Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 862

Search results for: phonological memory

862 Phonological Processing and Its Role in Pseudo-Word Decoding in Children Learning to Read Kannada Language between 5.6 to 8.6 Years

Authors: Vangmayee. V. Subban, Somashekara H. S, Shwetha Prabhu, Jayashree S. Bhat

Abstract:

Introduction and Need: Phonological processing is critical in learning to read alphabetical and non-alphabetical languages. However, its role in learning to read Kannada an alphasyllabary is equivocal. The literature has focused on the developmental role of phonological awareness on reading. To the best of authors knowledge, the role of phonological memory and phonological naming has not been addressed in alphasyllabary Kannada language. Therefore, there is a need to evaluate the comprehensive role of the phonological processing skills in Kannada on word decoding skills during the early years of schooling. Aim and Objectives: The present study aimed to explore the phonological processing abilities and their role in learning to decode pseudowords in children learning to read the Kannada language during initial years of formal schooling between 5.6 to 8.6 years. Method: In this cross sectional study, 60 typically developing Kannada speaking children, 20 each from Grade I, Grade II, and Grade III between the age range of 5.6 to 6.6 years, 6.7 to 7.6 years and 7.7 to 8.6 years respectively were selected from Kannada medium schools. Phonological processing abilities were assessed using an assessment tool specifically developed to address the objectives of the present research. The assessment tool was content validated by subject experts and had good inter and intra-subject reliability. Phonological awareness was assessed at syllable level using syllable segmentation, blending, and syllable stripping at initial, medial and final position. Phonological memory was assessed using pseudoword repetition task and phonological naming was assessed using rapid automatized naming of objects. Both phonological awareneness and phonological memory measures were scored for the accuracy of the response, whereas Rapid Automatized Naming (RAN) was scored for total naming speed. Results: The mean scores comparison using one-way ANOVA revealed a significant difference (p ≤ 0.05) between the groups on all the measures of phonological awareness, pseudoword repetition, rapid automatized naming, and pseudoword reading. Subsequent post-hoc grade wise comparison using Bonferroni test revealed significant differences (p ≤ 0.05) between each of the grades for all the tasks except (p ≥ 0.05) for syllable blending, syllable stripping, and pseudoword repetition between Grade II and Grade III. The Pearson correlations revealed a highly significant positive correlation (p=0.000) between all the variables except phonological naming which had significant negative correlations. However, the correlation co-efficient was higher for phonological awareness measures compared to others. Hence, phonological awareness was chosen a first independent variable to enter in the hierarchical regression equation followed by rapid automatized naming and finally, pseudoword repetition. The regression analysis revealed syllable awareness as a single most significant predictor of pseudoword reading by explaining the unique variance of 74% and there was no significant change in R² when RAN and pseudoword repetition were added subsequently to the regression equation. Conclusion: Present study concluded that syllable awareness matures completely by Grade II, whereas the phonological memory and phonological naming continue to develop beyond Grade III. Amongst phonological processing skills, phonological awareness, especially syllable awareness is crucial for word decoding than phonological memory and naming during initial years of schooling.

Keywords: phonological awareness, phonological memory, phonological naming, phonological processing, pseudo-word decoding

Procedia PDF Downloads 51
861 Investigating the Influences of Long-Term, as Compared to Short-Term, Phonological Memory on the Word Recognition Abilities of Arabic Readers vs. Arabic Native Speakers: A Word-Recognition Study

Authors: Insiya Bhalloo

Abstract:

It is quite common in the Muslim faith for non-Arabic speakers to be able to convert written Arabic, especially Quranic Arabic, into a phonological code without significant semantic or syntactic knowledge. This is due to prior experience learning to read the Quran (a religious text written in Classical Arabic), from a very young age such as via enrolment in Quranic Arabic classes. As compared to native speakers of Arabic, these Arabic readers do not have a comprehensive morpho-syntactic knowledge of the Arabic language, nor can understand, or engage in Arabic conversation. The study seeks to investigate whether mere phonological experience (as indicated by the Arabic readers’ experience with Arabic phonology and the sound-system) is sufficient to cause phonological-interference during word recognition of previously-heard words, despite the participants’ non-native status. Both native speakers of Arabic and non-native speakers of Arabic, i.e., those individuals that learned to read the Quran from a young age, will be recruited. Each experimental session will include two phases: An exposure phase and a test phase. During the exposure phase, participants will be presented with Arabic words (n=40) on a computer screen. Half of these words will be common words found in the Quran while the other half will be words commonly found in Modern Standard Arabic (MSA) but either non-existent or prevalent at a significantly lower frequency within the Quran. During the test phase, participants will then be presented with both familiar (n = 20; i.e., those words presented during the exposure phase) and novel Arabic words (n = 20; i.e., words not presented during the exposure phase. ½ of these presented words will be common Quranic Arabic words and the other ½ will be common MSA words but not Quranic words. Moreover, ½ the Quranic Arabic and MSA words presented will be comprised of nouns, while ½ the Quranic Arabic and MSA will be comprised of verbs, thereby eliminating word-processing issues affected by lexical category. Participants will then determine if they had seen that word during the exposure phase. This study seeks to investigate whether long-term phonological memory, such as via childhood exposure to Quranic Arabic orthography, has a differential effect on the word-recognition capacities of native Arabic speakers and Arabic readers; we seek to compare the effects of long-term phonological memory in comparison to short-term phonological exposure (as indicated by the presentation of familiar words from the exposure phase). The researcher’s hypothesis is that, despite the lack of lexical knowledge, early experience with converting written Quranic Arabic text into a phonological code will help participants recall the familiar Quranic words that appeared during the exposure phase more accurately than those that were not presented during the exposure phase. Moreover, it is anticipated that the non-native Arabic readers will also report more false alarms to the unfamiliar Quranic words, due to early childhood phonological exposure to Quranic Arabic script - thereby causing false phonological facilitatory effects.

