Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1212

Search results for: universal word (UW)

1212 Morphological Rules of Bangla Repetition Words for UNL Based Machine Translation

Authors: Nawab Yousuf Ali, S. Golam, A. Ameer, Ashok Toru Roy

Abstract:

This paper develops new morphological rules suitable for Bangla repetition words to be incorporated into an inter lingua representation called Universal Networking Language (UNL). The proposed rules are to be used to combine verb roots and their inflexions to produce words which are then combined with other similar types of words to generate repetition words. This paper outlines the format of morphological rules for different types of repetition words that come from verb roots based on the framework of UNL provided by the UNL centre of the Universal Networking Digital Language (UNDL) foundation.

Keywords: Universal Networking Language (UNL), universal word (UW), head word (HW), Bangla-UNL Dictionary, morphological rule, enconverter (EnCo)

Procedia PDF Downloads 236
1211 Intensifier as Changed from the Impolite Word in Thai

Authors: Methawee Yuttapongtada

Abstract:

Intensifier is the linguistic term and device that is generally found in different languages in order to enhance and give additional quantity, quality or emotion to the words of each language. In fact, each language in the world has both of the similar and dissimilar intensifying device. More specially, the wide variety of intensifying device is used for Thai language and one of those is usage of the impolite word or the word that used to mean something negative as intensifier. The data collection in this study was done throughout the spoken language style by collecting from intensifiers regarded as impolite words because these words as employed in the other contexts will be held as the rude, swear words or the words with negative meaning. Then, backward study to the past was done in order to consider the historical change. Explanation of the original meaning and the contexts of words use from the past till the present time were done by use of both textual documents and dictionaries available in different periods. It was found that regarding the semantics and pragmatic aspects, subjectification also is the significant motivation that changed the impolite words to intensifiers. At last, it can explain pathway of the semantic change of these very words undoubtedly. Moreover, it is found that use tendency in the impolite word or the word that used to mean something negative will more be increased and this phenomenon is commonly found in many languages in the world and results of this research may support to the belief that human language in the world is universal and the same still reflected that human has the fundamental thought as the same to each other basically.

Keywords: impolite word, intensifier, Thai, semantic change

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1210 Porul: Option Generation and Selection and Scoring Algorithms for a Tamil Flash Card Game

Authors: Anitha Narasimhan, Aarthy Anandan, Madhan Karky, C. N. Subalalitha

Abstract:

Games can be the excellent tools for teaching a language. There are few e-learning games in Indian languages like word scrabble, cross word, quiz games etc., which were developed mainly for educational purposes. This paper proposes a Tamil word game called, “Porul”, which focuses on education as well as on players’ thinking and decision-making skills. Porul is a multiple choice based quiz game, in which the players attempt to answer questions correctly from the given multiple options that are generated using a unique algorithm called the Option Selection algorithm which explores the semantics of the question in various dimensions namely, synonym, rhyme and Universal Networking Language semantic category. This kind of semantic exploration of the question not only increases the complexity of the game but also makes it more interesting. The paper also proposes a Scoring Algorithm which allots a score based on the popularity score of the question word. The proposed game has been tested using 20,000 Tamil words.

Keywords: Porul game, Tamil word game, option selection, flash card, scoring, algorithm

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1209 The Lexical Eidos as an Invariant of a Polysemantic Word

Authors: S. Pesina, T. Solonchak

Abstract:

Phenomenological analysis is not based on natural language, but ideal language which is able to be a carrier of ideal meanings – eidos representing typical structures or essences. For this purpose, it’s necessary to release from the spatio-temporal definiteness of a subject and then state its noetic essence (eidos) by means of free fantasy generation. Herewith, as if a totally new objectness is created - the universal, confirming the thesis that thinking process takes place in generalizations passing by numerous means through the specific to the general and from the general through the specific to the singular.

Keywords: lexical eidos, phenomenology, noema, polysemantic word, semantic core

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1208 Word of Mouth and Its Impact on Marketing

Authors: Fatima Naz, Ayesha Tariq

Abstract:

In view of growing of the internet users for e-commerce and taking into account, the emergent impact of word of mouth phenomenon this research has different aims. The aims of this study were built following dissimilar discussion with teachers and colleagues enlightening that word of mouth information for online purchasing do not have the same effect for everybody. Then they were born following dissimilar researchers together with what was already done in previous researches and what was completed. As a result different aims were drawn; the initial aim of this research is to study the attention of the customers in the word of mouth to power their online purchasing activities. The next aim is to analyze the people influenced by the interest of word of mouth. The following aim is to examine the marketing behavior bearing in mind the internet progress and word of mouth, their consideration for word of mouth marketing. In the form of research questions the aims of the study are: 1) How community utilizes and multiplies word of mouth information about online purchasing experience? 2) How communities perceive the word of mouth marketing? 3) How marketers take the word of mouth phenomenon and how they handle it?

