Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 34

Search results for: Vishal V. R. Nandigana

34 Single Ion Transport with a Single-Layer Graphene Nanopore

Authors: Vishal V. R. Nandigana, Mohammad Heiranian, Narayana R. Aluru

Abstract:

Graphene material has found tremendous applications in water desalination, DNA sequencing and energy storage. Multiple nanopores are etched to create opening for water desalination and energy storage applications. The nanopores created are of the order of 3-5 nm allowing multiple ions to transport through the pore. In this paper, we present for the first time, molecular dynamics study of single ion transport, where only one ion passes through the graphene nanopore. The diameter of the graphene nanopore is of the same order as the hydration layers formed around each ion. Analogous to single electron transport resulting from ionic transport is observed for the first time. The current-voltage characteristics of such a device are similar to single electron transport in quantum dots. The current is blocked until a critical voltage, as the ions are trapped inside a hydration shell. The trapped ions have a high energy barrier compared to the applied input electrical voltage, preventing the ion to break free from the hydration shell. This region is called “Coulomb blockade region”. In this region, we observe zero transport of ions inside the nanopore. However, when the electrical voltage is beyond the critical voltage, the ion has sufficient energy to break free from the energy barrier created by the hydration shell to enter into the pore. Thus, the input voltage can control the transport of the ion inside the nanopore. The device therefore acts as a binary storage unit, storing 0 when no ion passes through the pore and storing 1 when a single ion passes through the pore. We therefore postulate that the device can be used for fluidic computing applications in chemistry and biology, mimicking a computer. Furthermore, the trapped ion stores a finite charge in the Coulomb blockade region; hence the device also acts a super capacitor.

Keywords: graphene nanomembrane, single ion transport, Coulomb blockade, nanofluidics

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33 Collaborative Planning and Forecasting

Authors: Neha Asthana, Vishal Krishna Prasad

Abstract:

Collaborative planning and forecasting are the innovative and systematic approaches towards productive integration and assimilation of data synergized into information. The changing and variable market dynamics have persuaded global business chains to incorporate collaborative planning and forecasting as an imperative tool. Thus, it is essential for the supply chains to constantly improvise, update its nature, and mould as per changing global environment.

Keywords: information transfer, forecasting, optimization, supply chain management

Procedia PDF Downloads 248
32 Implementation of Traffic Engineering Using MPLS Technology

Authors: Vishal H. Shukla, Sanjay B. Deshmukh

Abstract:

Traffic engineering, at its center, is the ability of moving traffic approximately so that traffic from a congested link is moved onto the unused capacity on another link. Traffic Engineering ensures the best possible use of the resources. Now to support traffic engineering in the today’s network, Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) is being used which is very helpful for reliable packets delivery in an ongoing internet services. Here a topology is been implemented on GNS3 to focus on the analysis of the communication take place from one site to other through the ISP. The comparison is made between the IP network & MPLS network based on Bandwidth & Jitter which are one of the performance parameters using JPERF simulator.

Keywords: GNS3, JPERF, MPLS, traffic engineering, VMware

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31 PH.WQT as a Web Quality Model for Websites of Government Domain

Authors: Rupinder Pal Kaur, Vishal Goyal

Abstract:

In this research, a systematic and quantitative engineering-based approach is followed by applying well-known international standards and guidelines to develop a web quality model (PH.WQT- Punjabi and Hindi Website Quality Tester) to measure external quality for websites of government domain that are developed in Punjabi and Hindi. Correspondingly, the model can be used for websites developed in other languages also. The research is valuable to researchers and practitioners interested in designing, implementing and managing websites of government domain Also, by implementing PH.WQT analysis and comparisons among web sites of government domain can be performed in a consistent way.

Keywords: external quality, PH.WQT, indian languages, punjabi and hindi, quality model, websites of government

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30 Reverse Logistics, Green Supply Chain, and Carbon Trading

Authors: Neha Asthana, Vishal Krishna Prasad

Abstract:

Reverse logistics and green supply chain form an interconnected and interwoven network of parameters that contribute to enhancement and incremental exchange in the triple bottom line in the consistently changing and fragmenting markets of the globalizing markets of today. Reverse logistics not only contributes to completing the supply chain in a comprehensive and synchronized manner but also contributes to a significant degree in optimizing green supply chains through procedures such as recycling, refurbishing etc. contributing to waste reduction. Carbon trading, owing to its limitations in the global context and being in a nascent stage seeks plethora of research to determine its full application in synergy with reverse logistics and green supply chain.

Keywords: reverse logistics, carbon trading, carbon emissions, green supply chain

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29 Design and Development of Chassis Made of Composite Material

Authors: P. Ravinder Reddy, Chaitanya Vishal Nalli, B. Tulja Lal, Anusha Kankanala

Abstract:

The chassis frame of an automobile with different sections have been considered for different loads. The orthotropic materials are selected to get the stability by varying fiber angle, fiber thickness, laminates, fiber properties, matrix properties and elastic ratios. The geometric model of chassis frame is carried out with parametric modelling approach. The analysis of chassis frame is carried out with ANSYS FEA software. The static and dynamic analysis of chassis frame is carried out by varying geometric parameters, orthotropic properties, materials and various sections. The static and dynamic response is discussed in detail in different sections.

