuter’s age, gender, occupation, and others; 3. the commuting including commuting environment, vehicles, commuting time, commuting vehicles flexibility and variability and others; 4. destination including the workplace conditions, the corporate culture on working flexibility, the employer supportiveness and others. In addition, with the rise of new vehicles such as auto-driving, this research can play a significant role to better understand travel SWB and to guide the design of more efficient travelling systems so as to improve worker performance and general SWB. The author also shares thoughts on promising areas for future research.

Keywords: transportation, subjective well-being (SWB), commuting, happiness

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28 Low-Emission Commuting with Micro Public Transport: Investigation of Travel Times and CO₂ Emissions

Authors: Marcel Ciesla, Victoria Oberascher, Sven Eder, Stefan Kirchweger, Wolfgang E. Baaske, Gerald Ostermayer

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The omnipresent trend towards sustainable mobility is a major challenge, especially for commuters in rural areas. The use of micro public transport systems is expected to significantly reduce pollutant emissions, as several commuters travel the first mile together with a single pick-up bus instead of their own car. In this paper, different aspects of such a micro public transport system are analyzed. The main findings of the investigations should be how the travel times of commuters change and how many CO₂ emissions can be saved if some of the commuters use public transport instead of their own vehicle.

Keywords: micro public transport, green transportation, sustainable mobility, low-emission commuting

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27 Life-Cycle Assessment of Residential Buildings: Addressing the Influence of Commuting

Authors: J. Bastos, P. Marques, S. Batterman, F. Freire

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Due to demands of a growing urban population, it is crucial to manage urban development and its associated environmental impacts. While most of the environmental analyses have addressed buildings and transportation separately, both the design and location of a building affect environmental performance and focusing on one or the other can shift impacts and overlook improvement opportunities for more sustainable urban development. Recently, several life-cycle (LC) studies of residential buildings have integrated user transportation, focusing exclusively on primary energy demand and/or greenhouse gas emissions. Additionally, most papers considered only private transportation (mainly car). Although it is likely to have the largest share both in terms of use and associated impacts, exploring the variability associated with mode choice is relevant for comprehensive assessments and, eventually, for supporting decision-makers. This paper presents a life-cycle assessment (LCA) of a residential building in Lisbon (Portugal), addressing building construction, use and user transportation (commuting with private and public transportation). Five environmental indicators or categories are considered: (i) non-renewable primary energy (NRE), (ii) greenhouse gas intensity (GHG), (iii) eutrophication (EUT), (iv) acidification (ACID), and (v) ozone layer depletion (OLD). In a first stage, the analysis addresses the overall life-cycle considering the statistical model mix for commuting in the residence location. Then, a comparative analysis compares different available transportation modes to address the influence mode choice variability has on the results. The results highlight the large contribution of transportation to the overall LC results in all categories. NRE and GHG show strong correlation, as the three LC phases contribute with similar shares to both of them: building construction accounts for 6-9%, building use for 44-45%, and user transportation for 48% of the overall results. However, for other impact categories there is a large variation in the relative contribution of each phase. Transport is the most significant phase in OLD (60%); however, in EUT and ACID building use has the largest contribution to the overall LC (55% and 64%, respectively). In these categories, transportation accounts for 31-38%. A comparative analysis was also performed for four alternative transport modes for the household commuting: car, bus, motorcycle, and company/school collective transport. The car has the largest results in all impact categories. When compared to the overall LC with commuting by car, mode choice accounts for a variability of about 35% in NRE, GHG and OLD (the categories where transportation accounted for the largest share of the LC), 24% in EUT and 16% in ACID. NRE and GHG show a strong correlation because all modes have internal combustion engines. The second largest results for NRE, GHG and OLD are associated with commuting by motorcycle; however, for ACID and EUT this mode has better performance than bus and company/school transport. No single transportation mode performed best in all impact categories. Integrated assessments of buildings are needed to avoid shifts of impacts between life-cycle phases and environmental categories, and ultimately to support decision-makers.

Keywords: environmental impacts, LCA, Lisbon, transport

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26 Impacting the Processes of Freight Logistics at Upper Austrian Companies by the Use of Mobility Management

Authors: Theresa Steiner, Markus Pajones, Christian Haider

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Traffic is being induced by companies due to their economic behavior. Basically, two different types of traffic occur at company sites: freight traffic and commuting traffic. Due to the fact that these traffic types are connected to each other in different kinds, an integrated approach to manage them is useful. Mobility management is a proved method for companies, to handle the traffic processes caused by their business activities. According to recent trend analysis in Austria, the freight traffic as well as the individual traffic, as part of the commuting traffic, will continue to increase. More traffic jams, as well as negative environmental impacts, are expected impacts for the future. Mobility management is a tool to control the traffic behavior with the scope to reduce emissions and other negative effects which are caused by traffic. Until now, mobility management is mainly used for optimizing commuting traffic without taking the freight logistics processes into consideration. However, the method of mobility management can be used to improve the freight traffic area of a company as well. The focus of this paper will be particularly laid on analyzing to what extent companies are already using mobility management to influence not only the commuting traffic they produce but also their processes of freight logistics. A further objective is to acquire knowledge about the motivating factors which persuade companies to introduce and apply mobility management. Additionally, advantages and disadvantages of this tool will be defined as well as limitations and factors of success, with a special focus on freight logistics, will be depicted. The first step of this paper is to conduct a literature review on the issue of mobility management with a special focus on freight logistics processes. To compare the theoretical findings with the practice, interviews, following a structured interview guidline, with mobility managers of different companies in Upper Austria will be undertaken. A qualitative analysis of these surveys will in a first step show the motivation behind using mobility management to improve traffic processes and how far this approach is already being used to especially influence the freight traffic of the companies. An evaluation to what extent the method of mobility management is already being approached at Upper Austrian companies to regulate freight logistics processes will be one outcome of this publication. Furthermore, the results of the theoretical and practical analysis will reveal not only the possibilities but also the limitations of using mobility management to influence the processes of freight logistics.

Keywords: freight logistics processes, freight traffic, mobility management, passenger traffic

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25 Research on Morning Commuting Behavior under Autonomous Vehicle Environment Based on Activity Method

Authors: Qing Dai, Zhengkui Lin, Jiajia Zhang, Yi Qu

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Based on activity method, this paper focuses on morning commuting behavior when commuters travel with autonomous vehicles (AVs). Firstly, a net utility function of commuters is constructed by the activity utility of commuters at home, in car and at workplace, and the disutility of travel time cost and that of schedule delay cost. Then, this net utility function is applied to build an equilibrium model. Finally, under the assumption of constant marginal activity utility, the properties of equilibrium are analyzed. The results show that, in autonomous driving, the starting and ending time of morning peak and the number of commuters who arrive early and late at workplace are the same as those in manual driving. In automatic driving, however, the departure rate of arriving early at workplace is higher than that of manual driving, while the departure rate of arriving late is just the opposite. In addition, compared with manual driving, the departure time of arriving at workplace on time is earlier and the number of people queuing at the bottleneck is larger in automatic driving. However, the net utility of commuters and the total net utility of system in automatic driving are greater than those in manual driving.