Keywords: modern standard arabic, phonological facilitation, phonological memory, Quranic arabic, word recognition

Procedia PDF Downloads 230
860 The Involvement of Visual and Verbal Representations Within a Quantitative and Qualitative Visual Change Detection Paradigm

Authors: Laura Jenkins, Tim Eschle, Joanne Ciafone, Colin Hamilton

Abstract:

An original working memory model suggested the separation of visual and verbal systems in working memory architecture, in which only visual working memory components were used during visual working memory tasks. It was later suggested that the visuo spatial sketch pad was the only memory component at use during visual working memory tasks, and components such as the phonological loop were not considered. In more recent years, a contrasting approach has been developed with the use of an executive resource to incorporate both visual and verbal representations in visual working memory paradigms. This was supported using research demonstrating the use of verbal representations and an executive resource in a visual matrix patterns task. The aim of the current research is to investigate the working memory architecture during both a quantitative and a qualitative visual working memory task. A dual task method will be used. Three secondary tasks will be used which are designed to hit specific components within the working memory architecture – Dynamic Visual Noise (visual components), Visual Attention (spatial components) and Verbal Attention (verbal components). A comparison of the visual working memory tasks will be made to discover if verbal representations are at use, as the previous literature suggested. This direct comparison has not been made so far in the literature. Considerations will be made as to whether a domain specific approach should be employed when discussing visual working memory tasks, or whether a more domain general approach could be used instead.

Keywords: semantic organisation, visual memory, change detection

Procedia PDF Downloads 466
859 Grounding Chinese Language Vocabulary Teaching and Assessment in the Working Memory Research

Authors: Chan Kwong Tung

Abstract:

Since Baddeley and Hitch’s seminal research in 1974 on working memory (WM), this topic has been of great interest to language educators. Although there are some variations in the definitions of WM, recent findings in WM have contributed vastly to our understanding of language learning, especially its effects on second language acquisition (SLA). For example, the phonological component of WM (PWM) and the executive component of WM (EWM) have been found to be positively correlated with language learning. This paper discusses two general, yet highly relevant WM findings that could directly affect the effectiveness of Chinese Language (CL) vocabulary teaching and learning, as well as the quality of its assessment. First, PWM is found to be critical for the long-term learning of phonological forms of new words. Second, EWM is heavily involved in interpreting the semantic characteristics of new words, which consequently affects the quality of learners’ reading comprehension. These two ideas are hardly discussed in the Chinese literature, both conceptual and empirical. While past vocabulary acquisition studies have mainly focused on the cognitive-processing approach, active processing, ‘elaborate processing’ (or lexical elaboration) and other effective learning tasks and strategies, it is high time to balance the spotlight to the WM (particularly PWM and EWM) to ensure an optimum control on the teaching and learning effectiveness of such approaches, as well as the validity of this language assessment. Given the unique phonological, orthographical and morphological properties of the CL, this discussion will shed some light on the vocabulary acquisition of this Sino-Tibetan language family member. Together, these two WM concepts could have crucial implications for the design, development, and planning of vocabularies and ultimately reading comprehension teaching and assessment in language education. Hopefully, this will raise an awareness and trigger a dialogue about the meaning of these findings for future language teaching, learning, and assessment.

Keywords: Chinese Language, working memory, vocabulary assessment, vocabulary teaching

Procedia PDF Downloads 234
858 Comparing Phonological Processes in Persian-Arabic Bilingual Children and Monolingual Children

Authors: Vafa Delphi, Maryam Delphi, Talieh Zarifian, Enayatolah Bakhshi

Abstract:

Background and Aim: Bilingualism is a common phenomenon in many countries of the world and May be consistent consonant errors in the speech of bilingual children. The aim of this study was to evaluate Phonological skills include occurrence proportion, frequency and type of phonological processes in Persian-Arabic speaking children in Ahvaz city, the center of Khuzestan. Method: This study is descriptive-analytical and cross-sectional. Twenty-eight children aged 36-48 months were divided into two groups Persian monolingual and Persian-Arabic bilingual: (14 participants in each group). Sampling was recruited randomly based on inclusion criteria from kindergartens of the Ahvaz city in Iran. The tool of this study was the Persian Phonological Test (PPT), a subtest of Persian Diagnostic Evaluation Articulation and Phonological test. In this test, Phonological processes were investigated in two groups: structure and substitution processes. Data was investigated using SPSS software and the U Mann-Whitney test. Results: The results showed that the proportion occurrence of substitution process was significantly different between two groups of monolingual and bilingual (P=0/001), But the type of phonological processes didn’t show a significant difference in both monolingual and bilingual children of the Persian-Arabic.The frequency of phonological processes is greater in bilingual children than monolingual children. Conclusion: The study showed that bilingualism has no effect on type of phonological processes, but this can be effective on the frequency of processes. Since the type of phonological processes in bilingual children is similar to monolingual children So we can conclude the Persian_arabic bilingual children's phonological system is similar to monolingual children.

Keywords: Persian-Arabic bilingual child, phonological processes, the proportion occurrence of syllable structure, the proportion occurrence of substitution

Procedia PDF Downloads 70
857 Verbal Working Memory in Sequential and Simultaneous Bilinguals: An Exploratory Study

Authors: Archana Rao R., Deepak P., Chayashree P. D., Darshan H. S.

Abstract:

Cognitive abilities in bilinguals have been widely studied over the last few decades. Bilingualism has been found to extensively facilitate the ability to store and manipulate information in Working Memory (WM). The mechanism of WM includes primary memory, attentional control, and secondary memory, each of which makes a contribution to WM. Many researches have been done in an attempt to measure WM capabilities through both verbal (phonological) and nonverbal tasks (visuospatial). Since there is a lot of speculations regarding the relationship between WM and bilingualism, further investigation is required to understand the nature of WM in bilinguals, i.e., with respect to sequential and simultaneous bilinguals. Hence the present study aimed to highlight the verbal working memory abilities in sequential and simultaneous bilinguals with respect to the processing and recall abilities of nouns and verbs. Two groups of bilinguals aged between 18-30 years were considered for the study. Group 1 consisted of 20 (10 males and 10 females) sequential bilinguals who had acquired L1 (Kannada) before the age of 3 and had exposure to L2 (English) for a period of 8-10 years. Group 2 consisted of 20 (10 males and 10 females) simultaneous bilinguals who have acquired both L1 and L2 before the age of 3. Working memory abilities were assessed using two tasks, and a set of stimuli which was presented in gradation of complexity and the stimuli was inclusive of frequent and infrequent nouns and verbs. The tasks involved the participants to judge the correctness of the sentence and simultaneously remember the last word of each sentence and the participants are instructed to recall the words at the end of each set. The results indicated no significant difference between sequential and simultaneous bilinguals in processing the nouns and verbs, and this could be attributed to the proficiency level of the participants in L1 and the alike cognitive abilities between the groups. And recall of nouns was better compared to verbs, maybe because of the complex argument structure involved in verbs. Similarly, authors found a frequency of occurrence of nouns and verbs also had an effect on WM abilities. The difference was also found across gradation due to the load imposed on the central executive function and phonological loop.

