Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 446

Search results for: sequencing

446 BingleSeq: A User-Friendly R Package for Single-Cell RNA-Seq Data Analysis

Authors: Quan Gu, Daniel Dimitrov

Abstract:

BingleSeq was developed as a shiny-based, intuitive, and comprehensive application that enables the analysis of single-Cell RNA-Sequencing count data. This was achieved via incorporating three state-of-the-art software packages for each type of RNA sequencing analysis, alongside functional annotation analysis and a way to assess the overlap of differential expression method results. At its current state, the functionality implemented within BingleSeq is comparable to that of other applications, also developed with the purpose of lowering the entry requirements to RNA Sequencing analyses. BingleSeq is available on GitHub and will be submitted to R/Bioconductor.

Keywords: bioinformatics, functional annotation analysis, single-cell RNA-sequencing, transcriptomics

Procedia PDF Downloads 29
445 Clinical Impact of Ultra-Deep Versus Sanger Sequencing Detection of Minority Mutations on the HIV-1 Drug Resistance Genotype Interpretations after Virological Failure

Authors: S. Mohamed, D. Gonzalez, C. Sayada, P. Halfon

Abstract:

Drug resistance mutations are routinely detected using standard Sanger sequencing, which does not detect minor variants with a frequency below 20%. The impact of detecting minor variants generated by ultra-deep sequencing (UDS) on HIV drug-resistance (DR) interpretations has not yet been studied. Fifty HIV-1 patients who experienced virological failure were included in this retrospective study. The HIV-1 UDS protocol allowed the detection and quantification of HIV-1 protease and reverse transcriptase variants related to genotypes A, B, C, E, F, and G. DeepChek®-HIV simplified DR interpretation software was used to compare Sanger sequencing and UDS. The total time required for the UDS protocol was found to be approximately three times longer than Sanger sequencing with equivalent reagent costs. UDS detected all of the mutations found by population sequencing and identified additional resistance variants in all patients. An analysis of DR revealed a total of 643 and 224 clinically relevant mutations by UDS and Sanger sequencing, respectively. Three resistance mutations with > 20% prevalence were detected solely by UDS: A98S (23%), E138A (21%) and V179I (25%). A significant difference in the DR interpretations for 19 antiretroviral drugs was observed between the UDS and Sanger sequencing methods. Y181C and T215Y were the most frequent mutations associated with interpretation differences. A combination of UDS and DeepChek® software for the interpretation of DR results would help clinicians provide suitable treatments. A cut-off of 1% allowed a better characterisation of the viral population by identifying additional resistance mutations and improving the DR interpretation.

Keywords: HIV-1, ultra-deep sequencing, Sanger sequencing, drug resistance

Procedia PDF Downloads 213
444 Genomics of Adaptation in the Sea

Authors: Agostinho Antunes

Abstract:

The completion of the human genome sequencing in 2003 opened a new perspective into the importance of whole genome sequencing projects, and currently multiple species are having their genomes completed sequenced, from simple organisms, such as bacteria, to more complex taxa, such as mammals. This voluminous sequencing data generated across multiple organisms provides also the framework to better understand the genetic makeup of such species and related ones, allowing to explore the genetic changes underlining the evolution of diverse phenotypic traits. Here, recent results from our group retrieved from comparative evolutionary genomic analyses of selected marine animal species will be considered to exemplify how gene novelty and gene enhancement by positive selection might have been determinant in the success of adaptive radiations into diverse habitats and lifestyles.

Keywords: marine genomics, evolutionary bioinformatics, human genome sequencing, genomic analyses

Procedia PDF Downloads 494
443 A Clustering-Sequencing Approach to the Facility Layout Problem

Authors: Saeideh Salimpour, Sophie-Charlotte Viaux, Ahmed Azab, Mohammed Fazle Baki

Abstract:

The Facility Layout Problem (FLP) is key to the efficient and cost-effective operation of a system. This paper presents a hybrid heuristic- and mathematical-programming-based approach that divides the problem conceptually into those of clustering and sequencing. First, clusters of vertically aligned facilities are formed, which are later on sequenced horizontally. The developed methodology provides promising results in comparison to its counterparts in the literature by minimizing the inter-distances for facilities which have more interactions amongst each other and aims at placing the facilities with more interactions at the centroid of the shop.

Keywords: clustering-sequencing approach, mathematical modeling, optimization, unequal facility layout problem

Procedia PDF Downloads 223
442 Accurate HLA Typing at High-Digit Resolution from NGS Data

Authors: Yazhi Huang, Jing Yang, Dingge Ying, Yan Zhang, Vorasuk Shotelersuk, Nattiya Hirankarn, Pak Chung Sham, Yu Lung Lau, Wanling Yang

Abstract:

Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) typing from next generation sequencing (NGS) data has the potential for applications in clinical laboratories and population genetic studies. Here we introduce a novel technique for HLA typing from NGS data based on read-mapping using a comprehensive reference panel containing all known HLA alleles and de novo assembly of the gene-specific short reads. An accurate HLA typing at high-digit resolution was achieved when it was tested on publicly available NGS data, outperforming other newly-developed tools such as HLAminer and PHLAT.

