Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 36

Search results for: Andrzej Bartnik

36 Development of a Laboratory Laser-Produced Plasma “Water Window” X-Ray Source for Radiobiology Experiments

Authors: Daniel Adjei, Mesfin Getachew Ayele, Przemyslaw Wachulak, Andrzej Bartnik, Luděk Vyšín, Henryk Fiedorowicz, Inam Ul Ahad, Lukasz Wegrzynski, Anna Wiechecka, Janusz Lekki, Wojciech M. Kwiatek


Laser produced plasma light sources, emitting high intensity pulses of X-rays, delivering high doses are useful to understand the mechanisms of high dose effects on biological samples. In this study, a desk-top laser plasma soft X-ray source, developed for radio biology research, is presented. The source is based on a double-stream gas puff target, irradiated with a commercial Nd:YAG laser (EKSPLA), which generates laser pulses of 4 ns time duration and energy up to 800 mJ at 10 Hz repetition rate. The source has been optimized for maximum emission in the “water window” wavelength range from 2.3 nm to 4.4 nm by using pure gas (argon, nitrogen and krypton) and spectral filtering. Results of the source characterization measurements and dosimetry of the produced soft X-ray radiation are shown and discussed. The high brightness of the laser produced plasma soft X-ray source and the low penetration depth of the produced X-ray radiation in biological specimen allows a high dose rate to be delivered to the specimen of over 28 Gy/shot; and 280 Gy/s at the maximum repetition rate of the laser system. The source has a unique capability for irradiation of cells with high pulse dose both in vacuum and He-environment. Demonstration of the source to induce DNA double- and single strand breaks will be discussed.

Keywords: laser produced plasma, soft X-rays, radio biology experiments, dosimetry

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35 Environmental Impacts on the Appearance of Disbonds in Metal Rotor Blades of Mi-2 Helicopters

Authors: Piotr Synaszko, Michał Sałaciński, Andrzej Leski


This paper describes the analysis of construction Mi-2 helicopter rotor blades in order to determine the causes of appearance disbonds. Authors describe construction of rotor blade with impact on bonded joins and areas of water migration. They also made analysis which determines possibility of disbond between critical parts of rotor blades based on more than one hundred non-destructive inspections results. They showed which parts of the blades most likely to damage. The main source of damage is water presence.

Keywords: disbonds, environmental effect, helicopter rotor blades, service life extension

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34 Systemic Approach to Risk Measurement of Drainage Systems in Urban Areas

Authors: Jadwiga Królikowska, Andrzej Królikowski, Jarosław Bajer


The work delineates the threats of maladjustment of the capacity of rain canals, designed and built in the early 20th century, in connection to heavy rainfall, especially in summer. This is the cause of the so called 'urban floods.' It directly relates to fierce raise of paving in the cities. Resolving this problem requires a change in philosophy of draining the rainfall by wider use of retention, infiltration and usage of rainwater. In systemic approach to managing the safety of urban drainage systems the risk, which is directly connected to safety failures, has been accepted as a measure. The risk level defines the probability of occurrence of losses greater than the ones forecast for a given time frame. The procedure of risk modelling, enabling its numeric analysis by using appropriate weights, is a significant issue in this paper.

Keywords: risk management, drainage system, urban areas, urban floods

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33 The Systemic Approach to Risk Measurement of Drainage Systems in Urban Areas

Authors: Jadwiga Królikowska, Andrzej Królikowski, Jarosław Bajer


The work delineates the threats of maladjustment of the capacity of rain canals, designed and built in the early 20th century, in connection to heavy rainfall, especially in summer. This is the cause of the so called 'urban floods.' It directly relates to fierce raise of paving in the cities. Resolving this problem requires a change in philosophy of draining the rainfall by wider use of retention, infiltration and usage of rainwater. In systemic approach to managing the safety of urban drainage systems the risk, which is directly connected to safety failures, has been accepted as a measure. The risk level defines the probability of occurrence of losses grater than the ones forecast for a given time frame. The procedure of risk modelling, enabling its numeric analysis by using appropriate weights, is a significant issue in this paper.

Keywords: drainage system, urban areas, risk measurement, systemic approach

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32 Assessment of Exhaust Emissions and Fuel Consumption from Means of Transport in Agriculture

Authors: Jerzy Merkisz, Piotr Lijewski, Pawel Fuc, Maciej Siedlecki, Andrzej Ziolkowski, Sylwester Weymann


The paper discusses the problem of load transport using farm tractors and road tractor units. This type of carriage of goods is often done with farm vehicles. The tests were performed with the PEMS equipment (Portable Emission Measurement System) under actual traffic conditions. The vehicles carried a load of 20000 kg. This research method is one of the most desired because it provides reliable information on the actual vehicle emissions and fuel consumption (carbon balance method). For the tests, a route was selected that simulated a trip from a small town to a food-processing facility located in a city. The analysis of the obtained results gave a clear answer as to what vehicles need to be used for the carriage of this type of cargo in terms of exhaust emissions and fuel consumption.

Keywords: emission, transport, fuel consumption, PEMS

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31 New Kinetic Approach to the Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Proteins: A Case of Thermolysin-Catalyzed Albumin

Authors: Anna Trusek-Holownia, Andrzej Noworyta


Using an enzyme of known specificity the hydrolysis of protein was carried out in a controlled manner. The aim was to obtain oligopeptides being the so-called active peptides or their direct precursors. An original way of expression of the protein hydrolysis kinetics was introduced. Peptide bonds contained in the protein were recognized as a diverse-quality substrate for hydrolysis by the applied protease. This assumption was positively verified taking as an example the hydrolysis of albumin by thermolysin. Peptide linkages for this system should be divided into at least four groups. One of them is a group of bonds non-hydrolyzable by this enzyme. These that are broken are hydrolyzed at a rate that differs even by tens of thousands of times. Designated kinetic constants were k'F = 10991.4 L/g.h, k'M = 14.83L/g.h, k'S about 10-1 L/g.h for fast, medium and slow bonds, respectively. Moreover, a procedure for unfolding of the protein, conducive to the improved susceptibility to enzymatic hydrolysis (approximately three-fold increase in the rate) was proposed.

