Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 116

Search results for: repetition

116 Dialogue, Agency and Appropriation in Peer Interactions

Authors: Mohammad Naseh Nasrollahi Shahri

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The article draws on Michael Bakhtin’s theory of language to examine peer interactions. It represents an analysis of other-repetition in student interactions. Several recent studies have explored various aspects of repetition in multiple contexts. However, other-repetition in peer interactions has not received enough attention. Building on previous studies, this study examines patterns of other-repetition or appropriation in the context of discussion activities performed by EFL learners. The analysis highlights the meaningfulness of other-repetition in a way that distinguishes them from rote-repetition. It is suggested that instances of repetition constitute third spaces between the self and other which provide ideal settings for language learning and demonstrate student agency and engagement.

Keywords: repetition, agency, Bakhtin, dialogue

Procedia PDF Downloads 534
115 The Repetition of New Words and Information in Mandarin-Speaking Children: A Corpus-Based Study

Authors: Jian-Jun Gao

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Repetition is used for a variety of functions in conversation. When young children first learn to speak, they often repeat words from the adult’s recent utterance with the learning and social function. The objective of this study was to ascertain whether the repetitions are equivalent in indicating attention to new words and the initial repeat of information in conversation. Based on the observation of naturally occurring language use in Taiwan Corpus of Child Mandarin (TCCM), the results in this study provided empirical support to the previous findings that children are more likely to repeat new words they are offered than to repeat new information. When children get older, there would be a drop in the repetition of both new words and new information.

Keywords: acquisition, corpus, mandarin, new words, new information, repetition

Procedia PDF Downloads 65
114 Morphological Rules of Bangla Repetition Words for UNL Based Machine Translation

Authors: Nawab Yousuf Ali, S. Golam, A. Ameer, Ashok Toru Roy

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This paper develops new morphological rules suitable for Bangla repetition words to be incorporated into an inter lingua representation called Universal Networking Language (UNL). The proposed rules are to be used to combine verb roots and their inflexions to produce words which are then combined with other similar types of words to generate repetition words. This paper outlines the format of morphological rules for different types of repetition words that come from verb roots based on the framework of UNL provided by the UNL centre of the Universal Networking Digital Language (UNDL) foundation.

Keywords: Universal Networking Language (UNL), universal word (UW), head word (HW), Bangla-UNL Dictionary, morphological rule, enconverter (EnCo)

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113 Exploring Framing Effect and Repetition Effect of the Persuasive Message on Moral Decision Making in Conflict of Interests

Authors: Sae-Yeon Seong, EunSun Chung, Dongjoo Chin

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Conflict of interest (COI) is one of the dominant circumstantial factors of moral corruption across various fields. Several management strategies have been proposed to prevent self-interested decision making in COIs. Among these strategies, message persuasion has been considered as a practical and effective approach. Framing and repetition are two of the major factors in the persuasion effect of message. Therefore, their effect on moral decision making in COI should be explored systematically. The purpose of this study was to compare the differential effects of positively framed message and negatively framed message, and secondly, to investigate how the effectiveness of persuasive message changes through repetitive exposures. A total of 63 participants were randomly assigned to one of 3 framing conditions: positive framing, negative framing, and no-message condition. Prior to the online experiment involving a consultation task, the differently framed persuasive message was presented to the participants. This process was repeated four times in a row. The results showed that participants with positive-framing message were less likely to provide self-interested consultation than participants in the no-message condition. Also, a U-shaped quadric relation between repetition and self-interest consultation was found. Implications and limitations are further discussed.

Keywords: conflicts of interest, persuasive message, framing effect, repetition effect, self-interested behavior

Procedia PDF Downloads 95
112 Pattern of Deliberate Self-Harm Repetition in Rural Sri Lanka

Authors: P. H. G. J. Pushpakumara, Andrew Dawson

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Introduction: Deliberate self harm (DSH) is a major public health problem globally. Suicide rates of Sri Lanka are being among the highest national rates in the world, since 1950. Previous DSH is the most important independent predictor of repetition. The estimated 1 year non-fatal repeat self-harm rate was 16.3%. Asian countries had considerably lower rate, 10.0%. Objectives: To calculate incidence of deliberate self-poisoning (DSP) and suicides, repetition rate of DSP in Kurunegala District (KD). To determine the pattern of repeated DSP in KD. Methods: Study had two components. In the first component, demographic and event related details of, DSP admission in 46 hospitals and suicides in 28 police stations of KD were collected for 3 years from January 2011. Demographic details of cohort of DSP patients admitted to above hospitals in 2011 were linked with hospital admissions and police records of next two years period from the index admission. Records were screened for links with high sensitivity using the computer then did manual matching which would have been much more specific. In the second component, randomly selected DSP patients (n=438), who admitted to main referral centre which receives 60% of DSP cases of the district, were interviewed to assess life-time repetition. Results: There were 16,993 DSP admissions and 1078 suicides for the three year period. Suicide incidences in KD were, 21.6, 20.7 and 24.3 per 100,000 population in 2011, 2012 and 2013. Average male to female ratio for suicide incidences was 5.5. DSP incidences were 205.4, 248.3 and 202.5 per 100,000 population. Male incidences were slightly greater than the female incidences, male: female ratio was 1.1:1. Highest age standardized male and female incidence was reported in 20-24 years age group, 769.6/100,000, and 15-19 years age group 1304.0/100,000. Male to female ratio of the incidence increased with the age. There were 318 (179 male and 139 female) patients attempted DSH within two years. Female repetitive patients were ounger compared to the males, p < 0.0001, median age: males 28 and females 19 years. 290 (91.2%) had only one repetitive attempt, 24 (7.5%) had two, 3 (0.9%) had three and one (0.3%) had four in that period. One year repetition rate was 5.6 and two year repetition rate was 7.9%. Average intervals between indexed events and first repetitive DSP events were 246.8 (SD:223.4) and 238.5 (SD:207.0) days among males and females. One fifth of first repetitive events occurred within first two weeks in both males and females. Around 50% of males and females had the second event within 28 weeks. Within the first year of the indexed event, around 70% had the second event. First repetitive event was fatal for 28 (8.8%) individuals. Ages of those who died, mean 49.7 years (SD:15.3), were significantly higher compared to those who had non-fatal outcome, p<0.0001. 9.5% had life time history of DSH attempts. Conclusions: Both, DSP and suicide incidences were very high in KD. However, repetition rates were lesser compared regional values. Prevention of repetition alone may not produce significant impact on prevention of DSH.

