Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 676

Search results for: flexibility

676 Assessment of Hamstring, Lower Back and Upper Body Flexibility in War Disabled Individuals in Sri Lanka North and East Region

Authors: Esther Liyanage, Indrajith Liyanage, A. A. J. Rajaratne

Abstract:

During the 30 year civil war in Sri Lanka, a large number of individuals were injured and disabled. These disabilities have reduced their daily physical activities which may cause reduction in flexibility of upper limb, shoulder girdle, lower back and lower limb. Muscle flexibility is important for a healthy lifestyle. The main objective of the study was to assess the upper limb, shoulder girdle and lower back, hamstring flexibility of the intact lower limb in disabled individuals in the North and Eastern parts of Sri Lanka. Back saver sits and reach test and shoulder scratch test described in FITNESS GRAM was used in the study. A total of 125 disabled soldiers with lower limb disabilities were recruited for the study. Flexibility of the lower back and hamstring muscles of uninjured lower limb was measured using back saver sit and reach test described by Wells and Dillon (1952). Upper limb and shoulder girdle flexibility was assessed using shoulder stretch test. Score 0-3 was given according to the ability to reach Superior medial angle of the opposite scapula, top of the head or the mouth. The results indicate that 31 (24.8%) disabled soldiers have lower limb flexibility less than 8, 2 (1.6 % ) have flexibility of 8, 2 (1.6 %) have flexibility of 8.5, 11 ( 8.8% ) have flexibility of 9, 14 (11.2 %) have flexibility of 9.5, 23 (18.4 %) have flexibility of 10, 17 (13.6 %) have 10.5 flexibility, 13 (10.4%) have 11 flexibility, 2 (1.6%) have 11.5 flexibility, 10 (8 %) have flexibility of 12 and 3 (2.34 %) have flexibility of 12.5. Six disabled soldiers (4.8%) have upper limb flexibility of 2 and remaining 95.2% have normal upper limb flexibility (score 3). A reduction in the flexibility of muscles in lower body and lower limbs was seen in 25% disabled soldiers which could be due to reduction in their daily physical activities.

Keywords: disability, flexibility, rehabilitation, quality of life

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675 Lay Approach of Psychological Flexibility: Concept, Prototype, and Its Application in Multicultural Adaptation

Authors: Yuanyuan Shi

Abstract:

Being psychologically flexible is important, especially, under a globalized cultural milieu. Treating psychological flexibility as a form of multicultural competence, we conducted five studies to construct the lay concept of psychological flexibility (Study 1 and 2) and test the association between psychological flexibility and multicultural adaptation (Study 3-5). In Study 1, we first identified the components of psychological flexibility by prototype analysis among lay Chinese (N = 165) and American (N = 165). In Study 2, we examined the convergent validity of the lay concept of psychological flexibility consisted with hypothesized structures via survey among Chinese (N = 172) and American participants (N = 165). Then, we examined the relationship between psychological flexibility and multicultural orientation in American and Chinese contexts (Study 3, N = 6245), and tested the influence of experimentally-manipulated psychological flexibility on foreign cultural accommodation (Study 4 N = 409; Study 5, N = 320). The results showed, higher flexibility was accompanied by higher cognitive flexibility, emotion reappraisal, resilience, and openness to experience, and lower need for cognition closure; besides, people with high psychological flexible turned out to have stronger multicultural orientation and better multicultural adaptations. Our research highlights the importance of psychological flexibility in multicultural situations and extends the understanding of the relationship between multicultural experience and well-being.

Keywords: adaptation, psychological flexibility, multicultural competence, multicultural orientation

Procedia PDF Downloads 111
674 The Impacts of Technology on Operations Costs: The Mediating Role of Operation Flexibility

Authors: Fazli Idris, Jihad Mohammad

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The study aims to determine the impact of technology and service operations flexibility, which is divided into external flexibility and internal robustness, on operations costs. A mediation model is proposed that links technology to operations costs via operation flexibility. Drawing on a sample of 475 of operations managers of various service sectors in Malaysia and South Africa, Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) was employed to test the relationship using Smart-PLS procedures. It was found that a significant relationship was established between technologies to operations costs via both operations flexibility dimensions. Theoretical and managerial implications are offered to explain the results.