Keywords: peptide bond hydrolysis, kinetics, enzyme specificity, biologically active peptides

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30 Online Shopping vs Privacy – Results of an Experimental Study

Authors: Andrzej Poszewiecki


The presented paper contributes to the experimental current of research on privacy. The question of privacy is being discussed at length at present, primarily among lawyers and politicians. However, the matter of privacy has been of interest for economists for some time as well. The valuation of privacy by people is of great importance now. This article is about how people valuate their privacy. An experimental method has been utilised in the conducted research – the survey was carried out among customers of an online store, and the studied issue was whether their readiness to sell their data (WTA) was different from the willingness to buy data back (WTP). The basic aim of this article is to analyse whether people shopping on the Internet differentiate their privacy depending on whether they protect or sell it. The achieved results indicate the presence of major differences in this respect, which do not always come up with the original expectations. The obtained results have supported the hypothesis that people are more willing to sell their data than to repurchase them. However, the hypothesis that the value of proposed remuneration affects the willingness to sell/buy back personal data (one’s privacy) has not been supported.

Keywords: privacy, experimental economics, behavioural economics, internet

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29 The Effects of Plantation Size and Internal Transport on Energy Efficiency of Biofuel Production

Authors: Olga Orynycz, Andrzej Wasiak


Mathematical model describing energetic efficiency (defined as a ratio of energy obtained in the form of biofuel to the sum of energy inputs necessary to facilitate production) of agricultural subsystem as a function of technological parameters was developed. Production technology is characterized by parameters of machinery, topological characteristics of the plantation as well as transportation routes inside and outside of plantation. The relationship between the energetic efficiency of agricultural and industrial subsystems is also derived. Due to the assumed large area of the individual field, the operations last for several days increasing inter-fields routes because of several returns. The total distance driven outside of the fields is, however, small as compared to the distance driven inside of the fields. This results in small energy consumption during inter-fields transport that, however, causes a substantial decrease of the energetic effectiveness of the whole system.

Keywords: biofuel, energetic efficiency, EROEI, mathematical modelling, production system

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28 The Impact of Low-Concentrated Acidic Electrolyzed Water on Foodborne Pathogens

Authors: Ewa Brychcy, Natalia Ulbin-Figlewicz, Dominika Kulig, Żaneta Król, Andrzej Jarmoluk


Acidic electrolyzed water (AEW) is an alternative with environmentally friendly broad spectrum microbial decontamination. It is produced by membrane electrolysis of a dilute NaCl solution in water ionizers. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of low-concentrated AEW in reducing selected foodborne pathogens and to examine its bactericidal effect on cellular structures of Escherichia coli. E. coli and S. aureus cells were undetectable after 10 minutes of contact with electrolyzed salt solutions. Non-electrolyzed solutions did not inhibit the growth of bacteria. AE water was found to destroy the cellular structures of the E. coli. The use of more concentrated salt solutions and prolonged electrolysis time from 5 to 10 minutes resulted in a greater changes of rods shape as compared to the control and non-electrolyzed NaCl solutions. This research showed that low-concentrated acid electrolyzed water is an effective method to significantly reduce pathogenic microorganisms and indicated its potential application for decontamination of meat.

Keywords: acidic electrolyzed water, foodborne pathogens, meat decontamination, membrane electrolysis

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27 Flexible Ureterorenoscopy as a New Possibility of Treating Nephrolithiasis in Children – Preliminary Reports

Authors: Adam Haliński, Andrzej Haliński


Introduction: Flexible ureterorenoscopy is a surgery technique used for the treatment of the upper urinary tract. It is very often used in adult patients; however, due to the advancing miniaturization of the equipment as well as its precision, this technique has also become possible in the treatment process in children. Material and method: We would like to present 26 cases of flexible ureterorenoscopy carried out in children with nephrolithiasis of the upper urinary tract aged 6 to 17 years. The average age was 9.5 years and the children were treated in our department from June 2013 to January 2015. The first surgery in Poland took place in our Department on 06.06.2013. Because of nephrolithiasis all the children had been subjected earlier to ESWL treatment, which was unsuccessful. Results: 14 children had deposits in the lower calyx, 9 children had deposits in the middle and lower calyx and in 3 children a stone was located in the initial ureter. An efficiency of 88 % was achieved. Conclusions: Flexible ureterorenoscopy is effective and minimally invasive tool both for the diagnosis and treatment of upper urinary tract. We believe that the advancing miniaturization of the equipment and gaining experience will enable carrying out of this procedure in smaller children with high efficiency.

