Search results for: reading comprehension
1012 Salient Issues in Reading Comprehension Difficulties Faced by Primary School Children
Authors: Janet Fernandez
Abstract:Reading is both for aesthetic and efferent purposes. In order for reading comprehension to take place, the reader needs to be able to make meaningful connections and enjoy the reading process. The notion of reading comprehension is discussed along with the plausible causes of poor reading comprehension abilities among primary school children. Among the major contributing causes are imaging, lack of schemata, selection of reading materials, and habits of the readers. Instruction methods are an integral part of making reading comprehension a meaningful experience, hence several models are presented for the classroom practitioner. Suggestions on how primary school children can improve their reading comprehension skills are offered.
Keywords: children, improve, reading comprehension, meaningful strategiesProcedia PDF Downloads 402
1011 English Reading Preferences among Primary Pupils
Authors: Jezza Mae T. Francisco, Marianet R. Delos Santos, Crisjame C. Toribio
Abstract:This study aims to determine the reading preference for English enrichment and reading comprehension among primary students and the difference in the reading preference and comprehension for English enrichment among primary students. This study employed a Descriptive-Quantitative Correlational Research Design. This study yielded the following findings: (1) It reveals that primary students got fair on their reading comprehension, and (2) It shows that there is no significant relationship between the reading preference for English enrichment and reading comprehension of the students. It is safe to conclude that the students’ reading preference is growing evidently in various milieus. This can inform the English department curriculum planners to consider their students’ text preferences that interest them to maximize engagement within a dynamic interactive learning process.
Keywords: reading preferences, reading comprehension, primary student, English enrichmentProcedia PDF Downloads 29
1010 The Correlation between Self-Regulated Learning Strategies and Reading Proficiency
Authors: Nguyen Thu Ha, Vu Viet Phuong, Do Thi Tieu Yen, Nguyen Thi Thanh Ha
Abstract:This semi-experimental research investigated the correlation between 42 English as a foreign language (EFL) sophomores' self-regulated learning strategies (SRL) use and their reading comprehension in the Vietnamese context. The analysis from TOEIC reading tests with SPSS 25.0 indicated that there are substantial differences between the post-test reading scores between the experimental group and the control group; therefore, SRL impacts the reading comprehension of EFL participants. Contrary to the alternative hypothesis, teaching learners SRL approaches had a statistically significant influence on reading comprehension. The findings may aid educators in teaching reading comprehension as an essential skill and in using SRL to improve reading comprehension and achievement and enhance reading comprehension aids for language students and instructors. They should equip educators with a variety of instructional strategies which assist academics in preparing learners for lifetime language study and independence. Moreover, the results might encourage educators, administrators, and policymakers to capitalize on the effects of teaching SRL strategies by providing EFL teachers with preparation programs and experiences that help them improve their teaching methods and strategies, especially when teaching reading comprehension.
Keywords: correlation, reading proficiency, self-regulated learning strategies, SRL, TOEIC reading comprehensionProcedia PDF Downloads 24
1009 Communicative Language Teaching Technique: A Neglected Approach in Reading Comprehension Instruction
Authors: Olumide Yusuf Jimoh
Abstract:Reading comprehension is an interactive and purposeful process of getting meaning from and bringing meaning to a text. Over the years, teachers of the English Language (in Nigeria) have been glued to the monotonous method of making students read comprehension passages silently and then answer the questions that follow such passages without making the reading session interactive. Hence, students often find such exercises monotonous and boring. Consequently, students' interest in language learning continues to dwindle, and this often affects their overall academic performance. Relying on Communicative Accommodation Theory therefore, the study employed the qualitative research design method to x-ray Communicative Language Teaching Approach (CLTA) in reading comprehension. Moreover, techniques such as the Genuinely Collaborative Reading Approach (GCRA), Jigsaw reading, Pre-reading, and Post-reading tasks were examined. The researcher submitted that effective reading comprehension could not be done passively. Students must respond to what they read; they must interact not only with the materials being read but also with one another and with the teacher; this can be achieved by developing communicative and interactive reading programs.
Keywords: collaborative reading approach, communicative teaching, interactive reading program, pre-reading task, reading comprehensionProcedia PDF Downloads 31
1008 Integrated Models of Reading Comprehension: Understanding to Impact Teaching—The Teacher’s Central Role
Authors: Sally A. Brown
Abstract:Over the last 30 years, researchers have developed models or frameworks to provide a more structured understanding of the reading comprehension process. Cognitive information processing models and social cognitive theories both provide frameworks to inform reading comprehension instruction. The purpose of this paper is to (a) provide an overview of the historical development of reading comprehension theory, (b) review the literature framed by cognitive information processing, social cognitive, and integrated reading comprehension theories, and (c) demonstrate how these frameworks inform instruction. As integrated models of reading can guide the interpretation of various factors related to student learning, an integrated framework designed by the researcher will be presented. Results indicated that features of cognitive processing and social cognitivism theory—represented in the integrated framework—highlight the importance of the role of the teacher. This model can aid teachers in not only improving reading comprehension instruction but in identifying areas of challenge for students.