Keywords: Operations flexibility, technology, costs, mediation

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673 The Role of Human Resource Flexibility and Agility in Achieving Sustainable Competitiveness

Authors: Agnieszka Leszczynska

Abstract:

Flexibility and agility constitute the most dominant features of modern human resource management systems. The former pertains to procedures, practices and competences of human resources, and the latter to the procedures and practices’ effectiveness in dealing with changing conditions in the surrounding environment. The purpose of the paper is to present the relations between the flexibility and agility of human resources and achieving sustainable competitiveness. Based upon hitherto research, we develop a conceptual model that links the constructs together. The conducted study is of theoretical and conceptual nature. Critical literature analysis and the synthesis method were applied. A premise was made that the three dimensions of HR (Human Resources) flexibility (employee skill flexibility, employee behaviour flexibility, and HR practice flexibility) and HR agility affect competitiveness, by increasing the flexibility, creativity of human resources, and improving quality performance, and exert an impact upon the quality of life of employees and social relations. In particular, the agility and flexibility of human resources contribute to the growth of adaptability and strategic orientation, which directly affects the organization's competitiveness. The research results will help to better understand the impact of flexibility and agility related to the HRM (Human Resources Management) system upon the implementation of the concept of sustainable development in the organization.

Keywords: agility, human resource, sustainable competitiveness, sustainable development

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672 The Role of Strategic Flexibility for Achieving Sustainable Competition Advantage and Its Effect on Business Performance

Authors: Kemalettin Eryesil, Osman Esmen, Aykut Beduk

Abstract:

In this study, it has been studied to determine the relationship between business performance and strategic flexibility, which is defined to be the strategic choice that provides the ability of rapidly responding the changes of the dynamic environment of the companies, for having competitive advantages. In this context a field study has been conducted over 56 companies, which are active in informatics and electronics sectors in TEKNOKENT. As a result of the study it has been determined that; strategic flexibility has an effect on business performance and there is a positive and statistically significant relationship between strategic flexibility and business performance.

Keywords: sustainable competition advantage, strategic flexibility, firm performance, TEKNOKENT

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671 Flexibility Cost and Its Application for Construction Projects

Authors: Rashmi Shahu

Abstract:

Flexibility is becoming a more widely accepted aspect of project management. Although contingency theory in project management states that the unknowns are controllable, complexity theory believes that the best way to handle the unknowns would be to have a flexible approach rather than rigidity. Designing a flexible system is a method of managing uncertainty. The present research work aims to evaluate flexibility in the initial design phase of projects taking examples of construction projects. Flexibility in the initial design phase is modeled in order to know the advantage in future. The comparison between the extra cost of flexibility in the initial design phase and the discount that can be achieved in future due to this premium will help the developers in making strategic decisions. This research uses a methodology for valuing flexibility by developing a mathematical formula for predicting future saving of cost. Two case studies were considered in this research to validate the mathematical formula. This research explains three case studies of an educational institution 28 years old for explaining the concept and giving benefits of flexible design for modification/renovation work of building.

Keywords: flexibility, future saving, flexibility cost, construction projects

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670 The Impact of Basic TRIZ Training on Psychological Flexibility among University Students

Authors: Bakr M. Saeid

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Psychological flexibility is a basic ability that allows people to adapt to a changing, difficult world. TRIZ is a Theory of Solving Inventive Problems that has many applications in both science & technology and creativity development; this research aimed to investigate the impact of basic TRIZ training on psychological flexibility among university students. The research sample included (30) university students divided into two groups: experimental group (n=15) and control group (n=15). The Psychological Flexibility Questionnaire (PFQ) was conducted in the pre-test and post-test on the experimental and control group, as the study treatment was applied to the experimental group only. Data were analyzed statistically by the Mann-Whitney test and Wilcoxon z test; results showed the effectiveness of the TRIZ training program on the development of psychological flexibility and its five factors. Results were interpreted, recommendations were presented.

Keywords: psychological flexibility, TRIZ, positive perception of change, self as flexible and innovative, perception of reality

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669 Analyzing Sun Valley Music Pavilion Idaho, USA, 2008 in Relation Flexibility and Adaptability

Authors: Ola Haj Saleh

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This study of a contemporary building attempts to identify how a building can reflect its presence within its community. The example of the pavilion is discussed here with references to adaptability and flexibility theories. The analytical methodology of the Sun Valley Pavilion discovers to what extent a public space can be flexible and adaptable to several conditions. Furthermore, redefine an existing public building in an urban landscape context, becomes more than an important place for its community as a music pavilion for the arts, it is even for the interactivity wedding parties. Thus, the Sun Valley Pavilion can have an obvious role in a community gathering place in a result that flexibility and adaptability are more economical in the long term.