Keywords: human leukocyte antigens, next generation sequencing, whole exome sequencing, HLA typing

Procedia PDF Downloads 387
441 Massively Parallel Sequencing Improved Resolution for Paternity Testing

Authors: Xueying Zhao, Ke Ma, Hui Li, Yu Cao, Fan Yang, Qingwen Xu, Wenbin Liu

Abstract:

Massively parallel sequencing (MPS) technologies allow high-throughput sequencing analyses with a relatively affordable price and have gradually been applied to forensic casework. MPS technology identifies short tandem repeat (STR) loci based on sequence so that repeat motif variation within STRs can be detected, which may help one to infer the origin of the mutation in some cases. Here, we report on one case with one three-step mismatch (D18S51) in family trios based on both capillary electrophoresis (CE) and MPS typing. The alleles of the alleged father (AF) are [AGAA]₁₇AGAG[AGAA]₃ and [AGAA]₁₅. The mother’s alleles are [AGAA]₁₉ and [AGAA]₉AGGA[AGAA]₃. The questioned child’s (QC) alleles are [AGAA]₁₉ and [AGAA]₁₂. Given that the sequence variants in repeat regions of AF and mother are not observed in QC’s alleles, the QC’s allele [AGAA]₁₂ was likely inherited from the AF’s allele [AGAA]₁₅ by loss of three repeat [AGAA]. Besides, two new alleles of D18S51 in this study, [AGAA]₁₇AGAG[AGAA]₃ and [AGAA]₉AGGA[AGAA]₃, have not been reported before. All the results in this study were verified using Sanger-type sequencing. In summary, the MPS typing method can offer valuable information for forensic genetics research and play a promising role in paternity testing.

Keywords: family trios analysis, forensic casework, ion torrent personal genome machine (PGM), massively parallel sequencing (MPS)

Procedia PDF Downloads 181
440 Evolutionary Genomic Analysis of Adaptation Genomics

Authors: Agostinho Antunes

Abstract:

The completion of the human genome sequencing in 2003 opened a new perspective into the importance of whole genome sequencing projects, and currently multiple species are having their genomes completed sequenced, from simple organisms, such as bacteria, to more complex taxa, such as mammals. This voluminous sequencing data generated across multiple organisms provides also the framework to better understand the genetic makeup of such species and related ones, allowing to explore the genetic changes underlining the evolution of diverse phenotypic traits. Here, recent results from our group retrieved from comparative evolutionary genomic analyses of varied species will be considered to exemplify how gene novelty and gene enhancement by positive selection might have been determinant in the success of adaptive radiations into diverse habitats and lifestyles.

Keywords: adaptation, animals, evolution, genomics

Procedia PDF Downloads 325
439 Removal of Nitrogen Compounds from Industrial Wastewater Using Sequencing Batch Reactor: The Effects of React Time

Authors: Ali W. Alattabi, Khalid S. Hashim, Hassnen M. Jafer, Ali Alzeyadi

Abstract:

This study was performed to optimise the react time (RT) and study its effects on the removal rates of nitrogen compounds in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) treating synthetic industrial wastewater. The results showed that increasing the RT from 4 h to 10, 16 and 22 h significantly improved the nitrogen compounds’ removal efficiency, it was increased from 69.5% to 95%, 75.7 to 97% and from 54.2 to 80.1% for NH3-N, NO3-N and NO2-N respectively. The results obtained from this study showed that the RT of 22 h was the optimum for nitrogen compounds removal efficiency.

Keywords: ammonia-nitrogen, retention time, nitrate, nitrite, sequencing batch reactor, sludge characteristics

Procedia PDF Downloads 191
438 Automatic Reporting System for Transcriptome Indel Identification and Annotation Based on Snapshot of Next-Generation Sequencing Reads Alignment

Authors: Shuo Mu, Guangzhi Jiang, Jinsa Chen

Abstract:

The analysis of Indel for RNA sequencing of clinical samples is easily affected by sequencing experiment errors and software selection. In order to improve the efficiency and accuracy of analysis, we developed an automatic reporting system for Indel recognition and annotation based on image snapshot of transcriptome reads alignment. This system includes sequence local-assembly and realignment, target point snapshot, and image-based recognition processes. We integrated high-confidence Indel dataset from several known databases as a training set to improve the accuracy of image processing and added a bioinformatical processing module to annotate and filter Indel artifacts. Subsequently, the system will automatically generate data, including data quality levels and images results report. Sanger sequencing verification of the reference Indel mutation of cell line NA12878 showed that the process can achieve 83% sensitivity and 96% specificity. Analysis of the collected clinical samples showed that the interpretation accuracy of the process was equivalent to that of manual inspection, and the processing efficiency showed a significant improvement. This work shows the feasibility of accurate Indel analysis of clinical next-generation sequencing (NGS) transcriptome. This result may be useful for RNA study for clinical samples with microsatellite instability in immunotherapy in the future.