Keywords: autonomous cars, bottleneck model, activity utility, user equilibrium

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24 Assessing the Severity of Traffic Related Air Pollution in South-East London to School Pupils

Authors: Ho Yin Wickson Cheung, Liora Malki-Epshtein

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Outdoor air pollution presents a significant challenge for public health globally, especially in urban areas, with road traffic acting as the primary contributor to air pollution. Several studies have documented the antagonistic relation between traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) and the impact on health, especially to the vulnerable group of population, particularly young pupils. Generally, TRAP could cause damage to their brain, restricting the ability of children to learn and, more importantly, causing detrimental respiratory issues in later life. Butlittle is known about the specific exposure of children at school during the school day and the impact this may have on their overall exposure to pollution at a crucial time in their development. This project has set out to examine the air quality across primary schools in South-East London and assesses the variability of data found based on their geographic location and surroundings. Nitrogen dioxide, PM contaminants, and carbon dioxide were collected with diffusion tubes and portable monitoring equipment for eight schools across three local areas, that are Greenwich, Lewisham, and Tower Hamlets. This study first examines the geographical features of the schools surrounding (E.g., coverage of urban road structure and green infrastructure), then utilize three different methods to capture pollutants data. Moreover, comparing the obtained results with existing data from monitoring stations to understand the differences in air quality before and during the pandemic. Furthermore, most studies in this field have unfortunately neglected human exposure to pollutants and calculated based on values from fixed monitoring stations. Therefore, this paper introduces an alternative approach by calculating human exposure to air pollution from real-time data obtained when commuting within related areas (Driving routes and field walking). It is found that schools located highly close to motorways are generally not suffering from the most air pollution contaminants. Instead, one with the worst traffic congested routes nearby might also result in poor air quality. Monitored results also indicate that the annual air pollution values have slightly decreased during the pandemic. However, the majority of the data is currently still exceeding the WHO guidelines. Finally, the total human exposures for NO2 during commuting in the two selected routes were calculated. Results illustrated the total exposure for route 1 were 21,730 μm/m3 and 28,378.32 μm/m3, and for route 2 were 30,672 μm/m3 and 16,473 μm/m3. The variance that occurred might be due to the difference in traffic volume that requires further research. Exposure for NO2 during commuting was plotted with detailed timesteps that have shown their peak usually occurred while commuting. These have consolidated the initial assumption to the extremeness of TRAP. To conclude, this paper has yielded significant benefits to understanding air quality across schools in London with the new approach of capturing human exposure (Driving routes). Confirming the severity of air pollution and promoting the necessity of considering environmental sustainability for policymakers during decision making to protect society's future pillars.

Keywords: air pollution, schools, pupils, congestion

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23 Systematic Analysis of Logistics Location Search Methods under Aspects of Sustainability

Authors: Markus Pajones, Theresa Steiner, Matthias Neubauer

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Selecting a logistics location is vital for logistics providers, food retailing and other trading companies since the selection poses an essential factor for economic success. Therefore various location search methods like cost-benefit analysis and others are well known and under usage. The development of a logistics location can be related to considerable negative effects for the eco system such as sealing the surface, wrecking of biodiversity or CO2 and noise emissions generated by freight and commuting traffic. The increasing importance of sustainability demands for taking an informed decision when selecting a logistics location for the future. Sustainability considers economic, ecologic and social aspects which should be equally integrated in the process of location search. Objectives of this paper are to define various methods which support the selection of sustainable logistics locations and to generate knowledge about the suitability, assets and limitations of the methods within the selection process. This paper investigates the role of economical, ecological and social aspects when searching for new logistics locations. Thereby, related work targeted towards location search is analyzed with respect to encoded sustainability aspects. In addition, this research aims to gain knowledge on how to include aspects of sustainability and take an informed decision when searching for a logistics location. As a result, a decomposition of the various location search methods in there components leads to a comparative analysis in form of a matrix. The comparison within a matrix enables a transparent overview about the mentioned assets and limitations of the methods and their suitability for selecting sustainable logistics locations. A further result is to generate knowledge on how to combine the separate methods to a new method for a more efficient selection of logistics locations in the context of sustainability. Future work will especially investigate the above mentioned combination of various location search methods. The objective is to develop an innovative instrument, which supports the search for logistics locations with a focus on a balanced sustainability (economy, ecology, social). Because of an ideal selection of logistics locations, induced traffic should be reduced and a mode shift to rail and public transport should be facilitated.

Keywords: commuting traffic, freight traffic, logistics location search, location search method

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22 Neighbourhood Walkability and Quality of Life: The Mediating Role of Place Adherence and Social Interaction

Authors: Michał Jaśkiewicz

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The relation between walkability, place adherence, social relations and quality of life was explored in a Polish context. A considerable number of studies have suggested that environmental factors may influence the quality of life through indirect pathways. The list of possible psychological mediators includes social relations and identity-related variables. Based on the results of Study 1, local identity is a significant mediator in the relationship between neighbourhood walkability and quality of life. It was assumed that pedestrian-oriented neighbourhoods enable residents to interact and that these spontaneous interactions can help to strengthen a sense of local identity, thus influencing the quality of life. We, therefore, conducted further studies, testing the relationship experimentally in studies 2a and 2b. Participants were exposed to (2a) photos of walkable/non-walkable neighbourhoods or (2b) descriptions of high/low-walkable neighbourhoods. They were then asked to assess the walkability of the neighbourhoods and to evaluate their potential social relations and quality of life in these places. In both studies, social relations with neighbours turned out to be a significant mediator between walkability and quality of life. In Study 3, we implemented the measure of overlapping individual and communal identity (fusion with the neighbourhood) and willingness to collective action as mediators. Living in a walkable neighbourhood was associated with identity fusion with that neighbourhood. Participants who felt more fused expressed greater willingness to engage in collective action with other neighbours. Finally, this willingness was positively related to the quality of life in the city. In Study 4, we used commuting time (an aspect of walkability related to the time that people spend travelling to work) as the independent variable. The results showed that a shorter average daily commuting time was linked to more frequent social interactions in the neighbourhood. Individuals who assessed their social interactions as more frequent expressed a stronger city identification, which was in turn related to quality of life. To sum up, our research replicated and extended previous findings on the association between walkability and well-being measures. We introduced potential mediators of this relationship: social interactions in the neighbourhood and identity-related variables.

