Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8

Search results for: Przemyslaw Wachulak

8 Development of a Laboratory Laser-Produced Plasma “Water Window” X-Ray Source for Radiobiology Experiments

Authors: Daniel Adjei, Mesfin Getachew Ayele, Przemyslaw Wachulak, Andrzej Bartnik, Luděk Vyšín, Henryk Fiedorowicz, Inam Ul Ahad, Lukasz Wegrzynski, Anna Wiechecka, Janusz Lekki, Wojciech M. Kwiatek

Abstract:

Laser produced plasma light sources, emitting high intensity pulses of X-rays, delivering high doses are useful to understand the mechanisms of high dose effects on biological samples. In this study, a desk-top laser plasma soft X-ray source, developed for radio biology research, is presented. The source is based on a double-stream gas puff target, irradiated with a commercial Nd:YAG laser (EKSPLA), which generates laser pulses of 4 ns time duration and energy up to 800 mJ at 10 Hz repetition rate. The source has been optimized for maximum emission in the “water window” wavelength range from 2.3 nm to 4.4 nm by using pure gas (argon, nitrogen and krypton) and spectral filtering. Results of the source characterization measurements and dosimetry of the produced soft X-ray radiation are shown and discussed. The high brightness of the laser produced plasma soft X-ray source and the low penetration depth of the produced X-ray radiation in biological specimen allows a high dose rate to be delivered to the specimen of over 28 Gy/shot; and 280 Gy/s at the maximum repetition rate of the laser system. The source has a unique capability for irradiation of cells with high pulse dose both in vacuum and He-environment. Demonstration of the source to induce DNA double- and single strand breaks will be discussed.

Keywords: laser produced plasma, soft X-rays, radio biology experiments, dosimetry

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7 Nanocomposite Metal Material: Study of Antimicrobial and Catalytic Properties

Authors: Roman J. Jedrzejczyk, Damian K. Chlebda, Anna Dziedzicka, Rafal Wazny, Agnieszka Domka, Maciej Sitarz, Przemyslaw J. Jodlowski

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to obtain antimicrobial material based on thin zirconium dioxide coatings on structured reactors doped with metal nanoparticles using the sonochemical sol-gel method. As a result, dense, uniform zirconium dioxide films were obtained on the kanthal sheets which can be used as support materials in antimicrobial converters with sophisticated shapes. The material was characterised by physicochemical methods, such as AFM, SEM, EDX, XRF, XRD, XPS and in situ Raman and DRIFT spectroscopy. In terms of antimicrobial activity, the material was tested by ATP/AMP method using model microbes isolated from the real systems. The results show that the material can be potentially used in the market as a good candidate for active package and as active bulkheads of climatic systems. The mechanical tests showed that the developed method is an efficient way to obtain durable converters with high antimicrobial activity against fungi and bacteria.

Keywords: antimicrobial properties, kanthal steel, nanocomposite, zirconium oxide

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6 Sonochemically Prepared Non-Noble Metal Oxide Catalysts for Methane Catalytic Combustion

Authors: Przemyslaw J. Jodlowski, Roman J. Jedrzejczyk, Damian K. Chlebda, Anna Dziedzicka, Lukasz Kuterasinski, Anna Gancarczyk, Maciej Sitarz

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to obtain highly active catalysts based on non-noble metal oxides supported on zirconia prepared via a sonochemical method. In this study, the influence of the stabilizers addition during the preparation step was checked. The final catalysts were characterized by using such characterization methods as X-ray Diffraction (XRD), nitrogen adsorption, X-ray fluorescence (XRF), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and µRaman. The proposed preparation method allowed to obtain uniformly dispersed metal-oxide nanoparticles at the support’s surface. The catalytic activity of prepared catalyst samples was measured in a methane combustion reaction. The activity of the catalysts prepared by the sonochemical method was considerably higher than their counterparts prepared by the incipient wetness method.