Keywords: automatic reporting, indel, next-generation sequencing, NGS, transcriptome

Procedia PDF Downloads 47
437 Language Shapes Thought: An Experimental Study on English and Mandarin Native Speakers' Sequencing of Size

Authors: Hsi Wei

Abstract:

Does the language we speak affect the way we think? This question has been discussed for a long time from different aspects. In this article, the issue is examined with an experiment on how speakers of different languages tend to do different sequencing when it comes to the size of general objects. An essential difference between the usage of English and Mandarin is the way we sequence the size of places or objects. In English, when describing the location of something we may say, for example, ‘The pen is inside the trashcan next to the tree at the park.’ In Mandarin, however, we would say, ‘The pen is at the park next to the tree inside the trashcan.’ It’s clear that generally English use the sequence of small to big while Mandarin the opposite. Therefore, the experiment was conducted to test if the difference of the languages affects the speakers’ ability to do the different sequencing. There were two groups of subjects; one consisted of English native speakers, another of Mandarin native speakers. Within the experiment, three nouns were showed as a group to the subjects as their native languages. Before they saw the nouns, they would first get an instruction of ‘big to small’, ‘small to big’, or ‘repeat’. Therefore, the subjects had to sequence the following group of nouns as the instruction they get or simply repeat the nouns. After completing every sequencing and repetition in their minds, they pushed a button as reaction. The repetition design was to gather the mere reading time of the person. As the result of the experiment showed, English native speakers reacted more quickly to the sequencing of ‘small to big’; on the other hand, Mandarin native speakers reacted more quickly to the sequence ‘big to small’. To conclude, this study may be of importance as a support for linguistic relativism that the language we speak do shape the way we think.

Keywords: language, linguistic relativism, size, sequencing

Procedia PDF Downloads 185
436 Genomics of Aquatic Adaptation

Authors: Agostinho Antunes

Abstract:

The completion of the human genome sequencing in 2003 opened a new perspective into the importance of whole genome sequencing projects, and currently multiple species are having their genomes completed sequenced, from simple organisms, such as bacteria, to more complex taxa, such as mammals. This voluminous sequencing data generated across multiple organisms provides also the framework to better understand the genetic makeup of such species and related ones, allowing to explore the genetic changes underlining the evolution of diverse phenotypic traits. Here, recent results from our group retrieved from comparative evolutionary genomic analyses of selected marine animal species will be considered to exemplify how gene novelty and gene enhancement by positive selection might have been determinant in the success of adaptive radiations into diverse habitats and lifestyles.

Keywords: comparative genomics, adaptive evolution, bioinformatics, phylogenetics, genome mining

Procedia PDF Downloads 414
435 The Role and Importance of Genome Sequencing in Prediction of Cancer Risk

Authors: M. Sadeghi, H. Pezeshk, R. Tusserkani, A. Sharifi Zarchi, A. Malekpour, M. Foroughmand, S. Goliaei, M. Totonchi, N. Ansari–Pour

Abstract:

The role and relative importance of intrinsic and extrinsic factors in the development of complex diseases such as cancer still remains a controversial issue. Determining the amount of variation explained by these factors needs experimental data and statistical models. These models are nevertheless based on the occurrence and accumulation of random mutational events during stem cell division, thus rendering cancer development a stochastic outcome. We demonstrate that not only individual genome sequencing is uninformative in determining cancer risk, but also assigning a unique genome sequence to any given individual (healthy or affected) is not meaningful. Current whole-genome sequencing approaches are therefore unlikely to realize the promise of personalized medicine. In conclusion, since genome sequence differs from cell to cell and changes over time, it seems that determining the risk factor of complex diseases based on genome sequence is somewhat unrealistic, and therefore, the resulting data are likely to be inherently uninformative.

Keywords: cancer risk, extrinsic factors, genome sequencing, intrinsic factors

Procedia PDF Downloads 132
434 A Study on the Treatment of Municipal Waste Water Using Sequencing Batch Reactor

Authors: Bhaven N. Tandel, Athira Rajeev

Abstract:

Sequencing batch reactor process is a suspended growth process operating under non-steady state conditions which utilizes a fill and draw reactor with complete mixing during the batch reaction step (after filling) and where the subsequent steps of aeration and clarification occur in the same tank. All sequencing batch reactor systems have five steps in common, which are carried out in sequence as follows, (1) fill (2) react (3) settle (sedimentation/clarification) (4) draw (decant) and (5) idle. The study was carried out in a sequencing batch reactor of dimensions 44cmx30cmx70cm with a working volume of 40 L. Mechanical stirrer of 100 rpm was used to provide continuous mixing in the react period and oxygen was supplied by fish tank aerators. The duration of a complete cycle of sequencing batch reactor was 8 hours. The cycle period was divided into different phases in sequence as follows-0.25 hours fill phase, 6 hours react period, 1 hour settling phase, 0.5 hours decant period and 0.25 hours idle phase. The study consisted of two runs, run 1 and run 2. Run 1 consisted of 6 hours aerobic react period and run 2 consisted of 3 hours aerobic react period followed by 3 hours anoxic react period. The influent wastewater used for the study had COD, BOD, NH3-N and TKN concentrations of 308.03±48.94 mg/L, 100.36±22.05 mg/L, 14.12±1.18 mg/L, and 24.72±2.21 mg/L respectively. Run 1 had an average COD removal efficiency of 41.28%, BOD removal efficiency of 56.25%, NH3-N removal efficiency of 86.19% and TKN removal efficiency of 54.4%. Run 2 had an average COD removal efficiency of 63.19%, BOD removal efficiency of 73.85%, NH3-N removal efficiency of 90.74% and TKN removal efficiency of 65.25%. It was observed that run 2 gave better performance than run 1 in the removal of COD, BOD and TKN.