Keywords: explicit instruction, integrated models of reading comprehension, reading comprehension, teacher’s roleProcedia PDF Downloads 17
1007 The Effect of Metacognitive Think-Aloud Strategy on Form 1 Pupils’ Reading Comprehension Skills via DELIMa Platform
Authors: Fatin Khairani Khairul 'Azam
Abstract:Reading comprehension requires the formation of an articulate mental representation of the information in a text. It involves three interdepended elements—the reader, the text, and the activity, all situated into an extensive sociocultural context. Incorporating metacognitive think-aloud strategy into teaching reading comprehension would improve learners’ reading comprehension skills as it helps to monitor their thinking as they read. Furthermore, by integrating Digital Educational Learning Initiative Malaysia (DELIMa) platform in teaching reading comprehension, it can make the process interactive and fun. A quasi-experimental one-group pre-test post-test design was used to identify the effectiveness of using metacognitive think-aloud strategy via DELIMa platform in improving pupils’ reading comprehension performance and their perceptions towards reading comprehension. The participants of the study comprised 82 of form 1 pupils from a secondary school in Pasir Gudang, Johor, Malaysia. All participants were required to sit for pre-and post-tests to track their reading comprehension performance and perceptions. The findings revealed that incorporating metacognitive think-aloud strategy is an effective strategy in teaching reading comprehension as the performance of pupils in reading comprehension and their perceptions towards reading comprehension were improved during the post tests. It is hoped that the findings of the study would be useful to the teachers incorporating the same strategy in teaching to improve pupils' reading skills. It is suggested that future study should involve the motivation factor of the participants on incorporating think-aloud strategy into teaching reading comprehension as well.
Keywords: DELIMa Platform, ESL Learners, Metacognitive Strategy, Pupils' Perceptions, Reading Comprehension, Think-Aloud StrategyProcedia PDF Downloads 123
1006 Using WebQuest for Developing English Reading Comprehension Skills for Preparatory Experimental School Students: Proposed Design
Authors: Sarah Hamdy Abd-Al Hamid Seyam
Abstract:The research aimed investigating the effect of using web quest on developing English reading comprehension skills for preparatory experimental school students. The descriptive design was adopted in the study. The tools of the study are represented in: a checklist for the English reading comprehension skills and a test of the English reading comprehension skills for the first year preparatory experimental school students. Results of the study were discussed in relation to various factors that affect the learning process. Finally the research presented applicable contributions according to using web quest in teaching English as a foreign language generally and improving reading comprehension in particular.
Keywords: English as a second language, preparatory experimental schools, reading comprehension, WebQuestProcedia PDF Downloads 259
1005 The Development of Ability in Reading Comprehension Based on Metacognitive Strategies for Mattayom 3 Students
Authors: Kanlaya Ratanasuphakarn, Suttipong Boonphadung
Abstract:The research on the development of ability in reading comprehension based on metacognitive strategies aimed to (1) improve the students’development of ability in reading comprehension based on metacognitive strategies, (2) evaluate the students’ satisfaction on using metacognitive strategies in learning as a tool developing the ability in reading comprehension. Forty-eight of Mattayom 3 students who have enrolled in the subject of research for learning development of semester 2 in 2013 were purposively selected as the research cohort. The research tools were lesson plans for reading comprehension, pre-posttest and satisfaction questionnaire that were approved as content validity and reliability (IOC=.66-1.00,0.967). The research found that the development of ability in reading comprehension of the research samples before using metacognitive strategies in learning activities was in the normal high level. Additionally, the research discovered that the students’ satisfaction of the research cohort after applying model in learning activities appeared to be high level of satisfaction on using metacognitive strategies in learning as a tool for the development of ability in reading comprehension.
Keywords: development of ability, metacognitive strategies, satisfaction, reading comprehensionProcedia PDF Downloads 231
1004 Background Knowledge and Reading Comprehension in ELT Classes: A Pedagogical Perspective
Authors: Davoud Ansari Kejal, Meysam Sabour
Abstract:For long, there has been a belief that a reader can easily comprehend a text if he is strong enough in vocabulary and grammatical knowledge but there was no account for the ability of understanding different subjects based on readers’ understanding of the surrounding world which is called world background knowledge. This paper attempts to investigate the reading comprehension process applying the schema theory as an influential factor in comprehending texts, in order to prove the important role of background knowledge in reading comprehension. Based on the discussion, some teaching methods are suggested for employing world background knowledge for an elaborated teaching of reading comprehension in an active learning environment in EFL classes.
Keywords: background knowledge, reading comprehension, schema theory, ELT classesProcedia PDF Downloads 385
1003 Developing the Skills of Reading Comprehension of Learners of English as a Second Language
Authors: Indu Gamage
Abstract:Though commonly utilized as a language improvement technique, reading has not been fully employed by both language teachers and learners to develop reading comprehension skills in English as a second language. In a Sri Lankan context, this area has to be delved deep into as the learners’ show more propensity to analyze. Reading comprehension is an area that most language teachers and learners struggle with though it appears easy. Most ESL learners engage in reading tasks without being properly aware of the objective of doing reading comprehension. It is observed that when doing reading tasks, the language learners’ concern is more on the meanings of individual words than on the overall comprehension of the given text. The passiveness with which the ESL learners engage themselves in reading comprehension makes reading a tedious task for the learner thereby giving the learner a sense of disappointment at the end. Certain reading tasks take the form of translations. The active cognitive participation of the learner in the mode of using productive strategies for predicting, employing schemata and using contextual clues seems quite less. It was hypothesized that the learners’ lack of knowledge of the productive strategies of reading was the major obstacle that makes reading comprehension a tedious task for them. This study is based on a group of 30 tertiary students who read English only as a fundamental requirement for their degree. They belonged to the Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences of the University of Ruhuna, Sri Lanka. Almost all learners hailed from areas where English was hardly utilized in their day to day conversations. The study is carried out in the mode of a questionnaire to check their opinions on reading and a test to check whether the learners are using productive strategies of reading when doing reading comprehension tasks. The test comprised reading questions covering major productive strategies for reading. Then the results were analyzed to see the degree of their active engagement in comprehending the text. The findings depicted the validity of the hypothesis as grounds behind the difficulties related to reading comprehension.