Keywords: deliberate self-harm, incidence, repetition, Sri Lanka, suicide

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111 Groundhog Day as a Model for the Repeating Spectator and the Film Academic: Re-Watching the Same Films Again Can Create Different Experiences and Ideas

Authors: Leiya Ho Yin Lee

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Groundhog Day (Harold Ramis, 1993) may seemingly be a fairly unremarkable Hollywood comedy film in the 90s, it is argued that the film, with its protagonist Phil (Bill Murray), inadvertently, but perfectly, demonstrates an important aspect in filmmaking, film spectatorship and film research: repetition. Very rarely does a narrative film use one, and only one, take in its shooting. The multiple ‘repeats’ of Phil’s various endeavours due to his being trapped in a perpetual loop of the same day — from stealing money and tricking a woman into a casual relationship, to his multiple suicides, to eventually helping people in need — make the process of doing multiple ‘takes’ in filmmaking explicit. But perhaps more significantly, Phil represents a perfect model for the spectator/cinephile who has seen their favourite film for multiple times that they can remember every single detail. Crucially, their favourite film never changes, as it is a recording, but the cinephile’s experience of that very same film is most likely different each time they watch it again, just as Phil’s character and personality has completely transformed, from selfish and egotistic, to depressed and nihilistic, and ultimately to sympathetic and caring, even though he is living the exact same day. Furthermore, the author did not come up with this stimulating juxtaposition of film spectatorship and Groundhog Day the first time the author saw the film; it took the author a few casual re-viewings to notice the film’s self-reflexivity. And then, when working on it in the author’s research, the author had to re-view the film for more times, and have subsequently noticed even more things previously unnoticed. In this way, Groundhog Day not only stands for a model for filmmaking and film spectatorship, it also illustrates the act of academic research, especially in Film Studies where repeatedly viewing the same films is a prerequisite before new ideas and concepts are discovered from old material. This also recalls Deleuze’s thesis on difference and repetition in that repetition creates difference and it is difference that creates thought.

Keywords: narrative comprehension, repeated viewing, repetition, spectatorship

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110 „Real and Symbolic in Poetics of Multiplied Screens and Images“

Authors: Kristina Horvat Blazinovic

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In the context of a work of art, one can talk about the idea-concept-term-intention expressed by the artist by using various forms of repetition (external, material, visible repetition). Such repetitions of elements (images in space or moving visual and sound images in time) suggest a "covert", "latent" ("dressed") repetition – i.e., "hidden", "latent" term-intention-idea. Repeating in this way reveals a "deeper truth" that the viewer needs to decode and which is hidden "under" the technical manifestation of the multiplied images. It is not only images, sounds, and screens that are repeated - something else is repeated through them as well, even if, in some cases, the very idea of repetition is repeated. This paper examines serial images and single-channel or multi-channel artwork in the field of video/film art and video installations, which in a way implies the concept of repetition and multiplication. Moving or static images and screens (as multi-screens) are repeated in time and space. The categories of the real and the symbolic partly refer to the Lacan registers of reality, i.e., the Imaginary - Symbolic – Real trinity that represents the orders within which human subjectivity is established. Authors such as Bruce Nauman, VALIE EXPORT, Ragnar Kjartansson, Wolf Vostell, Shirin Neshat, Paul Sharits, Harun Farocki, Dalibor Martinis, Andy Warhol, Douglas Gordon, Bill Viola, Frank Gillette, and Ira Schneider, and Marina Abramovic problematize, in different ways, the concept and procedures of multiplication - repetition, but not in the sense of "copying" and "repetition" of reality or the original, but of repeated repetitions of the simulacrum. Referential works of art are often connected by the theme of the traumatic. Repetitions of images and situations are a response to the traumatic (experience) - repetition itself is a symptom of trauma. On the other hand, repeating and multiplying traumatic images results in a new traumatic effect or cancels it. Reflections on repetition as a temporal and spatial phenomenon are in line with the chapters that link philosophical considerations of space and time and experience temporality with their manifestation in works of art. The observations about time and the relation of perception and memory are according to Henry Bergson and his conception of duration (durée) as "quality of quantity." The video works intended to be displayed as a video loop, express the idea of infinite duration ("pure time," according to Bergson). The Loop wants to be always present - to fixate in time. Wholeness is unrecognizable because the intention is to make the effect infinitely cyclic. Reflections on time and space end with considerations about the occurrence and effects of time and space intervals as places and moments "between" – the points of connection and separation, of continuity and stopping - by reference to the "interval theory" of Soviet filmmaker DzigaVertov. The scale of opportunities that can be explored in interval mode is wide. Intervals represent the perception of time and space in the form of pauses, interruptions, breaks (e.g., emotional, dramatic, or rhythmic) denote emptiness or silence, distance, proximity, interstitial space, or a gap between various states.

Keywords: video installation, performance, repetition, multi-screen, real and symbolic, loop, video art, interval, video time

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109 Reemergence of Behaviorism in Language Teaching

Authors: Hamid Gholami

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During the years, the language teaching methods have been the offshoots of schools of thought in psychology. The methods were mainly influenced by their contemporary psychological approaches, as Audiolingualism was based on behaviorism and Communicative Language Teaching on constructivism. In 1950s, the text books were full of repetition exercises which were encouraged by Behaviorism. In 1980s they got filled with communicative exercises as suggested by constructivism. The trend went on to nowadays that sees no specific method as prevalent since none of the schools of thought seem to be illustrative of the complexity in human being learning. But some changes can be notable; some textbooks are giving more and more space to repetition exercises at least to enhance some aspects of language proficiency, namely collocations, rhythm and intonation, and conversation models. These changes may mark the reemergence of one of the once widely accepted schools of thought in psychology; behaviorism.