Keywords: belief, power, inspiration, self-expression, positive attitude to online marketing, forwarding of contents, purchasing decision, standard marketing

Procedia PDF Downloads 334
1207 A Word-to-Vector Formulation for Word Representation

Authors: Sandra Rizkallah, Amir F. Atiya

Abstract:

This work presents a novel word to vector representation that is based on embedding the words into a sphere, whereby the dot product of the corresponding vectors represents the similarity between any two words. Embedding the vectors into a sphere enabled us to take into consideration the antonymity between words, not only the synonymity, because of the suitability to handle the polarity nature of words. For example, a word and its antonym can be represented as a vector and its negative. Moreover, we have managed to extract an adequate vocabulary. The obtained results show that the proposed approach can capture the essence of the language, and can be generalized to estimate a correct similarity of any new pair of words.

Keywords: natural language processing, word to vector, text similarity, text mining

Procedia PDF Downloads 181
1206 Math Word Problems: Context and Achievement

Authors: Irena Smetackova

Abstract:

The important part of school mathematics are word problems which represent the connection between school knowledge and life reality. To find the reasons why students consider word problems to be difficult, it is necessary to take into consideration the motivational settings, besides mathematical knowledge and reading skills. Our goal is to identify whether the familiar or unfamiliar context of math word problem influences solving success rate and if so, whether the reasons are motivational or cognitive. For this purpose, we conducted three steps study in group of fifty pupils 9-10 years old. In the first step, we asked pupils to create ‘the best’ word problems for entered numerical formula. The set of 19 word problems with different contexts were selected. In the second step, pupils were asked to evaluate (without solving) how they like each item and how easy it is for them. The 6 word problems with low preference and low estimated success rate were selected and combined with other 6 problems with high preference and success rate. In the third step, the same pupils were asked to solve the word problems. The analysis showed that pupils attitudes and solving toward word problems varied by the context. The strong gender patterns both in preferred contexts and in estimated success rates were identified however the real success rate did not differ so strongly. The success gap between word problems with and without preferred contexts were stronger than the gap between problems with and without real experience with the context. The hypothesis that motivational factors are more important than cognitive factors was confirmed.

Keywords: mathematics, context of reality, motivation, cognition, word problems

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1205 Network Word Discovery Framework Based on Sentence Semantic Vector Similarity

Authors: Ganfeng Yu, Yuefeng Ma, Shanliang Yang

Abstract:

The word discovery is a key problem in text information retrieval technology. Methods in new word discovery tend to be closely related to words because they generally obtain new word results by analyzing words. With the popularity of social networks, individual netizens and online self-media have generated various network texts for the convenience of online life, including network words that are far from standard Chinese expression. How detect network words is one of the important goals in the field of text information retrieval today. In this paper, we integrate the word embedding model and clustering methods to propose a network word discovery framework based on sentence semantic similarity (S³-NWD) to detect network words effectively from the corpus. This framework constructs sentence semantic vectors through a distributed representation model, uses the similarity of sentence semantic vectors to determine the semantic relationship between sentences, and finally realizes network word discovery by the meaning of semantic replacement between sentences. The experiment verifies that the framework not only completes the rapid discovery of network words but also realizes the standard word meaning of the discovery of network words, which reflects the effectiveness of our work.

Keywords: text information retrieval, natural language processing, new word discovery, information extraction

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1204 A Supervised Approach for Word Sense Disambiguation Based on Arabic Diacritics

Authors: Alaa Alrakaf, Sk. Md. Mizanur Rahman

Abstract:

Since the last two decades’ Arabic natural language processing (ANLP) has become increasingly much more important. One of the key issues related to ANLP is ambiguity. In Arabic language different pronunciation of one word may have a different meaning. Furthermore, ambiguity also has an impact on the effectiveness and efficiency of Machine Translation (MT). The issue of ambiguity has limited the usefulness and accuracy of the translation from Arabic to English. The lack of Arabic resources makes ambiguity problem more complicated. Additionally, the orthographic level of representation cannot specify the exact meaning of the word. This paper looked at the diacritics of Arabic language and used them to disambiguate a word. The proposed approach of word sense disambiguation used Diacritizer application to Diacritize Arabic text then found the most accurate sense of an ambiguous word using Naïve Bayes Classifier. Our Experimental study proves that using Arabic Diacritics with Naïve Bayes Classifier enhances the accuracy of choosing the appropriate sense by 23% and also decreases the ambiguity in machine translation.

Keywords: Arabic natural language processing, machine learning, machine translation, Naive bayes classifier, word sense disambiguation

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1203 Expressivity of Word-Formation in English and Russian Advertising Lexicon

Authors: Voronina Ekaterina Borisovna

Abstract:

The problem of expressivity of advertising lexicon is studied in the article. The comparison of English and Russian advertising lexicons is done. The objects of the analysis were English and Russian advertising texts, both printed advertising texts and texts extracted from the commercials. Some conclusions concerning the expressivity of advertising lexicon were made. Expressivity can be included in the semantic structure of words or created by word-formation means. Expressivity caused by morphological derivatives includes such facilities as derivational affixes, models and types of word formation.