Keywords: walkability, quality of life, social relations, analysis of mediation

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21 Stability of Property (gm) under Perturbation and Spectral Properties Type Weyl Theorems

Authors: M. H. M. Rashid

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A Banach space operator T obeys property (gm) if the isolated points of the spectrum σ(T) of T which are eigenvalues are exactly those points λ of the spectrum for which T − λI is a left Drazin invertible. In this article, we study the stability of property (gm), for a bounded operator acting on a Banach space, under perturbation by finite rank operators, by nilpotent operators, by quasi-nilpotent operators, or more generally by algebraic operators commuting with T.

Keywords: Weyl's Theorem, Weyl Spectrum, Polaroid operators, property (gm)

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20 The Proposal of a Shared Mobility City Index to Support Investment Decision Making for Carsharing

Authors: S. Murr, S. Phillips

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One of the biggest challenges entering a market with a carsharing or any other shared mobility (SM) service is sound investment decision-making. To support this process, the authors think that a city index evaluating different criteria is necessary. The goal of such an index is to benchmark cities along a set of external measures to answer the main two challenges: financially viability and the understanding of its specific requirements. The authors have consulted several shared mobility projects and industry experts to create such a Shared Mobility City Index (SMCI). The current proposal of the SMCI consists of 11 individual index measures: general data (demographics, geography, climate and city culture), shared mobility landscape (current SM providers, public transit options, commuting patterns and driving culture) and political vision and goals (vision of the Mayor, sustainability plan, bylaws/tenders supporting SM). To evaluate the suitability of the index, 16 cities on the East Coast of North America were selected and secondary research was conducted. The main sources of this study were census data, organisational records, independent press releases and informational websites. Only non-academic sources where used because the relevant data for the chosen cities is not published in academia. Applying the index measures to the selected cities resulted in three major findings. Firstly, density (city area divided by number of inhabitants) is not an indicator for the number of SM services offered: the city with the lowest density has five bike and carsharing options. Secondly, there is a direct correlation between commuting patterns and how many shared mobility services are offered. New York, Toronto and Washington DC have the highest public transit ridership and the most shared mobility providers. Lastly, except one, all surveyed cities support shared mobility with their sustainability plan. The current version of the shared mobility index is proving a practical tool to evaluate cities, and to understand functional, political, social and environmental considerations. More cities will have to be evaluated to refine the criteria further. However, the current version of the index can be used to assess cities on their suitability for shared mobility services and will assist investors deciding which city is a financially viable market.

Keywords: carsharing, transportation, urban planning, shared mobility city index

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19 The Development of User Behavior in Urban Regeneration Areas by Utilizing the Floating Population Data

Authors: Jung-Hun Cho, Tae-Heon Moon, Sun-Young Heo

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A lot of urban problems, caused by urbanization and industrialization, have occurred around the world. In particular, the creation of satellite towns, which was attributed to the explicit expansion of the city, has led to the traffic problems and the hollowization of old towns, raising the necessity of urban regeneration in old towns along with the aging of existing urban infrastructure. To select urban regeneration priority regions for the strategic execution of urban regeneration in Korea, the number of population, the number of businesses, and deterioration degree were chosen as standards. Existing standards had a limit in coping with solving urban problems fundamentally and rapidly changing reality. Therefore, it was necessary to add new indicators that can reflect the decline in relevant cities and conditions. In this regard, this study selected Busan Metropolitan City, Korea as the target area as a leading city, where urban regeneration such as an international port city has been activated like Yokohama, Japan. Prior to setting the urban regeneration priority region, the conditions of reality should be reflected because uniform and uncharacterized projects have been implemented without a quantitative analysis about population behavior within the region. For this reason, this study conducted a characterization analysis and type classification, based on the user behaviors by using representative floating population of the big data, which is a hot issue all over the society in recent days. The target areas were analyzed in this study. While 23 regions were classified as three types in existing Busan Metropolitan City urban regeneration priority region, 23 regions were classified as four types in existing Busan Metropolitan City urban regeneration priority region in terms of the type classification on the basis of user behaviors. Four types were classified as follows; type (Ⅰ) of young people - morning type, Type (Ⅱ) of the old and middle-aged- general type with sharp floating population, type (Ⅲ) of the old and middle aged-24hour-type, and type (Ⅳ) of the old and middle aged with less floating population. Characteristics were shown in each region of four types, and the study results of user behaviors were different from those of existing urban regeneration priority region. According to the results, in type (Ⅰ) young people were the majority around the existing old built-up area, where floating population at dawn is four times more than in other areas. In Type (Ⅱ), there were many old and middle-aged people around the existing built-up area and general neighborhoods, where the average floating population was more than in other areas due to commuting, while in type (Ⅲ), there was no change in the floating population throughout 24 hours, although there were many old and middle aged people in population around the existing general neighborhoods. Type (Ⅳ) includes existing economy-based type, central built-up area type, and general neighborhood type, where old and middle aged people were the majority as a general type of commuting with less floating population. Unlike existing urban regeneration priority region, these types were sub-divided according to types, and in this study, approach methods and basic orientations of urban regeneration were set to reflect the reality to a certain degree including the indicators of effective floating population to identify the dynamic activity of urban areas and existing regeneration priority areas in connection with urban regeneration projects by regions. Therefore, it is possible to make effective urban plans through offering the substantial ground by utilizing scientific and quantitative data. To induce more realistic and effective regeneration projects, the regeneration projects tailored to the present local conditions should be developed by reflecting the present conditions on the formulation of urban regeneration strategic plans.

Keywords: floating population, big data, urban regeneration, urban regeneration priority region, type classification

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18 Extending the Theory of Planned Behaviour to Predict Intention to Commute by Bicycle: Case Study of Mexico City

Authors: Magda Cepeda, Frances Hodgson, Ann Jopson

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There are different barriers people face when choosing to cycle for commuting purposes. This study examined the role of psycho-social factors predicting the intention to cycle to commute in Mexico City. An extended version of the theory of planned behaviour was developed and utilized with a simple random sample of 401 road users. We applied exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis and after identifying five factors, a structural equation model was estimated to find the relationships among the variables. The results indicated that cycling attributes, attitudes to cycling, social comparison and social image and prestige were the most important factors influencing intention to cycle. Although the results from this study are specific to Mexico City, they indicate areas of interest to transportation planners in other regions especially in those cities where intention to cycle its linked to its perceived image and there is political ambition to instigate positive cycling cultures. Moreover, this study contributes to the current literature developing applications of the Theory of Planned Behaviour.