Keywords: language teaching methods, psychology, schools of thought, Behaviorism

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108 Using Repetition of Instructions in Course Design to Improve Instructor Efficiency and Increase Enrollment in a Large Online Course

Authors: David M. Gilstrap

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Designing effective instructions is a critical dimension of effective teaching systems. Due to a void in interpersonal contact, online courses present new challenges in this regard, especially with large class sizes. This presentation is a case study in how the repetition of instructions within the course design was utilized to increase instructor efficiency in managing a rapid rise in enrollment. World of Turf is a two-credit, semester-long elective course for non-turfgrass majors at Michigan State University. It is taught entirely online and solely by the instructor without any graduate teaching assistants. Discussion forums about subject matter are designated for each lecture, and those forums are moderated by a few undergraduate turfgrass majors. The instructions as to the course structure, navigation, and grading are conveyed in the syllabus and course-introduction lecture. Regardless, students email questions about such matters, and the number of emails increased as course enrollment grew steadily during the first three years of its existence, almost to a point that the course was becoming unmanageable. Many of these emails occurred because the instructor was failing to update and operate the course in a timely and proper fashion because he was too busy answering emails. Some of the emails did help the instructor ferret out poorly composed instructions, which he corrected. Beginning in the summer semester of 2015, the instructor overhauled the course by segregating content into weekly modules. The philosophy envisioned and embraced was that there can never be too much repetition of instructions in an online course. Instructions were duplicated within each of these modules as well as associated modules for syllabus and schedules, getting started, frequently asked questions, practice tests, surveys, and exams. In addition, informational forums were created and set aside for questions about the course workings and each of the three exams, thus creating even more repetition. Within these informational forums, students typically answer each other’s questions, which demonstrated to the students that that information is available in the course. When needed, the instructor interjects with corrects answers or clarifies any misinformation which students might be putting forth. Increasing the amount of repetition of instructions and strategic enhancements to the course design have resulted in a dramatic decrease in the number of email replies necessitated by the instructor. The resulting improvement in efficiency allowed the instructor to raise enrollment limits thus effecting a ten-fold increase in enrollment over a five-year period with 1050 students registered during the most recent academic year, thus becoming easily the largest online course at the university. Because of the improvement in course-delivery efficiency, sufficient time was created that allowed the instructor to development and launch an additional online course, hence further enhancing his productivity and value in terms of the number of the student-credit hours for which he is responsible.

Keywords: design, efficiency, instructions, online, repetition

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107 Islamic Geometric Design: Infinite Point or Creativity through Compass and Digital

Authors: Ridzuan Hussin, Mohd Zaihidee Arshad

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The creativity of earlier artists and sculptors in designing geometric is extraordinary provided with only a compass. Indeed, geometric in Islamic art and design are unique and have their own aesthetic values. In order to further understand geometric, self-learning with the approach of hands on would be appropriate. For this study, Islamic themed geometric designed and created, concerning only; i. The Square Repetition Unit and √2, ii. The Hexagonal Repetition Unit and √3 and iii. Double Hexagon. The aim of this research is to evaluate the creativity of Islamic geometric pattern artworks, through Fundamental Arts and Gestalt theory. Data was collected using specific tasks, and this research intends to identify the difference of Islamic geometric between 21 untitled selected geometric artworks (conventional design method), and 25 digital untitled geometric pattern artworks method. The evaluation of creativity, colors, layout, pattern and unity is known to be of utmost importance, although there are differences in the conventional or the digital approach.

Keywords: Islamic geometric design, Gestalt, fundamentals of art, patterns

Procedia PDF Downloads 171
106 Translating Silence: An Analysis of Dhofar University Student Translations of Elliptical Structures from English into Arabic

Authors: Ali Algryani

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Ellipsis involves the omission of an item or items that can be recovered from the preceding clause. Ellipsis is used as a cohesion marker; it enhances the cohesiveness of a text/discourse as a clause is interpretable only through making reference to an antecedent clause. The present study attempts to investigate the linguistic phenomenon of ellipsis from a translation perspective. It is mainly concerned with how ellipsis is translated from English into Arabic. The study covers different forms of ellipsis, such as noun phrase ellipsis, verb phrase ellipsis, gapping, pseudo-gapping, stripping, and sluicing. The primary aim of the study, apart from discussing the use and function of ellipsis, is to find out how such ellipsis phenomena are dealt with in English-Arabic translation and determine the implications of the translations of elliptical structures into Arabic. The study is based on the analysis of Dhofar University (DU) students' translations of sentences containing different forms of ellipsis. The initial findings of the study indicate that due to differences in syntactic structures and stylistic preferences between English and Arabic, Arabic tends to use lexical repetition in the translation of some elliptical structures, thus achieving a higher level of explicitness. This implies that Arabic tends to prefer lexical repetition to create cohesion more than English does. Furthermore, the study also reveals that the improper translation of ellipsis leads to interpretations different from those understood from the source text. Such mistranslations can be attributed to student translators’ lack of awareness of the use and function of ellipsis as well as the stylistic preferences of both languages. This has pedagogical implications on the teaching and training of translation students at DU. Students' linguistic competence needs to be enhanced through teaching linguistics-related issues with reference to translation and both languages, .i.e. source and target languages and with special emphasis on their use, function and stylistic preferences.