Keywords: flexible ureterorenoscopy, urolithisis, endourology, nephrolithiasis

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26 Theology and Music in the XXI. Century: An Exploratory Study of Current Interrelation

Authors: Andrzej Kesiak


Contemporary theology is often accused of answering questions that nobody is asking, and of employing hermetic language that has lost its communication capacity. There is also a question that theology is asking itself: how theological discourse can still be influential on other disciplines and, how to overcome the separation of theology and belief. Undoubtedly, in the wider spectrum, the theological discourse has been and will be needed. The difficulty is how to find the right model of it, the model that would help theology to enter in dialogue with culture, art, science, and politics. Presumably, there is no only one such model, theology constantly needs to seek such models, and this is probably a never-ending journey; in other words, theology should adopt a profile of ‘a restless being’ if it wants to remain influential. Music, on the other hand, has always been very close to theology; in fact, a huge part of classical music is either sacred or religious. Many composers sought inspiration in religion, liturgy, religious painting and sacred texts. This paper will argue that despite all that it seems that a proper and factual dialogue is still in a starting phase. Such a thing as a reciprocal relationship between theology and music definitely exists, but it has not yet been theoretically developed enough. Correlation between musical and theological disciplines constitutes a very broad and complex discourse. Therefore this study would rather narrow the subject and put it in a specific context: Theology and Music in the XXI. Century. This paper is a text-based study; therefore it will be based on textual-analysis with elements of the text hermeneutics.

Keywords: music, theology, reciprocal relationship between theology and music, XXI Century

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25 Prosody of Text Communication: Inducing Synchronization and Coherence in Chat Conversations

Authors: Karolina Ziembowicz, Andrzej Nowak


In the current study, we examined the consequences of adding prosodic cues to text communication by allowing users to observe the process of message creation while engaged in dyadic conversations. In the first condition, users interacted through a traditional chat that requires pressing ‘enter’ to make a message visible to an interlocutor. In another, text appeared on the screen simultaneously as the sender was writing it, letter after letter (Synchat condition), so that users could observe the varying rhythm of message production, precise timing of message appearance, typos and their corrections. The results show that the ability to observe the dynamics of message production had a twofold effect on the social interaction process. First, it enhanced the relational aspect of communication – interlocutors synchronized their emotional states during the interaction, their communication included more statements on relationship building, and they evaluated the Synchat medium as more personal and emotionally engaging. Second, it increased the coherence of communication, reflected in greater continuity of the topics raised in Synchat conversations. The results are discussed from the interaction design (IxD) perspective.

Keywords: chat communication, online conversation, prosody, social synchronization, interaction incoherence, relationship building

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24 Dynamic Properties of Recycled Concrete Aggregate from Resonant Column Tests

Authors: Wojciech Sas, Emil Soból, Katarzyna Gabryś, Andrzej Głuchowski, Alojzy Szymański


Depleting of natural resources is forcing the man to look for alternative construction materials. One of them is recycled concrete aggregates (RCA). RCA from the demolition of buildings and crushed to proper gradation can be a very good replacement for natural unbound granular aggregates, gravels or sands. Physical and the mechanical properties of RCA are well known in the field of basic civil engineering applications, but to proper roads and railways design dynamic characteristic is need as well. To know maximum shear modulus (GMAX) and the minimum damping ratio (DMIN) of the RCA dynamic loads in resonant column apparatus need to be performed. The paper will contain literature revive about alternative construction materials and dynamic laboratory research technique. The article will focus on dynamic properties of RCA, but early studies conducted by the authors on physical and mechanical properties of this material also will be presented. The authors will show maximum shear modulus and minimum damping ratio. Shear modulus and damping ratio degradation curves will be shown as well. From exhibited results conclusion will be drawn at the end of the article.

Keywords: recycled concrete aggregate, shear modulus, damping ratio, resonant column

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23 Numerical and Experimental Investigation of a Mechanical System with a Pendulum

Authors: Andrzej Mitura, Krzysztof Kecik, Michal Augustyniak


This paper presents a numerical and experimental research of a nonlinear two degrees of freedom system. The tested system consists of a mechanical oscillator (the primary subsystem) with the attached pendulum (the secondary subsystem). The oscillator is suspended on a linear (or nonlinear) coil spring and a nonlinear magnetorheorogical damper and it is excited kinematically. Added pendulum can be used to reduce vibration of a primary subsystem or to energy harvesting. The numerical and experimental investigations showed that the pendulum can perform several types of motion, for example: chaotic motion, constant position in lower or upper (stable inverted pendulum), rotation, symmetrical or asymmetrical swinging vibrations. The main objective of this study is to determine an influence of system parameters for increasing the zone when the pendulum rotates. As a final effect a semi-active control method to change the pendulum solution on the rotation is proposed. To the implementation of this method the magnetorheorogical damper is applied. Continuous rotation of the pendulum is desirable for recovery of energy. The work is financed by Grant no. 0234/IP2/2011/71 from the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education in years 2012-2014.

Keywords: autoparametric vibrations, chaos and rotation control, magnetorheological damper

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22 Impact of Activated Sludge Bulking and Foaming on the Quality of Kuwait's Irrigation Water

Authors: Abdallah Abusam, Andrzej Mydlarczyk, Fadila Al-Salameen, Moh Elmuntasir Ahmed


Treated municipal wastewater produced in Kuwait is used mainly in agricultural and greenery landscape irrigations. However, there are strong doubts that severe sludge bulking and foaming problems, particularly during winter seasons, may render the treated wastewater to be unsuitable for irrigation purposes. To assess the impact of sludge bulking and foaming problems on the quality of treated effluents, samples were collected weekly for nine months (January to September 2014) from the secondary effluents, tertiary effluents and sludge-mixed liquor streams of the two plants that severely suffer from sludge bulking and foaming problems. Dominant filamentous bacteria were identified and quantified using a molecular method called VIT (Vermicon Identification Technology). Quality of the treated effluents was determined according to water and wastewater standard methods. Obtained results were then statistically analyzed and compared to irrigation water standards. Statistical results indicated that secondary effluents were greatly impacted by sludge bulking and foaming problems, while tertiary effluents were slightly affected. This finding highlights the importance of having tertiary treatment units in plants that encountering sludge bulking and foaming problems.

