Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3736

Search results for: probability of detection

3736 Saliency Detection Using a Background Probability Model

Authors: Junling Li, Fang Meng, Yichun Zhang


Image saliency detection has been long studied, while several challenging problems are still unsolved, such as detecting saliency inaccurately in complex scenes or suppressing salient objects in the image borders. In this paper, we propose a new saliency detection algorithm in order to solving these problems. We represent the image as a graph with superixels as nodes. By considering appearance similarity between the boundary and the background, the proposed method chooses non-saliency boundary nodes as background priors to construct the background probability model. The probability that each node belongs to the model is computed, which measures its similarity with backgrounds. Thus we can calculate saliency by the transformed probability as a metric. We compare our algorithm with ten-state-of-the-art salient detection methods on the public database. Experimental results show that our simple and effective approach can attack those challenging problems that had been baffling in image saliency detection.

Keywords: visual saliency, background probability, boundary knowledge, background priors

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3735 Performance of Nakagami Fading Channel over Energy Detection Based Spectrum Sensing

Authors: M. Ranjeeth, S. Anuradha


Spectrum sensing is the main feature of cognitive radio technology. Spectrum sensing gives an idea of detecting the presence of the primary users in a licensed spectrum. In this paper we compare the theoretical results of detection probability of different fading environments like Rayleigh, Rician, Nakagami-m fading channels with the simulation results using energy detection based spectrum sensing. The numerical results are plotted as P_f Vs P_d for different SNR values, fading parameters. It is observed that Nakagami fading channel performance is better than other fading channels by using energy detection in spectrum sensing. A MATLAB simulation test bench has been implemented to know the performance of energy detection in different fading channel environment.

Keywords: spectrum sensing, energy detection, fading channels, probability of detection, probability of false alarm

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3734 Preliminary Results on a Maximum Mean Discrepancy Approach for Seizure Detection

Authors: Boumediene Hamzi, Turky N. AlOtaiby, Saleh AlShebeili, Arwa AlAnqary


We introduce a data-driven method for seizure detection drawing on recent progress in Machine Learning. The method is based on embedding probability measures in a high (or infinite) dimensional reproducing kernel Hilbert space (RKHS) where the Maximum Mean Discrepancy (MMD) is computed. The MMD is metric between probability measures that are computed as the difference between the means of probability measures after being embedded in an RKHS. Working in RKHS provides a convenient, general functional-analytical framework for theoretical understanding of data. We apply this approach to the problem of seizure detection.

Keywords: kernel methods, maximum mean discrepancy, seizure detection, machine learning

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3733 Gaussian Probability Density for Forest Fire Detection Using Satellite Imagery

Authors: S. Benkraouda, Z. Djelloul-Khedda, B. Yagoubi


we present a method for early detection of forest fires from a thermal infrared satellite image, using the image matrix of the probability of belonging. The principle of the method is to compare a theoretical mathematical model to an experimental model. We considered that each line of the image matrix, as an embodiment of a non-stationary random process. Since the distribution of pixels in the satellite image is statistically dependent, we divided these lines into small stationary and ergodic intervals to characterize the image by an adequate mathematical model. A standard deviation was chosen to generate random variables, so each interval behaves naturally like white Gaussian noise. The latter has been selected as the mathematical model that represents a set of very majority pixels, which we can be considered as the image background. Before modeling the image, we made a few pretreatments, then the parameters of the theoretical Gaussian model were extracted from the modeled image, these settings will be used to calculate the probability of each interval of the modeled image to belong to the theoretical Gaussian model. The high intensities pixels are regarded as foreign elements to it, so they will have a low probability, and the pixels that belong to the background image will have a high probability. Finally, we did present the reverse of the matrix of probabilities of these intervals for a better fire detection.