Keywords: adaptability, flexibility, pavilion, tensile

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668 Impact of Flexibility on Patient Satisfaction and Behavioral Intention: A Critical Reassessment and Model Development

Authors: Pradeep Kumar, Shibashish Chakraborty, Sasadhar Bera

Abstract:

In the anticipation of demand fluctuations, services cannot be inventoried and hence it creates a difficult problem in marketing of services. The inability to meet customers (patients) requirements in healthcare context has more serious consequences than other service sectors. In order to meet patient requirements in the current uncertain environment, healthcare organizations are seeking ways for improved service delivery. Flexibility provides a mechanism for reducing variability in service encounters and improved performance. Flexibility is defined as the ability of the organization to cope with changing circumstances or instability caused by the environment. Patient satisfaction is an important performance outcome of healthcare organizations. However, the paucity of information exists in healthcare delivery context to examine the impact of flexibility on patient satisfaction and behavioral intention. The present study is an attempt to develop a conceptual foundation for investigating overall impact of flexibility on patient satisfaction and behavioral intention. Several dimensions of flexibility in healthcare context are examined and proposed to have a significant impact on patient satisfaction and intention. Furthermore, the study involves a critical examination of determinants of patient satisfaction and development of a comprehensive view the relationship between flexibility, patient satisfaction and behavioral intention. Finally, theoretical contributions and implications for healthcare professionals are suggested from flexibility perspective.

Keywords: healthcare, flexibility, patient satisfaction, behavioral intention

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667 A View of Flexible Housing in China

Authors: L. I. Shanshan

Abstract:

Beginning with the debate of concept, this essay explains the historical source and development of flexible housing in China. In the former part, the flexibility contained in traditional house is explored. While in the latter, the relevant practices in modern times are systematically analyzed as three phases–the Embryonic Period (1949 - 1980), the Systematic Practice (1981 - 2000), as well as the Integrated Trend and Prosperity (2001 - present). As a conclusion, the generalized flexibility is tentatively discussed.

Keywords: flexibility, long-term effectiveness, variety, social background

Procedia PDF Downloads 178
666 Effects of Static Stretching Exercises on Flexibility and Sprint Performance in Inactive Healthy Girls

Authors: Gulsun Guven

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to examine the acute effects of static stretching exercises on the flexibility and sprint performance in 10-12 years old inactive healthy girls. A total of 27 girls were randomly divided into control group (n=15) and stretching group (n=12) who performed static stretching. Sit and reach flexibility and 30-meter sprint pre-tests were performed for both groups. Static stretching exercises were performed three times, 30 sec. practice and 15 sec. rest for each leg only on five muscle by stretching group. The post-tests were performed in five minutes after static stretching exercise. Paired t-test was used to analyze differentiations among the group parameters. According to research results, there is a significant difference between pre-test and post-test flexibility (p < 0.05) and sprint test results (p < 0.01). As a conclusion of the study, static stretching exercises improve flexibility but decrease sprint performance in 10-12 years old inactive healthy girls.

Keywords: flexibility, inactive girl, sprint, static stretching

Procedia PDF Downloads 103
665 Poor Cognitive Flexibility as Suggested Basis for Learning Difficulties among Children with Moderate-INTO-Severe Asthma: Evidence from WCSTPerformance

Authors: Haitham Taha

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The cognitive flexibility of 27 asthmatic children with learning difficulties was tested by using the Wisconsin card sorting test (WCST) and compared to the performances of 30 non-asthmatic children who have persistence learning difficulties also. The results revealed that the asthmatic group had poor performance through all the WCST psychometric parameters and especially the preservative errors one. The results were discussed in light of the postulation that poor executive functions and specifically poor cognitive flexibility are in the basis of the learning difficulties of asthmatic children with learning difficulties. Neurophysiologic framework was suggested for explaining the etiology of poor executive functions and cognitive flexibility among children with moderate into severe asthma.

Keywords: asthma, learning disabilities, executive functions, cognitive flexibility, WCST

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664 The Effect of 12-Week Pilates Training on Flexibility and Level of Perceived Exertion of Back Muscles among Karate Players

Authors: Seyedeh Nahal Sadiri, Ardalan Shariat

Abstract:

Developing flexibility, by using pilates, would be useful for karate players by reducing the stiffness of muscles and tendons. This study aimed to determine the effects of 12-week pilates training on flexibility, and level of perceived exertion of back muscles among karate players. In this experimental study, 29 male karate players (age: 16-18 years) were randomized to pilates (n=15), and control (n=14) groups and the assessments were done in baseline and after 12-week intervention. Both groups completed 12-week of intervention (2 hours of training, 3 times weekly). The experimental group performed 30 minutes pilates within their warm-up and preparation phase, where the control group only attended their usual karate training. Digital backward flexmeter was used to evaluate the trunk extensors flexibility, and digital forward flexmeter was used to measure the trunk flexors flexibility. Borg CR-10 Scale was also used to determine the perceived exertion of back muscles. Independent samples t-test and paired sample t-test were used to analyze the data. There was a significant difference between the mean score of experimental and control groups in the level of backward trunk flexibility (P < 0.05), forward trunk flexibility (P < 0.05) after 12-week intervention. The results of Borg CR-10 scale showed a significant improvement in pilates group (P < 0.05). Karate instructors, coaches, and athletes can integrate pilates exercises with karate training in order to improve the flexibility, and level of perceived exertion of back muscles.

