Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3173

Search results for: train formation

3173 Innovative Methods of Improving Train Formation in Freight Transport

Authors: Jaroslav Masek, Juraj Camaj, Eva Nedeliakova

Abstract:

The paper is focused on the operational model for transport the single wagon consignments on railway network by using two different models of train formation. The paper gives an overview of possibilities of improving the quality of transport services. Paper deals with two models used in problematic of train formatting - time continuously and time discrete. By applying these models in practice, the transport company can guarantee a higher quality of service and expect increasing of transport performance. The models are also applicable into others transport networks. The models supplement a theoretical problem of train formation by new ways of looking to affecting the organization of wagon flows.

Keywords: train formation, wagon flows, marshalling yard, railway technology

Procedia PDF Downloads 351
3172 Model of the Increasing the Capacity of the Train and Railway Track by Using the New Type of Wagon

Authors: Martin Kendra, Jaroslav Mašek, Juraj Čamaj, Martin Búda

Abstract:

The paper deals with possibilities of increase train capacity by using a new type of railway wagon. In the first part is created a mathematical model to calculate the capacity of the train. The model is based on the main limiting parameters of the train - maximum number of axles per train, the maximum gross weight of the train, the maximum length of train and number of TEUs per one wagon. In the second part is the model applied to four different model trains with different composition of the train set and three different average weights of TEU and a train consisting of a new type of wagons. The result is to identify where the carrying capacity of the original trains is higher, respectively less than a capacity of the train consisting of a new type of wagons.

Keywords: loading units, theoretical capacity model, train capacity, wagon for intermodal transport

Procedia PDF Downloads 392
3171 2023 Targets of the Republic of Turkey State Railways

Authors: Hicran Açıkel, Hüseyin Arak, D. Ali Açıkel

Abstract:

Train or high-speed train is a land transportation vehicle, which is safe and offers passengers flight-like comfort while it is preferred for busy lines with respect to passengers. In this study, TCDD’s (Turkish State Railroads Company) targets for the year of 2023, the planned high-speed train lines, improvements, which are considered for the existing lines, and achievability of these targets are examined.

Keywords: train, high-speed train, TCDD, transportation

Procedia PDF Downloads 153
3170 Low-Level Modeling for Optimal Train Routing and Scheduling in Busy Railway Stations

Authors: Quoc Khanh Dang, Thomas Bourdeaud’huy, Khaled Mesghouni, Armand Toguy´eni

Abstract:

This paper studies a train routing and scheduling problem for busy railway stations. Our objective is to allow trains to be routed in dense areas that are reaching saturation. Unlike traditional methods that allocate all resources to setup a route for a train and until the route is freed, our work focuses on the use of resources as trains progress through the railway node. This technique allows a larger number of trains to be routed simultaneously in a railway node and thus reduces their current saturation. To deal with this problem, this study proposes an abstract model and a mixed-integer linear programming formulation to solve it. The applicability of our method is illustrated on a didactic example.

Keywords: busy railway stations, mixed-integer linear programming, offline railway station management, train platforming, train routing, train scheduling

Procedia PDF Downloads 69
3169 A Study on Traction Motor Design for Obtaining the Maximum Traction Force of Tram-Train

Authors: Geochul Jeong, In-Gun Kim, Hyun-Seok Hong, Dong-Woo Kang, Ju Lee

Abstract:

This study is about IPMSM design for obtaining the maximum traction force of Tram-Train. Tram-Train is a Tram and Train-combined railway vehicles, which operates at a maximum speed of 70km/h in the city section (Tram section) and at a maximum speed of 150km/h in the out-of-city section (Train section). For this reason, tram-train was designed to be an IPMSM (Interior Permanent Synchronous Motor) with a wide range of speed variation. IPMSM’s magnetic path varies depending on the shape of rotor and in this case, the power characteristics are different in the constant torque area and the flux weakening area. Therefore, this study suggests a method to improve Tram-Train’s traction force, based on the relationship between magnetic torque and reluctance torque. The suggested method was applied through IPMSM rotor shape design and electromagnetic field finite element method was conducted to verify the validity of the suggested method.

Keywords: tram-train, traction motor, IPMSM, synchronous motor, railway vehicles

Procedia PDF Downloads 400
3168 Research on Aerodynamic Brake Device for High-Speed Train

Authors: S. Yun, M. Kwak

Abstract:

This study is about an aerodynamic brake device for a high-speed train. In order to apply an aerodynamic brake device, an influence of the aerodynamic brake device on a high-speed train was studied aerodynamically, acoustically and dynamically. Wind tunnel test was conducted to predict an effect of braking distance reduction with a scale model of 1/30. Aerodynamic drag increases by 244% with a brake panel of a 90 degree angle. Braking distance for an emergency state was predicted to decrease by 13%.