Keywords: chassis frame, dynamic response, geometric model, orthotropic materials

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28 Management of English Language Teaching in Higher Education

Authors: Vishal D. Pandya

Abstract:

A great deal of perceptible change has been taking place in the way our institutions of higher learning are being managed in India today. It is believed that managers, whose intuition proves to be accurate, often tend to be the most successful, and this is what makes them almost like entrepreneurs. A certain entrepreneurial spirit is what is expected and requires a degree of insight of the manager to be successful depending upon the situational and more importantly, the heterogeneity as well as the socio-cultural aspect. Teachers in Higher Education have to play multiple roles to make sure that the Learning-Teaching process becomes effective in the real sense of the term. This paper makes an effort to take a close look at that, especially in the context of the management of English language teaching in Higher Education and, therefore, focuses on the management of English language teaching in higher education by understanding target situation analyses at the socio-cultural level.

Keywords: management, language teaching, English language teaching, higher education

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27 Performance Analysis of Shunt Active Power Filter for Various Reference Current Generation Techniques

Authors: Vishal V. Choudhari, Gaurao A. Dongre, S. P. Diwan

Abstract:

A number of reference current generation have been developed for analysis of shunt active power filter to mitigate the load compensation. Depending upon the type of load the technique has to be chosen. In this paper, six reference current generation techniques viz. instantaneous reactive power theory(IRP), Synchronous reference frame theory(SRF), Perfect harmonic cancellation(PHC), Unity power factor method(UPF), Self-tuning filter method(STF), Predictive filtering method(PFM) are compared for different operating conditions. The harmonics are introduced because of non-linear loads in the system. These harmonics are eliminated using above techniques. The results and performance of system simulated on MATLAB/Simulink platform. The system is experimentally implemented using DS1104 card of dSPACE system.

Keywords: SAPF, power quality, THD, IRP, SRF, dSPACE module DS1104

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26 Divergence of Innovation Capabilities within the EU

Authors: Vishal Jaunky, Jonas Grafström

Abstract:

The development of the European Union’s (EU) single economic market and rapid technological change has resulted in major structural changes in EU’s member states economies. The general liberalization process that the countries has undergone together has convinced the governments of the member states of need to upgrade their economic and training systems in order to be able to face the economic globalization. Several signs of economic convergence have been found but less is known about the knowledge production. This paper addresses the convergence pattern of technological innovation in 13 European Union (EU) states over the time period 1990-2011 by means of parametric and non-parametric techniques. Parametric approaches revolve around the neoclassical convergence theories. This paper reveals divergence of both the β and σ types. Further, we found evidence of stochastic divergence and non-parametric convergence approach such as distribution dynamics shows a tendency towards divergence. This result is supported with the occurrence of γ-divergence. The policies of the EU to reduce technological gap among its member states seem to be missing its target, something that can have negative long run consequences for the market.

Keywords: convergence, patents, panel data, European union

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25 Seismic Data Scaling: Uncertainties, Potential and Applications in Workstation Interpretation

Authors: Ankur Mundhra, Shubhadeep Chakraborty, Y. R. Singh, Vishal Das

Abstract:

Seismic data scaling affects the dynamic range of a data and with present day lower costs of storage and higher reliability of Hard Disk data, scaling is not suggested. However, in dealing with data of different vintages, which perhaps were processed in 16 bits or even 8 bits and are need to be processed with 32 bit available data, scaling is performed. Also, scaling amplifies low amplitude events in deeper region which disappear due to high amplitude shallow events that saturate amplitude scale. We have focused on significance of scaling data to aid interpretation. This study elucidates a proper seismic loading procedure in workstations without using default preset parameters as available in most software suites. Differences and distribution of amplitude values at different depth for seismic data are probed in this exercise. Proper loading parameters are identified and associated steps are explained that needs to be taken care of while loading data. Finally, the exercise interprets the un-certainties which might arise when correlating scaled and unscaled versions of seismic data with synthetics. As, seismic well tie correlates the seismic reflection events with well markers, for our study it is used to identify regions which are enhanced and/or affected by scaling parameter(s).

Keywords: clipping, compression, resolution, seismic scaling

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24 Perception of Reproductive Age Group Females of a Central University in India about Body Image

Authors: Rajani Vishal, C. P. Mishra

Abstract:

Background: Self-perception of an individual about own body has a strong influence on their food preference and thereby on their nutritional status. Body image is gaining importance in social theory. Globally, women in particular seem to be favour of one ideal body type (Viz A slim, tall and perfectly proportionate body). Beauty and body image ideals among research scholars can play a significant influence on their own actions. Objectives: 1) To assess perception of study subjects about body image; 2)To analyze the relationship between body image and residential status of study subjects. Material and Method: 176 female research scholars of Banaras Hindu University were selected through multistage sampling. They were interviewed with pre designed and pre-tested proforma about area of residence and perception about body image. Result: As much as 86.4% subjects were happy with the way they looked whereas 83.0% subjects considered themselves as attractive. In case of 13.6%, 27.3%, 31.8%, 14.2% and 13.1% subjects, best-described body shapes were thin, normal, curvy, athletic and overweight, respectively. Area of residence was significantly (p< o.o5) associated with perception of attractiveness and description of body shape. Conclusion: In spite of varied description of body image, majority of subjects had positive perception about their body image.