Keywords: methane catalytic combustion, nanoparticles, non-noble metals, sonochemistry

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5 Excited State Structural Dynamics of Retinal Isomerization Revealed by a Femtosecond X-Ray Laser

Authors: Przemyslaw Nogly, Tobias Weinert, Daniel James, Sergio Carbajo, Dmitry Ozerov, Antonia Furrer, Dardan Gashi, Veniamin Borin, Petr Skopintsev, Kathrin Jaeger, Karol Nass, Petra Bath, Robert Bosman, Jason Koglin, Matthew Seaberg, Thomas Lane, Demet Kekilli, Steffen Brünle, Tomoyuki Tanaka, Wenting Wu, Christopher Milne, Thomas A. White, Anton Barty, Uwe Weierstall, Valerie Panneels, Eriko Nango, So Iwata, Mark Hunter, Igor Schapiro, Gebhard Schertler, Richard Neutze, Jörg Standfuss

Abstract:

Ultrafast isomerization of retinal is the primary step in a range of photoresponsive biological functions including vision in humans and ion-transport across bacterial membranes. We studied the sub-picosecond structural dynamics of retinal isomerization in the light-driven proton pump bacteriorhodopsin using an X-ray laser. Twenty snapshots with near-atomic spatial and temporal resolution in the femtosecond regime show how the excited all-trans retinal samples conformational states within the protein binding pocket prior to passing through a highly-twisted geometry and emerging in the 13-cis conformation. The aspartic acid residues and functional water molecules in proximity of the retinal Schiff base respond collectively to formation and decay of the initial excited state and retinal isomerization. These observations reveal how the protein scaffold guides this remarkably efficient photochemical reaction.

Keywords: bacteriorhodopsin, free-electron laser, retinal isomerization mechanism, time-resolved crystallography

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4 The Influence of Partial Replacement of Hydrated Lime by Pozzolans on Properties of Lime Mortars

Authors: Przemyslaw Brzyski, Stanislaw Fic

Abstract:

Hydrated lime, because of the life cycle (return to its natural form as a result of the setting and hardening) has a positive environmental impact. The lime binder is used in mortars. Lime is a slow setting binder with low mechanical properties. The aim of the study was to evaluate the possibility of improving the properties of the lime binder by using different pozzolanic materials as partial replacement of hydrated lime binder. Pozzolan materials are the natural or industrial waste, so do not affect the environmental impact of the lime binder. The following laboratory tests were performed: the analysis of the physical characteristics of the tested samples of lime mortars (bulk density, porosity), flexural and compressive strength, water absorption and the capillary rise of samples and consistency of fresh mortars. As a partial replacement of hydrated lime (in the amount of 10%, 20%, 30% by weight of lime) a metakaolin, silica fume, and zeolite were used. The shortest setting and hardening time showed mortars with the addition of metakaolin. All additives noticeably improved strength characteristic of lime mortars. With the increase in the amount of additive, the increase in strength was also observed. The highest flexural strength was obtained by using the addition of metakaolin in an amount of 20% by weight of lime (2.08 MPa). The highest compressive strength was obtained by using also the addition of metakaolin but in an amount of 30% by weight of lime (9.43 MPa). The addition of pozzolan caused an increase in the mortar tightness which contributed to the limitation of absorbability. Due to the different surface area, pozzolanic additives affected the consistency of fresh mortars. Initial consistency was assumed as plastic. Only the addition of silica fume an amount of 20 and 30% by weight of lime changed the consistency to the thick-plastic. The conducted study demonstrated the possibility of applying lime mortar with satisfactory properties. The features of lime mortars do not differ significantly from cement-based mortar properties and show a lower environmental impact due to CO₂ absorption during lime hardening. Taking into consideration the setting time, strength and consistency, the best results can be obtained with metakaolin addition to the lime mortar.