Keywords: municipal waste water, aerobic, anoxic, sequencing batch reactor

Procedia PDF Downloads 431
433 De Novo Assembly and Characterization of the Transcriptome during Seed Development, and Generation of Genic-SSR Markers in Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.)

Authors: Ozhan Simsek, Dicle Donmez, Burhanettin Imrak, Ahsen Isik Ozguven, Yildiz Aka Kacar

Abstract:

Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) is known to be one of the oldest edible fruit tree species, with a wide geographical global distribution. Fruits from the two defined varieties (Hicaznar and 33N26) were taken at intervals after pollination and fertilization at different sizes. Seed samples were used for transcriptome sequencing. Primary sequencing was produced by Illumina Hi-Seq™ 2000. Firstly, we had raw reads, and it was subjected to quality control (QC). Raw reads were filtered into clean reads and aligned to the reference sequences. De novo analysis was performed to detect genes expressed in seeds of pomegranate varieties. We performed downstream analysis to determine differentially expressed genes. We generated about 27.09 gb bases in total after Illumina Hi-Seq sequencing. All samples were assembled together, we got 59,264 Unigenes, the total length, average length, N50, and GC content of Unigenes are 84.547.276 bp, 1.426 bp, 2,137 bp, and 46.20 %, respectively. Unigenes were annotated with 7 functional databases, finally, 42.681(NR: 72.02%), 39.660 (NT: 66.92%), 30.790 (Swissprot: 51.95%), 20.212 (COG: 34.11%), 27.689 (KEGG: 46.72%), 12.328 (GO: 20.80%), and 33,833 (Interpro: 57.09%) Unigenes were annotated. With functional annotation results, we detected 42.376 CDS, and 4.999 SSR distribute on 16.143 Unigenes.

Keywords: next generation sequencing, SSR, RNA-Seq, Illumina

Procedia PDF Downloads 80
432 Genome Sequencing, Assembly and Annotation of Gelidium Pristoides from Kenton-on-Sea, South Africa

Authors: Sandisiwe Mangali, Graeme Bradley

Abstract:

Genome is complete set of the organism's hereditary information encoded as either deoxyribonucleic acid or ribonucleic acid in most viruses. The three different types of genomes are nuclear, mitochondrial and the plastid genome and their sequences which are uncovered by genome sequencing are known as an archive for all genetic information and enable researchers to understand the composition of a genome, regulation of gene expression and also provide information on how the whole genome works. These sequences enable researchers to explore the population structure, genetic variations, and recent demographic events in threatened species. Particularly, genome sequencing refers to a process of figuring out the exact arrangement of the basic nucleotide bases of a genome and the process through which all the afore-mentioned genomes are sequenced is referred to as whole or complete genome sequencing. Gelidium pristoides is South African endemic Rhodophyta species which has been harvested in the Eastern Cape since the 1950s for its high economic value which is one motivation for its sequencing. Its endemism further motivates its sequencing for conservation biology as endemic species are more vulnerable to anthropogenic activities endangering a species. As sequencing, mapping and annotating the Gelidium pristoides genome is the aim of this study. To accomplish this aim, the genomic DNA was extracted and quantified using the Nucleospin Plank Kit, Qubit 2.0 and Nanodrop. Thereafter, the Ion Plus Fragment Library was used for preparation of a 600bp library which was then sequenced through the Ion S5 sequencing platform for two runs. The produced reads were then quality-controlled and assembled through the SPAdes assembler with default parameters and the genome assembly was quality assessed through the QUAST software. From this assembly, the plastid and the mitochondrial genomes were then sampled out using Gelidiales organellar genomes as search queries and ordered according to them using the Geneious software. The Qubit and the Nanodrop instruments revealed an A260/A280 and A230/A260 values of 1.81 and 1.52 respectively. A total of 30792074 reads were obtained and produced a total of 94140 contigs with resulted into a sequence length of 217.06 Mbp with N50 value of 3072 bp and GC content of 41.72%. A total length of 179281bp and 25734 bp was obtained for plastid and mitochondrial respectively. Genomic data allows a clear understanding of the genomic constituent of an organism and is valuable as foundation information for studies of individual genes and resolving the evolutionary relationships between organisms including Rhodophytes and other seaweeds.

Keywords: Gelidium pristoides, genome, genome sequencing and assembly, Ion S5 sequencing platform

Procedia PDF Downloads 50
431 Mixed Model Sequencing in Painting Production Line

Authors: Unchalee Inkampa, Tuanjai Somboonwiwat

Abstract:

Painting process of automobiles and automobile parts, which is a continuous process based on EDP (Electrode position paint, EDP). Through EDP, all work pieces will be continuously sent to the painting process. Work process can be divided into 2 groups based on the running time: Painting Room 1 and Painting Room 2. This leads to continuous operation. The problem that arises is waiting for workloads onto Painting Room. The grading process EDP to Painting Room is a major problem. Therefore, this paper aim to develop production sequencing method by applying EDP to painting process. It also applied fixed rate launching for painting room and earliest due date (EDD) for EDP process and swap pairwise interchange for waiting time to a minimum of machine. The result found that the developed method could improve painting reduced waiting time, on time delivery, meeting customers wants and improved productivity of painting unit.