Keywords: reading, comprehension, skills, reading strategiesProcedia PDF Downloads 110
1002 Using 'Know, Want to Know, Learned' Strategy to Enhance the Seventh C Grade Students' Reading Comprehension Achievement at SMPN 1 Mumbulsari
Authors: Abdul Rofiq Badril Rizal M. Z.
Abstract:Reading becomes one of the most important skills in teaching and learning English. The purpose of this research was to improve the students' active participation, and reading comprehension achievement by using Know, Want to Know, Learned (KWL) strategy. The research design was Classroom Action Research. The area and participants of this research were chosen by using purposive method. The data were collected by observation, a reading comprehension test, interview, and documentation. The results showed that there was significant improvement in Cycle 1 to Cycle 2 of the research. In cycle 1, the students’ active participation increased 49.77% from 28% to 77.77. In addition, in cycle 2, the students’ active participation also increased by 14.17% from 77.77% to 81.94%. The students’ reading comprehension achievement also increased by 52.14% from 25% to 77.14% in Cycle 1 and increased by 5.71% from 77.14% to 82.85% in cycle 2. It indicated that using Know, Want to Know, Learned (KWL) strategy could enhance the Seventh C grade students’ descriptive text reading comprehension achievement, and active participation.
Keywords: active participation, reading comprehension, classroom action research, Indonesian folktalesProcedia PDF Downloads 54
1001 The Role of Vocabulary in Reading Comprehension
Authors: Engku Haliza Engku Ibrahim, Isarji Sarudin, Ainon Jariah Muhamad
Abstract:It is generally agreed that many factors contribute to one’s reading comprehension and there is consensus that vocabulary size one of the main factors. This study explores the relationship between second language learners’ vocabulary size and their reading comprehension scores. 130 Malay pre-university students of a public university participated in this study. They were students of an intensive English language programme doing preparatory English courses to pursue bachelors degree in English. A quantitative research method was employed based on the Vocabulary Levels Test by Nation (1990) and the reading comprehension score of the in-house English Proficiency Test. A review of the literature indicates that a somewhat positive correlation is to be expected though findings of this study can only be explicated once the final analysis has been carried out. This is an ongoing study and it is anticipated that results of this research will be finalized in the near future. The findings will help provide beneficial implications for the prediction of reading comprehension performance. It also has implications for the teaching of vocabulary in the ESL context. A better understanding of the relationship between vocabulary size and reading comprehension scores will enhance teachers’ and students’ awareness of the importance of vocabulary acquisition in the L2 classroom.
Keywords: vocabulary size, vocabulary learning, reading comprehension, ESLProcedia PDF Downloads 380
1000 The Effects of Consistently Reading Whole Novels on the Reading Comprehension of Adolescents with Developmental Disabilities
Authors: Pierre Brocas, Konstantinos Rizos
Abstract:This study was conducted to test the effects of introducing a consistent pace and volume of reading whole narratives on adolescents' reading comprehension with a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The study was inspired by previous studies conducted on poorer adolescent readers in English schools. The setting was a Free Special Education Needs school in England. Nine male and one female student, between 11-13 years old, across two classrooms participated in the study. All students had a diagnosis of ASD, and all were classified as advanced learners. The classroom teachers introduced reading a whole challenging novel in 12 weeks with consistency as the independent variable. The study used a before-and-after design of testing the participants’ reading comprehension using standardised tests. The participants made a remarkable 1.8 years’ mean progress on the standardised tests of reading comprehension, with three participants making 4+ years progress. The researchers hypothesise that reading novels aloud and at a fast pace in each lesson, that are challenging but appropriate to the participants’ learning level, may have a beneficial effect on the reading comprehension of adolescents with learning difficulties, giving them a more engaged uninterrupted reading experience over a sustained period. However, more studies need to be conducted to test the independent variable across a bigger and more diverse population with a stronger design.
Keywords: autism, reading comprehension, developmental disabilities, narrativesProcedia PDF Downloads 130
999 Examining Reading Comprehension Skills Based on Different Reading Comprehension Frameworks and Taxonomies
Authors: Seval Kula-Kartal
Abstract:Developing students’ reading comprehension skills is an aim that is difficult to accomplish and requires to follow long-term and systematic teaching and assessment processes. In these processes, teachers need tools to provide guidance to them on what reading comprehension is and which comprehension skills they should develop. Due to a lack of clear and evidence-based frameworks defining reading comprehension skills, especially in Turkiye, teachers and students mostly follow various processes in the classrooms without having an idea about what their comprehension goals are and what those goals mean. Since teachers and students do not have a clear view of comprehension targets, strengths, and weaknesses in students’ comprehension skills, the formative feedback processes cannot be managed in an effective way. It is believed that detecting and defining influential comprehension skills may provide guidance both to teachers and students during the feedback process. Therefore, in the current study, some of the reading comprehension frameworks that define comprehension skills operationally were examined. The aim of the study is to develop a simple and clear framework that can be used by teachers and students during their teaching, learning, assessment, and feedback processes. The current study is qualitative research in which documents related to reading comprehension skills were analyzed. Therefore, the study group consisted of recourses and frameworks which made big contributions to theoretical and operational definitions of reading comprehension. A content analysis was conducted on the resources included in the study group. To determine the validity of the themes and sub-categories revealed as the result of content analysis, three educational assessment experts were asked to examine the content analysis results. The Fleiss’ Cappa coefficient revealed that there is consistency among themes and categories defined by three different experts. The content analysis of the reading comprehension frameworks revealed that comprehension skills could be examined under four different themes. The first and second themes focus on understanding information given explicitly or implicitly within a text. The third theme includes skills used by the readers to make connections between their personal knowledge and the information given in the text. Lastly, the fourth theme focus on skills used by readers to examine the text with a critical view. The results suggested that fundamental reading comprehension skills can be examined under four themes. Teachers are recommended to use these themes in their reading comprehension teaching and assessment processes. Acknowledgment: This research is supported by Pamukkale University Scientific Research Unit within the project, whose title is Developing A Reading Comprehension Rubric.