Keywords: attractiveness, body image, body shape, nutritional status

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23 Understanding the Role of Gas Hydrate Morphology on the Producibility of a Hydrate-Bearing Reservoir

Authors: David Lall, Vikram Vishal, P. G. Ranjith

Abstract:

Numerical modeling of gas production from hydrate-bearing reservoirs requires the solution of various thermal, hydrological, chemical, and mechanical phenomena in a coupled manner. Among the various reservoir properties that influence gas production estimates, the distribution of permeability across the domain is one of the most crucial parameters since it determines both heat transfer and mass transfer. The aspect of permeability in hydrate-bearing reservoirs is particularly complex compared to conventional reservoirs since it depends on the saturation of gas hydrates and hence, is dynamic during production. The dependence of permeability on hydrate saturation is mathematically represented using permeability-reduction models, which are specific to the expected morphology of hydrate accumulations (such as grain-coating or pore-filling hydrates). In this study, we demonstrate the impact of various permeability-reduction models, and consequently, different morphologies of hydrate deposits on the estimates of gas production using depressurization at the reservoir scale. We observe significant differences in produced water volumes and cumulative mass of produced gas between the models, thereby highlighting the uncertainty in production behavior arising from the ambiguity in the prevalent gas hydrate morphology.

Keywords: gas hydrate morphology, multi-scale modeling, THMC, fluid flow in porous media

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22 Treatment of Pharmaceutical Industrial Effluent by Catalytic Ozonation in a Semi-Batch Reactor: Kinetics, Mass Transfer and Improved Biodegradability Studies

Authors: Sameena Malik, Ghosh Prakash, Sandeep Mudliar, Vishal Waindeskar, Atul Vaidya

Abstract:

In this study, the biodegradability enhancement along with COD color and toxicity removal of pharmaceutical effluent by O₃, O₃/Fe²⁺, O₃/nZVI processes has been evaluated. The nZVI particles were synthesized and characterized by XRD and SEM analysis. Kinetic model was reasonably developed to select the ozone doses to be applied based on the ozonation kinetic and mass transfer coefficient values. Nano catalytic ozonation process (O₃/nZVI) effectively enhanced the biodegradability (BI=BOD₅/COD) of pharmaceutical effluent up to 0.63 from 0.18 of control with a COD, color and toxicity removal of 62.3%, 93%, and 75% respectively compared to O₃, O₃/Fe²⁺ pretreatment processes. From the GC-MS analysis, 8 foremost organic compounds were predominantly detected in the pharmaceutical effluent. The disappearance of the corresponding GC-MS spectral peaks during catalyzed ozonation process indicated the degradation of the effluent. The changes in the FTIR spectra confirms the transformation/destruction of the organic compounds present in the effluent to new compounds. Subsequent aerobic biodegradation of pretreated effluent resulted in biodegradation rate enhancement by 5.31, 2.97, and 1.22 times for O₃, O₃/Fe²⁺ and O₃/nZVI processes respectively.

Keywords: iron nanoparticles, pharmaceutical effluent, ozonation, kinetics, mass transfer

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21 A Study on Golden Ratio (ф) and Its Implications on Seismic Design Using ETABS

Authors: Vishal A. S. Salelkar, Sumitra S. Kandolkar

Abstract:

Golden ratio (ф) or Golden mean or Golden section, as it is often referred to, is a proportion or a mean, which is often used by architects while conceiving the aesthetics of a structure. Golden Ratio (ф) is an irrational number that can be roughly rounded to 1.618 and is derived out of quadratic equation x2-x-1=0. The use of Golden Ratio (ф) can be observed throughout history, as far as ancient Egyptians, which later peaked during the Greek golden age. The use of this design technique is very much prevalent. At present, architects around the world prefer this as one of the primary techniques to decide aesthetics. In this study, an analysis has been performed to investigate whether the use of the golden ratio while planning a structure has any effects on the seismic behavior of the structure. The structure is modeled and analyzed on ETABS (by Computers and Structures, Inc.) for Seismic requirements equivalent to Zone III (Region: Goa-India) as per Indian Standard Code IS-1893. The results were compared to that of an identical structure modeled along the lines of normal design philosophy, not using the Golden Ratio tools. The results were then compared for Story Shear, Story Drift, and Story Displacement Readings. Improvement in performance, although slight, but was observed. Similar improvements were also observed in subsequent iterations, performed using time-acceleration data of previous major earthquakes matched to Zone III as per IS-1893.