Keywords: cycling, latent variable model, perception, theory of planned behaviour

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17 Reasons for Study of Evening Class Students, Faculty of Industrial Technology, Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University

Authors: Luedech Girdwichai, Ratchasak Sannok, Jeeranan Wueamprakhon

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This research aims to study reasons for study of Evening Class Students, Faculty of Industrial Technology, Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University. Population is special program students of the Faculty of Industrial Technology, Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University enrolled in academic year B.E. 2012. Data were collected in February 2013 from 98 students. Tool used in this research was questionnaire. Data were analyzed by statistics: percentage, mean, and standard deviation, using a computer program. The results revealed that: 1. Most of the special program students have monthly income between 10,001–20,000 Baht. Majority of the students were private company employees, working in operational level. They were mainly single and the commuting distance to the university is between 10-30 kilometers. 2. Reasons for enrolling of special program students of the Faculty of Industrial Technology, namely, career, self advancement, personal reasons and support from others received high scores. 3. Problems identified such as facilities, services, learning media and the content of the course received average scores.

Keywords: reasons, evening class students, Faculty of Industrial Technology, Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University

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16 A Resource Survey of Lateritic Soils and Impact Evaluation toward Community Members Living Nearby the Excavation Pits

Authors: Ratchasak Suvannatsiri

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The objectives of the research are to find the basic engineering properties of lateritic soil and to predict the impact on community members who live nearby the excavation pits in the area of Amphur Pak Thor, Ratchaburi Province in the western area of Thailand. The research was conducted by collecting soil samples from four excavation pits for basic engineering properties, testing and collecting questionnaire data from 120 community members who live nearby the excavation pits, and applying statistical analysis. The results found that the basic engineering properties of lateritic soil can be classified into silt soil type which is cohesionless as the loess or collapsible soil which is not suitable to be used for a pavement structure for commuting highway because it could lead to structural and functional failure in the long run. In terms of opinion from community members toward the impact, the highest impact was on the dust from excavation activities. The prediction from the logistic regression in terms of impact on community members was at 84.32 which can be adapted and applied onto other areas with the same context as a guideline for risk prevention and risk communication since it could impact the infrastructures and also impact the health of community members.

Keywords: lateritic soil, excavation pits, engineering properties, impact on community members

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15 The Impacts of Gentrification in Transit-Oriented Development on Mode Choice and Equity

Authors: Steve Apell

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Transit-oriented development (TOD) is a popular intervention for local governments endeavoring to reduce auto-dependency and the adverse effects of sprawl. At the same time, American households such as the millennial generation, are shifting their residential preferences from the suburbs to the central city. These changes have intensified demand for TOD housing which generates high rents. This leads to displacement of low-income, transit-dependent households by more affluent middle class families. Critics argue that, the effectiveness of TOD might be compromised as newer affluent residents drive more and use transit less. However, there has not been a comprehensive study to test this hypothesis. Using census data ( 1990 – 2012) from six metropolitans areas, this research investigated if block groups within one-mile radius of TOD are gentrifying. Our findings reveal that the price of housing and number of college graduates, increased more in TODs compared to the metropolitan area. Similarly, the percentage of immigrants increased in TOD, while those of blacks and whites declined. Most importantly, TOD residents generally commuted less by car, while transit use increased in some metropolitan areas. TOD in the south of the United States registered higher cost of housing and less transit use. These findings have significant implications for the future of equitable and sustainable transportation policy.

Keywords: commuting, equity, gentrification, mode choice, transit oriented development

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14 To Stay or to Go: The Death Penalty Phenomenon and the Dilemma of the Nigerian Government

Authors: James Etim Archibong

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The death penalty, to be or not to be, is a topical and hugely divisive issue in several countries. The United Nations recommends its universal abolition. Europe has abolished it, while some countries limit the practice to heinous crimes. Nigeria is one of the countries that have retained the death penalty. In 2004, the federal government placed a moratorium on execution, which was breached in 2006, 2013 and 2016. Nigeria currently has about three thousand inmates on death row because governors are reluctant to sign execution warrants. Human rights groups have consistently called for its abolition in Nigeria, but this has been rebuffed by the government. Nigeria currently finds itself in a dilemma between the global campaign to end the practice and the local support for its retention. This paper, employing a doctrinal approach, examines the concept of capital punishment in Nigeria from the first execution in 1971 to date. It has also examined the debate to abolish or retain it against the backdrop of Nigeria’s present social, economic and multicultural circumstances. It finds that the death penalty is a human right issue and Nigeria should join the majority of states that have dispensed with the practice. While the government contemplates which way to go, amid the impasse, the paper recommends, in the interim, an official, legally backed a moratorium on execution; commuting of death sentences to life imprisonment, and eventually expunging it from the constitution in the ongoing constitutional review.

Keywords: death penalty, capital punishment, human rights, deterrence, right to life

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13 Role of Urban-Rural Partnership in the Generation of Socio-Economic Success in Polish Metropolitan Areas

Authors: Jerzy Bański

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The purpose of the paper is to describe the role of urban-rural partnership in social and economic development. The concept of urban-rural collaboration is relatively new and assumes the need to link large metropolitan areas with surrounding rural areas in a number of ways. It is strongly related to the existing concept of polycentric spatial development. At the European Union level, the first document to address the need for urban-rural partnerships was the European Spatial Development Perspective from 1999. The paper focuses on factors that generate social and economic success on examples of several metropolitan territories in Poland (Warsaw, Poznan, Wroclaw, Krakow). A survey focused on rural communes made it possible to assess key success factors (location, social and economic, technological and organizational) that could be later used to determine the right course of action in the area of urban-rural cooperation, with the desired outcome being effective metropolitan area development. The main challenges to urban-rural partnership are issues associated with spatial planning, infrastructure and public services. These are areas of the greatest conflict of interest, too. Any analysis of urban-rural cooperation in metropolitan areas really needs to focus on the unique nature of this type of relationship. This includes issues such as commuting to work in the urban core and vice versa, complementarity of technical infrastructure, and joint strategic planning. Other forms of cooperation should focus on the tourist and recreational aspects of areas surrounding the urban core.