Keywords: reading comprehension, assessing reading comprehension, comprehension taxonomies, educational assessmentProcedia PDF Downloads 17
998 Teachers and Learners Perceptions on the Impact of Different Test Procedures on Reading: A Case Study
Authors: Bahloul Amel
Abstract:The main aim of this research was to investigate the perspectives of English language teachers and learners on the effect of test techniques on reading comprehension, test performance and assessment. The research has also aimed at finding the differences between teacher and learner perspectives, specifying the test techniques which have the highest effect, investigating the other factors affecting reading comprehension, and comparing the results with the similar studies. In order to achieve these objectives, perspectives and findings of different researchers were reviewed, two different questionnaires were prepared to collect data for the perspectives of teachers and learners, the questionnaires were applied to 26 learners and 8 teachers from the University of Batna (Algeria), and quantitative and qualitative data analysis of the results were done. The results and analysis of the results show that different test techniques affect reading comprehension, test performance and assessment at different percentages rates.
Keywords: reading comprehension, reading assessment, test performance, test techniquesProcedia PDF Downloads 374
997 The Comparative Effect of Neuro-Linguistic Programming (NLP), Critical Thinking and a Combination of Both On EFL Learners' Reading Comprehension
Authors: Mona Khabiri, Fahimeh Farahani
Abstract:The present study was an attempt to investigate the comparative effect of teaching NLP, critical thinking, and a combination of NLP and critical thinking on EFL learners' reading comprehension. To fulfill the purpose of this study, a group of 82 female and male intermediate EFL learners at a Language School in Iran took a piloted sample PET as a proficiency test and 63 of them were selected as homogenous learners and were randomly assigned to three experimental groups. Within a treatment process of 10 sessions the teacher/researcher provided the participants of each group with handouts, explanations, practices, homework, and questionnaires on techniques of NLP, critical thinking, and a combination of both. During these 10 sessions, 10 same reading comprehension texts extracted from the multi-skill course book suggested by the language school where thought to the participants of each experimental group using skills and strategies of NLP, critical thinking, and a combination of both. On the eleventh session, the participants sat for a reading posttest. The results of one-way ANOVA showed no significant difference among the three groups in terms of reading comprehension. Justifications and implications for the findings of the study and suggestions for further research are presented.
Keywords: neuro-linguistic programming (NLP), critical thinking, reading comprehensionProcedia PDF Downloads 360
996 Investigating the Effect of Juncture on Comprehension among Adult Learners of English in Nigeria
Authors: Emmanuel Uba, Oluwasegun Omidiora, Eugenia Abiodun-Eniayekan
Abstract:The role of phonology on reading comprehension is long established in the literature. However, the vast majority of studies on the relationship between phonology and reading or comprehension among adults involve investigating the role of intonation, stress, and segmental knowledge on understanding texts. Not much attention is paid to junctural observation and its effect on the interpretation of texts. This study, therefore, presents a preliminary case-study investigation of the effect of juncture on comprehension of texts among adult Nigerian learners of English. Eighty adult learners of English in Nigeria were presented with fifteen seemingly ambiguous sentences to interpret. The sentences were structured in a way that pausing at different points would produce different interpretations. The results reveal that wrong application of pause is capable of affecting comprehension even when other phonological factors such as stress and intonation are observed properly.
Keywords: comprehension, juncture, phonology, readingProcedia PDF Downloads 226
995 Reading in Multiple Arabic's: Effects of Diglossia and Orthography
Authors: Aula Khatteb Abu-Liel
Abstract:The study investigated the effects of diglossia and orthography on reading in Arabic, manipulating reading in Spoken Arabic (SA), using Arabizi, in which it is written using Latin letters on computers/phones, and the two forms of the conventional written form Modern Standard Arabic (MSA): vowelled (shallow) and unvowelled (deep). 77 skilled readers in 8th grade performed oral reading of single words and narrative and expository texts, and silent reading comprehension of both genres of text. Oral reading and comprehension revealed different patterns. Single words and texts were read faster and more accurately in unvoweled MSA, slowest and least accurately in vowelled MSA, and in-between in Arabizi. Comprehension was highest for vowelled MSA. Narrative texts were better than expository texts in Arabizi with the opposite pattern in MSA. The results suggest that frequency of the type of texts and the way in which phonology is encoded affect skilled reading.