Keywords: ETABS, golden ratio, seismic design, structural behavior

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20 Optimization of Machining Parameters of Wire Electric Discharge Machining (WEDM) of Inconel 625 Super Alloy

Authors: Amitesh Goswami, Vishal Gulati, Annu Yadav

Abstract:

In this paper, WEDM has been used to investigate the machining characteristics of Inconel-625 alloy. The machining characteristics namely material removal rate (MRR) and surface roughness (SR) have been investigated along with surface microstructure analysis using SEM and EDS of the machined surface. Taguchi’s L27 Orthogonal array design has been used by considering six varying input parameters viz. Pulse-on time (Ton), Pulse-off time (Toff), Spark Gap Set Voltage (SV), Peak Current (IP), Wire Feed (WF) and Wire Tension (WT) for the responses of interest. It has been found out that Pulse-on time (Ton) and Spark Gap Set Voltage (SV) are the most significant parameters affecting material removal rate (MRR) and surface roughness (SR) are. Microstructure analysis of workpiece was also done using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). It was observed that, variations in pulse-on time and pulse-off time causes varying discharge energy and as a result of which deep craters / micro cracks and large/ small number of debris were formed. These results were helpful in studying the effects of pulse-on time and pulse-off time on MRR and SR. Energy Dispersive Spectrometry (EDS) was also done to check the compositional analysis of the material and it was observed that Copper and Zinc which were initially not present in the Inconel 625, later migrated on the material surface from the brass wire electrode during machining

Keywords: MRR, SEM, SR, taguchi, Wire Electric Discharge Machining

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19 Novel IPN Hydrogel Beads as pH Sensitive Drug Delivery System for an Anti-Ulcer Drug

Authors: Vishal Kumar Gupta

Abstract:

Purpose: This study has been undertaken to develop novel pH sensitive interpenetrating network hydrogel beads. Methods: The pH sensitive PAAM-g-Guar gum copolymer was synthesized by free radical polymerization followed by alkaline hydrolysis. Beads of guar gum-grafted-polyacrylamide and sodium Carboxy methyl cellulose (Na CMC) loaded with Pantoprazole sodium were prepared and evaluated for pH sensitivity, swelling properties, drug entrapment efficiency and in vitro drug release characteristics. Seven formulations were prepared for the drug with varying polymer and cross linker concentrations. Results: The grafting and alkaline hydrolysis reactions were confirmed by FT-IR spectroscopy. Differential scanning calorimetry was carried out to know the compatibility of encapsulated drug with the polymers. Scanning electron microscopic study revealed that the IPN beads were spherical. The entrapment efficiency was found to be in the range of 85-92%. Particle size analysis was carried out by optical microscopy. As the pH of the medium was changed from 1.2 to 7.4, a considerable increase in swelling was observed for all beads. Increase in the copolymer concentration showed sustained the drug release up to 12 hrs. Drug release from the beads followed super case II transport mechanism. Conclusion: It was concluded that guar gum-acrylamide beads, cross-linked with aluminum chloride offer an opportunity for controlled drug release of pantoprazole sodium.

Keywords: IPN, hydrogels, DSC, SEM

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18 Transcriptional Profiling of Developing Ovules in Litchi chinensis

Authors: Ashish Kumar Pathak, Ritika Sharma, Vishal Nath, Sudhir Pratap Singh, Rakesh Tuli

Abstract:

Litchi is a sub-tropical fruit crop with genotypes bearing delicious juicy fruits with variable seed size (bold to rudimentary size). Small seed size is a desirable trait in litchi, as it increases consumer acceptance and fruit processing. The biochemical activities in mid- stage ovules (e.g. 16, 20, 24 and 28 days after anthesis) determine the fate of seed and fruit development in litchi. Comprehensive ovule-specific transcriptome analysis was performed in two litchi genotypes with contrasting seed size to gain molecular insight on determinants of seed fates in litchi fruits. The transcriptomic data was de-novo assembled in 1,39,608 trinity transcripts, out of which 6,325 trinity transcripts were differentially expressed between the two contrasting genotypes. Differential transcriptional pattern was found among ovule development stages in contrasting litchi genotypes. The putative genes for salicylic acid, jasmonic acid and brassinosteroid pathway were down-regulated in ovules of small-seeded litchi. Embryogenesis, cell expansion, seed size and stress related trinity transcripts exhibited altered expression in small-seeded genotype. The putative regulators of seed maturation and seed storage were down-regulated in small-seed genotype.

Keywords: Litchi, seed, transcriptome, defence

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17 Influence of Valve Lift Timing on Producer Gas Combustion and Its Modeling Using Two-Stage Wiebe Function

Authors: M. Sreedhar Babu, Vishal Garg, S. B. Akella, Shibu Clement, N. K. S Rajan

Abstract:

Producer gas is a biomass derived gaseous fuel which is extensively used in internal combustion engines for power generation application. Unlike the conventional hydrocarbon fuels (Gasoline and Natural gas), the combustion properties of producer gas fuel are much different. Therefore, setting of optimal spark time for efficient engine operation is required. Owing to the fluctuating tendency of producer gas composition during gasification process, the heat release patterns (dictating the power output and emissions) obtained are quite different from conventional fuels. It was found that, valve lift timing is yet another factor which influences the burn rate of producer gas fuel, and thus, the heat release rate of the engine. Therefore, the present study was motivated to estimate the influence of valve lift timing analytically (Wiebe model) on the burn rate of producer gas through curve fitting against experimentally obtained mass fraction burn curves of several producer gas compositions. Furthermore, Wiebe models are widely used in zero-dimensional codes for engine parametric studies and are quite popular. This study also addresses the influence of hydrogen and methane concentration of producer gas on combustion trends, which are known to cause dynamics in engine combustion.