Keywords: advertising lexicon, expressivity, word-formation means, linguistics

Procedia PDF Downloads 277
1202 Accounting as Addressed in the Qur’aan

Authors: Shahriar M. Saadullah, Abdul-Quddoos Abdul-Basith, Zaki K. Abushawish

Abstract:

As a part of academic research in Islamic Accounting it is important to know how the word Accounting is discussed in the Qur’aan. This paper identifies and analyzes the word Accounting in the Qur’aan, which is significant to know and understand. The paper uses a methodology of identifying the root word of Accounting Hasaba (حسب) in the Qur’aan with the help of Islam 360 software and analyzes the use of the relevant words derived from the root word. Then the paper attempts to connect the findings to the contemporary Accounting issues. The paper finds that the root word of Accounting Hasaba (حسب) appears in the Qur’aan 109 times but it is only used in the sense Account, Accountable, or Accounting 45 times. These words appear in 44 different verses in the Qur’aan, appearing twice in one of the verses. The paper divides these verses into 8 different themes namely, Day of Accounting, without any Accounting, Accounting of Time, Self-Accounting, Swift in Accounting, Accounting is only with God, Awareness and the Good Accounting, and Heedlessness and the Bad Accounting. The way the words Account, Accounting, and Accountable is discussed in the Qur’aan links to the contemporary accounting issues including Ethics, Agency Theory, and Internal Control. The links discovered in the paper clearly shows the timeless nature of the message of the Qur’aan.

Keywords: accounting, contemporary accounting issues, Qur'aan, root word of accounting hasaba

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1201 Pudhaiyal: A Maze-Based Treasure Hunt Game for Tamil Words

Authors: Aarthy Anandan, Anitha Narasimhan, Madhan Karky

Abstract:

Word-based games are popular in helping people to improve their vocabulary skills. Games like ‘word search’ and crosswords provide a smart way of increasing vocabulary skills. Word search games are fun to play, but also educational which actually helps to learn a language. Finding the words from word search puzzle helps the player to remember words in an easier way, and it also helps to learn the spellings of words. In this paper, we present a tile distribution algorithm for a Maze-Based Treasure Hunt Game 'Pudhaiyal’ for Tamil words, which describes how words can be distributed horizontally, vertically or diagonally in a 10 x 10 grid. Along with the tile distribution algorithm, we also present an algorithm for the scoring model of the game. The proposed game has been tested with 20,000 Tamil words.

Keywords: Pudhaiyal, Tamil word game, word search, scoring, maze, algorithm

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1200 An Analysis of Instruction Checklist Based on Universal Design for Learning

Authors: Yong Wook Kim

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to develop an instruction analysis checklist applicable to inclusive setting based on the Universal Design for Learning Guideline 2.0. To do this, two self-validation reviews, two expert validity reviews, and two usability evaluations were conducted based on the Universal Design for Learning Guideline 2.0. After validation and usability evaluation, a total of 36 items consisting of 4 items for each instruction was developed. In all questions, examples are presented for the purpose of reinforcing concrete. All the items were judged by the 3-point scale. The observation results were provided through a radial chart allowing SWOT analysis of the universal design for learning of teachers. The developed checklist provides a description of the principles and guidelines in the checklist itself as it requires a thorough understanding by the observer of the universal design for learning through prior education. Based on the results of the study, the instruction criteria, the specificity of the criteria, the number of questions, and the method of arrangement were discussed. As a future research, this study proposed the characteristics of application of universal design for learning for each subject, the comparison with the observation results through the self-report teaching tool, and the continual revision and supplementation of the lecture checklist.

Keywords: inclusion, universal design for learning, instruction analysis, instruction checklist

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1199 Role of Education in the Transference of Global Values

Authors: Baratali Monfarediraz

Abstract:

Humans’ identity is not only under the influence of a certain society or social structure but also it is influenced by an international identity. This article is a research on role of education in the manifestation of universally accepted values such as, advancement of science, improvement in the quality of education, preservation of the natural environment, preservation, and spread of peace, exchange of knowledge and technology, equal educational opportunities, benefiting from a universal morality and etc. Therefore, the relation between universal beliefs and values and educational approaches and programs is the first thing to pay attention to. Studies indicate that the first step in achieving the above mentioned goals is offering learning strategies. Therefore the importance of educational approaches and programs as a tool for the transference of ideas, experiences and thoughts becomes quite clear. Proper education gives everyone the opportunity of acquiring knowledge while creating tendency toward social activities paves the way for achieving the universal values.

Keywords: globalization, universal values, education, universal goal, values, society

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1198 The Role of Reading Self-Efficacy and Perception of Difficulty in English Reading among Chinese ESL Learners

Authors: Kevin Chan, Kevin K. H. Chung, Patcy P. S. Yeung, H. L. Ip, Bill T. C. Chung, Karen M. K. Chung

Abstract:

Purpose: Recent evidence shows that reading self-efficacy and students perceived difficulty in reading are significantly associated with word reading and reading fluency. However, little is known about these relationships among students learning to read English as a second language, particularly in Chinese students. This study examined the contributions of reading self-efficacy, perception of difficulty in reading, and cognitive-linguistic skills to performance on English word reading and reading fluency in Chinese students. Method: A sample of 122 second-and third-grade students in Hong Kong, China, participated in this study. Students completed the measures of reading self-efficacy and perception of difficulty in reading. They were assessed on their English cognitive-linguistic and reading skills: rapid automatized naming, nonword reading, phonological awareness, word reading, and one-minute word reading. Results: Results of path analysis indicated that when students’ grades were controlled, reading self-efficacy was a significant correlate of word reading and reading fluency, whereas perception of difficulty in reading negatively predicted word reading. Conclusion: These findings underscore the importance of taking students’ reading self-efficacy and perception of difficulty in reading and their cognitive-linguistic skills into consideration when designing reading intervention and instructions for students learning English as a second language.