Keywords: sequencing, mixed model lines, painting process, electrode position paint

Procedia PDF Downloads 306
430 Efficient Reuse of Exome Sequencing Data for Copy Number Variation Callings

Authors: Chen Wang, Jared Evans, Yan Asmann

Abstract:

With the quick evolvement of next-generation sequencing techniques, whole-exome or exome-panel data have become a cost-effective way for detection of small exonic mutations, but there has been a growing desire to accurately detect copy number variations (CNVs) as well. In order to address this research and clinical needs, we developed a sequencing coverage pattern-based method not only for copy number detections, data integrity checks, CNV calling, and visualization reports. The developed methodologies include complete automation to increase usability, genome content-coverage bias correction, CNV segmentation, data quality reports, and publication quality images. Automatic identification and removal of poor quality outlier samples were made automatically. Multiple experimental batches were routinely detected and further reduced for a clean subset of samples before analysis. Algorithm improvements were also made to improve somatic CNV detection as well as germline CNV detection in trio family. Additionally, a set of utilities was included to facilitate users for producing CNV plots in focused genes of interest. We demonstrate the somatic CNV enhancements by accurately detecting CNVs in whole exome-wide data from the cancer genome atlas cancer samples and a lymphoma case study with paired tumor and normal samples. We also showed our efficient reuses of existing exome sequencing data, for improved germline CNV calling in a family of the trio from the phase-III study of 1000 Genome to detect CNVs with various modes of inheritance. The performance of the developed method is evaluated by comparing CNV calling results with results from other orthogonal copy number platforms. Through our case studies, reuses of exome sequencing data for calling CNVs have several noticeable functionalities, including a better quality control for exome sequencing data, improved joint analysis with single nucleotide variant calls, and novel genomic discovery of under-utilized existing whole exome and custom exome panel data.

Keywords: bioinformatics, computational genetics, copy number variations, data reuse, exome sequencing, next generation sequencing

Procedia PDF Downloads 159
429 Enzymatic Repair Prior To DNA Barcoding, Aspirations, and Restraints

Authors: Maxime Merheb, Rachel Matar

Abstract:

Retrieving ancient DNA sequences which in return permit the entire genome sequencing from fossils have extraordinarily improved in recent years, thanks to sequencing technology and other methodological advances. In any case, the quest to search for ancient DNA is still obstructed by the damage inflicted on DNA which accumulates after the death of a living organism. We can characterize this damage into three main categories: (i) Physical abnormalities such as strand breaks which lead to the presence of short DNA fragments. (ii) Modified bases (mainly cytosine deamination) which cause errors in the sequence due to an incorporation of a false nucleotide during DNA amplification. (iii) DNA modifications referred to as blocking lesions, will halt the PCR extension which in return will also affect the amplification and sequencing process. We can clearly see that the issues arising from breakage and coding errors were significantly decreased in recent years. Fast sequencing of short DNA fragments was empowered by platforms for high-throughput sequencing, most of the coding errors were uncovered to be the consequences of cytosine deamination which can be easily removed from the DNA using enzymatic treatment. The methodology to repair DNA sequences is still in development, it can be basically explained by the process of reintroducing cytosine rather than uracil. This technique is thus restricted to amplified DNA molecules. To eliminate any type of damage (particularly those that block PCR) is a process still pending the complete repair methodologies; DNA detection right after extraction is highly needed. Before using any resources into extensive, unreasonable and uncertain repair techniques, it is vital to distinguish between two possible hypotheses; (i) DNA is none existent to be amplified to begin with therefore completely un-repairable, (ii) the DNA is refractory to PCR and it is worth to be repaired and amplified. Hence, it is extremely important to develop a non-enzymatic technique to detect the most degraded DNA.

Keywords: ancient DNA, DNA barcodong, enzymatic repair, PCR

Procedia PDF Downloads 290
428 Analysis of Digitized Stories Authored by a Struggling Grade 1 Reader

Authors: Daphne Dean C. Arenos, Glorificacion L. Quinopez

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This study has been conducted to describe the digitized stories authored by a Grade 1 pupil struggling in reading. The main goal was to find out the effect of authoring digital stories on the reading skill of a grade 1 pupil in terms of vocabulary and sequencing skills. To be able to explicate the data collected, a case study approach has been chosen. This case study focused on a 6 years old Filipino child born and raised in Spain and has just transferred to a private school a year ago. The pupil’s struggles in reading, as well as her experiences with digitized stories, were further described. The findings revealed that authoring digital stories facilitate the reading progress of a struggling pupil. The presence of literary elements in the pupil’s stories built her vocabulary and sequencing skills. Hence, authoring digital stories serve as an appropriate and effective scaffold for struggling readers.