Keywords: forest fire, forest fire detection, satellite image, normal distribution, theoretical gaussian model, thermal infrared matrix image

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3732 Enhancement of Primary User Detection in Cognitive Radio by Scattering Transform

Authors: A. Moawad, K. C. Yao, A. Mansour, R. Gautier


The detecting of an occupied frequency band is a major issue in cognitive radio systems. The detection process becomes difficult if the signal occupying the band of interest has faded amplitude due to multipath effects. These effects make it hard for an occupying user to be detected. This work mitigates the missed-detection problem in the context of cognitive radio in frequency-selective fading channel by proposing blind channel estimation method that is based on scattering transform. By initially applying conventional energy detection, the missed-detection probability is evaluated, and if it is greater than or equal to 50%, channel estimation is applied on the received signal followed by channel equalization to reduce the channel effects. In the proposed channel estimator, we modify the Morlet wavelet by using its first derivative for better frequency resolution. A mathematical description of the modified function and its frequency resolution is formulated in this work. The improved frequency resolution is required to follow the spectral variation of the channel. The channel estimation error is evaluated in the mean-square sense for different channel settings, and energy detection is applied to the equalized received signal. The simulation results show improvement in reducing the missed-detection probability as compared to the detection based on principal component analysis. This improvement is achieved at the expense of increased estimator complexity, which depends on the number of wavelet filters as related to the channel taps. Also, the detection performance shows an improvement in detection probability for low signal-to-noise scenarios over principal component analysis- based energy detection.

Keywords: channel estimation, cognitive radio, scattering transform, spectrum sensing

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3731 Ship Detection Requirements Analysis for Different Sea States: Validation on Real SAR Data

Authors: Jaime Martín-de-Nicolás, David Mata-Moya, Nerea del-Rey-Maestre, Pedro Gómez-del-Hoyo, María-Pilar Jarabo-Amores


Ship detection is nowadays quite an important issue in tasks related to sea traffic control, fishery management and ship search and rescue. Although it has traditionally been carried out by patrol ships or aircrafts, coverage and weather conditions and sea state can become a problem. Synthetic aperture radars can surpass these coverage limitations and work under any climatological condition. A fast CFAR ship detector based on a robust statistical modeling of sea clutter with respect to sea states in SAR images is used. In this paper, the minimum SNR required to obtain a given detection probability with a given false alarm rate for any sea state is determined. A Gaussian target model using real SAR data is considered. Results show that SNR does not depend heavily on the class considered. Provided there is some variation in the backscattering of targets in SAR imagery, the detection probability is limited and a post-processing stage based on morphology would be suitable.

Keywords: SAR, generalized gamma distribution, detection curves, radar detection

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3730 Error Probability of Multi-User Detection Techniques

Authors: Komal Babbar


Multiuser Detection is the intelligent estimation/demodulation of transmitted bits in the presence of Multiple Access Interference. The authors have presented the Bit-error rate (BER) achieved by linear multi-user detectors: Matched filter (which treats the MAI as AWGN), Decorrelating and MMSE. In this work, authors investigate the bit error probability analysis for Matched filter, decorrelating, and MMSE. This problem arises in several practical CDMA applications where the receiver may not have full knowledge of the number of active users and their signature sequences. In particular, the behavior of MAI at the output of the Multi-user detectors (MUD) is examined under various asymptotic conditions including large signal to noise ratio; large near-far ratios; and a large number of users. In the last section Authors also shows Matlab Simulation results for Multiuser detection techniques i.e., Matched filter, Decorrelating, MMSE for 2 users and 10 users.

Keywords: code division multiple access, decorrelating, matched filter, minimum mean square detection (MMSE) detection, multiple access interference (MAI), multiuser detection (MUD)

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3729 Adaptive CFAR Analysis for Non-Gaussian Distribution

Authors: Bouchemha Amel, Chachoui Takieddine, H. Maalem


Automatic detection of targets in a modern communication system RADAR is based primarily on the concept of adaptive CFAR detector. To have an effective detection, we must minimize the influence of disturbances due to the clutter. The detection algorithm adapts the CFAR detection threshold which is proportional to the average power of the clutter, maintaining a constant probability of false alarm. In this article, we analyze the performance of two variants of adaptive algorithms CA-CFAR and OS-CFAR and we compare the thresholds of these detectors in the marine environment (no-Gaussian) with a Weibull distribution.