Keywords: aerodynamic brake, braking distance, drag coefficient, high-speed train, wind-tunnel test

Procedia PDF Downloads 247
3167 Location Uncertainty – A Probablistic Solution for Automatic Train Control

Authors: Monish Sengupta, Benjamin Heydecker, Daniel Woodland

Abstract:

New train control systems rely mainly on Automatic Train Protection (ATP) and Automatic Train Operation (ATO) dynamically to control the speed and hence performance. The ATP and the ATO form the vital element within the CBTC (Communication Based Train Control) and within the ERTMS (European Rail Traffic Management System) system architectures. Reliable and accurate measurement of train location, speed and acceleration are vital to the operation of train control systems. In the past, all CBTC and ERTMS system have deployed a balise or equivalent to correct the uncertainty element of the train location. Typically a CBTC train is allowed to miss only one balise on the track, after which the Automatic Train Protection (ATP) system applies emergency brake to halt the service. This is because the location uncertainty, which grows within the train control system, cannot tolerate missing more than one balise. Balises contribute a significant amount towards wayside maintenance and studies have shown that balises on the track also forms a constraint for future track layout change and change in speed profile.This paper investigates the causes of the location uncertainty that is currently experienced and considers whether it is possible to identify an effective filter to ascertain, in conjunction with appropriate sensors, more accurate speed, distance and location for a CBTC driven train without the need of any external balises. An appropriate sensor fusion algorithm and intelligent sensor selection methodology will be deployed to ascertain the railway location and speed measurement at its highest precision. Similar techniques are already in use in aviation, satellite, submarine and other navigation systems. Developing a model for the speed control and the use of Kalman filter is a key element in this research. This paper will summarize the research undertaken and its significant findings, highlighting the potential for introducing alternative approaches to train positioning that would enable removal of all trackside location correction balises, leading to huge reduction in maintenances and more flexibility in future track design.

Keywords: ERTMS, CBTC, ATP, ATO

Procedia PDF Downloads 336
3166 Development of an Interactive Display-Control Layout Design System for Trains Based on Train Drivers’ Mental Models

Authors: Hyeonkyeong Yang, Minseok Son, Taekbeom Yoo, Woojin Park

Abstract:

Human error is the most salient contributing factor to railway accidents. To reduce the frequency of human errors, many researchers and train designers have adopted ergonomic design principles for designing display-control layout in rail cab. There exist a number of approaches for designing the display control layout based on optimization methods. However, the ergonomically optimized layout design may not be the best design for train drivers, since the drivers have their own mental models based on their experiences. Consequently, the drivers may prefer the existing display-control layout design over the optimal design, and even show better driving performance using the existing design compared to that using the optimal design. Thus, in addition to ergonomic design principles, train drivers’ mental models also need to be considered for designing display-control layout in rail cab. This paper developed an ergonomic assessment system of display-control layout design, and an interactive layout design system that can generate design alternatives and calculate ergonomic assessment score in real-time. The design alternatives generated from the interactive layout design system may not include the optimal design from the ergonomics point of view. However, the system’s strength is that it considers train drivers’ mental models, which can help generate alternatives that are more friendly and easier to use for train drivers. Also, with the developed system, non-experts in ergonomics, such as train drivers, can refine the design alternatives and improve ergonomic assessment score in real-time.

Keywords: display-control layout design, interactive layout design system, mental model, train drivers

Procedia PDF Downloads 199
3165 Disaster Probability Analysis of Banghabandhu Multipurpose Bridge for Train Accidents and Its Socio-Economic Impact on Bangladesh

Authors: Shahab Uddin, Kazi M. Uddin, Hamamah Sadiqa

Abstract:

The paper deals with the Banghabandhu Multipurpose Bridge (BMB), the 11th longest bridge in the world was constructed in 1998 aimed at contributing to promote economic development in Bangladesh. In recent years, however, the high incidence of traffic accidents and injuries at the bridge sites looms as a great safety concern. Investigation into the derailment of nine bogies out of thirteen of Dinajpur-bound intercity train ‘Drutajan Express ’were derailed and inclined on the Banghabandhu Multipurpose Bridge on 28 April 2014. The train accident in Bridge will be deep concern for both structural safety of bridge and people than other vehicles accident. In this study we analyzed the disaster probability of the Banghabandhu Multipurpose Bridge for accidents by checking the fitness of Bridge structure. We found that train accident impact is more risky than other vehicles accidents. We also found that socio-economic impact on Bangladesh will be deep concerned.