Keywords: literary elements, reading skill, scaffold, sequencing skill, vocabulary

Procedia PDF Downloads 32
427 Genome Sequencing of the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strain 202-3

Authors: Yina A. Cifuentes Triana, Andrés M. Pinzón Velásco, Marío E. Velásquez Lozano

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In this work the sequencing and genome characterization of a natural isolate of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast (strain 202-3), identified with potential for the production of second generation ethanol from sugarcane bagasse hydrolysates is presented. This strain was selected because its capability to consume xylose during the fermentation of sugarcane bagasse hydrolysates, taking into account that many strains of S. cerevisiae are incapable of processing this sugar. This advantage and other prominent positive aspects during fermentation profiles evaluated in bagasse hydrolysates made the strain 202-3 a candidate strain to improve the production of second-generation ethanol, which was proposed as a first step to study the strain at the genomic level. The molecular characterization was carried out by genome sequencing with the Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform paired end; the assembly was performed with different programs, finally choosing the assembler ABYSS with kmer 89. Gene prediction was developed with the approach of hidden Markov models with Augustus. The genes identified were scored based on similarity with public databases of nucleotide and protein. Records were organized from ontological functions at different hierarchical levels, which identified central metabolic functions and roles of the S. cerevisiae strain 202-3, highlighting the presence of four possible new proteins, two of them probably associated with the positive consumption of xylose.

Keywords: cellulosic ethanol, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, genome sequencing, xylose consumption

Procedia PDF Downloads 216
426 Genomic Diversity and Relationship among Arabian Peninsula Dromedary Camels Using Full Genome Sequencing Approach

Authors: H. Bahbahani, H. Musa, F. Al Mathen

Abstract:

The dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius) are single-humped even-toed ungulates populating the African Sahara, Arabian Peninsula, and Southwest Asia. The genome of this desert-adapted species has been minimally investigated using autosomal microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA markers. In this study, the genomes of 33 dromedary camel samples from different parts of the Arabian Peninsula were sequenced using Illumina Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) platform. These data were combined with Genotyping-by-Sequencing (GBS) data from African (Sudanese) dromedaries to investigate the genomic relationship between African and Arabian Peninsula dromedary camels. Principle Component Analysis (PCA) and average genome-wide admixture analysis were be conducted on these data to tackle the objectives of these studies. Both of the two analyses conducted revealed phylogeographic distinction between these two camel populations. However, no breed-wise genetic classification has been revealed among the African (Sudanese) camel breeds. The Arabian Peninsula camel populations also show higher heterozygosity than the Sudanese camels. The results of this study explain the evolutionary history and migration of African dromedary camels from their center of domestication in the southern Arabian Peninsula. These outputs help scientists to further understand the evolutionary history of dromedary camels, which might impact in conserving the favorable genetic of this species.

Keywords: dromedary, genotyping-by-sequencing, Arabian Peninsula, Sudan

Procedia PDF Downloads 52
425 Molecular-Genetics Studies of New Unknown APMV Isolated from Wild Bird in Ukraine

Authors: Borys Stegniy, Anton Gerilovych, Oleksii Solodiankin, Vitaliy Bolotin, Anton Stegniy, Denys Muzyka, Claudio Afonso

Abstract:

New APMV was isolated from white fronted goose in Ukraine. This isolate was tested serologically using monoclonal antibodies in haemagglutination-inhibition tests against APMV1-9. As the results obtained isolate showed cross reactions with APMV7. Following investigations were provided for the full genome sequencing using random primers and cloning into pCRII-TOPO. Analysis of 100 transformed colonies of E.coli using traditional sequencing gave us possibilities to find only 3 regions, which could identify by BLAST. The first region with the length of 367 bp had 70 % nucleotide sequence identity to the APMV 12 isolate Wigeon/Italy/3920_1/2005 at genome position 2419-2784. Next region (344 bp) had 66 % identity to the same APMV 12 isolate at position 4760-5103. The last region (365 bp) showed 71 % identity to Newcastle disease virus strain M4 at position 12569-12928.

Keywords: APMV, Newcastle disease virus, Ukraine, full genome sequencing

Procedia PDF Downloads 290
424 Metagenomics Analysis of Bacteria in Sorghum Using next Generation Sequencing

Authors: Kedibone Masenya, Memory Tekere, Jasper Rees

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Sorghum is an important cereal crop in the world. In particular, it has attracted breeders due to capacity to serve as food, feed, fiber and bioenergy crop. Like any other plant, sorghum hosts a variety of microbes, which can either, have a neutral, negative and positive influence on the plant. In the current study, regions (V3/V4) of 16 S rRNA were targeted to extensively assess bacterial multitrophic interactions in the phyllosphere of sorghum. The results demonstrated that the presence of a pathogen has a significant effect on the endophytic bacterial community. Understanding these interactions is key to develop new strategies for plant protection.