Keywords: cohesion, ellipsis, explicitness, lexical repetition

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105 Using Automated Agents to Facilitate Instructions in a Large Online Course

Authors: David M Gilstrap

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In an online course with a large enrollment, the potential exists for the instructor to become overburdened with having to respond to students’ emails, which consequently decreases the instructor’s efficiency in teaching the course. Repetition of instructions is an effective way of reducing confusion among students, which in turn increases their efficiencies, as well. World of Turf is the largest online course at Michigan State University, which employs Brightspace as its management system (LMS) software. Recently, the LMS upgraded its capabilities to utilize agents, which are auto generated email notifications to students based on certain criteria. Agents are additional tools that can enhance course design. They can be run on-demand or according to a schedule. Agents can be timed to effectively remind students of approaching deadlines. The content of these generated emails can also include reinforced instructions. With a large online course, even a small percentage of students that either do not read or do not comprehend the course syllabus or do not notice instructions on course pages can result in numerous emails to the instructor, often near the deadlines for assignments. Utilizing agents to decrease the number of emails from students has enabled the instructor to efficiently instruct more than one thousand students per semester without any graduate student teaching assistants.

Keywords: agents, Brightspace, large enrollment, learning management system, repetition of instructions

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104 Study of Aerosol Deposition and Shielding Effects on Fluorescent Imaging Quantitative Evaluation in Protective Equipment Validation

Authors: Shinhao Yang, Hsiao-Chien Huang, Chin-Hsiang Luo

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The leakage of protective clothing is an important issue in the occupational health field. There is no quantitative method for measuring the leakage of personal protective equipment. This work aims to measure the quantitative leakage of the personal protective equipment by using the fluorochrome aerosol tracer. The fluorescent aerosols were employed as airborne particulates in a controlled chamber with ultraviolet (UV) light-detectable stickers. After an exposure-and-leakage test, the protective equipment was removed and photographed with UV-scanning to evaluate areas, color depth ratio, and aerosol deposition and shielding effects of the areas where fluorescent aerosols had adhered to the body through the protective equipment. Thus, this work built a calculation software for quantitative leakage ratio of protective clothing based on fluorescent illumination depth/aerosol concentration ratio, illumination/Fa ratio, aerosol deposition and shielding effects, and the leakage area ratio on the segmentation. The results indicated that the two-repetition total leakage rate of the X, Y, and Z type protective clothing for subject T were about 3.05, 4.21, and 3.52 (mg/m2). For five-repetition, the leakage rate of T were about 4.12, 4.52, and 5.11 (mg/m2).

Keywords: fluorochrome, deposition, shielding effects, digital image processing, leakage ratio, personal protective equipment

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103 Phonological Processing and Its Role in Pseudo-Word Decoding in Children Learning to Read Kannada Language between 5.6 to 8.6 Years

Authors: Vangmayee. V. Subban, Somashekara H. S, Shwetha Prabhu, Jayashree S. Bhat

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Introduction and Need: Phonological processing is critical in learning to read alphabetical and non-alphabetical languages. However, its role in learning to read Kannada an alphasyllabary is equivocal. The literature has focused on the developmental role of phonological awareness on reading. To the best of authors knowledge, the role of phonological memory and phonological naming has not been addressed in alphasyllabary Kannada language. Therefore, there is a need to evaluate the comprehensive role of the phonological processing skills in Kannada on word decoding skills during the early years of schooling. Aim and Objectives: The present study aimed to explore the phonological processing abilities and their role in learning to decode pseudowords in children learning to read the Kannada language during initial years of formal schooling between 5.6 to 8.6 years. Method: In this cross sectional study, 60 typically developing Kannada speaking children, 20 each from Grade I, Grade II, and Grade III between the age range of 5.6 to 6.6 years, 6.7 to 7.6 years and 7.7 to 8.6 years respectively were selected from Kannada medium schools. Phonological processing abilities were assessed using an assessment tool specifically developed to address the objectives of the present research. The assessment tool was content validated by subject experts and had good inter and intra-subject reliability. Phonological awareness was assessed at syllable level using syllable segmentation, blending, and syllable stripping at initial, medial and final position. Phonological memory was assessed using pseudoword repetition task and phonological naming was assessed using rapid automatized naming of objects. Both phonological awareneness and phonological memory measures were scored for the accuracy of the response, whereas Rapid Automatized Naming (RAN) was scored for total naming speed. Results: The mean scores comparison using one-way ANOVA revealed a significant difference (p ≤ 0.05) between the groups on all the measures of phonological awareness, pseudoword repetition, rapid automatized naming, and pseudoword reading. Subsequent post-hoc grade wise comparison using Bonferroni test revealed significant differences (p ≤ 0.05) between each of the grades for all the tasks except (p ≥ 0.05) for syllable blending, syllable stripping, and pseudoword repetition between Grade II and Grade III. The Pearson correlations revealed a highly significant positive correlation (p=0.000) between all the variables except phonological naming which had significant negative correlations. However, the correlation co-efficient was higher for phonological awareness measures compared to others. Hence, phonological awareness was chosen a first independent variable to enter in the hierarchical regression equation followed by rapid automatized naming and finally, pseudoword repetition. The regression analysis revealed syllable awareness as a single most significant predictor of pseudoword reading by explaining the unique variance of 74% and there was no significant change in R² when RAN and pseudoword repetition were added subsequently to the regression equation. Conclusion: Present study concluded that syllable awareness matures completely by Grade II, whereas the phonological memory and phonological naming continue to develop beyond Grade III. Amongst phonological processing skills, phonological awareness, especially syllable awareness is crucial for word decoding than phonological memory and naming during initial years of schooling.

Keywords: phonological awareness, phonological memory, phonological naming, phonological processing, pseudo-word decoding

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102 The Practice of Teaching Chemistry by the Application of Online Tests

Authors: Nikolina Ribarić

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E-learning is most commonly defined as a set of applications and processes, such as Web-based learning, computer-based learning, virtual classrooms, and digital collaboration, that enable access to instructional content through a variety of electronic media. The main goal of an e-learning system is learning, and the way to evaluate the impact of an e-learning system is by examining whether students learn effectively with the help of that system. Testmoz is a program for online preparation of knowledge evaluation assignments. The program provides teachers with computer support during the design of assignments and evaluating them. Students can review and solve assignments and also check the correctness of their solutions. Research into the increase of motivation by the practice of providing teaching content by applying online tests prepared in the Testmoz program was carried out with students of the 8th grade of Ljubo Babić Primary School in Jastrebarsko. The students took the tests in their free time, from home, for an unlimited number of times. SPSS was used to process the data obtained by the research instruments. The results of the research showed that students preferred to practice teaching content and achieved better educational results in chemistry when they had access to online tests for repetition and practicing in relation to subject content which was checked after repetition and practicing in "the classical way" -i.e., solving assignments in a workbook or writing assignments in worksheets.