Keywords: pilates training, karate players, flexibility, Borg CR-10

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663 Interrelationship of BMI with Strength, Speed and Flexibility in Different Age Groups

Authors: Nimesh D. Chaudhari

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The purpose of this study was to find out the interrelationship of BMI with strength, i.e. endurance strength of abdominal muscles and explosive strength of leg muscles, speed and flexibility which are respectively assessed by sit up, standing broad jump, 50 yard dash and sit and reach tests. 48 boys, aged 7 to 13 years as group A and 40 boys, aged 17 to 28 years asgroup B were selected as the subjects for the study. Product moment correlation coefficient test (r at 0.05 level of significance) was applied to test hypothesis. The findings of the study shows that there is significant relationship of BMI with endurance strength of abdominal muscles, explosive strength of leg muscles, and flexibility whereas a negative significant relationship was found between BMI and speed in group A, i.e. aged from 7 to 13 years. However, there was no significant relationship of BMI with endurance strength of abdominal muscles, explosive strength of leg muscles, speed and flexibility in higher age group.

Keywords: body mass index, strength of abdominal muscles, explosive strength of leg muscles, flexibility of lower back and hamstring muscles

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662 When Psychology Meets Ecology: Cognitive Flexibility for Quarry Rehabilitation

Authors: J. Fenianos, C. Khater, D. Brouillet

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Ecological projects are often faced with reluctance from local communities hosting the project, especially when this project involves variation from preset ideas or classical practices. This paper aims at appreciating the contribution of environmental psychology through cognitive flexibility exercises to improve the acceptability of local communities in adopting more ecological rehabilitation scenarios. The study is based on a quarry site located in Bekaa- Lebanon. Four groups were considered with different levels of involvement, as follows: Group 1 is Training (T) – 50 hours of on-site training over 8 months, Group 2 is Awareness (A) – 2 hours of awareness raising session, Group 3 is Flexibility (F) – 2 hours of flexibility exercises and Group 4 is the Control (C). The results show that individuals in Group 3 (F) who followed flexibility sessions accept comparably the ecological rehabilitation option over the more classical one. This is also the case for the people in Group 1 (T) who followed a more time-demanding “on-site training”. Another experience was conducted on a second quarry site combining flexibility with awareness-raising. This research confirms that it is possible to reduce resistance to change thanks to a limited in-time intervention using cognitive flexibility. This methodological approach could be transferable to other environmental problems involving local communities and changes in preset perceptions.

Keywords: acceptability, ecological restoration, environmental psychology, Lebanon, local communities, resistance to change

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661 Effectiveness of Working Memory Training on Cognitive Flexibility

Authors: Leila Maleki, Ezatollah Ahmadi

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The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of memory training exercise on cognitive flexibility. The method of this study was experimental. The statistical population selected 40 students 14 years old, samples were chosen by available sampling method and then they were replaced in experimental (training program) group and control group randomly and answered to Wisconsin Card Sorting Test; covariance test results indicated that there were a significant in post-test scores of experimental group (p<0.005).

Keywords: cognitive flexibility, working memory exercises, problem solving, reaction time

Procedia PDF Downloads 322
660 Acute Effects of Active Dynamic, Static Stretching and Passive Static Stretching Exercise on Hamstrings Flexibility and Muscle Strength

Authors: Yi Tse Wang, Che Hsiu Chen, Zih Jian Huang, Hon Wen Cheng

Abstract:

Stretching treatments enhanced flexibility. On the other hand, decreases in hamstrings strength have been reported after stretching, especially with static stretching or passive stretching. Stretching has been shown to be more effective than static stretching to improve muscle performance, but a clear consensus for the effect of dynamic stretching on muscle performance has not been achieved. The purpose of this study was to compare the acute effect of a dynamic stretching, static stretching and eccentric exercise protocol on hamstrings stiffness, flexibility and muscle strength. Forty-five healthy active men (height 179.9 cm; weight 71.5 kg; age 22.5 years) were participated in 3 randomly ordered testing sessions: dynamic stretching (DS), active static stretching (ASS), and passive static stretching (PSS). All the stretch were performed 30 seconds and repeated 6 times. There was a 30-second interval between repetitions. The outcome measures were isokinetic concentric contraction (60°/s), eccentric contraction (30°/s) peak torque, muscle flexibility after stretching. The results showed that the muscle flexibility (3.6%, 3.9% and 1.59%, respectively) increased significantly after DS, PSS and ASS. Hamstring isokinetic concentric peak torque (-6.4%, -8.0% and -5.8%, respectively) and eccentric peak torque (-5.8%, -4.5% and -5.4%, respectively) decreased significantly after DS, PSS and ASS. Hence, although the stretching protocols improve hamstrings flexibility immediately, reduced hamstring muscle eccentric and concentric peak torque.