Keywords: self-efficacy, perception of difficulty in reading, english as a second language, word reading

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1197 Speech Recognition Performance by Adults: A Proposal for a Battery for Marathi

Authors: S. B. Rathna Kumar, Pranjali A Ujwane, Panchanan Mohanty

Abstract:

The present study aimed to develop a battery for assessing speech recognition performance by adults in Marathi. A total of four word lists were developed by considering word frequency, word familiarity, words in common use, and phonemic balance. Each word list consists of 25 words (15 monosyllabic words in CVC structure and 10 monosyllabic words in CVCV structure). Equivalence analysis and performance-intensity function testing was carried using the four word lists on a total of 150 native speakers of Marathi belonging to different regions of Maharashtra (Vidarbha, Marathwada, Khandesh and Northern Maharashtra, Pune, and Konkan). The subjects were further equally divided into five groups based on above mentioned regions. It was found that there was no significant difference (p > 0.05) in the speech recognition performance between groups for each word list and between word lists for each group. Hence, the four word lists developed were equally difficult for all the groups and can be used interchangeably. The performance-intensity (PI) function curve showed semi-linear function, and the groups’ mean slope of the linear portions of the curve indicated an average linear slope of 4.64%, 4.73%, 4.68%, and 4.85% increase in word recognition score per dB for list 1, list 2, list 3 and list 4 respectively. Although, there is no data available on speech recognition tests for adults in Marathi, most of the findings of the study are in line with the findings of research reports on other languages. The four word lists, thus developed, were found to have sufficient reliability and validity in assessing speech recognition performance by adults in Marathi.

Keywords: speech recognition performance, phonemic balance, equivalence analysis, performance-intensity function testing, reliability, validity

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1196 Rational Bureaucracy and E-Government: A Philosophical Study of Universality of E-Government

Authors: Akbar Jamali

Abstract:

Hegel is the first great political philosopher who specifically contemplates on bureaucracy. For Hegel bureaucracy is the function of the state. Since state, essentially is a rational organization, its function; namely, bureaucracy must be rational. Since, what is rational is universal; Hegel had to explain how the bureaucracy could be understood as universal. Hegel discusses bureaucracy in his treatment of ‘executive power’. He analyses modern bureaucracy as a form of political organization, its constituent members, and its relation to the social environment. Therefore, the essence of bureaucracy in Hegel’s philosophy is the implementation of law and rules. Hegel argues that unlike the other social classes that are particular because they look for their own private interest, bureaucracy as a class is a ‘universal’ because their orientation is the interest of the state. State for Hegel is essentially rational and universal. It is the actualization of ‘objective Spirit’. Marx criticizes Hegel’s argument on the universality of state and bureaucracy. For Marx state is equal to bureaucracy, it constitutes a social class that based on the interest of bourgeois class that dominates the society and exploits proletarian class. Therefore, the main disagreement between these political philosophers is: whether the state (bureaucracy) is universal or particular. Growing e-government in modern state as an important aspect of development leads us to contemplate on the particularity and universality of e-government. In this article, we will argue that e-government essentially is universal. E-government, in itself, is impartial; therefore, it cannot be particular. The development of e-government eliminates many side effects of the private, personal or particular interest of the individuals who work as bureaucracy. Finally, we will argue that more a state is developed more it is universal. Therefore, development of e-government makes the state a more universal and affects the modern philosophical debate on the particularity or universality of bureaucracy and state.

Keywords: particularity, universality, rational bureaucracy, impartiality

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1195 Universal Design Implementation in a Private University; Investment, Decision Making, Perceptions and the Value of Social Capital

Authors: Sridara Tipian, Henry Skates Jr., Antika Sawadsri

Abstract:

It is widely recognized that universal design should be implemented as broadly as possible to benefit as many groups and sub groups of people within a society. In Thailand, public buildings such as public universities are obvious places where the benefits of universal design principles are easily appreciated and applied, but there are other building types such as private universities where the benefits may not be just as obvious. In these buildings, the implementation of universal design is not always achieved. There are many reasons given for this among which is the perceived additional cost of implementation. This paper argues that social capital should be taken into consideration when such decisions are being made. The paper investigates the background, principles and theories pertaining to universal design and using a case study of a private university, investigates the implementation of universal design against the background of current legislation and the perceptions of the private university administrators. The study examines the physical facilities of the case study university in the context of current theories and principles of universal design alongside the legal requirements for same. A survey of building users evaluates knowledge of and attitudes to universal design. The research shows that although administrators perceive the initial cost of investment to be prohibitive in the short term, in the long term, changes in societal values in relation to social inclusiveness are changing and that the social capital of investing in universal design should not be underestimated. The results of this study should provide greater incentive for the enforcement of the legal requirements for universal design in Thailand.