Keywords: Arabic, Arabize, computer mediated communication, diglossia, modern standard ArabicProcedia PDF Downloads 67
994 Effects of Computer-Mediated Dictionaries on Reading Comprehension and Vocabulary Acquisition
Authors: Mohamed Amin Mekheimer
Abstract:This study aimed to investigate the effects of paper-based monolingual, pop-up and type-in electronic dictionaries on improving reading comprehension and incidental vocabulary acquisition and retention in an EFL context. It tapped into how computer-mediated dictionaries may have facilitated/impeded reading comprehension and vocabulary acquisition. Findings showed differential effects produced by the three treatments compared with the control group. Specifically, it revealed that the pop-up dictionary condition had the shortest average vocabulary searching time, vocabulary and text reading time, yet with less than the type-in dictionary group but more than the book dictionary group in terms of frequent dictionary 'look-ups' (p<.0001). In addition, ANOVA analyses also showed that text reading time differed significantly across all four treatments, and so did reading comprehension. Vocabulary acquisition was reported as enhanced in the three treatments rather than in the control group, but still with insignificant differences across the three treatments, yet with more differential effects in favour of the pop-up condition. Data also assert that participants preferred the pop-up e-dictionary more than the type-in and paper-based groups. Explanations of the findings vis-à-vis the cognitive load theory were presented. Pedagogical implications and suggestions for further research were forwarded at the end.
Keywords: computer-mediated dictionaries, type-in dictionaries, pop-up dictionaries, reading comprehension, vocabulary acquisitionProcedia PDF Downloads 374
993 Foreign Language Reading Comprehenmsion and the Linguistic Intervention Program
Authors: Silvia Hvozdíková, Eva Stranovská
Abstract:The purpose of the article is to discuss the results of the research conducted during the period of two semesters paying attention to selected factors of foreign language reading comprehension through the means of Linguistic Intervention Program. The Linguistic Intervention Program was designed for the purpose of the current research. It refers to such method of foreign language teaching which emphasized active social learning, creative drama strategies, self-directed learning. The research sample consisted of 360 respondents, foreign language learners ranging from 13 – 17 years of age. Specifically designed questionnaire and a standardized foreign language reading comprehension tests were applied to serve the purpose. The outcomes of the research recorded significant results towards significant relationship between selected elements of the Linguistic Intervention Program and the academic achievements in the factors of reading comprehension.
Keywords: foreign language learning, linguistic intervention program, reading comprehension, social learningProcedia PDF Downloads 57
992 Reading Literacy and Methods of Improving Reading
Authors: Iva Košek Bartošová, Andrea Jokešová, Eva Kozlová, Helena Matějová
Abstract:The paper presents results of a research team from Faculty of Education, University of Hradec Králové in the Czech Republic. It introduces with the most reading methods used in the 1st classes of a primary school and presents results of a pilot research focused on mastering reading techniques and the quality of reading comprehension of pupils in the first half of a school year during training in teaching reading by an analytic-synthetic method and by a genetic method. These methods of practicing reading skills are the most used ones in the Czech Republic. During the school year 2015/16 there has been a measurement made of two groups of pupils of the 1st year and monitoring of quantitative and qualitative parameters of reading pupils’ outputs by several methods. Both of these methods are based on different theoretical basis and each of them has a specific educational and methodical procedure. This contribution represents results during a piloting project and draws pilot conclusions which will be verified in the subsequent broader research at the end of the school year of the first class of primary school.
Keywords: analytic-synthetic method of reading, genetic method of reading, reading comprehension, reading literacy, reading methods, reading speedProcedia PDF Downloads 195
991 Reading Strategy Instruction in Secondary Schools in China
Authors: Leijun Zhang
Abstract:Reading literacy has become a powerful tool for academic success and an essential goal of education. The ability to read is not only fundamental for pupils’ academic success but also a prerequisite for successful participation in today’s vastly expanding multi-literate textual environment. It is also important to recognize that, in many educational settings, students are expected to learn a foreign/second language for successful participation in the increasingly globalized world. Therefore, it is crucial to help learners become skilled foreign-language readers. Research indicates that students’ reading comprehension can be significantly improved through explicit instruction of multiple reading strategies. Despite the wealth of research on how to enhance learners’ reading comprehension achievement by identifying an enormous range of reading strategies and techniques for assisting students in comprehending specific texts, relatively scattered studies have centered on whether these reading comprehension strategies and techniques are used in classrooms, especially in Chinese academic settings. Given the central role of ‘the teacher’ in reading instruction, the study investigates the degree of importance that EFL teachers attach to reading comprehension strategies and their classroom employment of those strategies in secondary schools in China. It also explores the efficiency of reading strategy instruction on pupils’ reading comprehension performance. As a mix-method study, the analysis drew on data from a quantitative survey and interviews with seven teachers. The study revealed that the EFL teachers had positive attitudes toward the use of cognitive strategies despite their insufficient knowledge about and limited attention to the metacognitive strategies and supporting strategies. Regarding the selection of reading strategies for instruction, the mandated curriculum and high-stakes examinations, text features and demands, teaching preparation programs and their own EFL reading experiences were the major criteria in their responses, while few teachers took into account the learner needs in their choice of reading strategies. Although many teachers agreed upon the efficiency of reading strategy instruction in developing students’ reading comprehension competence, three challenges were identified in their implementation of the strategy instruction. The study provides some insights into reading strategy instruction in EFL contexts and proposes implications for curriculum innovation, teacher professional development, and reading instruction research.