Keywords: CFAR, threshold, clutter, distribution, Weibull, detection

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3728 Probability-Based Damage Detection of Structures Using Kriging Surrogates and Enhanced Ideal Gas Molecular Movement Algorithm

Authors: M. R. Ghasemi, R. Ghiasi, H. Varaee


Surrogate model has received increasing attention for use in detecting damage of structures based on vibration modal parameters. However, uncertainties existing in the measured vibration data may lead to false or unreliable output result from such model. In this study, an efficient approach based on Monte Carlo simulation is proposed to take into account the effect of uncertainties in developing a surrogate model. The probability of damage existence (PDE) is calculated based on the probability density function of the existence of undamaged and damaged states. The kriging technique allows one to genuinely quantify the surrogate error, therefore it is chosen as metamodeling technique. Enhanced version of ideal gas molecular movement (EIGMM) algorithm is used as main algorithm for model updating. The developed approach is applied to detect simulated damage in numerical models of 72-bar space truss and 120-bar dome truss. The simulation results show the proposed method can perform well in probability-based damage detection of structures with less computational effort compared to direct finite element model.

Keywords: probability-based damage detection (PBDD), Kriging, surrogate modeling, uncertainty quantification, artificial intelligence, enhanced ideal gas molecular movement (EIGMM)

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3727 Low Probability of Intercept (LPI) Signal Detection and Analysis Using Choi-Williams Distribution

Authors: V. S. S. Kumar, V. Ramya


In the modern electronic warfare, the signal scenario is changing at a rapid pace with the introduction of Low Probability of Intercept (LPI) radars. In the modern battlefield, radar system faces serious threats from passive intercept receivers such as Electronic Attack (EA) and Anti-Radiation Missiles (ARMs). To perform necessary target detection and tracking and simultaneously hide themselves from enemy attack, radar systems should be LPI. These LPI radars use a variety of complex signal modulation schemes together with pulse compression with the aid of advancement in signal processing capabilities of the radar such that the radar performs target detection and tracking while simultaneously hiding enemy from attack such as EA etc., thus posing a major challenge to the ES/ELINT receivers. Today an increasing number of LPI radars are being introduced into the modern platforms and weapon systems so these LPI radars created a requirement for the armed forces to develop new techniques, strategies and equipment to counter them. This paper presents various modulation techniques used in generation of LPI signals and development of Time Frequency Algorithms to analyse those signals.

Keywords: anti-radiation missiles, cross terms, electronic attack, electronic intelligence, electronic warfare, intercept receiver, low probability of intercept

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3726 Probability-Based Damage Detection of Structures Using Model Updating with Enhanced Ideal Gas Molecular Movement Algorithm

Authors: M. R. Ghasemi, R. Ghiasi, H. Varaee


Model updating method has received increasing attention in damage detection structures based on measured modal parameters. Therefore, a probability-based damage detection (PBDD) procedure based on a model updating procedure is presented in this paper, in which a one-stage model-based damage identification technique based on the dynamic features of a structure is investigated. The presented framework uses a finite element updating method with a Monte Carlo simulation that considers the uncertainty caused by measurement noise. Enhanced ideal gas molecular movement (EIGMM) is used as the main algorithm for model updating. Ideal gas molecular movement (IGMM) is a multiagent algorithm based on the ideal gas molecular movement. Ideal gas molecules disperse rapidly in different directions and cover all the space inside. This is embedded in the high speed of molecules, collisions between them and with the surrounding barriers. In IGMM algorithm to accomplish the optimal solutions, the initial population of gas molecules is randomly generated and the governing equations related to the velocity of gas molecules and collisions between those are utilized. In this paper, an enhanced version of IGMM, which removes unchanged variables after specified iterations, is developed. The proposed method is implemented on two numerical examples in the field of structural damage detection. The results show that the proposed method can perform well and competitive in PBDD of structures.