Keywords: combustion duration (CD), crank angle (CA), mass fraction burnt (MFB), producer sas (PG), Wiebe Combustion Model (WCM), wide open throttle (WOT)

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16 Performance Analysis of Air Conditioning System Working on the Vapour Compression Refrigeration Cycle under Magnetohydrodynamic Influence

Authors: Nikhil S. Mane, Mukund L. Harugade, Narayan V. Hargude, Vishal P. Patil

Abstract:

The fluids exposed to magnetic field can enhance the convective heat transfer by inducing secondary convection currents due to Lorentz force. The use of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) forces in power generation and mass transfer is increasing steadily but its application to enhance the convective currents in fluids needed to be explored. The enhancement in convective heat transfer using MHD forces can be employed in heat exchangers, cooling of molten metal, vapour compression refrigeration (VCR) systems etc. The effective increase in the convective heat transfer without any additional energy consumption will lead to the energy efficient heat exchanging devices. In this work, the effect of MHD forces on the performance of air conditioning system working on the VCR system is studied. The refrigerant in VCR system is exposed to the magnetic field which influenced the flow of refrigerant. The different intensities of magnets are used on the different liquid refrigerants and investigation on performance of split air conditioning system is done under different loading conditions. The results of this research work show that the application of magnet on refrigerant flow has positive influence on the coefficient of performance (COP) of split air conditioning system. It is also observed that with increasing intensity of magnetic force the COP of split air conditioning system also increases.

Keywords: magnetohydrodynamics, heat transfer enhancement, VCRS, air conditioning, refrigeration

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15 Cross Section Measurement for Formation of Metastable State of ¹¹¹ᵐCd through ¹¹¹Cd (γ, γ`) ¹¹¹ᵐCd Reaction Induced by Bremsstrahlung Generated through 6 MeV Electrons

Authors: Vishal D. Bharud, B. J. Patil, S. S. Dahiwale, V. N. Bhoraskar, S. D. Dhole

Abstract:

Photon induced average reaction cross section of ¹¹¹Cd (γ, γ`) ¹¹¹ᵐCd reaction was experimentally determined for the bremsstrahlung energy spectrum of 6 MeV by utilizing the activation and offline γ-ray spectrometric techniques. The 6 MeV electron accelerator Racetrack Microtron of Savitribai Phule Pune University, Pune was used for the experimental work. The bremsstrahlung spectrum generated by bombarding 6 MeV electrons on lead target was theoretically estimated by FLUKA code. Bremsstrahlung radiation can have energies exceeding the threshold of the particle emission, which is normally above 6 MeV. Photons of energies below the particle emission threshold undergo absorption into discrete energy levels, with possibility of exciting nuclei to excited state including metastable state. The ¹¹¹Cd (γ, γ`) ¹¹¹ᵐCd reaction cross sections were calculated at different energies of bombarding Photon by using the TALYS 1.8 computer code with a default parameter. The focus of the present work was to study the (γ,γ’) reaction for exciting ¹¹¹Cd nuclei to metastable states which have threshold energy below 3 MeV. The flux weighted average cross section was obtained from the theoretical values of TALYS 1.8 and TENDL 2017 and is found to be in good agreement with the present experimental cross section.

Keywords: bremsstrahlung, cross section, FLUKA, TALYS-1.8

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14 Text Emotion Recognition by Multi-Head Attention based Bidirectional LSTM Utilizing Multi-Level Classification

Authors: Vishwanath Pethri Kamath, Jayantha Gowda Sarapanahalli, Vishal Mishra, Siddhesh Balwant Bandgar

Abstract:

Recognition of emotional information is essential in any form of communication. Growing HCI (Human-Computer Interaction) in recent times indicates the importance of understanding of emotions expressed and becomes crucial for improving the system or the interaction itself. In this research work, textual data for emotion recognition is used. The text being the least expressive amongst the multimodal resources poses various challenges such as contextual information and also sequential nature of the language construction. In this research work, the proposal is made for a neural architecture to resolve not less than 8 emotions from textual data sources derived from multiple datasets using google pre-trained word2vec word embeddings and a Multi-head attention-based bidirectional LSTM model with a one-vs-all Multi-Level Classification. The emotions targeted in this research are Anger, Disgust, Fear, Guilt, Joy, Sadness, Shame, and Surprise. Textual data from multiple datasets were used for this research work such as ISEAR, Go Emotions, Affect datasets for creating the emotions’ dataset. Data samples overlap or conflicts were considered with careful preprocessing. Our results show a significant improvement with the modeling architecture and as good as 10 points improvement in recognizing some emotions.

Keywords: text emotion recognition, bidirectional LSTM, multi-head attention, multi-level classification, google word2vec word embeddings

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13 Stainless Steel Swarfs for Replacement of Copper in Non-Asbestos Organic Brake-Pads

Authors: Vishal Mahale, Jayashree Bijwe, Sujeet K. Sinha

Abstract:

Nowadays extensive research is going on in the field of friction materials (FMs) for development of eco-friendly brake-materials by removing copper as it is a proven threat to the aquatic organisms. Researchers are keen to find the solution for copper-free FMs by using different metals or without metals. Steel wool is used as a reinforcement in non-asbestos organic (NAO) FMs mainly for increasing thermal conductivity, and it affects wear adversely, most of the times and also adds friction fluctuations. Copper and brass used to be the preferred choices because of superior performance in almost every aspect except cost. Since these are being phased out because of a proven threat to the aquatic life. Keeping this in view, a series of realistic multi-ingredient FMs containing stainless steel (SS) swarfs as a theme ingredient in increasing amount (0, 5, 10 and 15 wt. %- S₅, S₁₀, and S₁₅) were developed in the form of brake-pads. One more composite containing copper instead of SS swarfs (C₁₀) was developed. These composites were characterized for physical, mechanical, chemical and tribological performance. Composites were tribo-evaluated on a chase machine with various test loops as per SAE J661 standards. Various performance parameters such as normal µ, hot µ, performance µ, fade µ, recovery µ, % fade, % recovery, wear resistance, etc. were used to evaluate the role of amount of SS swarfs in FMs. It was concluded that SS swarfs proved successful in Cu replacement almost in all respects except wear resistance. With increase in amount of SS swarfs, most of the properties improved. Worn surface analysis and wear mechanism were studied using SEM and EDAX techniques.

Keywords: Chase type friction tester, copper-free, non-asbestos organic (NAO) friction materials, stainless steel swarfs

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12 Flexural Behavior of Eco-Friendly Prefabricated Low Cost Bamboo Reinforced Wall Panels

Authors: Vishal Puri, Pradipta Chakrabortty, Swapan Majumdar

Abstract:

Precast concrete construction is the most commonly used technique for a rapid construction. This technique is very frequently used in the developed countries. Different guidelines required to utilize the potential of prefabricated construction are still not available in the developing countries. This causes over dependence on in-situ construction procedure which further affects the quality, scheduling, and duration of construction. Also with the ever increasing costs of building materials and their negative impact on the environment it has become imperative to look out for alternate construction materials which are cheap and sustainable. Bamboo and fly ash are alternate construction materials having great potential in the construction industry. Thus there is a great need to develop prefabricated components by utilizing the potential of these materials. Bamboo reinforced beams, bamboo reinforced columns and bamboo arches as researched previously have shown great prospects for prefabricated construction industry. But, many other prefabricated components still need to be studied and widely tested before their utilization in the prefabricated construction industry. In the present study, authors have showcased prefabricated bamboo reinforced wall panel for the prefabricated construction industry. It presents a detailed methodology for the development of such prefabricated panels. It also presents the flexural behavior of such panels as tested under flexural loads following ASTM guidelines. It was observed that these wall panels are much flexible and do not show brittle failure as observed in traditional brick walls. It was observed that prefabricated walls are about 42% cheaper as compared to conventional brick walls. It was also observed that prefabricated walls are considerably lighter in weight and are environment friendly. It was thus concluded that this type of wall panels are an excellent alternative for partition brick walls.

Keywords: bamboo, prefabricated walls, reinforced structure, sustainable infrastructure

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11 Use of Triclosan-Coated Sutures Led to Cost Saving in Public and Private Setting in India across Five Surgical Categories: An Economical Model Assessment

Authors: Anish Desai, Reshmi Pillai, Nilesh Mahajan, Hitesh Chopra, Vishal Mahajan, Ajay Grover, Ashish Kohli

Abstract:

Surgical Site Infection (SSI) is hospital acquired infection of growing concern. This study presents the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of triclosan-coated suture, in reducing the burden of SSI in India. Methodology: A systematic literature search was conducted for economic burden (1998-2018) of SSI and efficacy of triclosan-coated sutures (TCS) vs. non-coated sutures (NCS) (2000-2018). PubMed Medline and EMBASE indexed articles were searched using Mesh terms or Emtree. Decision tree analysis was used to calculate, the cost difference between TCS and NCS at private and public hospitals, respectively for 7 surgical procedures. Results: The SSI range from low to high for Caesarean section (C-section), Laparoscopic hysterectomy (L-hysterectomy), Open Hernia (O-Hernia), Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy (L-Cholecystectomy), Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG), Total knee replacement (TKR), and Mastectomy were (3.77 to 24.2%), (2.28 to 11.7%), (1.75 to 60%), (1.71 to 25.58%), (1.6 to 18.86%), (1.74 to 12.5%), and (5.56 to 25%), respectively. The incremental cost (%) of TCS ranged 0.1%-0.01% in private and from 0.9%-0.09% at public hospitals across all surgical procedures. Cost savings at median efficacy & SSI risk was 6.52%, 5.07 %, 11.39%, 9.63%, 3.62%, 2.71%, 9.41% for C-section, L-hysterectomy, O-Hernia, L-Cholecystectomy, CABG, TKR, and Mastectomy in private and 8.79%, 4.99%, 12.67%, 10.58%, 3.32%, 2.35%, 11.83% in public hospital, respectively. Efficacy of TCS and SSI incidence in a particular surgical procedure were important determinants of cost savings using one-way sensitivity analysis. Conclusion: TCS suture led to cost savings across all 7 surgeries in both private and public hospitals in India.