Keywords: agriculture, filamentous bacteria, reclamation, reuse, wastewater

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21 Multiscale Model of Blast Explosion Human Injury Biomechanics

Authors: Raj K. Gupta, X. Gary Tan, Andrzej Przekwas


Bomb blasts from Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) account for vast majority of terrorist attacks worldwide. Injuries caused by IEDs result from a combination of the primary blast wave, penetrating fragments, and human body accelerations and impacts. This paper presents a multiscale computational model of coupled blast physics, whole human body biodynamics and injury biomechanics of sensitive organs. The disparity of the involved space- and time-scales is used to conduct sequential modeling of an IED explosion event, CFD simulation of blast loads on the human body and FEM modeling of body biodynamics and injury biomechanics. The paper presents simulation results for blast-induced brain injury coupling macro-scale brain biomechanics and micro-scale response of sensitive neuro-axonal structures. Validation results on animal models and physical surrogates are discussed. Results of our model can be used to 'replicate' filed blast loadings in laboratory controlled experiments using animal models and in vitro neuro-cultures.

Keywords: blast waves, improvised explosive devices, injury biomechanics, mathematical models, traumatic brain injury

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20 The Effect of Bottom Shape and Baffle Length on the Flow Field in Stirred Tanks in Turbulent and Transitional Flow

Authors: Jie Dong, Binjie Hu, Andrzej W Pacek, Xiaogang Yang, Nicholas J. Miles


The effect of the shape of the vessel bottom and the length of baffles on the velocity distributions in a turbulent and in a transitional flow has been simulated. The turbulent flow was simulated using standard k-ε model and simulation was verified using LES whereas transitional flow was simulated using only LES. It has been found that both the shape of tank bottom and the baffles’ length has significant effect on the flow pattern and velocity distribution below the impeller. In the dished bottom tank with baffles reaching the edge of the dish, the large rotating volume of liquid was formed below the impeller. Liquid in this rotating region was not fully mixing. A dead zone was formed here. The size and the intensity of circulation within this zone calculated by k-ε model and LES were practically identical what reinforces the accuracy of the numerical simulations. Both types of simulations also show that employing full-length baffles can reduce the size of dead zone formed below the impeller. The LES was also used to simulate the velocity distribution below the impeller in transitional flow and it has been found that secondary circulation loops were formed near the tank bottom in all investigated geometries. However, in this case the length of baffles has smaller effect on the volume of rotating liquid than in the turbulent flow.

Keywords: baffles length, dished bottom, dead zone, flow field

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19 Designing of Food Products Enriched With Phytonutrients Assigned for Hypertension Suffering Consumers

Authors: Anna Gramza-Michałowska, Dominik Kmiecik, Justyna Bilon, Joanna Skręty, Joanna Kobus-Cisowska, Józef Korczak, Andrzej Sidor


Background: Hypertension is one of the civilization diseases with a global scope. Many research showed that every day diet influences significantly our health, helping with the prophylaxis and diseases treatment. The key factor here is the presence of plant origin natural bio active components. Aim: The following research describes snack health-oriented products for hypertension sufferers enriched with selected plant ingredients. Various analytical methods have been applied to determine product’s basic composition and their antioxidant activity. Methods: Snack products was formulated from a composition of different flours, oil, yeast, plant particles and extracts. Basic composition of a product was evaluated as content of protein, lipids, fiber, ash and caloricity. Antioxidant capacity of snacks was evaluated with use radical scavenging methods (DPPH, ABTS) and ORAC value. Proposed snacks as new product was also characterized with sensory analysis. Results and discussion: Results showed that addition of phyto nutrients allowed to improve nutritional and antioxidative value of examined products. Also the anti radical potential was significantly increased, with no loss of sensory value of a snacks. Conclusions: Designed snack is rich in polyphenolics, that express high antioxidant activity, helpful in hypertension and as low calories product obesity prophylaxis.

Keywords: antioxidant, well-being, hypertension, bioactive compounds

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18 From Synthesis to Application of Photovoltaic Perovskite Nanowires

Authors: László Forró


The organolead halide perovskite CH3NH3PbI3 and its derivatives are known to be very efficient light harvesters revolutionizing the field of solid-state solar cells. The major research area in this field is photovoltaic device engineering although other applications are being explored, as well. Recently, we have shown that nanowires of this photovoltaic perovskite can be synthesized which in association with carbon nanostructures (carbon nanotubes and graphene) make outstanding composites with rapid and strong photo-response. They can serve as conducting electrodes, or as central components of detectors. The performance of several miniature devices based on these composite structures will be demonstrated. Our latest findings on the guided growth of perovskite nanowires by solvatomorph graphoepitaxy will be presented. This method turned out to be a fairly simple approach to overcome the spatially random surface nucleation. The process allows the synthesis of extremely long (centimeters) and thin (a few nanometers) nanowires with a morphology defined by the shape of nanostructured open fluidic channels. This low-temperature solution-growth method could open up an entirely new spectrum of architectural designs of organometallic-halide-perovskite-based heterojunctions and tandem solar cells, LEDs and other optoelectronic devices. Acknowledgment: This work is done in collaboration with Endre Horvath, Massimo Spina, Alla Arakcheeva, Balint Nafradi, Eric Bonvin1, Andrzej Sienkievicz, Zsolt Szekrenyes, Hajnalka Tohati, Katalin Kamaras, Eduard Tutis, Laszlo Mihaly and Karoly Holczer The research is supported by the ERC Advanced Grant (PICOPROP670918).