Keywords: lime, binder, mortar, pozzolan, properties

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3 Association of Nuclear – Mitochondrial Epistasis with BMI in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Patients

Authors: Agnieszka H. Ludwig-Slomczynska, Michal T. Seweryn, Przemyslaw Kapusta, Ewelina Pitera, Katarzyna Cyganek, Urszula Mantaj, Lucja Dobrucka, Ewa Wender-Ozegowska, Maciej T. Malecki, Pawel Wolkow

Abstract:

Obesity results from an imbalance between energy intake and its expenditure. Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) analyses have led to discovery of only about 100 variants influencing body mass index (BMI), which explain only a small portion of genetic variability. Analysis of gene epistasis gives a chance to discover another part. Since it was shown that interaction and communication between nuclear and mitochondrial genome are indispensable for normal cell function, we have looked for epistatic interactions between the two genomes to find their correlation with BMI. Methods: The analysis was performed on 366 T1DM patients using Illumina Infinium OmniExpressExome-8 chip and followed by imputation on Michigan Imputation Server. Only genes which influence mitochondrial functioning (listed in Human MitoCarta 2.0) were included in the analysis – variants of nuclear origin (MAF > 5%) in 1140 genes and 42 mitochondrial variants (MAF > 1%). Gene expression analysis was performed on GTex data. Association analysis between genetic variants and BMI was performed with the use of Linear Mixed Models as implemented in the package 'GENESIS' in R. Analysis of association between mRNA expression and BMI was performed with the use of linear models and standard significance tests in R. Results: Among variants involved in epistasis between mitochondria and nucleus we have identified one in mitochondrial transcription factor, TFB2M (rs6701836). It interacted with mitochondrial variants localized to MT-RNR1 (p=0.0004, MAF=15%), MT-ND2 (p=0.07, MAF=5%) and MT-ND4 (p=0.01, MAF=1.1%). Analysis of the interaction between nuclear variant rs6701836 (nuc) and rs3021088 localized to MT-ND2 mitochondrial gene (mito) has shown that the combination of the two led to BMI decrease (p=0.024). Each of the variants on its own does not correlate with higher BMI [p(nuc)=0.856, p(mito)=0.116)]. Although rs6701836 is intronic, it influences gene expression in the thyroid (p=0.000037). rs3021088 is a missense variant that leads to alanine to threonine substitution in the MT-ND2 gene which belongs to complex I of the electron transport chain. The analysis of the influence of genetic variants on gene expression has confirmed the trend explained above – the interaction of the two genes leads to BMI decrease (p=0.0308). Each of the mRNAs on its own is associated with higher BMI (p(mito)=0.0244 and p(nuc)=0.0269). Conclusıons: Our results show that nuclear-mitochondrial epistasis can influence BMI in T1DM patients. The correlation between transcription factor expression and mitochondrial genetic variants will be subject to further analysis.

Keywords: body mass index, epistasis, mitochondria, type 1 diabetes

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2 A Research Review on the Presence of Pesticide Residues in Apples Carried out in Poland in the Years 1980-2015

Authors: Bartosz Piechowicz, Stanislaw Sadlo, Przemyslaw Grodzicki, Magdalena Podbielska

Abstract:

Apples are popular fruits. They are eaten freshly and/or after processing. For instance Golden Delicious is an apple variety commonly used in production of foods for babies and toddlers. It is no wonder that complex analyses of the pesticide residue levels in those fruits have been carried out since eighties, and continued for the next years up to now. The results obtained were presented, usually as a teamwork, at the scientific sessions organised by the (IOR) Institute of Plant Protection-National Research Institute in Poznań and published in Scientific Works of the Institute (now Progress in Plant Protection/ Postępy w Ochronie Roślin) or Journal of Plant Protection Research, and in many non-periodical publications. These reports included studies carried out by IOR Laboratories in Poznań, Sośnicowice, Rzeszów and Bialystok. First detailed studies on the presence of pesticide residues in apple fruits by the laboratory in Rzeszów were published in 1991 in the article entitled 'The presence of pesticides in apples of late varieties from the area of south-eastern Poland in the years 1986-1989', in Annals of National Institute of Hygiene in Warsaw. These surveys gave the scientific base for business contacts between the Polish company Alima and the American company Gerber. At the beginning of XXI century, in Poland, systematic and complex studies on the deposition of pesticide residues in apples were initiated. First of all, the levels of active ingredients of plant protection products applied against storage diseases at 2-3 weeks before the harvest were determined. It is known that the above mentioned substances usually generate the highest residue levels. Also, the assessment of the fungicide residues in apples during their storage in controlled atmosphere and during their processing was carried out. Taking into account the need of actualisation the Maximum Residue Levels of pesticides, in force in Poland and in other European countries, and rationalisation of the ways of their determination, a lot of field tests on the behaviour of more important fungicides on the mature fruits just before their harvesting, were carried out. A rate of their disappearance and mathematical equation that showed the relationship between the residue level of any substance and the used dose, have been determined. The two parameters have allowed to evaluate the Maximum Residue Levels (MRLs) of pesticides, which were in force at that time, and to propose a coherent model of their determination in respect to the new substances. The obtained results were assessed in terms of the health risk for adult consumers and children, and to such determination of terms of treatment that mature apples could meet the rigorous level of 0.01 mg/kg.