Keywords: public buildings, physical facilities, social capital private university, investment, decision making, value, enforcement, legal requirements

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1194 Sentence Structure for Free Word Order Languages in Context with Anaphora Resolution: A Case Study of Hindi

Authors: Pardeep Singh, Kamlesh Dutta

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Many languages have fixed sentence structure and others are free word order. The accuracy of anaphora resolution of syntax based algorithm depends on structure of the sentence. So, it is important to analyze the structure of any language before implementing these algorithms. In this study, we analyzed the sentence structure exploiting the case marker in Hindi as well as some special tag for subject and object. We also investigated the word order for Hindi. Word order typology refers to the study of the order of the syntactic constituents of a language. We analyzed 165 news items of Ranchi Express from EMILEE corpus of plain text. It consisted of 1745 sentences. Eight file of dialogue based from the same corpus has been analyzed which will have 1521 sentences. The percentages of subject object verb structure (SOV) and object subject verb (OSV) are 66.90 and 33.10, respectively.

Keywords: anaphora resolution, free word order languages, SOV, OSV

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1193 Effects of Word Formation Dissimilarities on Youruba Learners of English

Authors: Pelumi Olowofoyeku

Abstract:

English as a language has great reach and influence; it is taught all over the world. For instance, in Nigeria, English language is been taught and learned as a second language; therefore second learners of English in Nigeria have certain problems they contend with. Because of the dissimilarities in word formation patterns of English and Yoruba languages, Yoruba learners of English mostly found in the south west of Nigeria, and some parts of Kwara, Kogi, and Edo states of Nigeria have problems with word formation patterns in English. The objectives of this paper therefore, are: to identify the levels of word formation dissimilarities in English and Yoruba languages and to examine the effects of these dissimilarities on the Yoruba learners of English. The data for this paper were graded words purposely selected and presented to selected students of Adeniran Ogunsanya College of Education, Oto-Ijanikin, Lagos, who are Yoruba learners of English. These respondents were randomly selected to form words which are purposively selected to test the effects of word formation dissimilarities between Yoruba (the respondent’s first language) and English language on the respondents. The dissimilarities are examined using contrastive analysis tools. This paper reveals that there are differences in the word formation patterns of Yoruba and English languages. The writer believes that there is need for language teachers to undertake comparative studies of the two languages involved for methodological reasons. The author then suggests that teachers should identify the problem areas and systematically teach their students. The paper concludes that although English and Yoruba word formation patterns differ very significantly in many respects, there exist language universals in all languages which language educators should take advantage of in teaching.

Keywords: word formation patterns, graded words, ESL, Yoruba learners

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1192 Transcription Skills and Written Composition in Chinese

Authors: Pui-sze Yeung, Connie Suk-han Ho, David Wai-ock Chan, Kevin Kien-hoa Chung

Abstract:

Background: Recent findings have shown that transcription skills play a unique and significant role in Chinese word reading and spelling (i.e. word dictation), and written composition development. The interrelationships among component skills of transcription, word reading, word spelling, and written composition in Chinese have rarely been examined in the literature. Is the contribution of component skills of transcription to Chinese written composition mediated by word level skills (i.e., word reading and spelling)? Methods: The participants in the study were 249 Chinese children in Grade 1, Grade 3, and Grade 5 in Hong Kong. They were administered measures of general reasoning ability, orthographic knowledge, stroke sequence knowledge, word spelling, handwriting fluency, word reading, and Chinese narrative writing. Orthographic knowledge- orthographic knowledge was assessed by a task modeled after the lexical decision subtest of the Hong Kong Test of Specific Learning Difficulties in Reading and Writing (HKT-SpLD). Stroke sequence knowledge: The participants’ performance in producing legitimate stroke sequences was measured by a stroke sequence knowledge task. Handwriting fluency- Handwriting fluency was assessed by a task modeled after the Chinese Handwriting Speed Test. Word spelling: The stimuli of the word spelling task consist of fourteen two-character Chinese words. Word reading: The stimuli of the word reading task consist of 120 two-character Chinese words. Written composition: A narrative writing task was used to assess the participants’ text writing skills. Results: Analysis of covariance results showed that there were significant between-grade differences in the performance of word reading, word spelling, handwriting fluency, and written composition. Preliminary hierarchical multiple regression analysis results showed that orthographic knowledge, word spelling, and handwriting fluency were unique predictors of Chinese written composition even after controlling for age, IQ, and word reading. The interaction effects between grade and each of these three skills (orthographic knowledge, word spelling, and handwriting fluency) were not significant. Path analysis results showed that orthographic knowledge contributed to written composition both directly and indirectly through word spelling, while handwriting fluency contributed to written composition directly and indirectly through both word reading and spelling. Stroke sequence knowledge only contributed to written composition indirectly through word spelling. Conclusions: Preliminary hierarchical regression results were consistent with previous findings about the significant role of transcription skills in Chinese word reading, spelling and written composition development. The fact that orthographic knowledge contributed both directly and indirectly to written composition through word reading and spelling may reflect the impact of the script-sound-meaning convergence of Chinese characters on the composing process. The significant contribution of word spelling and handwriting fluency to Chinese written composition across elementary grades highlighted the difficulty in attaining automaticity of transcription skills in Chinese, which limits the working memory resources available for other composing processes.