Keywords: enhanced ideal gas molecular movement (EIGMM), ideal gas molecular movement (IGMM), model updating method, probability-based damage detection (PBDD), uncertainty quantification

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3725 Cooperative Spectrum Sensing Using Hybrid IWO/PSO Algorithm in Cognitive Radio Networks

Authors: Deepa Das, Susmita Das


Cognitive Radio (CR) is an emerging technology to combat the spectrum scarcity issues. This is achieved by consistently sensing the spectrum, and detecting the under-utilized frequency bands without causing undue interference to the primary user (PU). In soft decision fusion (SDF) based cooperative spectrum sensing, various evolutionary algorithms have been discussed, which optimize the weight coefficient vector for maximizing the detection performance. In this paper, we propose the hybrid invasive weed optimization and particle swarm optimization (IWO/PSO) algorithm as a fast and global optimization method, which improves the detection probability with a lesser sensing time. Then, the efficiency of this algorithm is compared with the standard invasive weed optimization (IWO), particle swarm optimization (PSO), genetic algorithm (GA) and other conventional SDF based methods on the basis of convergence and detection probability.

Keywords: cognitive radio, spectrum sensing, soft decision fusion, GA, PSO, IWO, hybrid IWO/PSO

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3724 Lane Detection Using Labeling Based RANSAC Algorithm

Authors: Yeongyu Choi, Ju H. Park, Ho-Youl Jung


In this paper, we propose labeling based RANSAC algorithm for lane detection. Advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) have been widely researched to avoid unexpected accidents. Lane detection is a necessary system to assist keeping lane and lane departure prevention. The proposed vision based lane detection method applies Canny edge detection, inverse perspective mapping (IPM), K-means algorithm, mathematical morphology operations and 8 connected-component labeling. Next, random samples are selected from each labeling region for RANSAC. The sampling method selects the points of lane with a high probability. Finally, lane parameters of straight line or curve equations are estimated. Through the simulations tested on video recorded at daytime and nighttime, we show that the proposed method has better performance than the existing RANSAC algorithm in various environments.

Keywords: Canny edge detection, k-means algorithm, RANSAC, inverse perspective mapping

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3723 Energy Detection Based Sensing and Primary User Traffic Classification for Cognitive Radio

Authors: Urvee B. Trivedi, U. D. Dalal


As wireless communication services grow quickly; the seriousness of spectrum utilization has been on the rise gradually. An emerging technology, cognitive radio has come out to solve today’s spectrum scarcity problem. To support the spectrum reuse functionality, secondary users are required to sense the radio frequency environment, and once the primary users are found to be active, the secondary users are required to vacate the channel within a certain amount of time. Therefore, spectrum sensing is of significant importance. Once sensing is done, different prediction rules apply to classify the traffic pattern of primary user. Primary user follows two types of traffic patterns: periodic and stochastic ON-OFF patterns. A cognitive radio can learn the patterns in different channels over time. Two types of classification methods are discussed in this paper, by considering edge detection and by using autocorrelation function. Edge detection method has a high accuracy but it cannot tolerate sensing errors. Autocorrelation-based classification is applicable in the real environment as it can tolerate some amount of sensing errors.