Keywords: bacteria, multitrophic, sorghum, target sequencing

Procedia PDF Downloads 185
423 Applying Massively Parallel Sequencing to Forensic Soil Bacterial Profiling

Authors: Hui Li, Xueying Zhao, Ke Ma, Yu Cao, Fan Yang, Qingwen Xu, Wenbin Liu

Abstract:

Soil can often link a person or item to a crime scene, which makes it a valuable evidence in forensic casework. Several techniques have been utilized in forensic soil discrimination in previous studies. Because soil contains a vast number of microbiomes, the analyse of soil microbiomes is expected to be a potential way to characterise soil evidence. In this study, we applied massively parallel sequencing (MPS) to soil bacterial profiling on the Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine (PGM). Soils from different regions were collected repeatedly. V-region 3 and 4 of Bacterial 16S rRNA gene were detected by MPS. Operational taxonomic units (OTU, 97%) were used to analyse soil bacteria. Several bioinformatics methods (PCoA, NMDS, Metastats, LEfse, and Heatmap) were applied in bacterial profiles. Our results demonstrate that MPS can provide a more detailed picture of the soil microbiomes and the composition of soil bacterial components from different region was individualistic. In conclusion, the utility of soil bacterial profiling via MPS of the 16S rRNA gene has potential value in characterising soil evidences and associating them with their place of origin, which can play an important role in forensic science in the future.

Keywords: bacterial profiling, forensic, massively parallel sequencing, soil evidence

Procedia PDF Downloads 334
422 The Effects of Hydraulic Retention Time on the Sludge Characteristics and Effluent Quality in an Aerobic Suspension Sequencing Batch Reactor

Authors: Ali W. N. Alattabi, Clare B. Harris, Rafid M. Alkhaddar, Montserrat Ortoneda, David A. Phipps, Ali Alzeyadi, Khalid S. Hashim

Abstract:

This study was performed to optimise the hydraulic retention time (HRT) and study its effects on the sludge characteristics and the effluent quality in an aerobic suspension sequencing batch reactor (ASSBR) treating synthetic wastewater. The results showed that increasing the HRT from 6 h to 12 h significantly improved the COD and Nitrate removal efficiency; it was increased from 78.7% - 75.7% to 94.7% – 97% for COD and Nitrate respectively. However, increasing the HRT from 12 h to 18 h reduced the COD and Nitrate removal efficiency from 94.7% - 97% to 91.1% – 94.4% respectively. Moreover, Increasing the HRT from 18 h to 24 h did not affect the COD and Nitrate removal efficiency. Sludge volume index (SVI) was used to monitor the sludge settling performance. The results showed a direct relationship between the HRT and SVI value. Increasing the HRT from 6 h to 12 h led to decrease the SVI value from 123 ml/g to 82.5 ml/g, and then it remained constant despite of increasing the HRT from 12 h to 18 h and to 24 h. The results obtained from this study showed that the HRT of 12 h was better for COD and Nitrate removal and a good settling performance occurred during that range.

Keywords: COD, hydraulic retention time, nitrate, sequencing batch reactor, sludge characteristics

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421 Landfill Leachate and Settled Domestic Wastewater Co-Treatment Using Activated Carbon in Sequencing Batch Reactors

Authors: Amin Mojiri, Hamidi Abdul Aziz

Abstract:

Leachate is created while water penetrates through the waste in a landfill, carrying some forms of pollutants. In literature, for treatment of wastewater and leachate, different ways of biological treatment were used. Sequencing batch reactor (SBR) is a kind of biological treatment. This study investigated the co-treatment of landfill leachate and domestic waste water by SBR and powdered activated carbon augmented (PAC) SBR process. The response surface methodology (RSM) and central composite design (CCD) were employed. The independent variables were aeration rate (L/min), contact time (h), and the ratio of leachate to wastewater mixture (%; v/v)). To perform an adequate analysis of the aerobic process, three dependent parameters, i.e. COD, color, and ammonia-nitrogen (NH3-N or NH4-N) were measured as responses. The findings of the study indicated that the PAC-SBR showed a higher performance in elimination of certain pollutants, in comparison with SBR. With the optimal conditions of aeration rate (0.6 L/min), leachate to waste water ratio (20%), and contact time (10.8 h) for the PAC-SBR, the removal efficiencies for color, NH3-N, and COD were 72.8%, 98.5%, and 65.2%, respectively.

Keywords: co-treatment, landfill Leachate, wastewater, sequencing batch reactor, activate carbon

Procedia PDF Downloads 357
420 Whole Exome Sequencing Data Analysis of Rare Diseases: Non-Coding Variants and Copy Number Variations

Authors: S. Fahiminiya, J. Nadaf, F. Rauch, L. Jerome-Majewska, J. Majewski

Abstract:

Background: Sequencing of protein coding regions of human genome (Whole Exome Sequencing; WES), has demonstrated a great success in the identification of causal mutations for several rare genetic disorders in human. Generally, most of WES studies have focused on rare variants in coding exons and splicing-sites where missense substitutions lead to the alternation of protein product. Although focusing on this category of variants has revealed the mystery behind many inherited genetic diseases in recent years, a subset of them remained still inconclusive. Here, we present the result of our WES studies where analyzing only rare variants in coding regions was not conclusive but further investigation revealed the involvement of non-coding variants and copy number variations (CNV) in etiology of the diseases. Methods: Whole exome sequencing was performed using our standard protocols at Genome Quebec Innovation Center, Montreal, Canada. All bioinformatics analyses were done using in-house WES pipeline. Results: To date, we successfully identified several disease causing mutations within gene coding regions (e.g. SCARF2: Van den Ende-Gupta syndrome and SNAP29: 22q11.2 deletion syndrome) by using WES. In addition, we showed that variants in non-coding regions and CNV have also important value and should not be ignored and/or filtered out along the way of bioinformatics analysis on WES data. For instance, in patients with osteogenesis imperfecta type V and in patients with glucocorticoid deficiency, we identified variants in 5'UTR, resulting in the production of longer or truncating non-functional proteins. Furthermore, CNVs were identified as the main cause of the diseases in patients with metaphyseal dysplasia with maxillary hypoplasia and brachydactyly and in patients with osteogenesis imperfecta type VII. Conclusions: Our study highlights the importance of considering non-coding variants and CNVs during interpretation of WES data, as they can be the only cause of disease under investigation.