Keywords: hamstrings injury, warm-up, muscle performance, muscle stretching

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659 Rethinking the Concept of Classroom Management during COVID-19 Times: An EFL Perspective

Authors: Hadjer Chellia

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In the light of the recent global pandemic, different issues in educational research seem to invite careful considerations. Following this perspective, this study sets out to question the concept of classroom management in an EFL higher education context during Covid-19. In order to gain an in-depth understanding of their experiences, 6 EFL teachers from different Algerian universities took part in semi-structured interviews. The main emerging themes revealed that EFL teachers have different pedagogical practices in relation to classroom management during the global crisis than those of normal times. In relation to flexible education theory, the teachers’ experiences suggest flexible classroom management during Covid-19; flexibility in the teaching methods, approach and design, flexibility in time, flexibility in space and pace (speed), flexibility in assessment modes and flexibility in coping with students’ well-being. The flexibility awareness helps them to develop readiness towards the future, mainly in terms of maintaining an appropriate pedagogy to face the future crisis. In terms of theoretical concepts, working on classroom management under unusual circumstances in relation to flexible education helped come out with the concept of flexible classroom management (FCM) and virtual classroom management (VCM). It is then important for educators and researchers to rethink different pedagogical concepts and mind a careful application in the case of unusual times.

Keywords: Covid-19, EFL educators, flexible classroom management, flexible education, virtual classroom management

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658 A Pilot Study on the Short Term Effects of Paslop Dance Exercise on Core Strength, Balance and Flexibility

Authors: Wilawan Kanhachon, Yodchai Boonprakob, Uraiwon Chatchawan, Junichiro Yamauchi

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Introduction: Paslop is a traditional dance from Laos, which is popular in Laos and northeastern of Thailand. This unique type of Paslop dancing is to control body movement with the song. While dancing to the beat, dancers should contract their abdomen and back muscle all the time. Paslop may be a good alternative to improve strengthening, balance and flexibility. Objective: To investigate the effects of Paslop dance exercise on core strength, balance, and flexibility. Methods: Seven healthy participants (age, 20.57±1.13 yrs; height, 162.29±6.16 cm; body mass, 58.14±7.03 kg; mean± S.D.) were volunteered to perform the 45-minute Paslop dance exercise in three times a week for 8 weeks. Before, during and after the exercise period, core strength, balance and flexibility were measured with the pressure biofeedback unit (PBU), one-leg stance test (OLST), and sit and reach test (SAR), respectively. Result: PBU score for core strength increased from 2.12 mmHg in baseline to 6.34 mmHg at the 4th week and 10.10 mmHg at the 8th week after the Paslop dance training, while OLST and SAR did not change. Conclusion: The study demonstrates that 8-week Paslop dancing exercise can improve the core strength.

Keywords: balance, core strength, flexibility, Paslop

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657 Performance Evaluation of Flexible Manufacturing System: A Simulation Study

Authors: Mohammed Ali

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In this paper, evaluation of flexible manufacturing system is made under different manufacturing strategies. The objective of this paper is to test the impact of pallets and routing flexibility on system performance operating at different sequencing rules, dispatching rules and at unbalanced load condition. A computer simulation model is developed to evaluate the effects of aforementioned manufacturing strategies on the make-span performance of flexible manufacturing system. The impact of number of pallets is shown with the different levels of routing flexibility. In this paper, the same manufacturing system is modeled under different combination of sequencing and dispatching rules. A series of simulation experiments are conducted and results analyzed. The result of the simulation shows that there is impact of pallets and routing flexibility on the performance of the system.