Keywords: partnership, rural areas, urbanization, metropolitan areas, Poland

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12 Stressors Faced by Border Security Officers: The Singapore Experience

Authors: Jansen Ang, Andrew Neo, Dawn Chia

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Border Security is unlike mainstream policing in that officers are essentially in static deployment, working round the clock every day and every hour of the year looking for illegitimate entry of persons and goods. In Singapore, Border Security officers perform multiple functions to ensure the nation’s safety and security. They are responsible for safeguarding the borders of Singapore to prevent threats from entering the country. Being the first line of defence in ensuring the nation’s border security officers are entrusted with the responsibility of screening travellers inbound and outbound of Singapore daily. They examined 99 million arrivals and departures at the various checkpoints in 2014, which is a considerable volume compared to most immigration agencies. The officers’ work scopes also include cargo clearance, protective and security functions of checkpoints. The officers work in very demanding environment which can range from the smog at the land checkpoints to the harshness of the ports at the sea checkpoints. In addition, all immigration checkpoints are located at the boundaries, posing commuting challenges for officers. At the land checkpoints, festive seasons and school breaks are peak periods as given the surge of inbound and outbound travellers at the various checkpoints. Such work provides unique challenges in comparison to other law enforcement duties. This paper assesses the current stressors faced by officers of a border security agency through the conduct of ground observations as well as a perceived stress survey as well as recommendations in combating stressors faced by border security officers. The findings from the field observations and surveys indicate organisational and operational stressors that are unique to border security and recommends interventions in managing these stressors. Understanding these stressors would better inform border security agencies on the interventions needed to enhance the resilience of border security officers.

Keywords: border security, Singapore, stress, operations

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11 Correlates of Modes of Transportation to Work among Working Adults in Ernakulam District, Kerala

Authors: Anjaly Joseph, Elezebeth Mathews

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Transportation and urban planning is the least recognised area for physical activity promotion in India, unlike developed regions. Identifying the preferred transportation modalities and factors associated with it is essential to address these lacunae. The objective of the study was to assess the prevalence of modes of transportation to work, and its correlates among working adults in Ernakulam District, Kerala. A cross sectional study was conducted among 350 working individuals in the age group of 18-60 years, selected through multi-staged stratified random sampling in Ernakulam district of Kerala. The inclusion criteria were working individuals 18-60 years, workplace at a distance of more than 1 km from the home and who worked five or more days a week. Pregnant women/women on maternity leave and drivers (taxi drivers, autorickshaw drivers, and lorry drivers) were excluded. An interview schedule was used to capture the modes of transportation namely, public, private and active transportation, socio demographic details, travel behaviour, anthropometric measurements and health status. Nearly two-thirds (64 percent) of them used private transportation to work, while active commuters were only 6.6 percent. The correlates identified for active commuting compared to other modes were low socio-economic status (OR=0.22, CI=0.5-0.85) and presence of a driving license (OR=4.95, CI= 1.59-15.45). The correlates identified for public transportation compared to private transportation were female gender (OR= 17.79, CI= 6.26-50.31), low income (OR=0.33, CI= 0.11-0.93), being unmarried (OR=5.19, CI=1.46-8.37), presence of no or only one private vehicle in the house (OR=4.23, CI=1.24-20.54) and presence of convenient public transportation facility to workplace (OR=3.97, CI= 1.66-9.47). The association between body mass index (BMI) and public transportation were explored and found that public transport users had lesser BMI than private commuters (OR=2.30, CI=1.23-4.29). Policies that encourage active and public transportation needs to be introduced such as discouraging private vehicle through taxes, introduction of convenient and safe public transportation facility, walking/cycling paths, and paid parking facility.

Keywords: active transportation, correlates, India, public transportation, transportation modes

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10 Unspoken Playground Rules Prompt Adolescents to Avoid Physical Activity: A Focus Group Study of Constructs in the Prototype Willingness Model

Authors: Catherine Wheatley, Emma L. Davies, Helen Dawes

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The health benefits of exercise are widely recognised, but numerous interventions have failed to halt a sharp decline in physical activity during early adolescence. Many such projects are underpinned by the Theory of Planned Behaviour, yet this model of rational decision-making leaves variance in behavior unexplained. This study investigated whether the Prototype Willingness Model, which proposes a second, reactive decision-making path to account for spontaneous responses to the social environment, has potential to improve understanding of adolescent exercise behaviour in school by exploring constructs in the model with young people. PE teachers in 4 Oxfordshire schools each nominated 6 pupils who were active in school, and 6 who were inactive, to participate in the study. Of these, 45 (22 male) aged 12-13 took part in 8 focus group discussions. These were transcribed and subjected to deductive thematic analysis to search for themes relating to the prototype willingness model. Participants appeared to make rational decisions about commuting to school or attending sports clubs, but spontaneous choices to be inactive during both break and PE. These reactive decisions seemed influenced by a social context described as more ‘judgmental’ than primary school, characterised by anxiety about physical competence, negative peer evaluation and inactive playground norms. Participants described their images of typical active and inactive adolescents: active images included negative social characteristics including ‘show-off’. There was little concern about the long-term risks of inactivity, although participants seemed to recognise that physical activity is healthy. The Prototype Willingness Model might more fully explain young adolescents’ physical activity in school than rational behavioural models, indicating potential for physical activity interventions that target social anxieties in response to the changing playground environment. Images of active types could be more complex than earlier research has suggested, and their negative characteristics might influence willingness to be active.

Keywords: adolescence, physical activity, prototype willingness model, school

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9 Assessment of Interior Environmental Quality and Airborne Infectious Risk in a Commuter Bus Cabin by Using Computational Fluid Dynamics with Computer Simulated Person

Authors: Yutaro Kyuma, Sung-Jun Yoo, Kazuhide Ito

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A commuter bus remains important as a means to network public transportation between railway stations and terminals within cities. In some cases, the boarding time becomes longer, and the boarding rate tends to be higher corresponding to the development of urban cities. The interior environmental quality, e.g. temperature and air quality, in a commuter bus is relatively heterogeneous and complex compared to that of an indoor environment in buildings due to several factors: solar radiative heat – which comes from large-area windows –, inadequate ventilation rate caused by high density of commuters, and metabolic heat generation from travelers themselves. In addition to this, under conditions where many passengers ride in the enclosed space, contact and airborne infectious risk have attracted considerable attention in terms of public health. From this point of view, it is essential to develop the prediction method for assessment of interior environmental quality and infection risk in commuter bus cabins. In this study, we developed a numerical commuter bus model integrated with computer simulated persons to reproduce realistic indoor environment conditions with high occupancy during commuting. Here, computer simulated persons were newly designed considering different types of geometries, e.g., standing position, seating position, and individual differences. Here we conducted coupled computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis with radiative heat transfer analysis under steady state condition. Distributions of heterogeneous air flow patterns, temperature, and moisture surrounding the human body under some different ventilation system were analyzed by using CFD technique, and skin surface temperature distributions were analyzed using thermoregulation model that integrated into computer simulated person. Through these analyses, we discussed the interior environmental quality in specific commuter bus cabins. Further, inhaled air quality of each passenger was also analyzed. This study may have possibility to design the ventilation system in bus for improving thermal comfort of occupants.