Keywords: train accident, derailment, disaster, socio-economic

Procedia PDF Downloads 222
3164 Experimental and Numerical Investigations of Impact Response on High-Speed Train Windshield

Authors: Wen Ma, Yong Peng, Zhixiang Li

Abstract:

Security journey is a vital focus on the field of Rail Transportation. Accidents caused by the damage of the high-speed train windshield have occurred many times and have given rise to terrible consequences. Train windshield consists of tempered glass and polyvinyl butyral (PVB) film. In this work, the quasi-static tests and the split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) tests were carried out first to obtain the mechanical properties and constitutive model for the tempered glass and PVB film. These tests results revealed that stress and Young’s modulus of tempered glass were wake-sensitive to strain rate, but stress and Young’s modulus of PVB film were strong-sensitive to strain rate. Then impact experiment of the windshield was carried out to investigate dynamic response and failure characteristics of train windshield. In addition, a finite element model based on the combined finite element method was proposed to investigate fracture and fragmentation responses of train windshield under different-velocity impact. The results can be used for further design and optimization of the windshield for high-speed train application.

Keywords: constitutive model, impact response, mechanism properties, PVB film, tempered glass

Procedia PDF Downloads 61
3163 Structural and Microstructural Analysis of White Etching Layer Formation by Electrical Arcing Induced on the Surface of Rail Track

Authors: Ali Ahmed Ali Al-Juboori, H. Zhu, D. Wexler, H. Li, C. Lu, J. McLeod, S. Pannila, J. Barnes

Abstract:

A number of studies have focused on the formation mechanics of white etching layer and its origin in the railway operation. Until recently, the following hypotheses consider the precise mechanics of WELs formation: (i) WELs are the result of thermal process caused by wheel slip; (ii) WELs are mechanically induced by severe plastic deformation; (iii) WELs are caused by a combination of thermo-mechanical process. The mechanisms discussed above lead to occurrence of white etching layers on the area of wheel and rail contact. This is because the contact patch which is the active point of the wheel on the rail is exposed to highest shear stresses which result in localised severe plastic deformation; and highest rate of heat caused by wheel slipe during excessive traction or braking effort. However, if the WELs are not on the running band area, it would suggest that there is another cause of WELs formation. In railway system, particularly electrified railway, arcing phenomenon has been occurring more often and regularly on the rails. In electrified railway, the current is delivered to the train traction motor via contact wires and then returned to the station via the contact between the wheel and the rail. If the contact between the wheel and the rail is temporarily losing, due to dynamic vibration, entrapped dirt or water, lubricant effect or oxidation occurrences, high current can jump through the gap and results in arcing. The other resources of arcing also include the wheel passage the insulated joint and lightning on a train during bad weather. During the arcing, an extensive heat is generated and speared over a large area of top surface of rail. Thus, arcing is considered another heat source in the rail head (rather than wheel slipe) that results in microstructural changes and white etching layer formation. A head hardened (HH) rail steel, cut from a curved rail truck was used for the investigation. Samples were sectioned from a depth of 10 mm below the rail surface, where the material is considered to be still within the hardened layer but away from any microstructural changes on the top surface layer caused by train passage. These samples were subjected to electrical discharges by using Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) machine. The arc current was controlled and moved along the samples surface in the direction of travel, as indicated by an arrow. Five different conditions were applied on the surface of the samples. Samples containing pre-existed WELs, taken from ex-service rail surface, were also considered in this study for comparison. Both simulated and ex-serviced WELs were characterised by advanced methods including SEM, TEM, TKD, EDS, XRD. Samples for TEM and TKFD were prepared by Focused Ion Beam (FIB) milling. The results showed that both simulated WELs by electrical arcing and ex-service WEL comprise similar microstructure. Brown etching layer was found with WELs and likely induced by a concurrent tempering process. This study provided a clear understanding of new formation mechanics of WELs which contributes to track maintenance procedure.

Keywords: white etching layer, arcing, brown etching layer, material characterisation

Procedia PDF Downloads 51
3162 Stratigraghy and Identifying Boundaries of Mozduran Formation with Magnetite Method in East Kopet-Dagh Basin

Authors: Z. Kadivar, M. Vahidinia, A. Mousavinia

Abstract:

Kopet-Dagh Mountain Range is located in the north and northeast of Iran. Mozduran Formation in the east of Kopet-Dagh is mainly composed of limestone, dolomite, with shale and sandstone interbedded. Mozduran Formation is reservoir rock of the Khangiran gas field. The location of the study was east Kopet-Dagh basin (Northeast Iran) where the deliberate thickness of formation is 418 meters. In the present study, a total of 57 samples were gathered. Moreover, 100 thin sections were made out of 52 samples. According to the findings of the thin section study, 18 genera and nine species of foraminifera and algae were identified. Based on the index fossils, the age of the Mozduran Formation was identified as Upper Jurassic (Kimmerdgian-Tithonian) in the east of Kopet-Dagh basin. According to the magnetite data (total intensity and RTP map), there is a disconformity (low intensity) between the Kashaf-Rood Formation and Mozduran Formation. At the top, where among Mozduran Formation and Shurijeh Formation, is high intensity and a widespread disconformity (high intensity).