Keywords: reading comprehension strategies, EFL reading instruction, language teacher cognition, teacher educationProcedia PDF Downloads 32
990 Using Metacognitive Strategies in Reading Comprehension by EFL Students
Authors: Simin Sadeghi-Saeb
Abstract:Metacognitive strategies consistently play important roles in reading comprehension. The metacognitive strategies involve the active monitoring and consequent regulation and orchestration of the cognitive processes in relation to the cognitive objects or data on which they bear. In this paper, the effect of instruction in using metacognitive strategies on reading academic materials, type of metacognitive strategies were mostly used by college university students before and after the instruction and the level they use those strategies before and after the instruction were studied. For these aims, 50 female college students were chosen. Then, they were divided randomly into two groups, experimental and control groups. At first session, students in both groups took the standard TOFEL exam. After the pre-test had been administered, the instruction began. After treatment, a post-test was taken. It is useful to state that after pre-test and post-test the same questionnaire was handed to the students of experimental group. The results of this research show that the instruction of metacognitive strategies has positive effect on the students' scores in reading comprehension tests. Furthermore, it showed that before and after the instruction, the students' usage of metacognitive strategies changed. Also, it demonstrated that the instruction affected the students' level of metacognitive strategies' usage.
Keywords: EFL students, English reading comprehension, instruction, metacognitive strategiesProcedia PDF Downloads 237
989 Developing Second Language Learners’ Reading Comprehension through Content and Language Integrated Learning
Authors: Kaine Gulozer
Abstract:A strong methodological conception in the practice of teaching, content, and language integrated learning (CLIL) is adapted to boost efficiency in the second language (L2) instruction with a range of proficiency levels. This study aims to investigate whether the incorporation of two different mediums of meaningful CLIL reading activities (in-school and out-of-school settings) influence L2 students’ development of comprehension skills differently. CLIL based instructional methodology was adopted and total of 50 preparatory year students (N=50, 25 students for each proficiency level) from two distinct language proficiency learners (elementary and intermediate) majoring in engineering faculties were recruited for the study. Both qualitative and quantitative methods through a post-test design were adopted. Data were collected through a questionnaire, a reading comprehension test and a semi-structured interview addressed to the two proficiency groups. The results show that both settings in relation to the development of reading comprehension are beneficial, whereas the impact of the reading activities conducted in school settings was higher at the elementary language level of students than that of the one conducted out-of-class settings based on the reported interview results. This study suggests that the incorporation of meaningful CLIL reading activities in both settings for both proficiency levels could create students’ self-awareness of their language learning process and the sense of ownership in successful improvements of field-specific reading comprehension. Further potential suggestions and implications of the study were discussed.
Keywords: content and language integrated learning, in-school setting, language proficiency, out-of-school setting, reading comprehensionProcedia PDF Downloads 80
988 Investigating Reading Comprehension Proficiency and Self-Efficacy among Algerian EFL Students within Collaborative Strategic Reading Approach and Attributional Feedback Intervention
Authors: Nezha Badi
Abstract:It has been shown in the literature that Algerian university students suffer from low levels of reading comprehension proficiency, which hinder their overall proficiency in English. This low level is mainly related to the methodology of teaching reading which is employed by the teacher in the classroom (a teacher-centered environment), as well as students’ poor sense of self-efficacy to undertake reading comprehension activities. Arguably, what is needed is an approach necessary for enhancing students’ self-beliefs about their abilities to deal with different reading comprehension activities. This can be done by providing them with opportunities to take responsibility for their own learning (learners’ autonomy). As a result of learning autonomy, learners’ beliefs about their abilities to deal with certain language tasks may increase, and hence, their language learning ability. Therefore, this experimental research study attempts to assess the extent to which an integrated approach combining one particular reading approach known as ‘collaborative strategic reading’ (CSR), and teacher’s attributional feedback (on students’ reading performance and strategy use) can improve the reading comprehension skill and the sense of self-efficacy of EFL Algerian university students. It also seeks to examine students’ main reasons for their successful or unsuccessful achievements in reading comprehension activities, and whether students’ attributions for their reading comprehension outcomes can be modified after exposure to the instruction. To obtain the data, different tools including a reading comprehension test, questionnaires, an observation, an interview, and learning logs were used with 105 second year Algerian EFL university students. The sample of the study was divided into three groups; one control group (with no treatment), one experimental group (CSR group) who received a CSR instruction, and a second intervention group (CSR Plus group) who received teacher’s attribution feedback in addition to the CSR intervention. Students in the CSR Plus group received the same experiment as the CSR group using the same tools, except that they were asked to keep learning logs, for which teacher’s feedback on reading performance and strategy use was provided. The results of this study indicate that the CSR and the attributional feedback intervention was effective in improving students’ reading comprehension proficiency and sense of self-efficacy. However, there was not a significant change in students’ adaptive and maladaptive attributions for their success and failure d from the pre-test to the post-test phase. Analysis of the perception questionnaire, the interview, and the learning logs shows that students have positive perceptions about the CSR and the attributional feedback instruction. Based on the findings, this study, therefore, seeks to provide EFL teachers in general and Algerian EFL university teachers in particular with pedagogical implications on how to teach reading comprehension to their students to help them achieve well and feel more self-efficacious in reading comprehension activities, and in English language learning more generally.