Keywords: computational fluid dynamics, CFD, computer simulated person, CSP, contaminant, indoor environment, public health, ventilation

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8 Travel Behaviour and Perceptions in Trips with a Ferry Connection

Authors: Trude Tørset, María Díez Gutiérrez

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The west coast of Norway features numerous islands and fjords. Ferry services connect the roads when these features make the construction challenging. Currently, scientific effort is designated to assess potential ferry replacement projects along the European road E-39. The inconvenience of ferry dependency is imprecisely represented in the transport models, thus transport analyses of ferry replacement projects appear as guesstimates rather than reliable input to decision-making processes of such costly projects. Trips including ferry connections imply more inconvenient elements than just travel time and cost. The goal of this paper is to understand and explain the extra inconveniences associated to the dependency of the ferry. The first scientific approach is to identify the characteristics of the ferry travelers and their trips’ features, as well as whether the ferry represents an obstacle for some specific trip types. In doing so, a survey was conducted in 2011 in eight E-39 ferries and in 2013 in 18 ferries connecting different road categories. More than 20,000 passengers answered with their trip and socioeconomic characteristics. The travel patterns in the different ferry connections were compared. The analysis showed that the trip features differed based on the location of the ferry connections, yet independently of the road category. Additionally, the patterns were compared to the national travel survey to detect differences in the travel patterns due to the use of the ferry connections. The results showed that the share of commuting trips within the same travel time was lower if the ferry was part of the trip. The second scientific approach is to know how the different travelers perceive potential benefits for a ferry replacement project. In the 2011 survey, some of the questions were about the relevance of nine different benefits this project might bring. Travelers identified the better access to public services and job market as the most valuable benefits, followed by the reduced planning of the trip. In 2016, a follow-up survey in some of the ferry connections was carried out in order to investigate variations in travelers’ perceptions. The growing interest in ferry replacement projects might make travelers more aware of the potential benefits these would bring to their daily lives. This paper describes the travel behaviour of travelers using a ferry connection as part of their trips, as well as the potential inconveniences associated to these trips. The findings might provide valuable input to further development of transport models, concept evaluations and cost benefit analysis methods.

Keywords: ferry connections, ferry trip, inconvenience costs, travel behaviour

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7 Crash and Injury Characteristics of Riders in Motorcycle-Passenger Vehicle Crashes

Authors: Z. A. Ahmad Noor Syukri, A. J. Nawal Aswan, S. V. Wong

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The motorcycle has become one of the most common type of vehicles used on the road, particularly in the Asia region, including Malaysia, due to its size-convenience and affordable price. This study focuses only on crashes involving motorcycles with passenger cars consisting 43 real world crashes obtained from in-depth crash investigation process from June 2016 till July 2017. The study collected and analyzed vehicle and site parameters obtained during crash investigation and injury information acquired from the patient-treating hospital. The investigation team, consisting of two personnel, is stationed at the Emergency Department of the treatment facility, and was dispatched to the crash scene once receiving notification of the related crashes. The injury information retrieved was coded according to the level of severity using the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) and classified into different body regions. The data revealed that weekend crashes were significantly higher for the night time period and the crash occurrence was the highest during morning hours (commuting to work period) for weekdays. Bad weather conditions play a minimal effect towards the occurrence of motorcycle – passenger vehicle crashes and nearly 90% involved motorcycles with single riders. Riders up to 25 years old are heavily involved in crashes with passenger vehicles (60%), followed by 26-55 year age group with 35%. Male riders were dominant in each of the age segments. The majority of the crashes involved side impacts, followed by rear impacts and cars outnumbered the rest of the passenger vehicle types in terms of crash involvement with motorcycles. The investigation data also revealed that passenger vehicles were the most at-fault counterpart (62%) when involved in crashes with motorcycles and most of the crashes involved situations whereby both of the vehicles are travelling in the same direction and one of the vehicles is in a turning maneuver. More than 80% of the involved motorcycle riders had sustained yellow severity level during triage process. The study also found that nearly 30% of the riders sustained injuries to the lower extremities, while MAIS level 3 injuries were recorded for all body regions except for thorax region. The result showed that crashes in which the motorcycles were found to be at fault were more likely to occur during night and raining conditions. These types of crashes were also found to be more likely to involve other types of passenger vehicles rather than cars and possess higher likelihood in resulting higher ISS (>6) value to the involved rider. To reduce motorcycle fatalities, it first has to understand the characteristics concerned and focus may be given on crashes involving passenger vehicles as the most dominant crash partner on Malaysian roads.

Keywords: motorcycle crash, passenger vehicle, in-depth crash investigation, injury mechanism

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6 Research on Land Use Pattern and Employment-Housing Space of Coastal Industrial Town Based on the Investigation of Liaoning Province, China

Authors: Fei Chen, Wei Lu, Jun Cai

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During the Twelve Five period, China promulgated industrial policies promoting the relocation of energy-intensive industries to coastal areas in order to utilize marine shipping resources. Consequently, some major state-owned steel and gas enterprises have relocated and resulted in a large-scale coastal area development. However, some land may have been over-exploited with seamless coastline projects. To balance between employment and housing, new industrial coastal towns were constructed to support the industrial-led development. In this paper, we adopt a case-study approach to closely examine the development of several new industrial coastal towns of Liaoning Province situated in the Bohai Bay area, which is currently under rapid economic growth. Our investigations reflect the common phenomenon of long distance commuting and a massive amount of vacant residences. More specifically, large plant relocation caused hundreds of kilometers of daily commute and enterprises had to provide housing subsidies and education incentives to motivate employees to relocate to coastal areas. Nonetheless, many employees still refuse to relocate due to job stability, diverse needs of family members and access to convenient services. These employees averaged 4 hours of commute daily and some who lived further had to reside in temporary industrial housing units and subject to long-term family separation. As a result, only a small portion of employees purchase new coastal residences but mostly for investment and retirement purposes, leading to massive vacancy and ghost-town phenomenon. In contrast to the low demand, coastal areas tend to develop large amount of residences prior to industrial relocation, which may be directly related to local government finances. Some local governments have sold residential land to developers to general revenue to support the subsequent industrial development. Subject to the strong preference of ocean-view, residential housing developers tend to select coast-line land to construct new residential towns, which further reduces the access of marine resources for major industrial enterprises. This violates the original intent of developing industrial coastal towns and drastically limits the availability of marine resources. Lastly, we analyze the co-existence of over-exploiting residential areas and massive vacancies in reference to the demand and supply of land, as well as the demand of residential housing units with the choice criteria of enterprise employees.