Keywords: upper jurassic, magnetometre, mozduran formation, stratigraphy

Procedia PDF Downloads 137
3161 Energy Saving Study of Mass Rapid Transit by Optimal Train Coasting Operation

Authors: Artiya Sopharak, Tosaphol Ratniyomchai, Thanatchai Kulworawanichpong

Abstract:

This paper presents an energy-saving study of Mass Rapid Transit (MRT) using an optimal train coasting operation. For the dynamic train movement with four modes of operation, including accelerating mode, constant speed or cruising mode, coasting mode, and braking mode are considered in this study. The acceleration rate, the deceleration rate, and the starting coasting point are taken into account the optimal train speed profile during coasting mode with considering the energy saving and acceptable travel time comparison to the based case with no coasting operation. In this study, the mathematical method as a Quadratic Search Method (QDS) is conducted to carry out the optimization problem. A single train of MRT services between two stations with a distance of 2 km and a maximum speed of 80 km/h is taken to be the case study. Regarding the coasting mode operation, the results show that the longer distance of costing mode, the less energy consumption in cruising mode and the less braking energy. On the other hand, the shorter distance of coasting mode, the more energy consumption in cruising mode and the more braking energy.

Keywords: energy saving, coasting mode, mass rapid transit, quadratic search method

Procedia PDF Downloads 54
3160 Estimation of Train Operation Using an Exponential Smoothing Method

Authors: Taiyo Matsumura, Kuninori Takahashi, Takashi Ono

Abstract:

The purpose of this research is to improve the convenience of waiting for trains at level crossings and stations and to prevent accidents resulting from forcible entry into level crossings, by providing level crossing users and passengers with information that tells them when the next train will pass through or arrive. For this paper, we proposed methods for estimating operation by means of an average value method, variable response smoothing method, and exponential smoothing method, on the basis of open data, which has low accuracy, but for which performance schedules are distributed in real time. We then examined the accuracy of the estimations. The results showed that the application of an exponential smoothing method is valid.

Keywords: exponential smoothing method, open data, operation estimation, train schedule

Procedia PDF Downloads 313
3159 Enthalpies of Formation of Equiatomic Binary Hafnium Transition Metal Compounds HfM (M=Co, Ir, Os, Pt, Rh, Ru)

Authors: Hadda Krarcha, S. Messaasdi

Abstract:

In order to investigate Hafnium transition metal alloys HfM (M= Co, Ir, Os,Pt, Rh, Ru) phase diagrams in the region of 50/50% atomic ratio, we performed ab initio Full-Potential Linearized Augmented Plane Waves calculations of the enthalpies of formation of HfM compounds at B2 (CsCl) structure type. The obtained enthalpies of formation are discussed and compared to some of the existing models and available experimental data.

Keywords: enthalpy of formation, transition metal, binarry compunds, hafnium

Procedia PDF Downloads 347
3158 Dynamical Relation of Poisson Spike Trains in Hodkin-Huxley Neural Ion Current Model and Formation of Non-Canonical Bases, Islands, and Analog Bases in DNA, mRNA, and RNA at or near the Transcription

Authors: Michael Fundator

Abstract:

Groundbreaking application of biomathematical and biochemical research in neural networks processes to formation of non-canonical bases, islands, and analog bases in DNA and mRNA at or near the transcription that contradicts the long anticipated statistical assumptions for the distribution of bases and analog bases compounds is implemented through statistical and stochastic methods apparatus with addition of quantum principles, where the usual transience of Poisson spike train becomes very instrumental tool for finding even almost periodical type of solutions to Fokker-Plank stochastic differential equation. Present article develops new multidimensional methods of finding solutions to stochastic differential equations based on more rigorous approach to mathematical apparatus through Kolmogorov-Chentsov continuity theorem that allows the stochastic processes with jumps under certain conditions to have γ-Holder continuous modification that is used as basis for finding analogous parallels in dynamics of neutral networks and formation of analog bases and transcription in DNA.