Keywords: flexibility, flexible manufacturing system, pallets, make-span, simulation

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656 The Effect of Trans-Cranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) on Cognitive Flexibility and Social Decision-Making in Football Players

Authors: Erfan Izadpanah

Abstract:

The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of the Trans-Cranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) on cognitive flexibility and social decision-making in skilled, semi-skilled and novice football players. The present quasi-experimental pretest-posttest study was conducted on 60 randomly-selected subjects divided into trial and placebo groups (n=30 per group). The trial group received three 20-minute sessions of anodic stimulation at the intensity of 2 mA. The placebo group also received three sessions of sham anodic stimulation. Data were collected using the Wisconsin, Grant and Berg Card-Sorting Test (1948) and the ultimatum game and were then analyzed using the ANCOVA. The results showed significant differences between the skilled, semi-skilled and novice football players in the trial and placebo groups in terms of cognitive flexibility and social decision-making (P<0.01). TDCS appears to be able to improve cognitive flexibility and consequently social decision-making in football players and is recommended to sport psychologists and coaches as a useful intervention to increase cognitive flexibility and improve social decision-making in players.

Keywords: TDCS, cognitive flexibility, social decision-making, skilled, semi-skilled and novice football players

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655 REFLEX: A Randomized Controlled Trial to Test the Efficacy of an Emotion Regulation Flexibility Program with Daily Measures

Authors: Carla Nardelli, Jérome Holtzmann, Céline Baeyens, Catherine Bortolon

Abstract:

Background. Emotion regulation (ER) is a process associated with difficulties in mental health. Given its transdiagnostic features, its improvement could facilitate the recovery of various psychological issues. A limit of current studies is the lack of knowledge regarding whether available interventionsimprove ER flexibility (i.e., the ability to implement ER strategies in line with contextual demands), even though this capacity has been associated with better mental health and well-being. Therefore, the aim of the study is to test the efficacy of a 9-weeks ER group program (the Affect Regulation Training-ART), using the most appropriate measures (i.e., experience sampling method) in a student population. Plus, the goal of the study is to explore the potential mediative role of ER flexibility on mental health improvement. Method. This Randomized Controlled Trial will comparethe ER program group to an active control group (a relaxation program) in 100 participants. To test the mediative role of ER flexibility on mental health, daily measures will be used before, during, and after the interventions to evaluate the extent to which participants are flexible in their ER. Expected outcomes. Using multilevel analyses, we expect an improvement in anxious-depressive symptomatology for both groups. However, we expect the ART group to improve specifically on ER flexibility ability and the last to be a mediative variable on mental health. Conclusion. This study will enhance knowledge on interventions for students and the impact of interventions on ER flexibility. Also, this research will improve knowledge on ecological measures for assessing the effect of interventions. Overall, this project represents new opportunities to improve ER skills to improve mental health in undergraduate students.

Keywords: emotion regulation flexibility, experience sampling method, psychological intervention, emotion regulation skills

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654 Linkages between Postponement Strategies and Flexibility in Organizations

Authors: Polycarpe Feussi

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Globalization, technological and customer increasing changes, amongst other drivers, result in higher levels of uncertainty and unpredictability for organizations. In order for organizations to cope with the uncertain and fast-changing economic and business environment, these organizations need to innovate in order to achieve flexibility. In simple terms, the organizations must develop strategies leading to the ability of these organizations to provide horizontal information connections across the supply chain to create and deliver products that meet customer needs by synchronization of customer demands with product creation. The generated information will create efficiency and effectiveness throughout the whole supply chain regarding production, storage, and distribution, as well as eliminating redundant activities and reduction in response time. In an integrated supply chain, spanning activities include coordination with distributors and suppliers. This paper explains how through postponement strategies, flexibility can be achieved in an organization. In order to achieve the above, a thorough literature review was conducted via the search of online websites that contains material from scientific journal data-bases, articles, and textbooks on the subject of postponement and flexibility. The findings of the research are found in the last part of the paper. The first part introduces the concept of postponement and its importance in supply chain management. The second part of the paper provides the methodology used in the process of writing the paper.

Keywords: postponement strategies, supply chain management, flexibility, logistics

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653 Immediate Effect of Transcutaneous Electrical Nerves Stimulation on Flexibility and Health Status in Patients with Chronic Nonspecific Low Back Pain (A Pilot Study)