Keywords: bilinguals, nouns, verbs, working memory

Procedia PDF Downloads 39
856 Investigating the Pronunciation of '-S' and '-Ed' Suffixes in Yemeni English

Authors: Saif Bareq, Vivek Mirgane

Abstract:

The present paper seeks to explicate the pronunciation of the ‘-s’ and ‘-ed’ suffixes when applied in their relative places in word endings. It attempts to investigate the problems faced by Yemenis in the pronunciation of these suffixes in all occurrences and realizations. It discusses the realization of ‘s’ in the four areas of plural, 3rd person singular and genitive markers, and contraction of ‘has’ and ‘is’ as in he’s, it’s ..,etc. and shows how they are differently represented by three different sounds /s/, /z/ and /z/ based on the phonological structure of the words in which they occur. Similarly, it explains the realization of the ‘-ed’ suffix of the past and past participle marker and how it is realized differently by three sounds governed by the phonological structure of these words. Besides, it tries to shed some light on the English morphophonemic and phonological rules that govern the pronunciation of such troublesome endings. It is hypothesized that the absence of such phenomenon in the mother tongue pronunciation of these suffixes.

Keywords: Suffixes' Pronunciation, Phonological Structure, Phonological Rules, Morpho-Phonemics, Yemeni English

Procedia PDF Downloads 172
855 The Impact of Anxiety on the Access to Phonological Representations in Beginning Readers and Writers

Authors: Regis Pochon, Nicolas Stefaniak, Veronique Baltazart, Pamela Gobin

Abstract:

Anxiety is known to have an impact on working memory. In reasoning or memory tasks, individuals with anxiety tend to show longer response times and poorer performance. Furthermore, there is a memory bias for negative information in anxiety. Given the crucial role of working memory in lexical learning, anxious students may encounter more difficulties in learning to read and spell. Anxiety could even affect an earlier learning, that is the activation of phonological representations, which are decisive for the learning of reading and writing. The aim of this study is to compare the access to phonological representations of beginning readers and writers according to their level of anxiety, using an auditory lexical decision task. Eighty students of 6- to 9-years-old completed the French version of the Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale and were then divided into four anxiety groups according to their total score (Low, Median-Low, Median-High and High). Two set of eighty-one stimuli (words and non-words) have been auditory presented to these students by means of a laptop computer. Stimuli words were selected according to their emotional valence (positive, negative, neutral). Students had to decide as quickly and accurately as possible whether the presented stimulus was a real word or not (lexical decision). Response times and accuracy were recorded automatically on each trial. It was anticipated a) longer response times for the Median-High and High anxiety groups in comparison with the two others groups, b) faster response times for negative-valence words in comparison with positive and neutral-valence words only for the Median-High and High anxiety groups, c) lower response accuracy for Median-High and High anxiety groups in comparison with the two others groups, d) better response accuracy for negative-valence words in comparison with positive and neutral-valence words only for the Median-High and High anxiety groups. Concerning the response times, our results showed no difference between the four groups. Furthermore, inside each group, the average response times was very close regardless the emotional valence. Otherwise, group differences appear when considering the error rates. Median-High and High anxiety groups made significantly more errors in lexical decision than Median-Low and Low groups. Better response accuracy, however, is not found for negative-valence words in comparison with positive and neutral-valence words in the Median-High and High anxiety groups. Thus, these results showed a lower response accuracy for above-median anxiety groups than below-median groups but without specificity for the negative-valence words. This study suggests that anxiety can negatively impact the lexical processing in young students. Although the lexical processing speed seems preserved, the accuracy of this processing may be altered in students with moderate or high level of anxiety. This finding has important implication for the prevention of reading and spelling difficulties. Indeed, during these learnings, if anxiety affects the access to phonological representations, anxious students could be disturbed when they have to match phonological representations with new orthographic representations, because of less efficient lexical representations. This study should be continued in order to precise the impact of anxiety on basic school learning.

Keywords: anxiety, emotional valence, childhood, lexical access

Procedia PDF Downloads 200
854 Phonological Encoding and Working Memory in Kannada Speaking Adults Who Stutter

Authors: Nirmal Sugathan, Santosh Maruthy

Abstract:

Background: A considerable number of studies have evidenced that phonological encoding (PE) and working memory (WM) skills operate differently in adults who stutter (AWS). In order to tap these skills, several paradigms have been employed such as phonological priming, phoneme monitoring, and nonword repetition tasks. This study, however, utilizes a word jumble paradigm to assess both PE and WM using different modalities and this may give a better understanding of phonological processing deficits in AWS. Aim: The present study investigated PE and WM abilities in conjunction with lexical access in AWS using jumbled words. The study also aimed at investigating the effect of increase in cognitive load on phonological processing in AWS by comparing the speech reaction time (SRT) and accuracy scores across various syllable lengths. Method: Participants were 11 AWS (Age range=19-26) and 11 adults who do not stutter (AWNS) (Age range=19-26) matched for age, gender and handedness. Stimuli: Ninety 3-, 4-, and 5-syllable jumbled words (JWs) (n=30 per syllable length category) constructed from Kannada words served as stimuli for jumbled word paradigm. In order to generate jumbled words (JWs), the syllables in the real words were randomly transpositioned. Procedures: To assess PE, the JWs were presently visually using DMDX software and for WM task, JWs were presented through auditory mode through headphones. The participants were asked to silently manipulate the jumbled words to form a Kannada real word and verbally respond once. The responses for both tasks were audio recorded using record function in DMDX software and the recorded responses were analyzed using PRAAT software to calculate the SRT. Results: SRT: Mann-Whitney test results demonstrated that AWS performed significantly slower on both tasks (p < 0.001) as indicated by increased SRT. Also, AWS presented with increased SRT on both the tasks in all syllable length conditions (p < 0.001). Effect of syllable length: Wilcoxon signed rank test was carried out revealed that, on task assessing PE, the SRT of 4syllable JWs were significantly higher in both AWS (Z= -2.93, p=.003) and AWNS (Z= -2.41, p=.003) when compared to 3-syllable words. However, the findings for 4- and 5-syllable words were not significant. Task Accuracy: The accuracy scores were calculated for three syllable length conditions for both PE and PM tasks and were compared across the groups using Mann-Whitney test. The results indicated that the accuracy scores of AWS were significantly below that of AWNS in all the three syllable conditions for both the tasks (p < 0.001). Conclusion: The above findings suggest that PE and WM skills are compromised in AWS as indicated by increased SRT. Also, AWS were progressively less accurate in descrambling JWs of increasing syllable length and this may be interpreted as, rather than existing as a uniform deficiency, PE and WM deficits emerge when the cognitive load is increased. AWNS exhibited increased SRT and increased accuracy for JWs of longer syllable length whereas AWS was not benefited from increasing the reaction time, thus AWS had to compromise for both SRT and accuracy while solving JWs of longer syllable length.