Keywords: cognitive radio (CR), probability of detection (PD), probability of false alarm (PF), primary user (PU), secondary user (SU), fast Fourier transform (FFT), signal to noise ratio (SNR)

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3722 Detection of Resistive Faults in Medium Voltage Overhead Feeders

Authors: Mubarak Suliman, Mohamed Hassan


Detection of downed conductors occurring with high fault resistance (reaching kilo-ohms) has always been a challenge, especially in countries like Saudi Arabia, on which earth resistivity is very high in general (reaching more than 1000 Ω-meter). The new approaches for the detection of resistive and high impedance faults are based on the analysis of the fault current waveform. These methods are still under research and development, and they are currently lacking security and dependability. The other approach is communication-based solutions which depends on voltage measurement at the end of overhead line branches and communicate the measured signals to substation feeder relay or a central control center. However, such a detection method is costly and depends on the availability of communication medium and infrastructure. The main objective of this research is to utilize the available standard protection schemes to increase the probability of detection of downed conductors occurring with a low magnitude of fault currents and at the same time avoiding unwanted tripping in healthy conditions and feeders. By specifying the operating region of the faulty feeder, use of tripping curve for discrimination between faulty and healthy feeders, and with proper selection of core balance current transformer (CBCT) and voltage transformers with fewer measurement errors, it is possible to set the pick-up of sensitive earth fault current to minimum values of few amps (i.e., Pick-up Settings = 3 A or 4 A, …) for the detection of earth faults with fault resistance more than (1 - 2 kΩ) for 13.8kV overhead network and more than (3-4) kΩ fault resistance in 33kV overhead network. By implementation of the outcomes of this study, the probability of detection of downed conductors is increased by the utilization of existing schemes (i.e., Directional Sensitive Earth Fault Protection).

Keywords: sensitive earth fault, zero sequence current, grounded system, resistive fault detection, healthy feeder

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3721 Quantum Mechanics Approach for Ruin Probability

Authors: Ahmet Kaya


Incoming cash flows and outgoing claims play an important role to determine how is companies’ profit or loss. In this matter, ruin probability provides to describe vulnerability of the companies against ruin. Quantum mechanism is one of the significant approaches to model ruin probability as stochastically. Using the Hamiltonian method, we have performed formalisation of quantum mechanics < x|e-ᵗᴴ|x' > and obtained the transition probability of 2x2 and 3x3 matrix as traditional and eigenvector basis where A is a ruin operator and H|x' > is a Schroedinger equation. This operator A and Schroedinger equation are defined by a Hamiltonian matrix H. As a result, probability of not to be in ruin can be simulated and calculated as stochastically.

Keywords: ruin probability, quantum mechanics, Hamiltonian technique, operator approach

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3720 Research on ARQ Transmission Technique in Mars Detection Telecommunications System

Authors: Zhongfei Cai, Hui He, Changsheng Li


This paper studied in the automatic repeat request (ARQ) transmission technique in Mars detection telecommunications system. An ARQ method applied to proximity-1 space link protocol was proposed by this paper. In order to ensure the efficiency of data reliable transmission, this ARQ method combined these different ARQ maneuvers characteristics. Considering the Mars detection communication environments, this paper analyzed the characteristics of the saturation throughput rate, packet dropping probability, average delay and energy efficiency with different ARQ algorithms. Combined thus results with the theories of ARQ transmission technique, an ARQ transmission project in Mars detection telecommunications system was established. The simulation results showed that this algorithm had excellent saturation throughput rate and energy efficiency with low complexity.

Keywords: ARQ, mars, CCSDS, proximity-1, deepspace

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3719 Rational Probabilistic Method for Calculating Thermal Cracking Risk of Mass Concrete Structures

Authors: Naoyuki Sugihashi, Toshiharu Kishi


The probability of occurrence of thermal cracks in mass concrete in Japan is evaluated by the cracking probability diagram that represents the relationship between the thermal cracking index and the probability of occurrence of cracks in the actual structure. In this paper, we propose a method to directly calculate the cracking probability, following a probabilistic theory by modeling the variance of tensile stress and tensile strength. In this method, the relationship between the variance of tensile stress and tensile strength, the thermal cracking index, and the cracking probability are formulated and presented. In addition, standard deviation of tensile stress and tensile strength was identified, and the method of calculating cracking probability in a general construction controlled environment was also demonstrated.