Keywords: photovoltaics, perovskite, nanowire, photodetector

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17 A Study of Influence of Freezing on Mechanical Properties of Tendon Fascicles

Authors: Martyna Ekiert, Andrzej Mlyniec


Tendons are the biological structures, which primary function is to transfer force generated by muscles to the bones. Unfortunately, damages of tendons are also one of the most common injuries of the human musculoskeletal system. For the most severe cases of tendon rupture, such as the tear of calcaneus tendon or anterior cruciate ligament of the knee, a surgical procedure is the only possible way of full recovery. Tendons used as biological grafts are usually subjected to the process of deep freezing and subsequent thawing. This, in particular for multiple freezing/thawing cycles, may result in changes of tendon internal structure causing deterioration of mechanical properties of the tissue. Therefore, studies on the influence of freezing on tendons biomechanics, including internal water content in soft tissue, seems to be greatly needed. An experimental study of the influence of freezing on mechanical properties of the tendon was performed on fascicles samples dissected form bovine flexor tendons. The preparation procedure was performed with the presence of 0.9% saline solution in order to prevent an excessive tissue drying. All prepared samples were subjected to the different number of freezing/thawing cycles. For freezing part of the protocol we used -80°C temperature while for slow thawing we used fridge temperature (4°C) combined with equalizing temperatures in the standard state (25°C). After final thawing, the mechanical properties of each sample was examined using cyclic loading test. Our results may contribute for better understanding of negative effects of soft tissues freezing, resulting from abnormal thermal expansion of water. This also may help to determine the limit of freezing/thawing cycles disqualifying tissue for surgical purposes and thus help optimize tissues storage conditions.

Keywords: freezing, soft tissue, tendon, bovine fascicles

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16 Integer Programming: Domain Transformation in Nurse Scheduling Problem.

Authors: Geetha Baskaran, Andrzej Barjiela, Rong Qu


Motivation: Nurse scheduling is a complex combinatorial optimization problem. It is also known as NP-hard. It needs an efficient re-scheduling to minimize some trade-off of the measures of violation by reducing selected constraints to soft constraints with measurements of their violations. Problem Statement: In this paper, we extend our novel approach to solve the nurse scheduling problem by transforming it through Information Granulation. Approach: This approach satisfies the rules of a typical hospital environment based on a standard benchmark problem. Generating good work schedules has a great influence on nurses' working conditions which are strongly related to the level of a quality health care. Domain transformation that combines the strengths of operation research and artificial intelligence was proposed for the solution of the problem. Compared to conventional methods, our approach involves judicious grouping (information granulation) of shifts types’ that transforms the original problem into a smaller solution domain. Later these schedules from the smaller problem domain are converted back into the original problem domain by taking into account the constraints that could not be represented in the smaller domain. An Integer Programming (IP) package is used to solve the transformed scheduling problem by expending the branch and bound algorithm. We have used the GNU Octave for Windows to solve this problem. Results: The scheduling problem has been solved in the proposed formalism resulting in a high quality schedule. Conclusion: Domain transformation represents departure from a conventional one-shift-at-a-time scheduling approach. It offers an advantage of efficient and easily understandable solutions as well as offering deterministic reproducibility of the results. We note, however, that it does not guarantee the global optimum.

Keywords: domain transformation, nurse scheduling, information granulation, artificial intelligence, simulation

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15 Designing an Exhaust Gas Energy Recovery Module Following Measurements Performed under Real Operating Conditions

Authors: Jerzy Merkisz, Pawel Fuc, Piotr Lijewski, Andrzej Ziolkowski, Pawel Czarkowski


The paper presents preliminary results of the development of an automotive exhaust gas energy recovery module. The aim of the performed analyses was to select the geometry of the heat exchanger that would ensure the highest possible transfer of heat at minimum heat flow losses. The starting point for the analyses was a straight portion of a pipe, from which the exhaust system of the tested vehicle was made. The design of the heat exchanger had a cylindrical cross-section, was 300 mm long and was fitted with a diffuser and a confusor. The model works were performed for the mentioned geometry utilizing the finite volume method based on the Ansys CFX v12.1 and v14 software. This method consisted in dividing of the system into small control volumes for which the exhaust gas velocity and pressure calculations were performed using the Navier-Stockes equations. The heat exchange in the system was modeled based on the enthalpy balance. The temperature growth resulting from the acting viscosity was not taken into account. The heat transfer on the fluid/solid boundary in the wall layer with the turbulent flow was done based on an arbitrarily adopted dimensionless temperature. The boundary conditions adopted in the analyses included the convective condition of heat transfer on the outer surface of the heat exchanger and the mass flow and temperature of the exhaust gas at the inlet. The mass flow and temperature of the exhaust gas were assumed based on the measurements performed in actual traffic using portable PEMS analyzers. The research object was a passenger vehicle fitted with a 1.9 dm3 85 kW diesel engine. The tests were performed in city traffic conditions.

Keywords: waste heat recovery, heat exchanger, CFD simulation, pems

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14 Structural and Morphological Characterization of Inorganic Deposits in Spinal Ligaments

Authors: Sylwia Orzechowska, Andrzej Wróbel, Eugeniusz Rokita


The mineralization is a curious problem of connective tissues. Factors which may play a decisive role in the regulation of the yellow ligaments (YL) mineralization are still open questions. The aim of the studies was a detailed description of the chemical composition and morphology of mineral deposits in the human yellow ligaments. Investigations of the structural features of deposits were used to explain the impact of various factors on mineralization process. The studies were carried out on 24 YL samples, surgically removed from patients suffer from spinal canal stenosis and the patients who sustained a trauma. The micro-computed tomography was used to describe the morphology of mineral deposits. The X-ray fluorescence method and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were applied to determine the chemical composition of the samples. In order to eliminate the effect of blur in microtomographic images, the correction method of partial volume effect was used. The mineral deposits appear in 60% of YL samples, both in patients with a stenosis and following injury. The mineral deposits have a heterogeneous structure and they are a mixture of the tissue and mineral grains. The volume of mineral grains amounts to (1.9 ± 3.4)*10-3 mm3 while the density distribution of grains occurs in two distinct ranges (1.75 - 2.15 and 2.15-2.5) g/cm3. Application of the partial volume effect correction allows accurate calculations by eliminating the averaging effect of gray levels in tomographic images. The B-type carbonate-containing hydroxyapatite constitutes the mineral phase of majority YLs. The main phase of two samples was calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD). The elemental composition of minerals in all samples is almost identical. This pathology may be independent on the spine diseases and it does not evoke canal stenosis. The two ranges of grains density indicate two stages of grains growth and the degree of maturity. The presence of CPPD crystals may coexist with other pathologies.