Keywords: chemistry class, e-learning, motivation, Testmoz

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101 Language Shapes Thought: An Experimental Study on English and Mandarin Native Speakers' Sequencing of Size

Authors: Hsi Wei

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Does the language we speak affect the way we think? This question has been discussed for a long time from different aspects. In this article, the issue is examined with an experiment on how speakers of different languages tend to do different sequencing when it comes to the size of general objects. An essential difference between the usage of English and Mandarin is the way we sequence the size of places or objects. In English, when describing the location of something we may say, for example, ‘The pen is inside the trashcan next to the tree at the park.’ In Mandarin, however, we would say, ‘The pen is at the park next to the tree inside the trashcan.’ It’s clear that generally English use the sequence of small to big while Mandarin the opposite. Therefore, the experiment was conducted to test if the difference of the languages affects the speakers’ ability to do the different sequencing. There were two groups of subjects; one consisted of English native speakers, another of Mandarin native speakers. Within the experiment, three nouns were showed as a group to the subjects as their native languages. Before they saw the nouns, they would first get an instruction of ‘big to small’, ‘small to big’, or ‘repeat’. Therefore, the subjects had to sequence the following group of nouns as the instruction they get or simply repeat the nouns. After completing every sequencing and repetition in their minds, they pushed a button as reaction. The repetition design was to gather the mere reading time of the person. As the result of the experiment showed, English native speakers reacted more quickly to the sequencing of ‘small to big’; on the other hand, Mandarin native speakers reacted more quickly to the sequence ‘big to small’. To conclude, this study may be of importance as a support for linguistic relativism that the language we speak do shape the way we think.

Keywords: language, linguistic relativism, size, sequencing

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100 Developing Laser Spot Position Determination and PRF Code Detection with Quadrant Detector

Authors: Mohamed Fathy Heweage, Xiao Wen, Ayman Mokhtar, Ahmed Eldamarawy

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In this paper, we are interested in modeling, simulation, and measurement of the laser spot position with a quadrant detector. We enhance detection and tracking of semi-laser weapon decoding system based on microcontroller. The system receives the reflected pulse through quadrant detector and processes the laser pulses through a processing circuit, a microcontroller decoding laser pulse reflected by the target. The seeker accuracy will be enhanced by the decoding system, the laser detection time based on the receiving pulses number is reduced, a gate is used to limit the laser pulse width. The model is implemented based on Pulse Repetition Frequency (PRF) technique with two microcontroller units (MCU). MCU1 generates laser pulses with different codes. MCU2 decodes the laser code and locks the system at the specific code. The codes EW selected based on the two selector switches. The system is implemented and tested in Proteus ISIS software. The implementation of the full position determination circuit with the detector is produced. General system for the spot position determination was performed with the laser PRF for incident radiation and the mechanical system for adjusting system at different angles. The system test results show that the system can detect the laser code with only three received pulses based on the narrow gate signal, and good agreement between simulation and measured system performance is obtained.

Keywords: four quadrant detector, pulse code detection, laser guided weapons, pulse repetition frequency (PRF), Atmega 32 microcontrollers

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99 The Effects of Menstrual Phase on Upper and Lower Body Anaerobic Performance in College-Aged Women

Authors: Kelsey Scanlon

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Introduction: With the rate of female collegiate and professional athletes on the rise in recent decades, fluctuations in physical performance in relation to the menstrual cycle is an important area of study. PURPOSE: The purpose of this research was to compare differences in upper and lower body maximal anaerobic capacities across a single menstrual cycle. Methode: Participants (n=11) met a total of four times; once for familiarization and again on day 1 of menses (follicular phase), day 14 (ovulation), and day 21 (luteal phase) respectively. Upper body power was assessed using a bench press weight of ~50% of the participant’s predetermined 1-repetition maximum (1-RM) on a ballistic measurement system and variables included peak force (N), mean force (N), peak power (W), mean power (W), and peak velocity (m/s). Lower body power output was collected using a standard Wingate test. The variables of interest were anaerobic capacity (w/kg), peak power (W), mean power (W), fatigue index (W/s), and total work (J). Result: Statistical significance was not observed (p > 0.05) in any of the aforementioned variables after completing multiple one ways of analyses of variances (ANOVAs) with repeated measures on time. Conclusion: Within the parameters of this research, neither female upper nor lower body power output differed across the menstrual cycle when analyzed using 50% of one repetition (1RM) maximal bench press and the 30-second maximal effort cycle ergometer Wingate test. Therefore, researchers should not alter their subject populations due to the incorrect assumption that power output may be influenced by the menstrual cycle.

Keywords: anaerobic, athlete, female, power

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98 Development of a Laboratory Laser-Produced Plasma “Water Window” X-Ray Source for Radiobiology Experiments

Authors: Daniel Adjei, Mesfin Getachew Ayele, Przemyslaw Wachulak, Andrzej Bartnik, Luděk Vyšín, Henryk Fiedorowicz, Inam Ul Ahad, Lukasz Wegrzynski, Anna Wiechecka, Janusz Lekki, Wojciech M. Kwiatek

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Laser produced plasma light sources, emitting high intensity pulses of X-rays, delivering high doses are useful to understand the mechanisms of high dose effects on biological samples. In this study, a desk-top laser plasma soft X-ray source, developed for radio biology research, is presented. The source is based on a double-stream gas puff target, irradiated with a commercial Nd:YAG laser (EKSPLA), which generates laser pulses of 4 ns time duration and energy up to 800 mJ at 10 Hz repetition rate. The source has been optimized for maximum emission in the “water window” wavelength range from 2.3 nm to 4.4 nm by using pure gas (argon, nitrogen and krypton) and spectral filtering. Results of the source characterization measurements and dosimetry of the produced soft X-ray radiation are shown and discussed. The high brightness of the laser produced plasma soft X-ray source and the low penetration depth of the produced X-ray radiation in biological specimen allows a high dose rate to be delivered to the specimen of over 28 Gy/shot; and 280 Gy/s at the maximum repetition rate of the laser system. The source has a unique capability for irradiation of cells with high pulse dose both in vacuum and He-environment. Demonstration of the source to induce DNA double- and single strand breaks will be discussed.