Keywords: thermal crack control, mass concrete, thermal cracking probability, durability of concrete, calculating method of cracking probability

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3718 The Modeling and Effectiveness Evaluation for Vessel Evasion to Acoustic Homing Torpedo

Authors: Li Minghui, Min Shaorong, Zhang Jun


This paper aims for studying the operational efficiency of surface warship’s motorized evasion to acoustic homing torpedo. It orderly developed trajectory model, self-guide detection model, vessel evasion model, as well as anti-torpedo error model in three-dimensional space to make up for the deficiency of precious researches analyzing two-dimensionally confrontational models. Then, making use of the Monte Carlo method, it carried out the simulation for the confrontation process of evasion in the environment of MATLAB. At last, it quantitatively analyzed the main factors which determine vessel’s survival probability. The results show that evasion relative bearing and speed will affect vessel’s survival probability significantly. Thus, choosing appropriate evasion relative bearing and speed according to alarming range and alarming relative bearing for torpedo, improving alarming range and positioning accuracy and reducing the response time against torpedo will improve the vessel’s survival probability significantly.

Keywords: acoustic homing torpedo, vessel evasion, monte carlo method, torpedo defense, vessel's survival probability

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3717 Applied Complement of Probability and Information Entropy for Prediction in Student Learning

Authors: Kennedy Efosa Ehimwenma, Sujatha Krishnamoorthy, Safiya Al‑Sharji


The probability computation of events is in the interval of [0, 1], which are values that are determined by the number of outcomes of events in a sample space S. The probability Pr(A) that an event A will never occur is 0. The probability Pr(B) that event B will certainly occur is 1. This makes both events A and B a certainty. Furthermore, the sum of probabilities Pr(E₁) + Pr(E₂) + … + Pr(Eₙ) of a finite set of events in a given sample space S equals 1. Conversely, the difference of the sum of two probabilities that will certainly occur is 0. This paper first discusses Bayes, the complement of probability, and the difference of probability for occurrences of learning-events before applying them in the prediction of learning objects in student learning. Given the sum of 1; to make a recommendation for student learning, this paper proposes that the difference of argMaxPr(S) and the probability of student-performance quantifies the weight of learning objects for students. Using a dataset of skill-set, the computational procedure demonstrates i) the probability of skill-set events that have occurred that would lead to higher-level learning; ii) the probability of the events that have not occurred that requires subject-matter relearning; iii) accuracy of the decision tree in the prediction of student performance into class labels and iv) information entropy about skill-set data and its implication on student cognitive performance and recommendation of learning.

Keywords: complement of probability, Bayes’ rule, prediction, pre-assessments, computational education, information theory

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3716 Profit-Based Artificial Neural Network (ANN) Trained by Migrating Birds Optimization: A Case Study in Credit Card Fraud Detection

Authors: Ashkan Zakaryazad, Ekrem Duman


A typical classification technique ranks the instances in a data set according to the likelihood of belonging to one (positive) class. A credit card (CC) fraud detection model ranks the transactions in terms of probability of being fraud. In fact, this approach is often criticized, because firms do not care about fraud probability but about the profitability or costliness of detecting a fraudulent transaction. The key contribution in this study is to focus on the profit maximization in the model building step. The artificial neural network proposed in this study works based on profit maximization instead of minimizing the error of prediction. Moreover, some studies have shown that the back propagation algorithm, similar to other gradient–based algorithms, usually gets trapped in local optima and swarm-based algorithms are more successful in this respect. In this study, we train our profit maximization ANN using the Migrating Birds optimization (MBO) which is introduced to literature recently.