Keywords: FTIR, micro-tomography, mineralization, spinal ligaments

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13 Characterisation of Chitooligomers Prepared with the Aid of Cellulase, Xylanase and Chitosanase

Authors: Anna Zimoch-Korzycka, Dominika Kulig, Andrzej Jarmoluk


The aim of this study was to obtain chitooligosaccharides from chitosan with better functional properties using three different enzyme preparations and compare the products of enzymatic hydrolysis. Commercially available cellulase (CL), xylanase (X) and chitosanase (CS) preparations were used to investigate hydrolytic activity on chitosan (CH) with low molecular weight and DD of 75-85%. It has been reported that CL and X have side activities of other enzymes, such as β-glucanase or β-glucosidase. CS enzyme has a foreign activity of chitinase. Each preparation was used in 1000 U of activity and in the same reaction conditions. The degree of deacetylation and molecular weight of chitosan were specified using titration and viscometric methods, respectively. The hydrolytic activity of enzymes preparations on chitosan was monitored by dynamic viscosity measurement. After 4 h reaction with stirring, solutions were filtered and chitosan oligomers were isolated by methanol solution into two fractions: precipitate (A) and supernatant (B). A Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy was used to characterize the structural changes of chitosan oligomers fractions and initial chitosan. Furthermore, the solubility of lyophilized hydrolytic mixture (C) and two chitooligomers fractions (A, B) of each enzyme hydrolysis was assayed. The antioxidant activity of chitosan oligomers was evaluated as DPPH free radical scavenging activity. The dynamic viscosity measured after addition of enzymes preparation to the chitosan solution decreased dramatically over time in the sample with X in comparison to solution without the enzyme. For mixtures with CL and CS, lower viscosities were also recorded but not as low as the ones with X. A and B fractions were characterized by the most similar viscosity obtained by the xylanase hydrolysis and were 15 mPas and 9 mPas, respectively. Structural changes of chitosan oligomers A, B, C and their differences related with various enzyme preparations used were confirmed. Water solubility of A fractions was not possible to filter and the result was not recorded. Solubility of supernatants was approximately 95% and was higher than hydrolytic mixture. It was observed that the DPPH radical scavenging effect of A, B, C samples is the highest for X products and was approximately 13, 17, 19% respectively. In summary, a mixture of chitooligomers may be useful for the design of edible protective coatings due to the improved biophysical properties.

Keywords: cellulase, xylanase, chitosanase, chitosan, chitooligosaccharides

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12 Long-Term Results of Coronary Bifurcation Stenting with Drug Eluting Stents

Authors: Piotr Muzyk, Beata Morawiec, Mariusz Opara, Andrzej Tomasik, Brygida Przywara-Chowaniec, Wojciech Jachec, Ewa Nowalany-Kozielska, Damian Kawecki


Background: Coronary bifurcation is one of the most complex lesion in patients with coronary ar-tery disease. Provisional T-stenting is currently one of the recommended techniques. The aim was to assess optimal methods of treatment in the era of drug-eluting stents (DES). Methods: The regis-try consisted of data from 1916 patients treated with coronary percutaneous interventions (PCI) using either first- or second-generation DES. Patients with bifurcation lesion entered the analysis. Major adverse cardiac and cardiovascular events (MACCE) were assessed at one year of follow-up and comprised of death, acute myocardial infarction (AMI), repeated PCI (re-PCI) of target ves-sel and stroke. Results: Of 1916 registry patients, 204 patients (11%) were diagnosed with bifurcation lesion >50% and entered the analysis. The most commonly used technique was provi-sional T-stenting (141 patients, 69%). Optimization with kissing-balloons technique was performed in 45 patients (22%). In 59 patients (29%) second-generation DES was implanted, while in 112 pa-tients (55%), first-generation DES was used. In 33 patients (16%) both types of DES were used. The procedure success rate (TIMI 3 flow) was achieved in 98% of patients. In one-year follow-up, there were 39 MACCE (19%) (9 deaths, 17 AMI, 16 re-PCI and 5 strokes). Provisional T-stenting resulted in similar rate of MACCE to other techniques (16% vs. 5%, p=0.27) and similar occurrence of re-PCI (6% vs. 2%, p=0.78). The results of post-PCI kissing-balloon technique gave equal out-comes with 3% vs. 16% of MACCE in patients in whom no optimization technique was used (p=0.39). The type of implanted DES (second- vs. first-generation) had no influence on MACCE (4% vs 14%, respectively, p=0.12) and re-PCI (1.7% vs. 51% patients, respectively, p=0.28). Con-clusions: The treatment of bifurcation lesions with PCI represent high-risk procedures with high rate of MACCE. Stenting technique, optimization of PCI and the generation of implanted stent should be personalized for each case to balance risk of the procedure. In this setting, the operator experience might be the factor of better outcome, which should be further investigated.