Keywords: laser produced plasma, soft X-rays, radio biology experiments, dosimetry

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97 Effect of Palatal Lift Prosthesis on Speech Clarity in Flaccid Dysarthria

Authors: Firas Alfwaress, Abdelraheem Bebers Abdelhadi Hamasha, Maha Abu Awaad

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Objectives: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of Palatal Lift Prosthesis (PLP) on speech clarity in patients with Flaccid Dysarthria. Five speech measures were investigated including Nasalance Scores, Diadchokinetic (DDK), Vowel Duration, airflow, and Sound Intensity. Participants: Twelve (7 Males and 5 females) native speakers of Jordanian Arabic with Flaccid Dysarthria following stroke, traumatic brain injury, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis were included. The age of the participants ranged from 8–65 years with an average of 31.75 years. Design: Nasalance Scores, Diadchokinetic rate, Vowel Duration, and Sound Intensity were obtained using the Nasometer II, Model 6450 in three conditions. The first condition included obtaining the five measures without wearing the customized Palatal Lift Prosthesis. The second and third conditions included obtaining the five measures immediately after wearing the Palatal Lift Prosthesis and three months later. Results: Palatal lift prosthesis was found to be effective in individuals with flaccid dysarthria. Results showed decrease in the Nasalance Scores for the syllable repetition tasks and vowel prolongation tasks when comparing the means in the pre PLP with the post PLP at p≤0.001 except for the /m/ prolongation task. Results showed increased DDK repetition task, airflow amount, and sound intensity, and a decrease in vowel length at p≤0.001. Conclusions: The use of palatal lift prosthesis is effective in improving the speech of patients with flaccid dysarthria.

Keywords: palatal lift prosthesis, flaccid dysarthria, hypernasality, speech clarity, diadchokinetic rate

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96 Constellating Images: Bilderatlases as a Tool to Develop Criticality towards Visual Culture

Authors: Quirijn Menken

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Menken, Q. Author  Constellating Images Abstract—We live in a predominantly visual era. Vastly expanded quantities of imagery influence us on a daily basis, in contrast to earlier days where the textual prevailed. The increasing producing and reproducing of images continuously compete for our attention. As such, how we perceive images and in what way images are framed or mediate our beliefs, has become of even greater importance than ever before. Especially in art education a critical awareness and approach of images as part of visual culture is of utmost importance. The Bilderatlas operates as a mediation, and offers new Ways of Seeing and knowing. It is mainly known as result of the ground-breaking work of the cultural theorist Aby Warburg, who intended to present an art history without words. His Mnemosyne Bilderatlas shows how the arrangement of images - and the interstices between them, offers new perspectives and ways of seeing. The Atlas as a medium to critically address Visual Culture is also practiced by the German artist Gerhard Richter, and it is in written form used in the Passagen Werk of Walter Benjamin. In order to examine the use of the Bilderatlas as a tool in art education, several experiments with art students have been conducted. These experiments have lead to an exploration of different Pedagogies, which help to offer new perspectives and trajectories of learning. To use the Bilderatlas as a tool to develop criticality towards Visual Culture, I developed and tested a new pedagogy; a Pedagogy of Difference and Repetition, based on the philosophy of Gilles Deleuze. Furthermore, in offering a new pedagogy - based on the rhizomatic work of Gilles Deleuze – the Bilderatlas as a tool to develop criticality has found a firm basis. Keywords—Art Education, Walter Benjamin, Bilderatlas, Gilles Deleuze, Difference and Repetition, Pedagogy, Rhizomes, Visual Culture,

Keywords: Art Education, Bilderatlas, Pedagogy, Aby Warburg

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95 Simo-syl: A Computer-Based Tool to Identify Language Fragilities in Italian Pre-Schoolers

Authors: Marinella Majorano, Rachele Ferrari, Tamara Bastianello

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The recent technological advance allows for applying innovative and multimedia screen-based assessment tools to test children's language and early literacy skills, monitor their growth over the preschool years, and test their readiness for primary school. Several are the advantages that a computer-based assessment tool offers with respect to paper-based tools. Firstly, computer-based tools which provide the use of games, videos, and audio may be more motivating and engaging for children, especially for those with language difficulties. Secondly, computer-based assessments are generally less time-consuming than traditional paper-based assessments: this makes them less demanding for children and provides clinicians and researchers, but also teachers, with the opportunity to test children multiple times over the same school year and, thus, to monitor their language growth more systematically. Finally, while paper-based tools require offline coding, computer-based tools sometimes allow obtaining automatically calculated scores, thus producing less subjective evaluations of the assessed skills and provide immediate feedback. Nonetheless, using computer-based assessment tools to test meta-phonological and language skills in children is not yet common practice in Italy. The present contribution aims to estimate the internal consistency of a computer-based assessment (i.e., the Simo-syl assessment). Sixty-three Italian pre-schoolers aged between 4;10 and 5;9 years were tested at the beginning of the last year of the preschool through paper-based standardised tools in their lexical (Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test), morpho-syntactical (Grammar Repetition Test for Children), meta-phonological (Meta-Phonological skills Evaluation test), and phono-articulatory skills (non-word repetition). The same children were tested through Simo-syl assessment on their phonological and meta-phonological skills (e.g., recognise syllables and vowels and read syllables and words). The internal consistency of the computer-based tool was acceptable (Cronbach's alpha = .799). Children's scores obtained in the paper-based assessment and scores obtained in each task of the computer-based assessment were correlated. Significant and positive correlations emerged between all the tasks of the computer-based assessment and the scores obtained in the CMF (r = .287 - .311, p < .05) and in the correct sentences in the RCGB (r = .360 - .481, p < .01); non-word repetition standardised test significantly correlates with the reading tasks only (r = .329 - .350, p < .05). Further tasks should be included in the current version of Simo-syl to have a comprehensive and multi-dimensional approach when assessing children. However, such a tool represents a good chance for the teachers to early identifying language-related problems even in the school environment.