Keywords: coastal industry town, commuter traffic, employment-housing space, outer suburb industrial area

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5 Ambient Factors in the Perception of Crowding in Public Transport

Authors: John Zacharias, Bin Wang

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Travel comfort is increasingly seen as crucial to effecting the switch from private motorized modes to public transit. Surveys suggest that travel comfort is closely related to perceived crowding, that may involve lack of available seating, difficulty entering and exiting, jostling and other physical contacts with strangers. As found in studies on environmental stress, other factors may moderate perceptions of crowding–in this case, we hypothesize that the ambient environment may play a significant role. Travel comfort was measured by applying a structured survey to randomly selected passengers (n=369) on 3 lines of the Beijing metro on workdays. Respondents were standing with all seats occupied and with car occupancy at 14 levels. A second research assistant filmed the metro car while passengers were interviewed, to obtain the total number of passengers. Metro lines 4, 6 and 10 were selected that travel through the central city north-south, east-west and circumferentially. Respondents evaluated the following factors: crowding, noise, smell, air quality, temperature, illumination, vibration and perceived safety as they experienced them at the time of interview, and then were asked to rank these 8 factors according to their importance for their travel comfort. Evaluations were semantic differentials on a 7-point scale from highly unsatisfactory (-3) to highly satisfactory (+3). The control variables included age, sex, annual income and trip purpose. Crowding was assessed most negatively, with 41% of the scores between -3 and -2. Noise and air quality were also assessed negatively, with two-thirds of the evaluations below 0. Illumination was assessed most positively, followed by crime, vibration and temperature, all scoring at indifference (0) or slightly positive. Perception of crowding was linearly and positively related to the number of passengers in the car. Linear regression tested the impact of ambient environmental factors on perception of crowding. Noise intensity accounted for more than the actual number of individuals in the car in the perception of crowding, with smell also contributing. Other variables do not interact with the crowding variable although the evaluations are distinct. In all, only one-third of the perception of crowding (R2=.154) is explained by the number of people, with the other ambient environmental variables accounting for two-thirds of the variance (R2=.316). However, when ranking the factors by their importance to travel comfort, perceived crowding made up 69% of the first rank, followed by noise at 11%. At rank 2, smell dominates (25%), followed by noise and air quality (17%). Commuting to work induces significantly lower evaluations of travel comfort with shopping the most positive. Clearly, travel comfort is particularly important to commuters. Moreover, their perception of crowding while travelling on metro is highly conditioned by the ambient environment in the metro car. Focussing attention on the ambient environmental conditions of the metro is an effective way to address the primary concerns of travellers with overcrowding. In general, the strongly held opinions on travel comfort require more attention in the effort to induce ridership in public transit.

Keywords: ambient environment, mass rail transit, public transit, travel comfort

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4 Furnishing Ancillary Alternatives for High Speed Corridors and Pedestrian Crossing: Elevated Cycle Track, an Expedient to Urban Space Prototype in New Delhi

Authors: Suneet Jagdev, Hrishabh Amrodia, Siddharth Menon, Abhishek Singh, Mansi Shivhare

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Delhi, the National Capital, has undergone a surge in development rate, consequently engendering an unprecedented increase in population. Over the years the city has transformed into a car-centric infrastructure with high-speed corridors, flyovers and fast lanes. A considerable section of the population is hankering to rehabilitate to the good old cycling days, in order to contribute towards a green environment as well as to maintain their physical well-being. Furthermore, an extant section of Delhi’s population relies on cycles as their primary means of commuting in the city. Delhi has the highest number of cyclists and second highest number of pedestrians in the country. However, the tumultuous problems of unregulated traffic, inadequate space on roads, adverse weather conditions stifle them to opt for cycling. Lately, the city has been facing a conglomeration of problems such as haphazard traffic movement, clogged roads, congestion, pollution, accidents, safety issues, etc. In 1957, Delhi’s cyclists accounted for 36 per cent of trips which dropped down to a mere 4 per cent in 2008. The declining rate is due to unsafe roads and lack of proper cycle lanes. Now as the 10 percent of the city has cycle tracks. There is also a lack of public recreational activities in the city. These conundrums incite the need of a covered elevated cycling bridge track to facilitate the safe and smooth cycle commutation in the city which would also serve the purpose of an alternate urban public space over the cycle bridge reducing the cost as well as the space requirement for the same, developing a user–friendly transportation and public interaction system for urban areas in the city. Based on the archival research methodologies, the following research draws information and extracts records from the data accounts of the Delhi Metro Rail Corporation Ltd. as well as the Centre for Science and Environment, India. This research will predominantly focus on developing a prototype design for high speed elevated bicycle lanes based on different road typologies, which can be replicated with minor variations in similar situations, all across the major cities of our country including the proposed smart cities. Furthermore, how these cycling lanes could be utilized for the place making process accommodating cycle parking and renting spaces, public recreational spaces, food courts as well as convenient shopping facilities with appropriate optimization. How to preserve and increase the share of smooth and safe cycling commute cycling for the routine transportation of the urban community of the polluted capital which has been on a steady decline over the past few decades.

Keywords: bicycle track, prototype, road safety, urban spaces

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3 Modeling Travel Behavior for Public Transport Using Discrete Choice Modeling