Keywords: adults who stutter, phonological ability, working memory, encoding, jumbled words

Procedia PDF Downloads 93
853 Cognitive Linguistic Features Underlying Spelling Development in a Second Language: A Case Study of L2 Spellers in South Africa

Authors: A. Van Staden, A. Tolmie, E. Vorster

Abstract:

Research confirms the multifaceted nature of spelling development and underscores the importance of both cognitive and linguistic skills that affect sound spelling development such as working and long-term memory, phonological and orthographic awareness, mental orthographic images, semantic knowledge and morphological awareness. This has clear implications for many South African English second language spellers (L2) who attempt to become proficient spellers. Since English has an opaque orthography, with irregular spelling patterns and insufficient sound/grapheme correspondences, L2 spellers can neither rely, nor draw on the phonological awareness skills of their first language (for example Sesotho and many other African languages), to assist them to spell the majority of English words. Epistemologically, this research is informed by social constructivism. In addition the researchers also hypothesized that the principles of the Overlapping Waves Theory was an appropriate lens through which to investigate whether L2 spellers could significantly improve their spelling skills via the implementation of an alternative route to spelling development, namely the orthographic route, and more specifically via the application of visual imagery. Post-test results confirmed the results of previous research that argues for the interactive nature of different cognitive and linguistic systems such as working memory and its subsystems and long-term memory, as learners were systematically guided to store visual orthographic images of words in their long-term lexicons. Moreover, the results have shown that L2 spellers in the experimental group (n = 9) significantly outperformed L2 spellers (n = 9) in the control group whose intervention involved phonological awareness (and coding) including the teaching of spelling rules. Consequently, L2 learners in the experimental group significantly improved in all the post-test measures included in this investigation, namely the four sub-tests of short-term memory; as well as two spelling measures (i.e. diagnostic and standardized measures). Against this background, the findings of this study look promising and have shown that, within a social-constructivist learning environment, learners can be systematically guided to apply higher-order thinking processes such as visual imagery to successfully store and retrieve mental images of spelling words from their output lexicons. Moreover, results from the present study could play an important role in directing research into this under-researched aspect of L2 literacy development within the South African education context.

Keywords: English second language spellers, phonological and orthographic coding, social constructivism, visual imagery as spelling strategy

Procedia PDF Downloads 260
852 A Prevalence of Phonological Disorder in Children with Specific Language Impairment

Authors: Etim, Victoria Enefiok, Dada, Oluseyi Akintunde, Bassey Okon

Abstract:

Phonological disorder is a serious and disturbing issue to many parents and teachers. Efforts towards resolving the problem have been undermined by other specific disabilities which were hidden to many regular and special education teachers. It is against this background that this study was motivated to provide data on the prevalence of phonological disorders in children with specific language impairment (CWSLI) as the first step towards critical intervention. The study was a survey of 15 CWSLI from St. Louise Inclusive schools, Ikot Ekpene in Akwa Ibom State of Nigeria. Phonological Processes Diagnostic Scale (PPDS) with 17 short sentences, which cut across the five phonological processes that were examined, were validated by experts in test measurement, phonology and special education. The respondents were made to read the sentences with emphasis on the targeted sounds. Their utterances were recorded and analyzed in the language laboratory using Praat Software. Data were also collected through friendly interactions at different times from the clients. The theory of generative phonology was adopted for the descriptive analysis of the phonological processes. Data collected were analyzed using simple percentage and composite bar chart for better understanding of the result. The study found out that CWSLI exhibited the five phonological processes under investigation. It was revealed that 66.7%, 80%, 73.3%, 80%, and 86.7% of the respondents have severe deficit in fricative stopping, velar fronting, liquid gliding, final consonant deletion and cluster reduction, respectively. It was therefore recommended that a nationwide survey should be carried out to have national statistics of CWSLI with phonological deficits and develop intervention strategies for effective therapy to remediate the disorder.

Keywords: language disorders, phonology, phonological processes, specific language impairment

Procedia PDF Downloads 82
851 Signed Language Phonological Awareness: Building Deaf Children's Vocabulary in Signed and Written Language

Authors: Lynn Mcquarrie, Charlotte Enns

Abstract:

The goal of this project was to develop a visually-based, signed language phonological awareness training program and to pilot the intervention with signing deaf children (ages 6 -10 years/ grades 1 - 4) who were beginning readers to assess the effects of systematic explicit American Sign Language (ASL) phonological instruction on both ASL vocabulary and English print vocabulary learning. Growing evidence that signing learners utilize visually-based signed language phonological knowledge (homologous to the sound-based phonological level of spoken language processing) when reading underscore the critical need for further research on the innovation of reading instructional practices for visual language learners. Multiple single-case studies using a multiple probe design across content (i.e., sign and print targets incorporating specific ASL phonological parameters – handshapes) was implemented to examine if a functional relationship existed between instruction and acquisition of these skills. The results indicated that for all cases, representing a variety of language abilities, the visually-based phonological teaching approach was exceptionally powerful in helping children to build their sign and print vocabularies. Although intervention/teaching studies have been essential in testing hypotheses about spoken language phonological processes supporting non-deaf children’s reading development, there are no parallel intervention/teaching studies exploring hypotheses about signed language phonological processes in supporting deaf children’s reading development. This study begins to provide the needed evidence to pursue innovative teaching strategies that incorporate the strengths of visual learners.