Keywords: attributions, attributional feedback, collaborative strategic reading, self-efficacyProcedia PDF Downloads 66
987 Effect of Two Transactional Instructional Strategies on Primary School Pupils’ Achievement in English Language Vocabulary and Reading Comprehension in Ibadan Metropolis, Nigeria
Authors: Eniola Akande
Abstract:Introduction: English vocabulary and reading comprehension are core to academic achievement in many school subjects. Deficiency in both accounts for dismal performance in internal and external examinations among primary school pupils in Ibadan Metropolis, Nigeria. Previous studies largely focused on factors influencing pupils’ achievement in English vocabulary and reading comprehension. In spite of what literature has shown, the problem still persists, implying the need for other kinds of intervention. This study was therefore carried out to determine the effect of two transactional strategies Picture Walk (PW) and Know-Want to Learn-Learnt (KWL) on primary four pupils’ achievement in English vocabulary and reading comprehension in Ibadan Metropolis. The moderating effects of gender and learning style were also examined. Methodology: The study was anchored on Rosenblatt’s Transactional Reading and Piaget’s Cognitive Development theories; pretest-posttest control group quasi-experimental design with 3x2x3 factorial matrix was adopted. Six public primary schools were purposively selected based on the availability of qualified English language teachers in Primary Education Studies. Six intact classes (one per school) with a total of 101 primary four pupils (48 males and 53 females) participated. The intact classes were randomly assigned to PW (27), KWL (44) and conventional (30) groups. Instruments used were English Vocabulary (r=0.83), Reading Comprehension (r=0.84) achievement tests, Pupils’ Learning Style Preference Scale (r=0.93) and instructional guides. Treatment lasted six weeks. Data were analysed using the Descriptive statistics, Analysis of Covariance and Bonferroni post-hoc test at 0.05 level of significance. The mean age was 8.86±0.84 years. Result: Treatment had a significant main effect on pupils’ reading comprehension (F(2,82)=3.17), but not on English vocabulary. Participants in KWL obtained the highest post achievement means score in reading comprehension (8.93), followed by PW (8.06) and control (7.21) groups. Pupils’ learning style had a significant main effect on pupils’ achievement in reading comprehension (F(2,82)=4.41), but not on English vocabulary. Pupils with preference for tactile learning style had the highest post achievement mean score in reading comprehension (9.40), followed by the auditory (7.43) and the visual learning style (7.37) groups. Gender had no significant main effect on English vocabulary and reading comprehension. There was no significant two-way interaction effect of treatment and gender on pupils’ achievement in English vocabulary and reading comprehension. The two-way interaction effect of treatment and learning style on pupils’ achievement in reading comprehension was significant (F(4,82)=3.37), in favour of pupils with tactile learning style in PW group. There was no significant two-way interaction effect of gender and learning style on pupils’ achievement in English vocabulary and reading comprehension. The three-way interaction effects were not significant on English vocabulary and reading comprehension. Conclusion: Picture Walk and Know-Want to learn-Learnt instructional strategies were effective in enhancing pupils’ achievement in reading comprehension but not on English vocabulary. Learning style contributed considerably to achievement in reading comprehension but not to English vocabulary. Primary school, English language teachers, should put into consideration pupils’ learning style when adopting both strategies in teaching reading comprehension for improved achievement in the subject.
Keywords: comprehension-based intervention, know-want to learn-learnt, learning style, picture walk, primary school pupilsProcedia PDF Downloads 78
986 Understanding Factors that Affect the Prior Knowledge of Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students and their Relation to Reading Comprehension
Authors: Khalid Alasim
Abstract:The reading comprehension levels of students who are deaf or hard of hearing (DHH) are low compared to those of their hearing peers. One possible reason for this low reading levels is related to the students’ prior knowledge. This study investigated the potential factors that might affected DHH students’ prior knowledge, including their degree of hearing loss, the presence or absence of family members with a hearing loss, and educational stage (elementary–middle school). The study also examined the contribution of prior knowledge in predicting DHH students’ reading comprehension levels, and investigated the differences in the students’ scores based on the type of questions, including text-explicit (TE), text-implicit (TI), and script-implicit (SI) questions. Thirty-one elementary and middle-school students completed a demographic form and assessment, and descriptive statistics and multiple and simple linear regressions were used to answer the research questions. The findings indicated that the independent variables—degree of hearing loss, presence or absence of family members with hearing loss, and educational stage—explained little of the variance in DHH students’ prior knowledge. Further, the results showed that the DHH students’ prior knowledge affected their reading comprehension. Finally, the result demonstrated that the participants were able to answer more of the TI questions correctly than the TE and SI questions. The study concluded that prior knowledge is important in these students’ reading comprehension, and it is also important for teachers and parents of DHH children to use effective ways to increase their students’ and children’s prior knowledge.
Keywords: reading comprehension, prior knowledge, metacognition, elementary, self-contained classroomsProcedia PDF Downloads 11
985 Online Metacognitive Reading Strategies Use by Postgraduate Libyan EFL Students
Authors: Najwa Alsayed Omar
Abstract:With the increasing popularity of the Internet, online reading has become an essential source for EFL readers. Using strategies to comprehend information on online reading texts play a crucial role in students’ academic success. Metacognitive reading strategies are effective factors that enhance EFL learners reading comprehension. This study aimed at exploring the use of online metacognitive reading strategies by postgraduate Libyan EFL students. Quantitative data was collected using the Survey of Online Reading Strategies (OSORS). The findings revealed that the participants were moderate users of metacognitive online reading strategies. Problem solving strategies were the most frequently reported used strategies, while support reading strategies were the least. The five most and least frequently reported strategies were identified. Based on the findings, some future research recommendations were presented.