Keywords: coronary bifurcation, drug eluting stents, long-term follow-up, percutaneous coronary interventions

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11 Functioning of a Temporarily Single Parent Family System Due to Migration from the Perspective of Adolescents with Cerebral Palsy

Authors: A. Gagat-Matuła


There is a definite lack – in Poland, as well as around the world – of empirical studies of families raising handicapped child, in which one parent migrates. In diagnostics of the functioning of such families emphasis should be placed not only on the difficulties, but most of all it should be indicated what possibilities are there for the family and how it overcomes the difficulties. Migration of a parent on the one hand is a chance to improve the family’s material situation. In certain circumstances this may only be an “escape” into work from the issues associated with the upbringing and rehabilitation of a handicapped child. The aim of the study was to learn the functioning of a temporarily single parent family system as a result of migration of a parent from the perspective of adolescents with cerebral palsy. The study was conducted in the year 2013 in the area of Eastern Poland. It involved an analysis of 70 persons (with cerebral palsy in an intellectual capacity) from families in which at least one of the parents migrates. The study incorporated the diagnostic survey method. These tools were used: Family Evaluation Scales (SOR) adapted for Poland by Andrzej Margasiński. The explorations in this study indicate, that 47% of studied temporarily single parent families are balanced models. This is evidence of the resources at the disposal of the family which, despite the disability of the child and temporary separation, is able to function properly. The conducted studies show, that 37% of temporarily single parent families are imbalanced models in the perception of adolescents with cerebral palsy. These families experience functional difficulties and require psychological and pedagogical support. There is a need for building skills related to effective coping with family stress. Especially considering, that families of an imbalanced type do not use the internal and external resources of the family system. Such a situation may deepen the disarrangement of family life. In intermediate families (16%) there are also temporary difficulties in functioning. Separation anxiety experienced by mothers may disrupt relations and introduce additional stress factors. For that reason it is important to provide support for women with difficulties coping with the emotions associated with raising handicapped adolescents and migratory separation.

Keywords: child with cerebral palsy, family, migration, parents

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10 The Impact of Electrospinning Parameters on Surface Morphology and Chemistry of PHBV Fibers

Authors: Lukasz Kaniuk, Mateusz M. Marzec, Andrzej Bernasik, Urszula Stachewicz


Electrospinning is one of the commonly used methods to produce micro- or nano-fibers. The properties of electrospun fibers allow them to be used to produce tissue scaffolds, biodegradable bandages, or purification membranes. The morphology of the obtained fibers depends on the composition of the polymer solution as well as the processing parameters. Interesting properties such as high fiber porosity can be achieved by changing humidity during electrospinning. Moreover, by changing voltage polarity in electrospinning, we are able to alternate functional groups at the surface of fibers. In this study, electrospun fibers were made of natural, thermoplastic polyester – PHBV (poly(3-hydroxybutyric acid-co-3-hydrovaleric acid). The fibrous mats were obtained using both positive and negative voltage polarities, and their surface was characterized using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, Ulvac-Phi, Chigasaki, Japan). Furthermore, the effect of the humidity on surface morphology was investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM, Merlin Gemini II, Zeiss, Germany). Electrospun PHBV fibers produced with positive and negative voltage polarity had similar morphology and the average fiber diameter, 2.47 ± 0.21 µm and 2.44 ± 0.15 µm, respectively. The change of the voltage polarity had a significant impact on the reorientation of the carbonyl groups what consequently changed the surface potential of the electrospun PHBV fibers. The increase of humidity during electrospinning causes porosity in the surface structure of the fibers. In conclusion, we showed within our studies that the process parameters such as humidity and voltage polarity have a great influence on fiber morphology and chemistry, changing their functionality. Surface properties of polymer fiber have a significant impact on cell integration and attachment, which is very important in tissue engineering. The possibility of changing surface porosity allows the use of fibers in various tissue engineering and drug delivery systems. Acknowledgment: This study was conducted within 'Nanofiber-based sponges for atopic skin treatment' project., carried out within the First TEAM programme of the Foundation for Polish Science co-financed by the European Union under the European Regional Development Fund, project no POIR.04.04.00-00- 4571/18-00.

Keywords: cells integration, electrospun fiber, PHBV, surface characterization

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9 Antiulcer Potential of Heme Oxygenase-1 Inducers

Authors: Gaweł Magdalena, Lipkowska Anna, Olbert Magdalena, Frąckiewicz Ewelina, Librowski Tadeusz, Nowak Gabriel, Pilc Andrzej


Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), also known as heat shock protein 32 (HSP32), has been shown to be implicated in cytoprotection in various organs. Its activation plays a significant role in acute and chronic inflammation, protecting cells from oxidative injury and apoptosis. This inducible isoform of HO catalyzes the first and rate-limiting step in heme degradation to produce equimolar quantities of biologically active products: carbon monoxide (CO), free iron and biliverdin. CO has been reported to possess anti-apoptotic properties. Moreover, it inhibits the production of proinflammatory cytokines and stimulates the synthesis of the anti-inflammatory interleukin-10 (IL-10), as well as promotes vasodilatation at sites of inflammation. The second product of catalytic HO-1 activity, free cytotoxic iron, is promptly sequestered into the iron storage protein ferritin, which lowers the pro-oxidant state of the cell. The third product, biliverdin, is subsequently converted by biliverdin reductase into the bile pigment bilirubin, the most potent endogenous antioxidant among the constituents of human serum, which modulates immune effector functions and suppresses inflammatory response. Furthermore, being one of the so-called stress proteins, HO-1 adaptively responds to different stressors, such as reactive oxygen species (ROS), inflammatory cytokines and heavy metals and thus protects cells against such conditions as ischemia, hemorrhagic shock, heat shock or hypoxia. It is suggested that pharmacologic modulation of HO-1 may represent an effective strategy for prevention of stress and drug-induced gastrointestinal toxicity. HO-1 is constitutively expressed in normal gastric, intestinal and colonic mucosa and up-regulated during inflammation. It has been proven that HO-1 up-regulated by hemin, heme and cobalt-protoporphyrin ameliorates experimental colitis. In addition, the up-regulation of HO-1 partially explains the mechanism of action of 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA), which is used clinically as an anti-colitis agent. In 2009 Ueda et al. has reported for the first time that mucosal protection by Polaprezinc, a chelate compound of zinc and L-carnosine used as an anti-ulcer drug in Japan, is also attributed to induction of HO-1 in the stomach. Since then, inducers of HO-1 are desired subject of research, as they may constitute therapeutically effective anti-ulcer drugs.