Keywords: neural network, profit-based neural network, sum of squared errors (SSE), MBO, gradient descent

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3715 Modern Spectrum Sensing Techniques for Cognitive Radio Networks: Practical Implementation and Performance Evaluation

Authors: Antoni Ivanov, Nikolay Dandanov, Nicole Christoff, Vladimir Poulkov


Spectrum underutilization has made cognitive radio a promising technology both for current and future telecommunications. This is due to the ability to exploit the unused spectrum in the bands dedicated to other wireless communication systems, and thus, increase their occupancy. The essential function, which allows the cognitive radio device to perceive the occupancy of the spectrum, is spectrum sensing. In this paper, the performance of modern adaptations of the four most widely used spectrum sensing techniques namely, energy detection (ED), cyclostationary feature detection (CSFD), matched filter (MF) and eigenvalues-based detection (EBD) is compared. The implementation has been accomplished through the PlutoSDR hardware platform and the GNU Radio software package in very low Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) conditions. The optimal detection performance of the examined methods in a realistic implementation-oriented model is found for the common relevant parameters (number of observed samples, sensing time and required probability of false alarm).

Keywords: cognitive radio, dynamic spectrum access, GNU Radio, spectrum sensing

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3714 Quantum Mechanism Approach for Non-Ruin Probability and Comparison of Path Integral Method and Stochastic Simulations

Authors: Ahmet Kaya


Quantum mechanism is one of the most important approaches to calculating non-ruin probability. We apply standard Dirac notation to model given Hamiltonians. By using the traditional method and eigenvector basis, non-ruin probability is found for several examples. Also, non-ruin probability is calculated for two different Hamiltonian by using the tensor product. Finally, the path integral method is applied to the examples and comparison is made for stochastic simulations and path integral calculation.

Keywords: quantum physics, Hamiltonian system, path integral, tensor product, ruin probability

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3713 Efficient Signal Detection Using QRD-M Based on Channel Condition in MIMO-OFDM System

Authors: Jae-Jeong Kim, Ki-Ro Kim, Hyoung-Kyu Song


In this paper, we propose an efficient signal detector that switches M parameter of QRD-M detection scheme is proposed for MIMO-OFDM system. The proposed detection scheme calculates the threshold by 1-norm condition number and then switches M parameter of QRD-M detection scheme according to channel information. If channel condition is bad, the parameter M is set to high value to increase the accuracy of detection. If channel condition is good, the parameter M is set to low value to reduce complexity of detection. Therefore, the proposed detection scheme has better trade off between BER performance and complexity than the conventional detection scheme. The simulation result shows that the complexity of proposed detection scheme is lower than QRD-M detection scheme with similar BER performance.

Keywords: MIMO-OFDM, QRD-M, channel condition, BER

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3712 Reduced Complexity of ML Detection Combined with DFE

Authors: Jae-Hyun Ro, Yong-Jun Kim, Chang-Bin Ha, Hyoung-Kyu Song


In multiple input multiple output-orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (MIMO-OFDM) systems, many detection schemes have been developed to improve the error performance and to reduce the complexity. Maximum likelihood (ML) detection has optimal error performance but it has very high complexity. Thus, this paper proposes reduced complexity of ML detection combined with decision feedback equalizer (DFE). The error performance of the proposed detection scheme is higher than the conventional DFE. But the complexity of the proposed scheme is lower than the conventional ML detection.

Keywords: detection, DFE, MIMO-OFDM, ML

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3711 An Approaching Index to Evaluate a forward Collision Probability

Authors: Yuan-Lin Chen


This paper presents an approaching forward collision probability index (AFCPI) for alerting and assisting driver in keeping safety distance to avoid the forward collision accident in highway driving. The time to collision (TTC) and time headway (TH) are used to evaluate the TTC forward collision probability index (TFCPI) and the TH forward collision probability index (HFCPI), respectively. The Mamdani fuzzy inference algorithm is presented combining TFCPI and HFCPI to calculate the approaching collision probability index of the vehicle. The AFCPI is easier to understand for the driver who did not even have any professional knowledge in vehicle professional field. At the same time, the driver’s behavior is taken into account for suiting each driver. For the approaching index, the value 0 is indicating the 0% probability of forward collision, and the values 0.5 and 1 are indicating the 50% and 100% probabilities of forward collision, respectively. The AFCPI is useful and easy-to-understand for alerting driver to avoid the forward collision accidents when driving in highway.