Authors: Narupon Kunbootsri, Patpiya Sirasaporn

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Low back pain is the most common of chief complaints in chronic pain. Low back pain directly affect to activities daily living and also has high socioeconomic costs. The prevalence of low back pain is high in both genders in all populations. The symptoms of low back pain including, pain at low back area, muscle spasm, tenderness points and stiff back. Trancutanous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS) is one of modalities mainly use for control pain. There was indicated that TENS is wildly use in low back pain, but no scientific data about the flexibility of muscle after TENS in low back pain. Thus the aim of this study was to investigate immediate effect of TENS on flexibility and health status in patients with chronic nonspecific low back pain. Eight chronic nonspecific low back pain patients 1 male and 7 female employed in this study. Participants were diagnosed by a doctor based on history and physical examination. Each participant received treatment at physiotherapy unit. Participants completed Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ), numeric rating scale (NRS) and trunk flexibility before treatment. Each participant received low frequency TENS set at asymmetrical, 10 Hz, 20 minutes per point. Immediately after treatment, participants completed RNS, RMDQ and trunk flexibility again. All participants were treated by only one physiotherapist. There was a statistically significant increased in flexibility immediately after low frequency TENS [mean difference -6.37 with 95%CI were (-8.35)-(-4.39)]. There was a statistically significant decreased in numeric rating scale [mean difference 2.13 with 95%CI were 1.08-3.16]. Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire showed improvement of health status average 44.8% immediately after treatment. In conclusion, the results of the present study indicate that immediately effect after low frequency TENS can decrease pain and improve flexibility of back muscle in chronic nonspecific low back pain patients.

Keywords: low back pain, flexibility, TENS, chronic

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652 Scheduling Flexibility and Employee Health Outcomes: A Meta-Analytic Review

Authors: Nicole V. Shifrin

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Scheduling flexibility is becoming an increasingly available option for employees struggling to balance their work and life responsibilities, allowing employees to coordinate work schedules with their additional roles. The goal of such opportunities is to help employees manage the demands they face across domains of life by allowing employees to work from home, design their own work hours, take time off when necessary, along with various other scheduling accommodations. Organizations are also turning to utilizing scheduling flexibility to facilitate employee health and wellbeing through the reduction of stress and maximization of efficiency. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the effects of scheduling flexibility on employee health-related behaviors and outcomes through a synthesis of research. The current meta-analytic review of 19 samples within 16 studies with a total sample size of 20,707 employees examines the relationship between the degree of scheduling flexibility available to employees and the resulting health outcomes and exercise habits. The results demonstrate that reduced scheduling flexibility is associated with poorer health status, suggesting that schedule inflexibility can hinder employees’ ability to maintain and support their health. These findings hold practical implications for developing work schedules to promote employee health and health-related behaviors, such as eating well and exercising. Additionally, there was a positive association between increased scheduling flexibility and engagement in exercise, suggesting that employees with more flexible schedules exercise more frequently than those with less flexible schedules. A potential explanation for the resulting relationship is that flexible schedules leave employees more time due to shorter work days, shorter or eliminated commutes, etc. with which they can use to engage in healthy behaviors. These findings stress the importance of promoting job designs that facilitate employee engagement in healthy behaviors, which directly impact their overall health status. Implications for practice are discussed as well as future directions in examining the link between job design and employee health and well-being.

Keywords: exercise, health, meta-analysis, job design, scheduling flexibility

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651 Impact of Flexibility on Residential Buildings in Egypt

Authors: Aly Mohamed El Husseiny, Azza Ezz Abdelkader

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There is a critical thin line between freedom of choice and randomness. The distance between imagination and perception and between perception and execution varies depending on numerous factors. While in developed areas residents have the opportunity and abilities to build flexible homes, residents in developing areas create their own dwellings in informal settlements, even though none of them is comfortable at home in the long run. This paper explores three factors: What residents really need, what they do with limited flexibility, and what they do when there are no limits, as in the case of informal settlements. This paper studies alteration to residential buildings and how they connect to the changes in people’s lifecycle in all past cases. This study also examines all approaches to flexibility, focusing on a social approach. The results of this study are based on three practical studies: Interviews with residents in an informal settlement (Eshash Mahfouz in Minya in Egypt), a civil study of buildings in a middle-class district, and a survey of residents from many countries, including Egypt, and interviews with a number of them to determine residents’ needs and the extent of renovations they made or would like to make to their homes.

Keywords: flexibility, housing, freedom of choice, social, changes, residents

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650 Poly(Lactic Acid) Based Flexible Films

Authors: Fathilahbinti Ali, Jamarosliza Jamaluddin, Arun Kumar Upadhyay

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Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) is a biodegradable polymer which has good mechanical properties, however, its brittleness limits its usage especially in packaging materials. Therefore, in this work, PLA based polyurethane films were prepared by synthesizing with different types of isocyanates; methylene diisocyanate (MDI) and hexamethylene diisocyanates (HDI). For this purpose, PLA based polyurethane must have good strength and flexibility. Therefore, polycaprolactone which has better flexibility were prepared with PLA. An effective way to endow polylactic acid with toughness is through chain-extension reaction of the polylactic acid pre-polymer with polycaprolactone used as chain extender. Polyurethane prepared from MDI showed brittle behaviour, while, polyurethane prepared from HDI showed flexibility at same concentrations.