Keywords: American sign language phonological awareness, dual language strategies, vocabulary learning, word reading

Procedia PDF Downloads 218
850 Symo-syl: A Meta-Phonological Intervention to Support Italian Pre-Schoolers’ Emergent Literacy Skills

Authors: Tamara Bastianello, Rachele Ferrari, Marinella Majorano

Abstract:

The adoption of the syllabic approach in preschool programmes could support and reinforce meta-phonological awareness and literacy skills in children. The introduction of a meta-phonological intervention in preschool could facilitate the transition to primary school, especially for children with learning fragilities. In the present contribution, we want to investigate the efficacy of "Simo-syl" intervention in enhancing emergent literacy skills in children (especially for reading). Simo-syl is a 12 weeks multimedia programme developed for children to improve their language and communication skills and later literacy development in preschool. During the intervention, Simo-syl, an invented character, leads children in a series of meta-phonological games. Forty-six Italian preschool children (i.e., the Simo-syl group) participated in the programme; seventeen preschool children (i.e., the control group) did not participate in the intervention. Children in the two groups were between 4;10 and 5;9 years. They were assessed on their vocabulary, morpho-syntactical, meta-phonological, phonological, and phono-articulatory skills twice: 1) at the beginning of the last year of the preschool through standardised paper-based assessment tools and 2) one week after the intervention. All children in the Simo-syl group took part in the meta-phonological programme based on the syllabic approach. The intervention lasted 12 weeks (three activities per week; week 1: activities focused on syllable blending and spelling and a first approach to the written code; weeks 2-11: activities focused on syllables recognition; week 12: activities focused on vowels recognition). Very few children (Simo-syl group = 21, control group = 9) were tested again (post-test) one week after the intervention. Before starting the intervention programme, the Simo-syl and the control groups had similar meta-phonological, phonological, lexical skills (all ps > .05). One week after the intervention, a significant difference emerged between the two groups in their meta-phonological skills (syllable blending, p = .029; syllable spelling, p = .032), in their vowel recognition ability (p = .032) and their word reading skills (p = .05). An ANOVA confirmed the effect of the group membership on the developmental growth for the word reading task (F (1,28) = 6.83, p = .014, ηp2 = .196). Taking part in the Simo-syl intervention has a positive effect on the ability to read in preschool children.

Keywords: intervention programme, literacy skills, meta-phonological skills, syllabic approach

Procedia PDF Downloads 43
849 Effect of Phonological Complexity in Children with Specific Language Impairment

Authors: Irfana M., Priyandi Kabasi

Abstract:

Children with specific language impairment (SLI) have difficulty acquiring and using language despite having all the requirements of cognitive skills to support language acquisition. These children have normal non-verbal intelligence, hearing, and oral-motor skills, with no history of social/emotional problems or significant neurological impairment. Nevertheless, their language acquisition lags behind their peers. Phonological complexity can be considered to be the major factor that causes the inaccurate production of speech in this population. However, the implementation of various ranges of complex phonological stimuli in the treatment session of SLI should be followed for a better prognosis of speech accuracy. Hence there is a need to study the levels of phonological complexity. The present study consisted of 7 individuals who were diagnosed with SLI and 10 developmentally normal children. All of them were Hindi speakers with both genders and their age ranged from 4 to 5 years. There were 4 sets of stimuli; among them were minimal contrast vs maximal contrast nonwords, minimal coarticulation vs maximal coarticulation nonwords, minimal contrast vs maximal contrast words and minimal coarticulation vs maximal coarticulation words. Each set contained 10 stimuli and participants were asked to repeat each stimulus. Results showed that production of maximal contrast was significantly accurate, followed by minimal coarticulation, minimal contrast and maximal coarticulation. A similar trend was shown for both word and non-word categories of stimuli. The phonological complexity effect was evident in the study for each participant group. Moreover, present study findings can be implemented for the management of SLI, specifically for the selection of stimuli.

Keywords: coarticulation, minimal contrast, phonological complexity, specific language impairment

Procedia PDF Downloads 9
848 Descriptive Analysis of Variations in Maguindanaon Language

Authors: Fhajema Kunso

Abstract:

People who live in the same region and who seemed to speak the same language still vary in some aspects of their language. The variation may occur in terms of pronunciation, lexicon, morphology, and syntax. This qualitative study described the phonological, morphological, and lexical variations of the Maguindanaon language among the ten Maguindanao municipalities. Purposive sampling, in-depth interviews, focus group discussion, and sorting and classifying of words according to phonological and morphological as well as lexical structures in data analysis were employed. The variations occurred through phonemic changes and other phonological processes and morphological processes. Phonological processes consisted of vowel lengthening and deletion while morphological processes included affixation, borrowing, and coinage. In the phonological variation, it was observed that there were phonemic changes in one dialect to another. For example, there was a change of phoneme /r/ to /l/. The phoneme /r/ was most likely to occur in Kabuntalan like /biru/, /kurIt/, and /kɘmɅr/ whereas in the rest of the dialects these were /bilu/, /kuIɪt/, and /kɘmɅl/ respectively. Morphologically, the affixation was the main way to know the tenses. For example, the root sarig (expect) when inserted with im becomes simarig, i.e. s + im + arig = simarig (expected). Lexical variation also existed in the Maguindanaon language. Results revealed that the variation in phonology, morphology, and lexicon were observed to be associated primarily on geographic distribution.

Keywords: applied linguistics, language, lexicon, Maguindanao, morphology, Philippines, phonology, processes, qualitative, variation

Procedia PDF Downloads 171
847 Real-Time Episodic Memory Construction for Optimal Action Selection in Cognitive Robotics

Authors: Deon de Jager, Yahya Zweiri, Dimitrios Makris

Abstract:

The three most important components in the cognitive architecture for cognitive robotics is memory representation, memory recall, and action-selection performed by the executive. In this paper, action selection, performed by the executive, is defined as a memory quantification and optimization process. The methodology describes the real-time construction of episodic memory through semantic memory optimization. The optimization is performed by set-based particle swarm optimization, using an adaptive entropy memory quantification approach for fitness evaluation. The performance of the approach is experimentally evaluated by simulation, where a UAV is tasked with the collection and delivery of a medical package. The experiments show that the UAV dynamically uses the episodic memory to autonomously control its velocity, while successfully completing its mission.