Keywords: orthographic knowledge, transcription skills, word reading, writing

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1191 The Greek Root Word ‘Kos’ and the Trade of Ancient Greek with Tamil Nadu, India

Authors: D. Pugazhendhi

Abstract:

The ancient Greeks were forerunners in many fields than other societies. So, the Greeks were well connected with all the countries which were well developed during that time through trade route. In this connection, trading of goods from the ancient Greece to Tamil Nadu which is presently in India, though they are geographically far away, played an important role. In that way, the word and the goods related with kos and kare got exchanged between these two societies. So, it is necessary to compare the phonology and the morphological occurrences of these words that are found common both in the ancient Greek and Tamil literatures of the contemporary period. The results show that there were many words derived from the root kos with the basic meaning of ‘arrange’ in the ancient Greek language, but this is not the case in the usage of the word kare. In the ancient Tamil literature, the word ‘kos’ does not have any root and also had rare occurrences. But it was just the opposite in the case of the word ‘kare’. One of all the meanings of the word, which was derived from the root ‘kos’ in ancient Greek literature, is related with costly ornaments. This meaning seems to have close resemblance with the usage of word ‘kos’ in ancient Tamil literature. Also, the meaning of the word ‘kare’ in ancient Tamil literature is related with spices whereas, in the ancient Greek literature, its meaning is related to that of the cooking of meat using spices. Hence, the similarity seen in the meanings of these words ‘kos’ and ‘kare’ in both these languages provides lead for further study. More than that, the ancient literary resources which are available in both these languages ensure the export and import of gold and spices from the ancient Greek land to Tamil land.

Keywords: arrange, kare, Kos, ornament, Tamil

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1190 A Comparative Study on the Positive and Negative of Electronic Word-of-Mouth on the SERVQUAL Scale-Take A Certain Armed Forces General Hospital in Taiwan As An Example

Authors: Po-Chun Lee, Li-Lin Liang, Ching-Yuan Huang

Abstract:

Purpose: Research on electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM)& online review has been widely used in service industry management research in recent years. The SERVQUAL scale is the most commonly used method to measure service quality. Therefore, the purpose of this research is to combine electronic word of mouth & online review with the SERVQUAL scale. To explore the comparative study of positive and negative electronic word-of-mouth reviews of a certain armed force general hospital in Taiwan. Data sources: This research obtained online word-of-mouth comment data on google maps from a military hospital in Taiwan in the past ten years through Internet data mining technology. Research methods: This study uses the semantic content analysis method to classify word-of-mouth reviews according to the revised PZB SERVQUAL scale. Then carry out statistical analysis. Results of data synthesis: The results of this study disclosed that the negative reviews of this military hospital in Taiwan have been increasing year by year. Under the COVID-19 epidemic, positive word-of-mouth has a downward trend. Among the five determiners of SERVQUAL of PZB, positive word-of-mouth reviews performed best in “Assurance,” with a positive review rate of 58.89%, Followed by 43.33% of “Responsiveness.” In negative word-of-mouth reviews, “Assurance” performed the worst, with a positive rate of 70.99%, followed by responsive 29.01%. Conclusions: The important conclusions of this study disclosed that the total number of electronic word-of-mouth reviews of the military hospital has revealed positive growth in recent years, and the positive word-of-mouth growth has revealed negative growth after the epidemic of COVID-19, while the negative word-of-mouth has grown substantially. Regardless of the positive and negative comments, what patients care most about is “Assurance” of the professional attitude and skills of the medical staff, which needs to be strengthened most urgently. In addition, good “Reliability” will help build positive word-of-mouth. However, poor “Responsiveness” can easily lead to the spread of negative word-of-mouth. This study suggests that the hospital should focus on these few service-oriented quality management and audits.