Keywords: whole exome sequencing data, non-coding variants, copy number variations, rare diseases

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419 Theory of Constraints: Approach for Performance Enhancement and Boosting Overhaul Activities

Authors: Sunil Dutta

Abstract:

Synchronization is defined as ‘the sequencing and re-sequencing of all relative and absolute activities in time and space and continuous alignment of those actions with purposeful objective in a complex and dynamic atmosphere. In a complex and dynamic production / maintenance setup, no single group can work in isolation for long. In addition, many activities in projects take place simultaneously at the same time. Work of every section / group is interwoven with work of others. The various activities / interactions which take place in production / overhaul workshops are interlinked because of physical requirements (information, material, workforces, equipment, and space) and dependencies. The activity sequencing is determined by physical dependencies of various department / sections / units (e.g., inventory availability must be ensured before stripping and disassembling of equipment), whereas resource dependencies do not. Theory of constraint facilitates identification, analyses and exploitation of the constraint in methodical manner. These constraints (equipment, manpower, policies etc.) prevent the department / sections / units from getting optimum exploitation of available resources. The significance of theory of constraints for achieving synchronization at overhaul workshop is illustrated in this paper.

Keywords: synchronization, overhaul, throughput, obsolescence, uncertainty

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418 Isolate-Specific Variations among Clinical Isolates of Brucella Identified by Whole-Genome Sequencing, Bioinformatics and Comparative Genomics

Authors: Abu S. Mustafa, Mohammad W. Khan, Faraz Shaheed Khan, Nazima Habibi

Abstract:

Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease of worldwide prevalence. There are at least four species and several strains of Brucella that cause human disease. Brucella genomes have very limited variation across strains, which hinder strain identification using classical molecular techniques, including PCR and 16 S rDNA sequencing. The aim of this study was to perform whole genome sequencing of clinical isolates of Brucella and perform bioinformatics and comparative genomics analyses to determine the existence of genetic differences across the isolates of a single Brucella species and strain. The draft sequence data were generated from 15 clinical isolates of Brucella melitensis (biovar 2 strain 63/9) using MiSeq next generation sequencing platform. The generated reads were used for further assembly and analysis. All the analysis was performed using Bioinformatics work station (8 core i7 processor, 8GB RAM with Bio-Linux operating system). FastQC was used to determine the quality of reads and low quality reads were trimmed or eliminated using Fastx_trimmer. Assembly was done by using Velvet and ABySS softwares. The ordering of assembled contigs was performed by Mauve. An online server RAST was employed to annotate the contigs assembly. Annotated genomes were compared using Mauve and ACT tools. The QC score for DNA sequence data, generated by MiSeq, was higher than 30 for 80% of reads with more than 100x coverage, which suggested that data could be utilized for further analysis. However when analyzed by FastQC, quality of four reads was not good enough for creating a complete genome draft so remaining 11 samples were used for further analysis. The comparative genome analyses showed that despite sharing same gene sets, single nucleotide polymorphisms and insertions/deletions existed across different genomes, which provided a variable extent of diversity to these bacteria. In conclusion, the next generation sequencing, bioinformatics, and comparative genome analysis can be utilized to find variations (point mutations, insertions and deletions) across different genomes of Brucella within a single strain. This information could be useful in surveillance and epidemiological studies supported by Kuwait University Research Sector grants MI04/15 and SRUL02/13.

Keywords: brucella, bioinformatics, comparative genomics, whole genome sequencing

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417 High-Throughput Mechanized Microfluidic Test Groundwork for Precise Microbial Genomics

Authors: Pouya Karimi, Ramin Gasemi Shayan, Parsa Sheykhzade

Abstract:

Ease shotgun DNA sequencing is changing the microbial sciences. Sequencing instruments are compelling to the point that example planning is currently the key constraining element. Here, we present a microfluidic test readiness stage that incorporates the key strides in cells to grouping library test groundwork for up to 96 examples and decreases DNA input prerequisites 100-overlay while keeping up or improving information quality. The universally useful microarchitecture we show bolsters work processes with subjective quantities of response and tidy up or catch steps. By decreasing the example amount necessities, we empowered low-input (∼10,000 cells) entire genome shotgun (WGS) sequencing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and soil miniaturized scale settlements with prevalent outcomes. We additionally utilized the upgraded throughput to succession ∼400 clinical Pseudomonas aeruginosa libraries and exhibit magnificent single-nucleotide polymorphism discovery execution that clarified phenotypically watched anti-toxin opposition. Completely coordinated lab-on-chip test arrangement beats specialized boundaries to empower more extensive organization of genomics across numerous fundamental research and translational applications.

Keywords: clinical microbiology, DNA, microbiology, microbial genomics

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