Keywords: cognitive robotics, semantic memory, episodic memory, maximum entropy principle, particle swarm optimization

Procedia PDF Downloads 42
846 Retrieval-Induced Forgetting Effects in Retrospective and Prospective Memory in Normal Aging: An Experimental Study

Authors: Merve Akca

Abstract:

Retrieval-induced forgetting (RIF) refers to the phenomenon that selective retrieval of some information impairs memory for related, but not previously retrieved information. Despite age differences in retrieval-induced forgetting regarding retrospective memory being documented, this research aimed to highlight age differences in RIF of the prospective memory tasks for the first time. By using retrieval-practice paradigm, this study comparatively examined RIF effects in retrospective memory and event-based prospective memory in young and old adults. In this experimental study, a mixed factorial design with age group (Young, Old) as a between-subject variable, and memory type (Prospective, Retrospective) and item type (Practiced, Non-practiced) as within-subject variables was employed. Retrieval-induced forgetting was observed in the retrospective but not in the prospective memory task. Therefore, the results indicated that selective retrieval of past events led to suppression of other related past events in both age groups but not the suppression of memory for future intentions.

Keywords: prospective memory, retrieval-induced forgetting, retrieval inhibition, retrospective memory

Procedia PDF Downloads 164
845 The Characterisation of TLC NAND Flash Memory, Leading to a Definable Endurance/Retention Trade-Off

Authors: Sorcha Bennett, Joe Sullivan

Abstract:

Triple-Level Cell (TLC) NAND Flash memory at, and below, 20nm (nanometer) is still largely unexplored by researchers, and with the ever more commonplace existence of Flash in consumer and enterprise applications there is a need for such gaps in knowledge to be filled. At the time of writing, there was little published data or literature on TLC, and more specifically reliability testing, with a further emphasis on both endurance and retention. This paper will give an introduction to NAND Flash memory, followed by an overview of the relevant current research on the reliability of Flash memory, along with the planned future work which will provide results to help characterise the reliability of TLC memory.

Keywords: endurance, patterns, raw flash, reliability, retention, TLC NAND flash memory, trade-off

Procedia PDF Downloads 263
844 Design and Implementation of a Memory Safety Isolation Method Based on the Xen Cloud Environment

Authors: Dengpan Wu, Dan Liu

Abstract:

In view of the present cloud security problem has increasingly become one of the major obstacles hindering the development of the cloud computing, put forward a kind of memory based on Xen cloud environment security isolation technology implementation. And based on Xen virtual machine monitor system, analysis of the model of memory virtualization is implemented, using Xen memory virtualization system mechanism of super calls and grant table, based on the virtual machine manager internal implementation of access control module (ACM) to design the security isolation system memory. Experiments show that, the system can effectively isolate different customer domain OS between illegal access to memory data.

Keywords: cloud security, memory isolation, xen, virtual machine

Procedia PDF Downloads 288
843 English Loanwords in the Egyptian Variety of Arabic: Morphological and Phonological Changes

Authors: Mohamed Yacoub

Abstract:

This paper investigates the English loanwords in the Egyptian variety of Arabic and reaches three findings. Data, in the first finding, were collected from Egyptian movies and soap operas; over two hundred words have been borrowed from English, code-switching was not included. These words then have been put into eleven different categories according to their use and part of speech. Finding two addresses the morphological and phonological change that occurred to these words. Regarding the phonological change, eight categories were found in both consonant and vowel variation, five for consonants and three for vowels. Examples were given for each. Regarding the morphological change, five categories were found including the masculine, feminine, dual, broken, and non-pluralize-able nouns. The last finding is the answers to a four-question survey that addresses forty eight native speakers of Egyptian Arabic and found that most participants did not recognize English borrowed words and thought they were originally Arabic and could not give Arabic equivalents for the loanwords that they could recognize.

Keywords: sociolinguistics, loanwords, borrowing, morphology, phonology, variation, Egyptian dialect

Procedia PDF Downloads 260
842 Short-Term and Working Memory Differences Across Age and Gender in Children

Authors: Farzaneh Badinloo, Niloufar Jalali-Moghadam, Reza Kormi-Nouri

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to explore the short-term and working memory performances across age and gender in school aged children. Most of the studies have been interested in looking into memory changes in adult subjects. This study was instead focused on exploring both short-term and working memories of children over time. Totally 410 school child participants belonging to four age groups (approximately 8, 10, 12 and 14 years old) among which were 201 girls and 208 boys were employed in the study. digits forward and backward tests of the Wechsler children intelligence scale-revised were conducted respectively as short-term and working memory measures. According to results, there was found a general increment in both short-term and working memory scores across age (p ˂ .05) by which whereas short-term memory performance was shown to increase up to 12 years old, working memory scores showed no significant increase after 10 years old of age. No difference was observed in terms of gender (p ˃ .05). In conclusion, this study suggested that both short-term and working memories improve across age in children where 12 and 10 years of old are likely the crucial age periods in terms of short-term and working memories development.

Keywords: age, gender, short-term memory, working memory

Procedia PDF Downloads 344
841 Intervention of Self-Limiting L1 Inner Speech during L2 Presentations: A Study of Bangla-English Bilinguals

Authors: Abdul Wahid

Abstract:

Inner speech, also known as verbal thinking, self-talk or private speech, is characterized by the subjective language experience in the absence of overt or audible speech. It is a psychological form of verbal activity which is being rehearsed without the articulation of any sound wave. In Psychology, self-limiting speech means the type of speech which contains information that inhibits the development of the self. People, in most cases, experience inner speech in their first language. It is very frequent in Bangladesh where the Bangla (L1) speaking students lose track of speech during their presentations in English (L2). This paper investigates into the long pauses (more than 0.4 seconds long) in English (L2) presentations by Bangla speaking students (18-21 year old) and finds the intervention of Bangla (L1) inner speech as one of its causes. The overt speeches of the presenters are placed on Audacity Audio Editing software where the length of pauses are measured in milliseconds. Varieties of inner speech questionnaire (VISQ) have been conducted randomly amongst the participants out of whom 20 were selected who have similar phenomenology of inner speech. They have been interviewed to describe the type and content of the voices that went on in their head during the long pauses. The qualitative interview data are then codified and converted into quantitative data. It was observed that in more than 80% cases students experience self-limiting inner speech/self-talk during their unwanted pauses in L2 presentations.