Keywords: Fokker-Plank stochastic differential equation, Kolmogorov-Chentsov continuity theorem, neural networks, translation and transcription

Procedia PDF Downloads 70
3157 An Adaptive Back-Propagation Network and Kalman Filter Based Multi-Sensor Fusion Method for Train Location System

Authors: Yu-ding Du, Qi-lian Bao, Nassim Bessaad, Lin Liu

Abstract:

The Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) is regarded as an effective approach for the purpose of replacing the large amount used track-side balises in modern train localization systems. This paper describes a method based on the data fusion of a GNSS receiver sensor and an odometer sensor that can significantly improve the positioning accuracy. A digital track map is needed as another sensor to project two-dimensional GNSS position to one-dimensional along-track distance due to the fact that the train’s position can only be constrained on the track. A model trained by BP neural network is used to estimate the trend positioning error which is related to the specific location and proximate processing of the digital track map. Considering that in some conditions the satellite signal failure will lead to the increase of GNSS positioning error, a detection step for GNSS signal is applied. An adaptive weighted fusion algorithm is presented to reduce the standard deviation of train speed measurement. Finally an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) is used for the fusion of the projected 1-D GNSS positioning data and the 1-D train speed data to get the estimate position. Experimental results suggest that the proposed method performs well, which can reduce positioning error notably.

Keywords: multi-sensor data fusion, train positioning, GNSS, odometer, digital track map, map matching, BP neural network, adaptive weighted fusion, Kalman filter

Procedia PDF Downloads 80
3156 Analysis of Aerodynamic Forces Acting on a Train Passing Through a Tornado

Authors: Masahiro Suzuki, Nobuyuki Okura

Abstract:

The crosswind effect on ground transportations has been extensively investigated for decades. The effect of tornado, however, has been hardly studied in spite of the fact that even heavy ground vehicles, namely, trains were overturned by tornadoes with casualties in the past. Therefore, aerodynamic effects of the tornado on the train were studied by several approaches in this study. First, an experimental facility was developed to clarify aerodynamic forces acting on a vehicle running through a tornado. Our experimental set-up consists of two apparatus. One is a tornado simulator, and the other is a moving model rig. PIV measurements showed that the tornado simulator can generate a swirling-flow field similar to those of the natural tornadoes. The flow field has the maximum tangential velocity of 7.4 m/s and the vortex core radius of 96 mm. The moving model rig makes a 1/40 scale model train of single-car/three-car unit run thorough the swirling flow with the maximum speed of 4.3 m/s. The model car has 72 pressure ports on its surface to estimate the aerodynamic forces. The experimental results show that the aerodynamic forces vary its magnitude and direction depends on the location of the vehicle in the flow field. Second, the aerodynamic forces on the train were estimated by using Rankin vortex model. The Rankin vortex model is a simple tornado model which widely used in the field of civil engineering. The estimated aerodynamic forces on the middle car were fairly good agreement with the experimental results. Effects of the vortex core radius and the path of the train on the aerodynamic forces were investigated using the Rankin vortex model. The results shows that the side and lift forces increases as the vortex core radius increases, while the yawing moment is maximum when the core radius is 0.3875 times of the car length. Third, a computational simulation was conducted to clarify the flow field around the train. The simulated results qualitatively agreed with the experimental ones.

Keywords: aerodynamic force, experimental method, tornado, train

Procedia PDF Downloads 148
3155 Intelligent Crowd Management Systems in Trains

Authors: Sai S. Hari, Shriram Ramanujam, Unnati Trivedi

Abstract:

The advent of mass transit systems like rail, metro, maglev, and various other rail based transport has pacified the requirement of public transport for the masses to a great extent. However, the abatement of the demand does not necessarily mean it is managed efficiently, eloquently or in an encapsulating manner. The primary problem identified that the one this paper seeks to solve is the dipsomaniac like manner in which the compartments are occupied. This problem is solved by using a comparison of an empty train and an occupied one. The pixel data of an occupied train is compared to the pixel data of an empty train. This is done using canny edge detection technique. After the comparison it intimates the passengers at the consecutive stops which compartments are not occupied or have low occupancy. Thus, redirecting them and preventing overcrowding.

Keywords: canny edge detection, comparison, encapsulation, redirection

Procedia PDF Downloads 240
3154 High-Speed Particle Image Velocimetry of the Flow around a Moving Train Model with Boundary Layer Control Elements

Authors: Alexander Buhr, Klaus Ehrenfried

Abstract:

Trackside induced airflow velocities, also known as slipstream velocities, are an important criterion for the design of high-speed trains. The maximum permitted values are given by the Technical Specifications for Interoperability (TSI) and have to be checked in the approval process. For train manufactures it is of great interest to know in advance, how new train geometries would perform in TSI tests. The Reynolds number in moving model experiments is lower compared to full-scale. Especially the limited model length leads to a thinner boundary layer at the rear end. The hypothesis is that the boundary layer rolls up to characteristic flow structures in the train wake, in which the maximum flow velocities can be observed. The idea is to enlarge the boundary layer using roughness elements at the train model head so that the ratio between the boundary layer thickness and the car width at the rear end is comparable to a full-scale train. This may lead to similar flow structures in the wake and better prediction accuracy for TSI tests. In this case, the design of the roughness elements is limited by the moving model rig. Small rectangular roughness shapes are used to get a sufficient effect on the boundary layer, while the elements are robust enough to withstand the high accelerating and decelerating forces during the test runs. For this investigation, High-Speed Particle Image Velocimetry (HS-PIV) measurements on an ICE3 train model have been realized in the moving model rig of the DLR in Göttingen, the so called tunnel simulation facility Göttingen (TSG). The flow velocities within the boundary layer are analysed in a plain parallel to the ground. The height of the plane corresponds to a test position in the EN standard (TSI). Three different shapes of roughness elements are tested. The boundary layer thickness and displacement thickness as well as the momentum thickness and the form factor are calculated along the train model. Conditional sampling is used to analyse the size and dynamics of the flow structures at the time of maximum velocity in the train wake behind the train. As expected, larger roughness elements increase the boundary layer thickness and lead to larger flow velocities in the boundary layer and in the wake flow structures. The boundary layer thickness, displacement thickness and momentum thickness are increased by using larger roughness especially when applied in the height close to the measuring plane. The roughness elements also cause high fluctuations in the form factors of the boundary layer. Behind the roughness elements, the form factors rapidly are approaching toward constant values. This indicates that the boundary layer, while growing slowly along the second half of the train model, has reached a state of equilibrium.

Keywords: boundary layer, high-speed PIV, ICE3, moving train model, roughness elements

Procedia PDF Downloads 213
3153 Analysis of Energy Efficiency Behavior with the Use of Train Dynamics Simulator and Statistical Tools: Case Study of Vitoria Minas Railway, Brazil

Authors: Eric Wilson Santos Cabral, Marta Monteiro Da Costa Cruz, Fabio Luis Maciel Machado, Henrique Andrade, Rodrigo Pirola Pestana, Vivian Andrea Parreira

Abstract:

The large variation in the price of diesel in Brazil directly affects the variable cost of companies operating in the transportation sector. In rail transport, the great challenge is to overcome the annual budget, cargo and ore transported with cost reduction in relation to previous years, becoming more efficient every year. Some effective measures are necessary to achieve the reduction of the liter ratio consumed by KTKB (Gross Ton per Kilometer multiplied by thousand). This acronym represents the indicator of energy efficiency of some railroads in the world. This study is divided into two parts: the first, to identify using statistical tools, part of the controlled variables in the railways, which have a correlation with the energy efficiency indicator, seeking to aid decision-making. The second, with the use of the train dynamics simulator, within scenarios defined in the operational reality of a railroad, seeks to optimize the train formations and the train stop model for the change of train drivers. With the completion of the study, companies in the rail sector are expected to be able to reduce some of their transportation costs.

Keywords: railway transport, railway simulation, energy efficiency, fuel consumption

Procedia PDF Downloads 250
3152 Modelling of Passengers Exchange between Trains and Platforms

Authors: Guillaume Craveur

Abstract:

The evaluation of the passenger exchange time is necessary for railway operators in order to optimize and dimension rail traffic. Several influential parameters are identified and studied. Each parameter leads to a modeling completed with the buildingEXODUS software. The objective is the modelling of passenger exchanges measured by passenger counting. Population size is dimensioned using passenger counting files which are a report of the train service and contain following useful informations: number of passengers who get on and leave the train, exchange time. These information are collected by sensors placed at the top of each train door. With passenger counting files it is possible to know how many people are engaged in the exchange and how long is the exchange, but it is not possible to know passenger flow of the door. All the information about observed exchanges are thus not available. For this reason and in order to minimize inaccuracies, only short exchanges (less than 30 seconds) with a maximum of people are performed.

Keywords: passengers exchange, numerical tools, rolling stock, platforms

Procedia PDF Downloads 150
3151 Optimal Maintenance Clustering for Rail Track Components Subject to Possession Capacity Constraints

Authors: Cuong D. Dao, Rob J.I. Basten, Andreas Hartmann

Abstract:

This paper studies the optimal maintenance planning of preventive maintenance and renewal activities for components in a single railway track when the available time for maintenance is limited. The rail-track system consists of several types of components, such as rail, ballast, and switches with different preventive maintenance and renewal intervals. To perform maintenance or renewal on the track, a train free period for maintenance, called a possession, is required. Since a major possession directly affects the regular train schedule, maintenance and renewal activities are clustered as much as possible. In a highly dense and utilized railway network, the possession time on the track is critical since the demand for train operations is very high and a long possession has a severe impact on the regular train schedule. We present an optimization model and investigate the maintenance schedules with and without the possession capacity constraint. In addition, we also integrate the social-economic cost related to the effects of the maintenance time to the variable possession cost into the optimization model. A numerical example is provided to illustrate the model.