Keywords: apple, disappearance, health risk, MRL, pesticide residue, research

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1 Iron-Metal-Organic Frameworks: Potential Application as Theranostics for Inhalable Therapy of Tuberculosis

Authors: Gabriela Wyszogrodzka, Przemyslaw Dorozynski, Barbara Gil, Maciej Strzempek, Bartosz Marszalek, Piotr Kulinowski, Wladyslaw Piotr Weglarz, Elzbieta Menaszek

Abstract:

MOFs (Metal-Organic Frameworks) belong to a new group of porous materials with a hybrid organic-inorganic construction. Their structure is a network consisting of metal cations or clusters (acting as metallic centers, nodes) and the organic linkers between nodes. The interest in MOFs is primarily associated with the use of their well-developed surface and large porous. Possibility to build MOFs of biocompatible components let to use them as potential drug carriers. Furthermore, forming MOFs structure from cations possessing paramagnetic properties (e.g. iron cations) allows to use them as MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) contrast agents. The concept of formation of particles that combine the ability to transfer active substance with imaging properties has been called theranostic (from words combination therapy and diagnostics). By building MOF structure from iron cations it is possible to use them as theranostic agents and monitoring the distribution of the active substance after administration in real time. In the study iron-MOF: Fe-MIL-101-NH2 was chosen, consisting of iron cluster in nodes of the structure and amino-terephthalic acid as a linker. The aim of the study was to investigate the possibility of applying Fe-MIL-101-NH2 as inhalable theranostic particulate system for the first-line anti-tuberculosis antibiotic – isoniazid. The drug content incorporated into Fe-MIL-101-NH2 was evaluated by dissolution study using spectrophotometric method. Results showed isoniazid encapsulation efficiency – ca. 12.5% wt. Possibility of Fe-MIL-101-NH2 application as the MRI contrast agent was demonstrated by magnetic resonance tomography. FeMIL-101-NH2 effectively shortening T1 and T2 relaxation times (increasing R1 and R2 relaxation rates) linearly with the concentrations of suspended material. Images obtained using multi-echo magnetic resonance imaging sequence revealed possibility to use FeMIL-101-NH2 as positive and negative contrasts depending on applied repetition time. MOFs micronization via ultrasound was evaluated by XRD, nitrogen adsorption, FTIR, SEM imaging and did not influence their crystal shape and size. Ultrasonication let to break the aggregates and achieve very homogeneously looking SEM images. MOFs cytotoxicity was evaluated in in vitro test with a highly sensitive resazurin based reagent PrestoBlue™ on L929 fibroblast cell line. After 24h no inhibition of cell proliferation was observed. All results proved potential possibility of application of ironMOFs as an isoniazid carrier and as MRI contrast agent in inhalatory treatment of tuberculosis. Acknowledgments: Authors gratefully acknowledge the National Science Center Poland for providing financial support, grant no 2014/15/B/ST5/04498.

Keywords: imaging agents, metal-organic frameworks, theranostics, tuberculosis

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