Keywords: Bangla-English Bilinguals, inner speech, L1 intervention in bilingualism, motor schema, pauses, phonological loop, phonological store, working memory

Procedia PDF Downloads 48
840 Phonological Variation in the Speech of Grade 1 Teachers in Select Public Elementary Schools in the Philippines

Authors: M. Leonora D. Guerrero

Abstract:

The study attempted to uncover the most and least frequent phonological variation evident in the speech patterns of grade 1 teachers in select public elementary schools in the Philippines. It also determined the lectal description of the participants based on Tayao’s consonant charts for American and Philippine English. Descriptive method was utilized. A total of 24 grade 1 teachers participated in the study. The instrument used was word list. Each column in the word list is represented by words with the target consonant phonemes: labiodental fricatives f/ and /v/ and lingua-alveolar fricative /z/. These phonemes were in the initial, medial, and final positions, respectively. Findings of the study revealed that the most frequent variation happened when the participants read words with /z/ in the final position while the least frequent variation happened when the participants read words with /z/ in the initial position. The study likewise proved that the grade 1 teachers exhibited the segmental features of both the mesolect and basilect. Based on these results, it is suggested that teachers of English in the Philippines must aspire to manifest the features of the mesolect, if not, the acrolect since it is expected of the academicians not to be displaying the phonological features of the acrolects since this variety is only used by the 'uneducated.' This is especially so with grade 1 teachers who are often mimicked by their students who classify their speech as the 'standard.'

Keywords: consonant phonemes, lectal description, Philippine English, phonological variation

Procedia PDF Downloads 104
839 The Facilitatory Effect of Phonological Priming on Visual Word Recognition in Arabic as a Function of Lexicality and Overlap Positions

Authors: Ali Al Moussaoui

Abstract:

An experiment was designed to assess the performance of 24 Lebanese adults (mean age 29:5 years) in a lexical decision making (LDM) task to find out how the facilitatory effect of phonological priming (PP) affects the speed of visual word recognition in Arabic as lexicality (wordhood) and phonological overlap positions (POP) vary. The experiment falls in line with previous research on phonological priming in the light of the cohort theory and in relation to visual word recognition. The experiment also departs from the research on the Arabic language in which the importance of the consonantal root as a distinct morphological unit is confirmed. Based on previous research, it is hypothesized that (1) PP has a facilitating effect in LDM with words but not with nonwords and (2) final phonological overlap between the prime and the target is more facilitatory than initial overlap. An LDM task was programmed on PsychoPy application. Participants had to decide if a target (e.g., bayn ‘between’) preceded by a prime (e.g., bayt ‘house’) is a word or not. There were 4 conditions: no PP (NP), nonwords priming nonwords (NN), nonwords priming words (NW), and words priming words (WW). The conditions were simultaneously controlled for word length, wordhood, and POP. The interstimulus interval was 700 ms. Within the PP conditions, POP was controlled for in which there were 3 overlap positions between the primes and the targets: initial (e.g., asad ‘lion’ and asaf ‘sorrow’), final (e.g., kattab ‘cause to write’ 2sg-mas and rattab ‘organize’ 2sg-mas), or two-segmented (e.g., namle ‘ant’ and naħle ‘bee’). There were 96 trials, 24 in each condition, using a within-subject design. The results show that concerning (1), the highest average reaction time (RT) is that in NN, followed firstly by NW and finally by WW. There is statistical significance only between the pairs NN-NW and NN-WW. Regarding (2), the shortest RT is that in the two-segmented overlap condition, followed by the final POP in the first place and the initial POP in the last place. The difference between the two-segmented and the initial overlap is significant, while other pairwise comparisons are not. Based on these results, PP emerges as a facilitatory phenomenon that is highly sensitive to lexicality and POP. While PP can have a facilitating effect under lexicality, it shows no facilitation in its absence, which intersects with several previous findings. Participants are found to be more sensitive to the final phonological overlap than the initial overlap, which also coincides with a body of earlier literature. The results contradict the cohort theory’s stress on the onset overlap position and, instead, give more weight to final overlap, and even heavier weight to the two-segmented one. In conclusion, this study confirms the facilitating effect of PP with words but not when stimuli (at least the primes and at most both the primes and targets) are nonwords. It also shows that the two-segmented priming is the most influential in LDM in Arabic.

Keywords: lexicality, phonological overlap positions, phonological priming, visual word recognition

Procedia PDF Downloads 74
838 Phonological Characteristics of Severe to Profound Hearing Impaired Children

Authors: Akbar Darouie, Mamak Joulaie

Abstract:

In regard of phonological skills development importance and its influence on other aspects of language, this study has been performed. Determination of some phonological indexes in children with hearing impairment and comparison with hearing children was the objective. A sample of convenience was selected from a rehabilitation center and a kindergarten in Karaj, Iran. Participants consisted of 12 hearing impaired and 12 hearing children (age range: 5 years and 6 months to 6 years and 6 months old). Hearing impaired children suffered from severe to profound hearing loss while three of them were cochlear implanted and the others were wearing hearing aids. Conversational speech of these children was recorded and 50 first utterances were selected to analyze. Percentage of consonant correct (PCC) and vowel correct (PVC), initial and final consonant omission error, cluster consonant omission error and syllabic structure variety were compared in two groups. Data were analyzed with t test (version 16th SPSS). Comparison between PCC and PVC averages in two groups showed a significant difference (P< 0/01). There was a significant difference about final consonant emission error (P<0/001) and initial consonant emission error (P<0/01) too. Also, the differences between two groups on cluster consonant omission were significant (P<0/001). Therefore, some changes were seen in syllabic structures in children with hearing impairment compared to typical group. This study demonstrates some phonological differences in Farsi language between two groups of children. Therefore, it seems, in clinical practices we must notice this issue.