Keywords: approaching index, forward collision probability, time to collision, time headway

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3710 An Architecture for New Generation of Distributed Intrusion Detection System Based on Preventive Detection

Authors: H. Benmoussa, A. A. El Kalam, A. Ait Ouahman


The design and implementation of intrusion detection systems (IDS) remain an important area of research in the security of information systems. Despite the importance and reputation of the current intrusion detection systems, their efficiency and effectiveness remain limited as they should include active defense approach to allow anticipating and predicting intrusions before their occurrence. Consequently, they must be readapted. For this purpose we suggest a new generation of distributed intrusion detection system based on preventive detection approach and using intelligent and mobile agents. Our architecture benefits from mobile agent features and addresses some of the issues with centralized and hierarchical models. Also, it presents advantages in terms of increasing scalability and flexibility.

Keywords: Intrusion Detection System (IDS), preventive detection, mobile agents, distributed architecture

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3709 Video Based Ambient Smoke Detection By Detecting Directional Contrast Decrease

Authors: Omair Ghori, Anton Stadler, Stefan Wilk, Wolfgang Effelsberg


Fire-related incidents account for extensive loss of life and material damage. Quick and reliable detection of occurring fires has high real world implications. Whereas a major research focus lies on the detection of outdoor fires, indoor camera-based fire detection is still an open issue. Cameras in combination with computer vision helps to detect flames and smoke more quickly than conventional fire detectors. In this work, we present a computer vision-based smoke detection algorithm based on contrast changes and a multi-step classification. This work accelerates computer vision-based fire detection considerably in comparison with classical indoor-fire detection.

Keywords: contrast analysis, early fire detection, video smoke detection, video surveillance

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3708 Determination of the Best Fit Probability Distribution for Annual Rainfall in Karkheh River at Iran

Authors: Karim Hamidi Machekposhti, Hossein Sedghi


This study was designed to find the best-fit probability distribution of annual rainfall based on 50 years sample (1966-2015) in the Karkheh river basin at Iran using six probability distributions: Normal, 2-Parameter Log Normal, 3-Parameter Log Normal, Pearson Type 3, Log Pearson Type 3 and Gumbel distribution. The best fit probability distribution was selected using Stormwater Management and Design Aid (SMADA) software and based on the Residual Sum of Squares (R.S.S) between observed and estimated values Based on the R.S.S values of fit tests, the Log Pearson Type 3 and then Pearson Type 3 distributions were found to be the best-fit probability distribution at the Jelogir Majin and Pole Zal rainfall gauging station. The annual values of expected rainfall were calculated using the best fit probability distributions and can be used by hydrologists and design engineers in future research at studied region and other region in the world.

Keywords: Log Pearson Type 3, SMADA, rainfall, Karkheh River

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3707 A Case Study on the Numerical-Probability Approach for Deep Excavation Analysis

Authors: Komeil Valipourian


Urban advances and the growing need for developing infrastructures has increased the importance of deep excavations. In this study, after the introducing probability analysis as an important issue, an attempt has been made to apply it for the deep excavation project of Bangkok’s Metro as a case study. For this, the numerical probability model has been developed based on the Finite Difference Method and Monte Carlo sampling approach. The results indicate that disregarding the issue of probability in this project will result in an inappropriate design of the retaining structure. Therefore, probabilistic redesign of the support is proposed and carried out as one of the applications of probability analysis. A 50% reduction in the flexural strength of the structure increases the failure probability just by 8% in the allowable range and helps improve economic conditions, while maintaining mechanical efficiency. With regard to the lack of efficient design in most deep excavations, by considering geometrical and geotechnical variability, an attempt was made to develop an optimum practical design standard for deep excavations based on failure probability. On this basis, a practical relationship is presented for estimating the maximum allowable horizontal displacement, which can help improve design conditions without developing the probability analysis.

Keywords: numerical probability modeling, deep excavation, allowable maximum displacement, finite difference method (FDM)

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