Keywords: assessment, computer-based, early identification, language-related skills

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94 Disadvantaged Adolescents and Educational Delay in South Africa: Impacts of Personal, Family, and School Characteristics

Authors: Rocio Herrero Romero, Lucie Cluver, James Hall, Janina Steinert

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Educational delay and non-completion are major policy concerns in South Africa. However, little research has focused on predictors for educational delay amongst adolescents in disadvantaged areas. This study has two aims: first, to use data integration approaches to compare the educational delay of 599 adolescents aged 16 to 18 from disadvantaged communities to national and provincial representative estimates in South Africa. Second, the paper also explores predictors for educational delay by comparing adolescents out of school (n=64) and at least one year behind (n=380), with adolescents in the age-appropriate grade or higher (n=155). Multinomial logistic regression models using self-report and administrative data were applied to look for significant associations of risk and protective factors. Significant risk factors for being behind (rather than in age-appropriate grade) were: male gender, past grade repetition, rural location and larger school size. Risk factors for being out of school (rather than in the age-appropriate grade) were: past grade repetition, having experienced problems concentrating at school, household poverty, and food insecurity. Significant protective factors for being in the age-appropriate grade (rather than out of school) were: living with biological parents or grandparents and access to school counselling. Attending school in wealthier communities was a significant protective factor for being in the age-appropriate grade (rather than behind). Our results suggest that both personal and contextual factors –family and school- predicted educational delay. This study provides new evidence to the significant effects of personal, family, and school characteristics on the educational outcomes of adolescents from disadvantaged communities in South Africa. This is the first longitudinal and quantitative study to systematically investigate risk and protective factors for post-compulsory educational outcomes amongst South African adolescents living in disadvantaged communities.

Keywords: disadvantaged communities, quantitative analysis, school delay, South Africa

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93 Biomass Production Improvement of Beauveria bassiana at Laboratory Scale for a Biopesticide Development

Authors: G. Quiroga-Cubides, M. Cruz, E. Grijalba, J. Sanabria, A. Ceballos, L. García, M. Gómez

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Beauveria sp. has been used as an entomopathogenic microorganism for biological control of various plant pests such as whitefly, thrips, aphids and chrysomelidaes (including Cerotoma tingomariana species), which affect soybean crops in Colombia´s Altillanura region. Therefore, a biopesticide prototype based on B. bassiana strain Bv060 was developed at Corpoica laboratories. For the production of B. bassiana conidia, a baseline fermentation was performed at laboratory in a solid medium using broken rice as a substrate, a temperature of 25±2 °C and a relative humidity of 60±10%. The experimental design was completely randomized, with a three-time repetition. These culture conditions resulted in an average conidial concentration of 1.48x10^10 conidia/g, a yield of 13.07 g/kg dry substrate and a productivity of 8.83x10^7 conidia/g*h were achieved. Consequently, the objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of the particle size reduction of rice (<1 mm) and the addition of a complex nitrogen source over conidia production and efficiency parameters in a solid-state fermentation, in a completely randomized experiment with a three-time repetition. For this aim, baseline fermentation conditions of temperature and humidity were employed in a semisolid culture medium with powdered rice (10%) and a complex nitrogen source (8%). As a result, it was possible to increase conidial concentration until 9.87x10^10 conidia/g, yield to 87.07 g/g dry substrate and productivity to 3.43x10^8 conidia/g*h. This suggested that conidial concentration and yield in semisolid fermentation increased almost 7 times compared with baseline while the productivity increased 4 times. Finally, the designed system for semisolid-state fermentation allowed to achieve an easy conidia recovery, which means reduction in time and costs of the production process.

Keywords: Beauveria bassiana, biopesticide, solid state fermentation, semisolid medium culture

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92 A Generalized Model for Performance Analysis of Airborne Radar in Clutter Scenario

Authors: Vinod Kumar Jaysaval, Prateek Agarwal

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Performance prediction of airborne radar is a challenging and cumbersome task in clutter scenario for different types of targets. A generalized model requires to predict the performance of Radar for air targets as well as ground moving targets. In this paper, we propose a generalized model to bring out the performance of airborne radar for different Pulsed Repetition Frequency (PRF) as well as different type of targets. The model provides a platform to bring out different subsystem parameters for different applications and performance requirements under different types of clutter terrain.

Keywords: airborne radar, blind zone, clutter, probability of detection

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91 Feedback in the Language Class: An Action Research Process

Authors: Arash Golzari Koloor

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Feedback seems to be an inseparable part of teaching a second/foreign language. One type of feedback is corrective feedback which is one type of error treatment in second language classrooms. This study is a report on the types of corrective feedback employed in an IELTS preparation course. The types of feedback, their frequencies, and their effectiveness are enlisted, enumerated, and interpreted. The results showed that explicit correction and recast were the most frequent types of feedback while repetition and elicitation were the least. The results also revealed that metalinguistic feedback, elicitation, and explicit correction were the most effective types of feedback and affected learners performance greatly.

Keywords: classroom interaction, corrective feedback, error treatment, oral performance

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90 The Principle Probabilities of Space-Distance Resolution for a Monostatic Radar and Realization in Cylindrical Array

Authors: Anatoly D. Pluzhnikov, Elena N. Pribludova, Alexander G. Ryndyk

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In conjunction with the problem of the target selection on a clutter background, the analysis of the scanning rate influence on the spatial-temporal signal structure, the generalized multivariate correlation function and the quality of the resolution with the increase pulse repetition frequency is made. The possibility of the object space-distance resolution, which is conditioned by the range-to-angle conversion with an increased scanning rate, is substantiated. The calculations for the real cylindrical array at high scanning rate are presented. The high scanning rate let to get the signal to noise improvement of the order of 10 dB for the space-time signal processing.