Keywords: heme oxygenase-1, gastric lesions, gastroprotection, Polaprezinc

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8 A Study on the Shear-Induced Crystallization of Aliphatic-Aromatic Copolyester

Authors: Ramin Hosseinnezhad, Iurii Vozniak, Andrzej Galeski


Shear-induced crystallization, originated from orientation of chains along the flow direction, is an inevitable part of most polymer processing technologies. It plays a dominant role in determining the final product properties and is affected by many factors such as shear rate, cooling rate, total strain, etc. Investigation of the shear-induced crystallization process become of great importance for preparation of nanocomposite, which requires crystallization of nanofibrous sheared inclusions at higher temperatures. Thus, the effects of shear time, shear rate, and also thermal condition of cooling on crystallization of two aliphatic-aromatic copolyesters have been investigated. This was performed using Linkam optical shearing system (CSS450) for both Ecoflex® F Blend C1200 produced by BASF and synthesized copolyester of butylene terephthalate and a mixture of butylene esters: adipate, succinate, and glutarate, (PBASGT), containing 60% of aromatic comonomer. Crystallization kinetics of these biodegradable copolyesters was studied at two different conditions of shearing. First, sample with a thickness of 60µm was heated to 60˚C above its melting point and subsequently subjected to different shear rates (100–800 sec-1) while cooling with specific rates. Second, the same type of sample was cooled down when shearing at constant temperature was finished. The intensity of transmitted depolarized light, recorded by a camera attached to the optical microscope, was used as a measure to follow the crystallization. Temperature dependencies of conversion degree of samples during cooling were collected and used to determine the half-temperature (Th), at which 50% conversion degree was reached. Shearing ecoflex films for 45 seconds with a shear rate of 100 sec-1 resulted in significant increase of Th from 56˚C to 70˚C. Moreover, the temperature range for the transition of molten samples to crystallized state decreased from 42˚C to 20˚C. Comparatively low shift of 10˚C in Th towards higher temperature was observed for PBASGT films at shear rate of 600 sec-1 for 45 seconds. However, insufficient melt flow strength and non-laminar flow due to Taylor vortices was a hindrance to reach more elevated Th at very high shear rates (600–800 sec-1). The shift in Th was smaller for the samples sheared at a constant temperature and subsequently cooled down. This may be attributed to the longer time gap between cessation of shearing and the onset of crystallization. The longer this time gap, the more possibility for crystal nucleus to re-melt at temperatures above Tm and for polymer chains to recoil and relax. It is found that the crystallization temperature, crystallization induction time and spherulite growth of aliphatic-aromatic copolyesters are dramatically influenced by both the cooling rate and the shear imposed during the process.

Keywords: induced crystallization, shear rate, aliphatic-aromatic copolyester, ecoflex

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7 Positive-Negative Asymmetry in the Evaluations of Political Candidates: The Mediating Role of Affect in the Relationship between Cognitive Evaluation and Voting Intention

Authors: Magdalena Jablonska, Andrzej Falkowski


The negativity effect is one of the most intriguing and well-studied psychological phenomena that can be observed in many areas of human life. The aim of the following study is to investigate how valence framing and positive and negative information about political candidates affect judgments about similarity to an ideal and bad politician. Based on the theoretical framework of features of similarity, it is hypothesized that negative features have a stronger effect on similarity judgments than positive features of comparable value. Furthermore, the mediating role of affect is tested. Method: One hundred sixty-one people took part in an experimental study. Participants were divided into 6 research conditions that differed in the reference point (positive vs negative framing) and the number of favourable and unfavourable information items about political candidates (a positive, neutral and negative candidate profile). In positive framing condition, the concept of an ideal politician was primed; in the negative condition, participants were to think about a bad politician. The effect of independent variables on similarity judgments, affective evaluation, and voting intention was tested. Results: In the positive condition, the analysis showed that the negative effect of additional unfavourable features was greater than the positive effect of additional favourable features in judgements about similarity to the ideal candidate. In negative framing condition, ANOVA was insignificant, showing that neither the addition of positive features nor additional negative information had a significant impact on the similarity to a bad political candidate. To explain this asymmetry, two mediational analyses were conducted that tested the mediating role of affect in the relationship between similarity judgments and voting intention. In both situations the mediating effect was significant, but the comparison of two models showed that the mediation was stronger for a negative framing. Discussion: The research supports the negativity effect and attempts to explain the psychological mechanism behind the positive-negative asymmetry. The results of mediation analyses point to a stronger mediating role of affect in the relationship between cognitive evaluation and voting intention. Such a result suggests that negative comparisons, leading to the activation of negative features, give rise to stronger emotions than positive features of comparable strength. The findings are in line with positive-negative asymmetry, however, by adopting Tversky’s framework of features of similarity, the study integrates the cognitive mechanism of the negativity effect delineated in the contrast model of similarity with its emotional component resulting from the asymmetrical effect of positive and negative emotions on decision-making.

Keywords: affect, framing, negativity effect, positive-negative asymmetry, similarity judgements

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