Authors: Durba Kundu

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The vital aspect of transportation planning is a mode choice decision. Public transportation plays an essential role in policy-making services. Results of travel behavior analysis of commuters based on their mode choice decision can be used for demand forecasting and service pricing. There is a need to understand travelers’ preferences and willingness to choose among the existing or potential alternatives, such as traditional transport modes. Furthermore, it is essential to understand aspects, which influence trips for designing the model. These aspects that impact commuter’s trips are essential to policymakers for determining decisions on the needs of travelers. A city that beholds major electronics hub tends to become the worst commuting city in a country. The socio-economic loss due to traffic congestion includes extra travel time, more congestion of fuels, death, loss of vehicle, and environmental issues. The relatively higher congestion is created due to limitations of the traditional route based transportation networks and the rapid growth of private vehicles — improper planning of infrastructure and rapid growth of a city. Increasing ridesharing or carpooling services can decrease the use of the number of users of the private vehicle. Analysis of the behavior of the commuters is one of the vital steps to understand the rider’s need from transportation services, and hence it will be a better approach to deal with the congestion problems by providing permanent solutions. Mode choice modeling is an essential aspect of behavior analysis of the commuters. The multinomial logit model is developed to get the significant coefficients and estimated standard error of the dependent variable. Discrete choice modeling is a mathematical operation that derives an individual’s mode choice decision based on the significance of relative parameters or independent variables. The model which is developed is the Probability of choosing Traditional modes as the primary mode in Trip. Several variables are selected to form this model. The outcomes of the developed model contain a value of the coefficients, estimated standard error, and P-value of the variable. This paper deals with contains the inference of the different variables for choosing a public transport mode. Here strong positive influence implies that more the number of that variable (whatever the number signifies), the Probability of choosing that mode is high. Low positive influence does not affect the mode choice decision effectively, but still for a specific mode higher, the number of the category of hat variable chances of choosing that particular mode is more. Again high adverse inference signifies that more the number of a variable less the chance of choosing that mode and for profound adverse effects the variable does not affect the mode choice decision that much, but it still affects negatively. From the outcomes of the model, it is seen that the significance of the intercept for own two-wheelers, Public Bus, Own Two Wheeler with family, friends, own car as a passenger, and Walk mode is significant (p<0.05). Age is a significant parameter for choosing a Public bus, own car as a passenger, and own car self-drive. Gender is essential for own two-wheeler, own car as a passenger, own car drive self as it seems significant (p<0.00).

Keywords: discrete choice analysis, mode choice modeling, public transport, travel behavior

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2 Resolving Urban Mobility Issues through Network Restructuring of Urban Mass Transport

Authors: Aditya Purohit, Neha Bansal

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Unplanned urbanization and multidirectional sprawl of the cities have resulted in increased motorization and deteriorating transport conditions like traffic congestion, longer commuting, pollution, increased carbon footprint, and above all increased fatalities. In order to overcome these problems, various practices have been adopted including– promoting and implementing mass transport; traffic junction channelization; smart transport etc. However, these methods are found to be primarily focusing on vehicular mobility rather than people accessibility. With this research gap, this paper tries to resolve the mobility issues for Ahmedabad city in India, which being the economic capital Gujarat state has a huge commuter and visitor inflow. This research aims to resolve the traffic congestion and urban mobility issues focusing on Gujarat State Regional Transport Corporation (GSRTC) for the city of Ahmadabad by analyzing the existing operations and network structure of GSRTC followed by finding possibilities of integrating it with other modes of urban transport. The network restructuring (NR) methodology is used with appropriate variations, based on commuter demand and growth pattern of the city. To do these ‘scenarios’ based on priority issues (using 12 parameters) and their best possible solution, are established after route network analysis for 2700 population sample of 20 traffic junctions/nodes across the city. Approximately 5% sample (of passenger inflow) at each node is considered using random stratified sampling technique two scenarios are – Scenario 1: Resolving mobility issues by use of Special Purpose Vehicle (SPV) in joint venture to GSRTC and Private Operators for establishing feeder service, which shall provide a transfer service for passenger for movement from inner city area to identified peripheral terminals; and Scenario 2: Augmenting existing mass transport services such as BRTS and AMTS for using them as feeder service to the identified peripheral terminals. Each of these has now been analyzed for the best suitability/feasibility in network restructuring. A desire-line diagram is constructed using this analysis which indicated that on an average 62% of designated GSRTC routes are overlapping with mass transportation service routes of BRTS and AMTS in the city. This has resulted in duplication of bus services causing traffic congestion especially in the Central Bus Station (CBS). Terminating GSRTC services on the periphery of the city is found to be the best restructuring network proposal. This limits the GSRTC buses at city fringe area and prevents them from entering into the city core areas. These end-terminals of GSRTC are integrated with BRTS and AMTS services which help in segregating intra-state and inter-state bus services. The research concludes that absence of integrated multimodal transport network resulted in complexity of transport access to the commuters. As a further scope of research comparing and understanding of value of access time in total travel time and its implication on generalized cost on trip and how it varies city wise may be taken up.

Keywords: mass transportation, multi-modal integration, network restructuring, travel behavior, urban transport

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1 Geovisualization of Human Mobility Patterns in Los Angeles Using Twitter Data

Authors: Linna Li

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The capability to move around places is doubtless very important for individuals to maintain good health and social functions. People’s activities in space and time have long been a research topic in behavioral and socio-economic studies, particularly focusing on the highly dynamic urban environment. By analyzing groups of people who share similar activity patterns, many socio-economic and socio-demographic problems and their relationships with individual behavior preferences can be revealed. Los Angeles, known for its large population, ethnic diversity, cultural mixing, and entertainment industry, faces great transportation challenges such as traffic congestion, parking difficulties, and long commuting. Understanding people’s travel behavior and movement patterns in this metropolis sheds light on potential solutions to complex problems regarding urban mobility. This project visualizes people’s trajectories in Greater Los Angeles (L.A.) Area over a period of two months using Twitter data. A Python script was used to collect georeferenced tweets within the Greater L.A. Area including Ventura, San Bernardino, Riverside, Los Angeles, and Orange counties. Information associated with tweets includes text, time, location, and user ID. Information associated with users includes name, the number of followers, etc. Both aggregated and individual activity patterns are demonstrated using various geovisualization techniques. Locations of individual Twitter users were aggregated to create a surface of activity hot spots at different time instants using kernel density estimation, which shows the dynamic flow of people’s movement throughout the metropolis in a twenty-four-hour cycle. In the 3D geovisualization interface, the z-axis indicates time that covers 24 hours, and the x-y plane shows the geographic space of the city. Any two points on the z axis can be selected for displaying activity density surface within a particular time period. In addition, daily trajectories of Twitter users were created using space-time paths that show the continuous movement of individuals throughout the day. When a personal trajectory is overlaid on top of ancillary layers including land use and road networks in 3D visualization, the vivid representation of a realistic view of the urban environment boosts situational awareness of the map reader. A comparison of the same individual’s paths on different days shows some regular patterns on weekdays for some Twitter users, but for some other users, their daily trajectories are more irregular and sporadic. This research makes contributions in two major areas: geovisualization of spatial footprints to understand travel behavior using the big data approach and dynamic representation of activity space in the Greater Los Angeles Area. Unlike traditional travel surveys, social media (e.g., Twitter) provides an inexpensive way of data collection on spatio-temporal footprints. The visualization techniques used in this project are also valuable for analyzing other spatio-temporal data in the exploratory stage, thus leading to informed decisions about generating and testing hypotheses for further investigation. The next step of this research is to separate users into different groups based on gender/ethnic origin and compare their daily trajectory patterns.

Keywords: geovisualization, human mobility pattern, Los Angeles, social media

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