Keywords: biodegradable polymer, flexible, poly(lactic acid), polyurethane

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649 Evaluating the Relationship between Overconfidence of Senior Managers and Abnormal Cash Fluctuations with Respect to Financial Flexibility in Companies Listed in Tehran Stock Exchange

Authors: Hadi Mousavi, Majid Davoudi Nasr

Abstract:

Executives can maximize profits by recognizing the factors that affect investment and using them to obtain the optimal level of investment. Inefficient markets have shortcomings that can impact the optimal level of investment, leading to the process of over-investment or under-investment. In the present study, the relationship between the overconfidence of senior managers and abnormal cash fluctuations with respect to financial flexibility in companies listed in the Tehran stock exchange from 2009 to 2013 were evaluated. In this study, the sample consists of 84 companies selected by a systematic elimination method and 420 year-companies in total. In this research, EVIEWS software was used to test the research hypotheses by linear regression and correlation coefficient and after designing and testing the research hypothesis. After designing and testing research hypotheses that have been used to each hypothesis, it was concluded that there was a significant relationship between the overconfidence of senior managers and abnormal cash fluctuations, and this relationship was not significant at any level of financial flexibility. Moreover, the findings of the research showed that there was a significant relationship between senior manager’s overconfidence and positive abnormal cash flow fluctuations in firms, and this relationship is significant only at the level of companies with high financial flexibility. Finally, the results indicate that there is no significant relationship between senior managers 'overconfidence and negative cash flow abnormalities, and the relationship between senior managers' overconfidence and negative cash flow fluctuations at the level of companies with high financial flexibility was confirmed.

Keywords: abnormal cash fluctuations, overconfidence of senior managers, financial flexibility, accounting

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648 Role of Cognitive Flexibility and Employee Engagement in Determining Turnover Intentions of Employees

Authors: Prashant Das, Tushar Singh, Virendra Byadwal

Abstract:

The present study attempted to understand the role of cognitive flexibility and employee engagement in predicting employees’ turnover intentions. Employee turnover is a significant problem that many organizations are facing these days. Employee turnover is not only extremely expensive for the employer but also results in poor production levels. In developing countries like India, organizations once believed to have most stable employees, are facing major turnover problems. One such organization is banking organizations. Due to globalization, banks are now changing their work scenarios under which the employees have many different roles to perform. Cognitive flexibility which refers to an individual’s ability to shift cognitive sets and to adapt to one’s changing environment, thus seems to be an important factor that are responsible for the employee turnover in organizations. It is hypothesized that those with higher cognitive flexibility would be more able to adapt to the changing work demands of the organizations and thus would show less turnover intentions. Another factor that seems to be important in predicting turnover is employee engagement. Kahn referred to engagement in terms of the harnessing of organization members’ selves to their work roles [by which they] employ and express themselves physically, cognitively, and emotionally during role performances. Studies have shown a strong relationship between employee engagement and turnover intentions. Those with higher engagement with their jobs have found to show low turnover intentions. This study thus hypothesizes that employees with higher engagement will show lower levels of turnover intentions. A total of 150 bank employees (75 from private and 75 from public) participated in this study. They were administered Cognitive Flexibility Scale, Gallup Questionnaire and Intention to Stay Questionnaire along with another questionnaire asking for their demographic details. Results of the study revealed that employees with higher levels of cognitive flexibility and employee engagement show lover levels of turnover intentions. However, the effect is more prominent in case of employees of private banks. Demographic characteristics such as level of the employee and years of engagement in the current job have also been found to be influencing the relationship between cognitive flexibility, employee engagement and turnover intentions. Results of the study are interpreted in accordance to the prevalent literature and theoretical positions.

Keywords: cognitive flexibility, employee engagement, organization, turnover intentions

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647 To Study the Performance of FMS under Different Manufacturing Strategies

Authors: Mohammed Ali

Abstract:

A flexible manufacturing system has been studied under different manufacturing strategies. The aim of this paper is to test the impact of number of pallets and routing flexibility (design strategy) on system performance operating at different sequencing and dispatching rules (control strategies) at unbalanced load condition (planning strategies). A computer simulation model is developed to evaluate the effects of aforementioned strategies on the make-span time, which is taken as the system performance measure. The impact of number of pallets is shown with the different levels of routing flexibility. In this paper, the same manufacturing system is modeled under different combination of sequencing and dispatching rules. The result of the simulation shows that there is definite range of pallets for each level of routing flexibility at which the systems performs satisfactorily.

Keywords: flexible manufacturing system, manufacturing, strategy, makespan

Procedia PDF Downloads 305