Keywords: quality of medical service, electronic word-of-mouth, armed forces general hospital

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1189 Computable Difference Matrix for Synonyms in the Holy Quran

Authors: Mohamed Ali Al Shaari, Khalid M. El Fitori

Abstract:

In the field of Quran Studies known as Ghareeb A Quran (the study of the meanings of strange words and structures in Holy Quran), it is difficult to distinguish some pragmatic meanings from conceptual meanings. One who wants to study this subject may need to look for a common usage between any two words or more; to understand general meaning, and sometimes may need to look for common differences between them, even if there are synonyms (word sisters). Some of the distinguished scholars of Arabic linguistics believe that there are no synonym words, they believe in varieties of meaning and multi-context usage. Based on this viewpoint, our method was designed to look for synonyms of a word, then the differences that distinct the word and their synonyms. There are many available books that use such a method e.g. synonyms books, dictionaries, glossaries, and some books on the interpretations of strange vocabulary of the Holy Quran, but it is difficult to look up words in these written works. For that reason, we proposed a logical entity, which we called Differences Matrix (DM). DM groups the synonyms words to extract the relations between them and to know the general meaning, which defines the skeleton of all word synonyms; this meaning is expressed by a word of its sisters. In Differences Matrix, we used the sisters(words) as titles for rows and columns, and in the obtained cells we tried to define the row title (word) by using column title (her sister), so the relations between sisters appear, the expected result is well defined groups of sisters for each word. We represented the obtained results formally, and used the defined groups as a base for building the ontology of the Holy Quran synonyms.

Keywords: Quran, synonyms, differences matrix, ontology

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1188 A Literature Review on the Barriers in Incorporating Universal Design in Public Transportation Projects: Southeast Asian Countries

Authors: Oscar Conrad Pili De Jesus

Abstract:

In consonance with the UN Convention on Rights for People with Disabilities, countries are mandated to provide a barrier-free environment through adherence to universal design and full participation of persons with disabilities (PWDs) in planning and implementation, but there is little action in incorporating universal design in the public environment. Travelling freely and independently is paramount to the needs of the PWDs to participate in daily activities ahead of them, and it contributes to the advancement of their inclusion in society, in which universal design is a catalyst to provide seamless access and mobility. This study aims to determine the barriers to incorporating the concept of universal design in transportation projects in Southeast Asian countries. Based on a literature review and using the accessible journey chain as a framework, barriers are identified and categorized in the components of public transport within the context of utilization of the transport mode, the built environment within the transport infrastructure, and the first and last miles of travel. Some findings in the study which constitute solutions to creating a barrier-free environment were identified as information to guide the future research agenda in efficiently incorporating universal design in transportation projects in Southeast Asian countries. The study reflected that the focus of most literature is on the built environment, noting that there is a need for future studies to investigate universal design in the context of the public transport component in the active journey chain.

Keywords: public transportation, barriers, universal design, persons with disabilities, accessible journey chain

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1187 An Investigation of the Effects of Word Length on Amblyopic Eye Movement during Reading

Authors: Yahya Maeni

Abstract:

It is well established that amblyopic patients have a reduced reading performance and oculomotor deficits. Word length has a significant impact on reading performance and eye movement behaviour during reading. As there no previous attempts to assess whether amblyopic eyes would be affected by word length while reading. This study aims to assess the effect of word length on amblyopic eye movement behaviour during reading including fixation duration, number of fixation and gaze duration. 21 adults with amblyopia and 21 age-matched controls participated in the study (age ± SD) (23.80 ± 4.66) for amblyopes and (24.20 ± 3.58) for Controls. Eye movement was recorded during reading binocularly using Eyelink 1000. Study was designed as 2 x 2 (amblyopia vs. control) x 2 lengths (4 letters, and 8 letters). Compared to controls, the amblyopic participants report significant longer duration of fixation, higher number of fixation and longer gaze duration for short words with far higher significant difference for long words. It could be concluded that eye movement in amblyopia during reading might be accounted for by the length of a word within a text and this could possible explanation of reduced reading performance among amblyopes. By understanding the effect of word length on amblyopia will shed light on reading deficits in amblyopia and help to determine the reading needs of amplyopes in educational and clinical settings.

Keywords: amblyopia, eye movement, reading, fixation

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1186 BiLex-Kids: A Bilingual Word Database for Children 5-13 Years Old

Authors: Aris R. Terzopoulos, Georgia Z. Niolaki, Lynne G. Duncan, Mark A. J. Wilson, Antonios Kyparissiadis, Jackie Masterson

Abstract:

As word databases for bilingual children are not available, researchers, educators and textbook writers must rely on monolingual databases. The aim of this study is thus to develop a bilingual word database, BiLex-kids, an online open access developmental word database for 5-13 year old bilingual children who learn Greek as a second language and have English as their dominant one. BiLex-kids is compiled from 120 Greek textbooks used in Greek-English bilingual education in the UK, USA and Australia, and provides word translations in the two languages, pronunciations in Greek, and psycholinguistic variables (e.g. Zipf, Frequency per million, Dispersion, Contextual Diversity, Neighbourhood size). After clearing the textbooks of non-relevant items (e.g. punctuation), algorithms were applied to extract the psycholinguistic indices for all words. As well as one total lexicon, the database produces values for all ages (one lexicon for each age) and for three age bands (one lexicon per age band: 5-8, 9-11, 12-13 years). BiLex-kids provides researchers with accurate figures for a wide range of psycholinguistic variables, making it a useful and reliable research tool for selecting stimuli to examine lexical processing among bilingual children. In addition, it offers children the opportunity to study word spelling, learn translations and listen to pronunciations in their second language. It further benefits educators in selecting age-appropriate words for teaching reading and spelling, while special educational needs teachers will have a resource to control the content of word lists when designing interventions for bilinguals with literacy difficulties.