Keywords: cost Savings, non-coated sutures, surgical site infection, triclosan-coated sutures

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10 Analysis of Rockfall Hazard along Himalayan Road Cut Slopes

Authors: Sarada Prasad Pradhan, Vikram Vishal, Tariq Siddique

Abstract:

With a vast area of India comprising of hilly terrain and road cut slopes, landslides and rockfalls are a common phenomenon. However, while landslide studies have received much attention in the past in India, very little literature and analysis is available regarding rockfall hazard of many rockfall prone areas, specifically in Uttarakhand Himalaya, India. The subsequent lack of knowledge and understanding of the rockfall phenomenon as well as frequent incidences of rockfall led fatalities urge the necessity of conducting site-specific rockfall studies to highlight the importance of addressing this issue as well as to provide data for safe design of preventive structures. The present study has been conducted across 10 rockfall prone road cut slopes for a distance of 15 km starting from Devprayag, India along National Highway 58 (NH-58). In order to make a qualitative assessment of Rockfall Hazard posed by these slopes, Rockfall Hazard Rating using standards for Indian Rockmass has been conducted at 10 locations under different slope conditions. Moreover, to accurately predict the characteristics of the possible rockfall phenomenon, numerical simulation was carried out to calculate the maximum bounce heights, total kinetic energies, translational velocities and trajectories of the falling rockmass blocks when simulated on each of these slopes according to real-life conditions. As it was observed that varying slope geometry had more fatal impacts on Rockfall hazard than size of rock masses, several optimizations have been suggested for each slope regarding location of barriers and modification of slope geometries in order to minimize damage by falling rocks. This study can be extremely useful in emphasizing the significance of rockfall studies and construction of mitigative barriers and structures along NH-58 around Devprayag.

Keywords: rockfall, slope stability, rockmass, hazard

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9 Phytobeds with Fimbristylis dichotoma and Ammannia baccifera for Treatment of Real Textile Effluent: An in situ Treatment, Anatomical Studies and Toxicity Evaluation

Authors: Suhas Kadam, Vishal Chandanshive, Niraj Rane, Sanjay Govindwar

Abstract:

Fimbristylis dichotoma, Ammannia baccifera, and their co-plantation consortium FA were found to degrade methyl orange, simulated dye mixture, and real textile effluent. Wild plants of Fimbristylis dichotoma and Ammannia baccifera with equal biomass showed 91 and 89% decolorization of methyl orange within 60 h at a concentration of 50 ppm, while 95% dye removal was achieved by consortium FA within 48 h. Floating phyto-beds with co-plantation (Fimbristylis dichotoma and Ammannia baccifera) for the treatment of real textile effluent in a constructed wetland was observed to be more efficient and achieved 79, 72, 77, 66 and 56% reductions in ADMI color value, chemical oxygen demand, biological oxygen demand, total dissolve solid and total suspended solid of textile effluent, respectively. High performance thin layer chromatography, gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Ultra violet-Visible spectroscopy and enzymatic assays confirmed the phytotransformation of parent dye in the new metabolites. T-RFLP analysis of rhizospheric bacteria of Fimbristylis dichotoma, Ammannia baccifera, and consortium FA revealed the presence of 88, 98 and 223 genera which could have been involved in dye removal. Toxicity evaluation of products formed after phytotransformation of methyl orange by consortium FA on bivalves Lamellidens marginalis revealed less damage in the gills architecture when analyzed histologically. Toxicity measurement by Random Amplification of Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique revealed normal banding pattern in treated methyl orange sample suggesting less toxic nature of phytotransformed dye products.

Keywords: constructed wetland, phyto-bed, textile effluent, phytoremediation

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8 Vascular Crossed Aphasia in Dextrals: A Study on Bengali-Speaking Population in Eastern India

Authors: Durjoy Lahiri, Vishal Madhukar Sawale, Ashwani Bhat, Souvik Dubey, Gautam Das, Biman Kanti Roy, Suparna Chatterjee, Goutam Gangopadhyay

Abstract:

Crossed aphasia has been an area of considerable interest for cognitive researchers as it offers a fascinating insight into cerebral lateralization for language function. We conducted an observational study in the stroke unit of a tertiary care neurology teaching hospital in eastern India on subjects with crossed aphasia over a period of four years. During the study period, we detected twelve cases of crossed aphasia in strongly right-handed patients, caused by ischemic stroke. The age, gender, vernacular language and educational status of the patients were noted. Aphasia type and severity were assessed using Bengali version of Western Aphasia Battery (validated). Computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and angiography were used to evaluate the location and extent of the ischemic lesion in brain. Our series of 12 cases of crossed aphasia included 7 male and 5 female with mean age being 58.6 years. Eight patients were found to have Broca’s aphasia, 3 had trans-cortical motor aphasia and 1 patient suffered from global aphasia. Nine patients were having very severe aphasia and 3 suffered from mild aphasia. Mirror-image type of crossed aphasia was found in 3 patients, whereas 9 had anomalous variety. In our study crossed aphasia was found to be more frequent in males. Anomalous pattern was more common than mirror-image. Majority of the patients had motor-type aphasia and no patient was found to have pure comprehension deficit. We hypothesize that in Bengali-speaking right-handed population, lexical-semantic system of the language network remains loyal to the left hemisphere even if the phonological output system is anomalously located in the right hemisphere.