Keywords: hearing impairment, phonology, vowel, consonant

Procedia PDF Downloads 140
837 Learning outside the Box by Using Memory Techniques Skill: Case Study in Indonesia Memory Sports Council

Authors: Muhammad Fajar Suardi, Fathimatufzzahra, Dela Isnaini Sendra

Abstract:

Learning is an activity that has been used to do, especially for a student or academics. But a handful of people have not been using and maximizing their brains work and some also do not know a good brain work time in capturing the lessons, so that knowledge is absorbed is also less than the maximum. Indonesia Memory Sports Council (IMSC) is an institution which is engaged in the performance of the brain and the development of effective learning methods by using several techniques that can be used in considering the lessons and knowledge to grasp well, including: loci method, substitution method, and chain method. This study aims to determine the techniques and benefits of using the method given in learning and memorization by applying memory techniques taught by Indonesia Memory Sports Council (IMSC) to students and the difference if not using this method. This research uses quantitative research with survey method addressed to students of Indonesian Memory Sports Council (IMSC). The results of this study indicate that learn, understand and remember the lesson using the techniques of memory which is taught in Indonesia Memory Sport Council is very effective and faster to absorb the lesson than learning without using the techniques of memory, and this affects the academic achievement of students in each educational institution.

Keywords: chain method, Indonesia memory sports council, loci method, substitution method

Procedia PDF Downloads 190
836 Tactile Cues and Spatial Navigation in Mice

Authors: Rubaiyea Uddin

Abstract:

The hippocampus, located in the limbic system, is most commonly known for its role in memory and spatial navigation (as cited in Brain Reward and Pathways). It maintains an especially important role in specifically episodic and declarative memory. The hippocampus has also recently been linked to dopamine, the reward pathway’s primary neurotransmitter. Since research has found that dopamine also contributes to memory consolidation and hippocampal plasticity, this neurotransmitter is potentially responsible for contributing to the hippocampus’s role in memory formation. In this experiment we tested to see the effect of tactile cues on spatial navigation for eight different mice. We used a radial arm that had one designated 'reward' arm containing sucrose. The presence or absence of bedding was our tactile cue. We attempted to see if the memory of that cue would enhance the mice’s memory of having received the reward in that arm. The results from our study showed there was no significant response from the use of tactile cues on spatial navigation on our 129 mice. Tactile cues therefore do not influence spatial navigation.

Keywords: mice, radial arm maze, memory, spatial navigation, tactile cues, hippocampus, reward, sensory skills, Alzheimer’s, neurodegnerative disease

Procedia PDF Downloads 524
835 Music Training as an Innovative Approach to the Treatment of Language Disabilities

Authors: Jonathan Bolduc

Abstract:

Studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of music training approaches to help children with language disabilities. Because music is closely associated with a number of cognitive functions, including language, it has been hypothesized that musical skills transfer to other domains. Research suggests that music training strengthens basic auditory processing skills in dyslexic children and may ameliorate phonological deficits. Furthermore, music instruction has the particular advantage of being non-literacy-based, thus removing the frustrations that can be associated with reading and writing activities among children with specific learning disabilities. In this study, we assessed the effect of implementing an intensive music program on the development of language skills (phonological and reading) in 4- to 9-year-old children. Seventeen children (N=17) participated in the study. The experiment took place over 6 weeks in a controlled environment. Eighteen lessons of 40 minutes were offered during this period by two music specialists. The Dalcroze, Orff, and Kodaly approaches were used. A series of qualitative measures were implemented to document the contribution of music training to this population. Currently, the data is being analyzed. The first results show that learning music seems to significantly improve verbal memory. We already know that language disabilities are considered one of the main causes of school dropout as well as later professional and social failure. We aim to corroborate that an integrated music education program can provide children with language disabilities with the same opportunities to develop and succeed in school as their classmates. Scientifically, the results will contribute to advance the knowledge by identifying the more effective music education strategies to improve the overall development of children worldwide.

Keywords: music education, music, art education, language diasabilities

Procedia PDF Downloads 64
834 Implementation of an Associative Memory Using a Restricted Hopfield Network

Authors: Tet H. Yeap

Abstract:

An analog restricted Hopfield Network is presented in this paper. It consists of two layers of nodes, visible and hidden nodes, connected by directional weighted paths forming a bipartite graph with no intralayer connection. An energy or Lyapunov function was derived to show that the proposed network will converge to stable states. By introducing hidden nodes, the proposed network can be trained to store patterns and has increased memory capacity. Training to be an associative memory, simulation results show that the associative memory performs better than a classical Hopfield network by being able to perform better memory recall when the input is noisy.

Keywords: restricted Hopfield network, Lyapunov function, simultaneous perturbation stochastic approximation

Procedia PDF Downloads 35
833 The Role of Ideophones: Phonological and Morphological Characteristics in Literature

Authors: Cristina Bahón Arnaiz

Abstract:

Many Asian languages, such as Korean and Japanese, are well-known for their wide use of sound symbolic words or ideophones. This is a very particular characteristic which enriches its lexicon hugely. Ideophones are a class of sound symbolic words that utilize sound symbolism to express aspects, states, emotions, or conditions that can be experienced through the senses, such as shape, color, smell, action or movement. Ideophones have very particular characteristics in terms of sound symbolism and morphology, which distinguish them from other words. The phonological characteristics of ideophones are vowel ablaut or vowel gradation and consonant mutation. In the case of Korean, there are light vowels and dark vowels. Depending on the type of vowel that is used, the meaning will slightly change. Consonant mutation, also known as consonant ablaut, contributes to the level of intensity, emphasis, and volume of an expression. In addition to these phonological characteristics, there is one main morphological singularity, which is reduplication and it carries the meaning of continuity, repetition, intensity, emphasis, and plurality. All these characteristics play an important role in both linguistics and literature as they enhance the meaning of what is trying to be expressed with incredible semantic detail, expressiveness, and rhythm. The following study will analyze the ideophones used in a single paragraph of a Korean novel, which add incredible yet subtle detail to the meaning of the words, and advance the expressiveness and rhythm of the text. The results from analyzing one paragraph from a novel, after presenting the phonological and morphological characteristics of Korean ideophones, will evidence the important role that ideophones play in literature. 

Keywords: ideophones, mimetic words, phonomimes, phenomimes, psychomimes, sound symbolism

Procedia PDF Downloads 53