Keywords: rail-track components, maintenance, optimal clustering, possession capacity

Procedia PDF Downloads 183
3150 A Review on the Hydrologic and Hydraulic Performances in Low Impact Development-Best Management Practices Treatment Train

Authors: Fatin Khalida Abdul Khadir, Husna Takaijudin

Abstract:

Bioretention system is one of the alternatives to approach the conventional stormwater management, low impact development (LID) strategy for best management practices (BMPs). Incorporating both filtration and infiltration, initial research on bioretention systems has shown that this practice extensively decreases runoff volumes and peak flows. The LID-BMP treatment train is one of the latest LID-BMPs for stormwater treatments in urbanized watersheds. The treatment train is developed to overcome the drawbacks that arise from conventional LID-BMPs and aims to enhance the performance of the existing practices. In addition, it is also used to improve treatments in both water quality and water quantity controls as well as maintaining the natural hydrology of an area despite the current massive developments. The objective of this paper is to review the effectiveness of the conventional LID-BMPS on hydrologic and hydraulic performances through column studies in different configurations. The previous studies on the applications of LID-BMP treatment train that were developed to overcome the drawbacks of conventional LID-BMPs are reviewed and use as the guidelines for implementing this system in Universiti Teknologi Petronas (UTP) and elsewhere. The reviews on the analysis conducted for hydrologic and hydraulic performances using the artificial neural network (ANN) model are done in order to be utilized in this study. In this study, the role of the LID-BMP treatment train is tested by arranging bioretention cells in series in order to be implemented for controlling floods that occurred currently and in the future when the construction of the new buildings in UTP completed. A summary of the research findings on the performances of the system is provided which includes the proposed modifications on the designs.

Keywords: bioretention system, LID-BMP treatment train, hydrological and hydraulic performance, ANN analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 52
3149 Intelligent Rescheduling Trains for Air Pollution Management

Authors: Kainat Affrin, P. Reshma, G. Narendra Kumar

Abstract:

Optimization of timetable is the need of the day for the rescheduling and routing of trains in real time. Trains are scheduled in parallel with the road transport vehicles to the same destination. As the number of trains is restricted due to single track, customers usually opt for road transport to use frequently. The air pollution increases as the density of vehicles on road transport is increased. Use of an alternate mode of transport like train helps in reducing air-pollution. This paper mainly aims at attracting the passengers to Train transport by proper rescheduling of trains using hybrid of stop-skip algorithm and iterative convex programming algorithm. Rescheduling of train bi-directionally is achieved on a single track with dynamic dual time and varying stops. Introduction of more trains attract customers to use rail transport frequently, thereby decreasing the pollution. The results are simulated using Network Simulator (NS-2).

Keywords: air pollution, AODV, re-scheduling, WSNs

Procedia PDF Downloads 262
3148 An Empirical Analysis of the Impact of Selected Macroeconomic Variables on Capital Formation in Libya (1970–2010)

Authors: Khaled Ramadan Elbeydi

Abstract:

This study is carried out to provide an insight into the analysis of the impact of selected macro-economic variables on gross fixed capital formation in Libya using annual data over the period (1970-2010). The importance of this study comes from the ability to show the relative important factors that impact the Libyan gross fixed capital formation. This understanding would give indications to decision makers on which policy they must focus to stimulate the economy. An Auto-Regressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) modeling process is employed to investigate the impact of the gross domestic product, monetary base, and trade openness on gross fixed capital formation in Libya. The results of this study reveal that there is an equilibrium relationship between capital formation and its determinants. The results also indicate that GDP and trade openness largely explain the pattern of capital formation in Libya. The findings and recommendations provide vital information relevant for policy formulation and implementation aimed to improve capital formation in Libya.

Keywords: ARDL, bounds test, capital formation, co-integration, Libya

Procedia PDF Downloads 279
3147 Determination of Biofilm Formation in Different Clinical Candida Species and Investigation of Effects of Some Plant Substances on These Biofilms

Authors: Gulcan Sahal, Isil Seyis Bilkay

Abstract:

Candida species which often exist as commensal microorganisms in healthy individuals are major causes of important infections, especially in AIDS and immunocompromised patients, by means of their biofilm formation abilities. Therefore, in this study, determination of biofilm formation in different clinical strains of Candida species, investigation of strong biofilm forming Candida strains, examination of clinical information of each strong and weak biofilm forming Candida strains and investigation of some plant substances’ effects on biofilm formation of strong biofilm forming strains were aimed. In this respect, biofilm formation of Candida strains was analyzed via crystal violet binding assay. According to our results, biofilm levels of strains belong to different Candida species were different from each other. Additionally, it is also found that some plant substances effect biofilm formation. All these results indicate that, as well as C. albicans strains, other non-albicans Candida species also emerge as causative agents of infections and have biofilm formation abilities. In addition, usage of some plant substances in different concentrations may provide a new treatment against biofilm related Candida infections.