Keywords: aphasia, crossed, lateralization, language function, vascular

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7 Fault Tolerant and Testable Designs of Reversible Sequential Building Blocks

Authors: Vishal Pareek, Shubham Gupta, Sushil Chandra Jain

Abstract:

With increasing high-speed computation demand the power consumption, heat dissipation and chip size issues are posing challenges for logic design with conventional technologies. Recovery of bit loss and bit errors is other issues that require reversibility and fault tolerance in the computation. The reversible computing is emerging as an alternative to conventional technologies to overcome the above problems and helpful in a diverse area such as low-power design, nanotechnology, quantum computing. Bit loss issue can be solved through unique input-output mapping which require reversibility and bit error issue require the capability of fault tolerance in design. In order to incorporate reversibility a number of combinational reversible logic based circuits have been developed. However, very few sequential reversible circuits have been reported in the literature. To make the circuit fault tolerant, a number of fault model and test approaches have been proposed for reversible logic. In this paper, we have attempted to incorporate fault tolerance in sequential reversible building blocks such as D flip-flop, T flip-flop, JK flip-flop, R-S flip-flop, Master-Slave D flip-flop, and double edge triggered D flip-flop by making them parity preserving. The importance of this proposed work lies in the fact that it provides the design of reversible sequential circuits completely testable for any stuck-at fault and single bit fault. In our opinion our design of reversible building blocks is superior to existing designs in term of quantum cost, hardware complexity, constant input, garbage output, number of gates and design of online testable D flip-flop have been proposed for the first time. We hope our work can be extended for building complex reversible sequential circuits.

Keywords: parity preserving gate, quantum computing, fault tolerance, flip-flop, sequential reversible logic

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6 Exploration of Copper Fabric in Non-Asbestos Organic Brake-Pads for Thermal Conductivity Enhancement

Authors: Vishal Mahale, Jayashree Bijwe, Sujeet K. Sinha

Abstract:

Range of thermal conductivity (TC) of Friction Materials (FMs) is a critical issue since lower TC leads to accumulation of frictional heat on the working surface, which results in excessive fade while higher TC leads to excessive heat flow towards back-plate resulting in boiling of brake-fluid leading to ‘spongy brakes’. This phenomenon prohibits braking action, which is most undesirable. Therefore, TC of the FMs across the brake pads should not be high while along the brake pad, it should be high. To enhance TC, metals in the forms of powder and fibers are used in the FMs. Apart from TC improvement, metals provide strength and structural integrity to the composites. Due to higher TC Copper (Cu) powder/fiber is a most preferred metallic ingredient in FM industry. However, Cu powders/fibers are responsible for metallic wear debris generation, which has harmful effects on aquatic organisms. Hence to get rid of a problem of metallic wear debris generation and to keep the positive effect of TC improvement, incorporation of Cu fabric in NAO brake-pads can be an innovative solution. Keeping this in view, two realistic multi-ingredient FM composites with identical formulations were developed in the form of brake-pads. Out of which one composite series consisted of a single layer of Cu fabric in the body of brake-pad and designated as C1 while double layer of Cu fabric was incorporated in another brake-pad series with designation of C2. Distance of Cu fabric layer from the back-plate was kept constant for C1 and C2. One more composite (C0) was developed without Cu fabric for the sake of comparison. Developed composites were characterized for physical properties. Tribological performance was evaluated on full scale inertia dynamometer by following JASO C 406 testing standard. It was concluded that Cu fabric successfully improved fade resistance by increasing conductivity of the composite and also showed slight improvement in wear resistance. Worn surfaces of pads and disc were analyzed by SEM and EDAX to study wear mechanism.

Keywords: brake inertia dynamometer, copper fabric, non-asbestos organic (NAO) friction materials, thermal conductivity enhancement

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5 Plethora of Drivers Transforming Colonial Cities: The Case of Allahabad

Authors: Akanksha Gupta, Vishal Dubey

Abstract:

In the Neoliberal era, there has been a much-talked discourse about urban issues that arise from a narrow approach of the single rationality of market-driven planning in Indian cities. More to this, India's urban planning is already jeopardized by the captious shortage of infrastructure, a cluster of incoherent governing bodies and implementation mechanism, leading cities to lie in the plethora of urban challenges. In this context, Allahabad (now known as Prayagraj) a city in North India is not an exception. Once known as the most planned splendid Colonial city of the British regime in India collapsed phenomenally because of the incompetent approach of planning machinery, straightforward market-driven accession and lack of attention on urban equity and sustainability. Particularly Civil Lines a Colonial neighbourhood, reached to the zenith of the glorified legacy of the Colonial era, transformed into filthy and congested urban form. Contextually this study contemplates and assesses the chronological episodes of major changes in land management reforms and policies under the ad hoc approach of political economy and land use planning which radically degraded the living environment in the present context. This study would empirically showcase the selected sample area detailing some of the major consequences in terms of gradual change in urban morphology, land use, and function. Here the method of study is primarily a qualitative study implying oral history and other historical methods to exhibit the idiom of planning conundrum. This subsequently reflects the repercussions translated into major issues like unclear land titles, encroachment, and unauthorized development and mushrooming of informal and squatter settlements. In nutshell, the study seeks to distinct out the limitations of the land reform and land management policies, which impacted the general degradation to the beautiful setting of Colonial neighbourhood. The Colonial legacy of Civil Lines now exists in the traces of history- memories of people, who once took pride in its serenity have now witnessed the transformation bit by bit till neo-liberal market forces completely swallow it.

Keywords: civil lines, land reforms, policies, urban challenges

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