Keywords: antenna pattern, array, signal processing, spatial resolution

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89 Survey of Rate and Causes of Literacy Preservation in Adult Newly Learners

Authors: Mohammad Narimani, Zahra Rostamoghli

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The main objective of this study is the survey of rate and causes of literacy preservation in adult newly learners. Statistical sample consists of 384 adults who are newly learners of literacy, at 2002, who were selected by stratified sampling method. This is a correlation cross-sectional survey research, in which authors-constructed measures were used for data collection. Results of survey showed that learners' literacy preservation rate after two years was 70%, 61% and 57%, in reading, dictation and mathematic tests, respectively.Following can be noted as factors correlated with literacy preservation; repetition of subjects and learners' subjective review, access to and using the library and publications, feeling of need to and interest in educated matters, socio cultural class of learners, and literacy level of learners' family.

Keywords: literacy preservation, new learner, literacy improvement movement, mathematic test

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88 Teacher Characteristics That Influence Development of Oral Language Skills among Pre-Primary School Pupils: Case Study of Nairobi City County, Kenya

Authors: Kenneth Okelo, Esther Waithaka, Maureen Mweru

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Development of oral language skills is a precursor to writing and reading acquisition. Oral skill is a means of communication through which people express their desires, ideas, excitements, amusements, disappointments and exchange information. In addition, oral skills have been found to be an important tool for thinking and concept development in children. Research carried out in industrialised countries have identified some appropriate teaching strategies used to enhance acquisition of oral language skills such as repetition, substitution, explanation, contrast, exemplification and code-switching. However, these studies’ geographical locations do not reflect the diversity of the Kenyan society. In addition, studies conducted in Kenya in the past have not established why pre-primary school teachers are not using appropriate teaching strategies. The purpose of this study was to find out whether teachers’ experience, academic qualification and type of training influences their choice of teaching strategies in the development of oral language skills inside and out of the classroom in selected preschools in Kibra Sub-County, Nairobi County. In addition, this study aimed at finding out the strategies used by teachers in Kibra Sub-County to promote oral skills development among pre-primary school children. The study was guided by Holdaway’s theory of language acquisition. Descriptive survey design was employed during this study. Questionnaires and observation schedules were used to collect data. Eighty-three (83) preschool teachers were sampled using multistage sampling methods for observation. Data was analysed using SPSS version 20. The researcher carried out content analysis on the qualitative data. The main descriptive methods used were tabulation of frequencies and percentages. Chi squire test was the inferential statistic used to test the relationship between variables. The main findings of the study indicate that teaching strategies that were mostly used by pre-primary school teachers were code-switching, examples, repetition, substitution and explanation. While questions, direction, expansion of children words and contrast were the least used teaching strategies when teaching oral language skills. The study revealed that the there is a slight correlation between the type of training of teachers and the teaching strategies as most of DICECE trained teachers used more teaching strategies when teaching oral skills compared to other teachers. The findings also revealed that there was a partial significant correlation between teacher’s academic qualifications and a few teaching strategies. A similar correlation was also observed between teaching experience and a few teaching strategies. Since the strategies used by pre-primary school teachers under the study were less than half of the recommended teaching strategies to promote oral skills, the study recommends that teachers should be encouraged to use more in structural strategies to improve children’s oral language skills.

Keywords: Kenya early childhood education, Kenya education, oral language skills acquisition, teaching methods

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87 Integrative-Cyclical Approach to the Study of Quality Control of Resource Saving by the Use of Innovation Factors

Authors: Anatoliy A. Alabugin, Nikolay K. Topuzov, Sergei V. Aliukov

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It is well known, that while we do a quantitative evaluation of the quality control of some economic processes (in particular, resource saving) with help innovation factors, there are three groups of problems: high uncertainty of indicators of the quality management, their considerable ambiguity, and high costs to provide a large-scale research. These problems are defined by the use of contradictory objectives of enhancing of the quality control in accordance with innovation factors and preservation of economic stability of the enterprise. The most acutely, such factors are felt in the countries lagging behind developed economies of the world according to criteria of innovativeness and effectiveness of management of the resource saving. In our opinion, the following two methods for reconciling of the above-mentioned objectives and reducing of conflictness of the problems are to solve this task most effectively: 1) the use of paradigms and concepts of evolutionary improvement of quality of resource-saving management in the cycle "from the project of an innovative product (technology) - to its commercialization and update parameters of customer value"; 2) the application of the so-called integrative-cyclical approach which consistent with complexity and type of the concept, to studies allowing to get quantitative assessment of the stages of achieving of the consistency of these objectives (from baseline of imbalance, their compromise to achievement of positive synergies). For implementation, the following mathematical tools are included in the integrative-cyclical approach: index-factor analysis (to identify the most relevant factors); regression analysis of relationship between the quality control and the factors; the use of results of the analysis in the model of fuzzy sets (to adjust the feature space); method of non-parametric statistics (for a decision on the completion or repetition of the cycle in the approach in depending on the focus and the closeness of the connection of indicator ranks of disbalance of purposes). The repetition is performed after partial substitution of technical and technological factors ("hard") by management factors ("soft") in accordance with our proposed methodology. Testing of the proposed approach has shown that in comparison with the world practice there are opportunities to improve the quality of resource-saving management using innovation factors. We believe that the implementation of this promising research, to provide consistent management decisions for reducing the severity of the above-mentioned contradictions and increasing the validity of the choice of resource-development strategies in terms of parameters of quality management and sustainability of enterprise, is perspective. Our existing experience in the field of quality resource-saving management and the achieved level of scientific competence of the authors allow us to hope that the use of the integrative-cyclical approach to the study and evaluation of the resulting and factor indicators will help raise the level of resource-saving characteristics up to the value existing in the developed economies of post-industrial type.

Keywords: integrative-cyclical approach, quality control, evaluation, innovation factors. economic sustainability, innovation cycle of management, disbalance of goals of development

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