Keywords: anti-biofilm, biofilm formation, Candida species, biosystems engineering

Procedia PDF Downloads 391
3146 Aerodynamic Brake Study of Reducing Braking Distance for High-Speed Trains

Authors: Phatthara Surachon, Tosaphol Ratniyomchai, Thanatchai Kulworawanichpong

Abstract:

This paper presents an aerodynamic brake study of reducing braking distance for high-speed trains (HST) using aerodynamic brakes as inspiration from the applications on the commercial aircraft wings. In case of emergency, both braking distance and stopping time are longer than the usual situation. Therefore, the passenger safety and the HST driving control management are definitely obtained by reducing the time and distance of train braking during emergency situation. Due to the limited study and implementation of the aerodynamic brake in HST, the possibility in use and the effectiveness of the aerodynamic brake to the train dynamic movement during braking are analyzed and considered. Regarding the aircraft’s flaps that applied in the HST, the areas of the aerodynamic brake acted as an additional drag force during train braking are able to vary depending on the operating angle and the required dynamic braking force. The HST with a varying speed of 200 km/h to 350 km/h is taken as a case study of this paper. The results show that the stopping time and the brake distance are effectively reduced by the aerodynamic brakes. The mechanical brake and its maintenance are effectively getting this benefit by extending its lifetime for longer use.

Keywords: high-speed train, aerodynamic brake, brake distance, drag force

Procedia PDF Downloads 68
3145 Biofilm Formation Due to the Proteome Changes Of Enterococcus Faecium in Response to Sub-Mic of Gentamicin

Authors: Amin Abbasi, Mahdi Asghari Ozma

Abstract:

Background and Objective:Enterococcus faecium is a normal flora of the human gastrointestinal tract that causes infection in the host body under conditions such as biofilm formation, in which the use of antibiotics causes changes in these pathogenic mechanisms. In this study, we aimed to evaluate comprehensively the changes in E.faecium when exposed to sub-MIC of the gentamicin,especiallythe biofilm formation rate. Materials and Methods: For this study, the keywords "Enterococcus faecium ", "Biofilm", and "Gentamicin" in the databases PubMed, Google Scholar, Sid, and MagIran between 2015 and 2021 were searched, and 14 articles were chosen, studied, and analyzed. Results: Gentamicin significantly had increased biofilm formation in most of the isolates in the studies. Increased expression of the genes (efaA and esp) and proteins involved in biofilm formation and decreased expression of the genes (gelE and cylA) involved in spreading and proteins involved in metabolism and cell division in E.faecium were the most significant cause of the biofilm formation, which were increased in sub-MIC gentamicin-treated situation. Conclusion: Inadequate use of gentamicin intensify biofilm formation of E.faecium, which can make the treatment of infections caused by this bacterium difficult.

Keywords: biofilm, enterococcus faecium, gentamicin, proteome

Procedia PDF Downloads 16
3144 A Review on the Mechanism Removal of Pesticides and Heavy Metal from Agricultural Runoff in Treatment Train

Authors: N. A. Ahmad Zubairi, H. Takaijudin, K. W. Yusof

Abstract:

Pesticides have been used widely over the world in agriculture to protect from pests and reduce crop losses. However, it affects the environment with toxic chemicals. Exceed of toxic constituents in the ecosystem will result in bad side effects. The hydrological cycle is related to the existence of pesticides and heavy metal which it can penetrate through varieties of sources into the soil or water bodies, especially runoff. Therefore, proper mechanisms of pesticide and heavy metal removal should be studied to improve the quality of ecosystem free or reduce from unwanted substances. This paper reviews the use of treatment train and its mechanisms to minimize pesticides and heavy metal from agricultural runoff. Organochlorine (OCL) is a common pesticide that was found in the agricultural runoff. OCL is one of the toxic chemicals that can disturb the ecosystem such as inhibiting plants' growth and harm human health by having symptoms as asthma, active cancer cell, vomit, diarrhea, etc. Thus, this unwanted contaminant gives disadvantages to the environment and needs treatment system. Hence, treatment train by bioretention system is suitable because removal efficiency achieves until 90% of pesticide removal with selected vegetated plant and additive.

Keywords: pesticides, heavy metal, agricultural runoff, bioretention, mechanism removal, treatment train

Procedia PDF Downloads 55