Keywords: bilingual children, psycholinguistics, vocabulary development, word databases

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1185 Brand Extension and Customer WOM: Evidence from the Sports Industry

Authors: Jim Shih-Chiao Chin, Yu Ting Yeh, Shui Lien Chen, Yi-Fen Tsai

Abstract:

his study is taking Adidas Company as the object, explored the brand awareness directly or indirectly affects brand affect and word of mouth. First, explored the brand awareness on category fit and image fit, and examined the influence of category fit and image fit on extension attitude. This study then designates the effect of extension attitude on brand affect and word-of-mouth. The relationship of brand awareness on brand affect and word-of-mouth was also explored. The study participants are people who have purchased Adidas extension products. A total of 700 valid questionnaires were collected and statistical software AMOS 20.0 was used to examine the research hypotheses by using structural equation modeling (SEM). Finally, theoretical implications and research directions are provided for future studies.

Keywords: brand extension, brand awareness, product category fit, brand image fit, brand affect, word-of-mouth (WOM)

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1184 Genomic Sequence Representation Learning: An Analysis of K-Mer Vector Embedding Dimensionality

Authors: James Jr. Mashiyane, Risuna Nkolele, Stephanie J. Müller, Gciniwe S. Dlamini, Rebone L. Meraba, Darlington S. Mapiye

Abstract:

When performing language tasks in natural language processing (NLP), the dimensionality of word embeddings is chosen either ad-hoc or is calculated by optimizing the Pairwise Inner Product (PIP) loss. The PIP loss is a metric that measures the dissimilarity between word embeddings, and it is obtained through matrix perturbation theory by utilizing the unitary invariance of word embeddings. Unlike in natural language, in genomics, especially in genome sequence processing, unlike in natural language processing, there is no notion of a “word,” but rather, there are sequence substrings of length k called k-mers. K-mers sizes matter, and they vary depending on the goal of the task at hand. The dimensionality of word embeddings in NLP has been studied using the matrix perturbation theory and the PIP loss. In this paper, the sufficiency and reliability of applying word-embedding algorithms to various genomic sequence datasets are investigated to understand the relationship between the k-mer size and their embedding dimension. This is completed by studying the scaling capability of three embedding algorithms, namely Latent Semantic analysis (LSA), Word2Vec, and Global Vectors (GloVe), with respect to the k-mer size. Utilising the PIP loss as a metric to train embeddings on different datasets, we also show that Word2Vec outperforms LSA and GloVe in accurate computing embeddings as both the k-mer size and vocabulary increase. Finally, the shortcomings of natural language processing embedding algorithms in performing genomic tasks are discussed.

Keywords: word embeddings, k-mer embedding, dimensionality reduction

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1183 Substitutional Inference in Poetry: Word Choice Substitutions Craft Multiple Meanings by Inference

Authors: J. Marie Hicks

Abstract:

The art of the poetic conjoins meaning and symbolism with imagery and rhythm. Perhaps the reader might read this opening sentence as 'The art of the poetic combines meaning and symbolism with imagery and rhythm,' which holds a similar message, but is not quite the same. The reader understands that these factors are combined in this literary form, but to gain a sense of the conjoining of these factors, the reader is forced to consider that these aspects of poetry are not simply combined, but actually adjoin, abut, skirt, or touch in the poetic form. This alternative word choice is an example of substitutional inference. Poetry is, ostensibly, a literary form where language is used precisely or creatively to evoke specific images or emotions for the reader. Often, the reader can predict a coming rhyme or descriptive word choice in a poem, based on previous rhyming pattern or earlier imagery in the poem. However, there are instances when the poet uses an unexpected word choice to create multiple meanings and connections. In these cases, the reader is presented with an unusual phrase or image, requiring that they think about what that image is meant to suggest, and their mind also suggests the word they expected, creating a second, overlying image or meaning. This is what is meant by the term 'substitutional inference.' This is different than simply using a double entendre, a word or phrase that has two meanings, often one complementary and the other disparaging, or one that is innocuous and the other suggestive. In substitutional inference, the poet utilizes an unanticipated word that is either visually or phonetically similar to the expected word, provoking the reader to work to understand the poetic phrase as written, while unconsciously incorporating the meaning of the line as anticipated. In other words, by virtue of a word substitution, an inference of the logical word choice is imparted to the reader, while they are seeking to rationalize the word that was actually used. There is a substitutional inference of meaning created by the alternate word choice. For example, Louise Bogan, 4th Poet Laureate of the United States, used substitutional inference in the form of homonyms, malapropisms, and other unusual word choices in a number of her poems, lending depth and greater complexity, while actively engaging her readers intellectually with her poetry. Substitutional inference not only adds complexity to the potential interpretations of Bogan’s poetry, as well as the poetry of others, but provided a method for writers to infuse additional meanings into their work, thus expressing more information in a compact format. Additionally, this nuancing enriches the poetic experience for the reader, who can enjoy the poem superficially as written, or on a deeper level exploring gradations of meaning.

Keywords: poetic inference, poetic word play, substitutional inference, word substitution

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