Keywords: metacognitive strategies, online reading, online reading strategies, postgraduate studentsProcedia PDF Downloads 251
984 Contribution of Word Decoding and Reading Fluency on Reading Comprehension in Young Typical Readers of Kannada Language
Authors: Vangmayee V. Subban, Suzan Deelan. Pinto, Somashekara Haralakatta Shivananjappa, Shwetha Prabhu, Jayashree S. Bhat
Abstract:Introduction and Need: During early years of schooling, the instruction in the schools mainly focus on children’s word decoding abilities. However, the skilled readers should master all the components of reading such as word decoding, reading fluency and comprehension. Nevertheless, the relationship between each component during the process of learning to read is less clear. The studies conducted in alphabetical languages have mixed opinion on relative contribution of word decoding and reading fluency on reading comprehension. However, the scenarios in alphasyllabary languages are unexplored. Aim and Objectives: The aim of the study was to explore the role of word decoding, reading fluency on reading comprehension abilities in children learning to read Kannada between the age ranges of 5.6 to 8.6 years. Method: In this cross sectional study, a total of 60 typically developing children, 20 each from Grade I, Grade II, Grade III maintaining equal gender ratio between the age range of 5.6 to 6.6 years, 6.7 to 7.6 years and 7.7 to 8.6 years respectively were selected from Kannada medium schools. The reading fluency and reading comprehension abilities of the children were assessed using Grade level passages selected from the Kannada text book of children core curriculum. All the passages consist of five questions to assess reading comprehension. The pseudoword decoding skills were assessed using 40 pseudowords with varying syllable length and their Akshara composition. Pseudowords are formed by interchanging the syllables within the meaningful word while maintaining the phonotactic constraints of Kannada language. The assessment material was subjected to content validation and reliability measures before collecting the data on the study samples. The data were collected individually, and reading fluency was assessed for words correctly read per minute. Pseudoword decoding was scored for the accuracy of reading. Results: The descriptive statistics indicated that the mean pseudoword reading, reading comprehension, words accurately read per minute increased with the Grades. The performance of Grade III children found to be higher, Grade I lower and Grade II remained intermediate of Grade III and Grade I. The trend indicated that reading skills gradually improve with the Grades. Pearson’s correlation co-efficient showed moderate and highly significant (p=0.00) positive co-relation between the variables, indicating the interdependency of all the three components required for reading. The hierarchical regression analysis revealed 37% variance in reading comprehension was explained by pseudoword decoding and was highly significant. Subsequent entry of reading fluency measure, there was no significant change in R-square and was only change 3%. Therefore, pseudoword-decoding evolved as a single most significant predictor of reading comprehension during early Grades of reading acquisition. Conclusion: The present study concludes that the pseudoword decoding skills contribute significantly to reading comprehension than reading fluency during initial years of schooling in children learning to read Kannada language.
Keywords: alphasyllabary, pseudo-word decoding, reading comprehension, reading fluencyProcedia PDF Downloads 200
983 Predicting Reading Comprehension in Spanish: The Evidence for the Simple View Model
Authors: Gabriela Silva-Maceda, Silvia Romero-Contreras
Abstract:Spanish is a more transparent language than English given that it has more direct correspondences between sounds and letters. It has become important to understand how decoding and linguistic comprehension contribute to reading comprehension in the framework of the widely known Simple View Model. This study aimed to identify the level of prediction by these two components in a sample of 1st to 4th grade children attending two schools in central Mexico (one public and one private). Within each school, ten children were randomly selected in each grade level, and their parents were asked about reading habits and socioeconomic information. In total, 79 children completed three standardized tests measuring decoding (pseudo-word reading), linguistic comprehension (understanding of paragraphs) and reading comprehension using subtests from the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals-Spanish, Fourth Edition, and the Test de Lectura y Escritura en Español (LEE). The data were analyzed using hierarchical regression, with decoding as a first step and linguistic comprehension as a second step. Results showed that decoding accounted for 19.2% of the variance in reading comprehension, while linguistic comprehension accounted for an additional 10%, adding up to 29.2% of variance explained: F (2, 75)= 15.45, p <.001. Socioeconomic status derived from parental questionnaires showed a statistically significant association with the type of school attended, X2 (3, N= 79) = 14.33, p =.002. Nonetheless when analyzing the Simple View components, only decoding differences were statistically significant (t = -6.92, df = 76.81, p < .001, two-tailed); reading comprehension differences were also significant (t = -3.44, df = 76, p = .001, two-tailed). When socioeconomic status was included in the model, it predicted a 5.9% unique variance, even when already accounting for Simple View components, adding to a 35.1% total variance explained. This three-predictor model was also significant: F (3, 72)= 12.99, p <.001. In addition, socioeconomic status was significantly correlated with the amount of non-textbook books parents reported to have at home for both adults (rho = .61, p<.001) and children (rho= .47, p<.001). Results converge with a large body of literature finding socioeconomic differences in reading comprehension; in addition this study suggests that these differences were also present in decoding skills. Although linguistic comprehension differences between schools were expected, it is argued that the test used to collect this variable was not sensitive to linguistic differences, since it came from a test to diagnose clinical language disabilities. Even with this caveat, results show that the components of the Simple View Model can predict less than a third of the variance in reading comprehension in Spanish. However, the results also suggest that a fuller model of reading comprehension is obtained when considering the family’s socioeconomic status, given the potential differences shown by the socioeconomic status association with books at home, factors that are particularly important in countries where inequality gaps are relatively large.
Keywords: decoding, linguistic comprehension, reading comprehension, simple view model, socioeconomic status, SpanishProcedia PDF Downloads 272