Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 176

Search results for: insects

176 Development of Bicomponent Fibre to Combat Insects

Authors: M. Bischoff, F. Schmidt, J. Herrmann, J. Mattheß, G. Seide, T. Gries

Abstract:

Crop yields have not increased as dramatically as the demand for food. One method to counteract this is to use pesticides to keep away predators, e.g. several forms of insecticide are available to fight insects. These insecticides and pesticides are both controversial as their application and their residue in the food product can also harm humans. In this study an alternative method to combat insects is studied. A physical insect-killing effect of SiO2 particles is used. The particles are applied on fibres to avoid erosion in the fields, which would occur when applied separately. The development of such SiO2 functionalized PP fibres is shown.

Keywords: agriculture, environment, insects, protection, silica, textile

Procedia PDF Downloads 171
175 The Application of Insects in Forensic Investigations

Authors: Shirin Jalili, Hadi Shirzad, Samaneh Nabavi, Somayeh Khanjani

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Forensic entomology is the science of study and analysis of insects evidences to aid in criminal investigation. Being aware of the distribution, biology, ecology and behavior of insects, which are founded at crime scene can provide information about when, where and how the crime has been committed. It has many application in criminal investigations. Its main use is estimation of the minimum time after death in suspicious death. The close association between insects and corpses and the use of insects in criminal investigations is the subject of forensic entomology. Because insects attack to the decomposing corpse and spawning on it from the initial stages. Forensic scientists can estimate the postmortem index by studying the insects population and the developing larval stages.In addition, toxicological and molecular studies of these insects can reveal the cause of death or even the identity of a victim. It also be used to detect drugs and poisons, and determination of incident location. Gathering robust entomological evidences is made possible for experts by recent Techniques. They can provide vital information about death, corpse movement or burial, submersion interval, time of decapitation, identification of specific sites of trauma, post-mortem artefacts on the body, use of drugs, linking a suspect to the scene of a crime, sexual molestations and the identification of suspects.

Keywords: Forensic entomology, post mortem interval, insects, larvae

Procedia PDF Downloads 402
174 Innate Immunity of Insects in Brief

Authors: Ehsan Soleymaninejadian

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As the field of immunology is growing day by day, and its chaotic system amazes more people, greed of research in this area is growing; however dealing with human or mammalian cells such as mice make the research expensive. Although there are some differences between higher animals with insects, importance of innate immunity during evolution made it untouched. So, for understanding the innate immunity insects can be good models. They are cheap; reproduction is fast and in the case genetics, less complicated. In this review, we tried to briefly tackle with important factors in insects’ innate immunity such as melanization, encapsulation, JAK-STAT, IMD, and Toll pathways. At the end, we explained how hormones and nerve system also can impact on immune system and make it more beautiful. In concluding remarks, the possibility of taking help from insect immune system to fight against diseases such as cancer has been considered.

Keywords: insects, innate immunity, melanization, intracellular pathways, hormones

Procedia PDF Downloads 116
173 Influence of Physicochemical Water Quality Parameters on Abundance of Aquatic Insects in Rivers of Perak, Malaysia

Authors: Nur Atirah Hasmi, Nadia Nisha Musa, Hasnun Nita Ismail, Zulfadli Mahfodz

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The effect of water quality parameters on the abundance of aquatic insects has been studied in Batu Berangkai, Dipang, Kuala Woh and Lata Kinjang Rivers, Perak, northern peninsular Malaysia. The focuses are to compare the abundance of aquatic insects in each sampling areas and to investigate the physical and chemical factors (water temperature, depth of water, canopy, water velocity, pH value, and dissolved oxygen) on the abundance of aquatic insects. The samples and data were collected by using aquatic net and multi-probe parameter. Physical parameters; water velocity, water temperature, depth, canopy cover, and two chemical parameters; pH value and dissolved oxygen have been measured in situ and recorded. A total of 631 individuals classified into 6 orders and 18 families of aquatic insects were identified from four sampling sites. The largest percentage of samples collected is from order Plecoptera 35.8%, followed by Ephemeroptera 32.6%, Trichoptera 17.0%, Hemiptera 8.1%, Coleoptera 4.8%, and the least is Odonata 1.7%. The aquatic insects collected from Dipang River have the highest abundance of 273 individuals from 6 orders and 13 families and the least insects trapped at Lata Kinjang which only have 64 individuals from 5 orders and 6 families. There is significant association between different sampling areas and abundance of aquatic insects (p<0.05). High abundance of aquatic insects was found in higher water temperature, low water velocity, deeper water, low pH, high amount of dissolved oxygen, and the area that is not covered by canopy.

Keywords: aquatic insect, physicochemical parameter, river, water quality

Procedia PDF Downloads 124
172 Soil Surface Insect Diversity of Tobacco Agricultural Ecosystem in Imogiri, Bantul District of Yogyakarta Special Region, Indonesia

Authors: Martina Faika Harianja, Zahtamal, Indah Nuraini, Septi Mutia Handayani, R. C. Hidayat Soesilohadi

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Tobacco is a valuable commodity that supports economic growth in Indonesia. Soil surface insects are important components that influence productivity of tobacco. Thus, diversity of soil surface insects needs to be studied in order to acquire information about specific roles of each species in ecosystem. This research aimed to study the soil surface insect diversity of tobacco agricultural ecosystem in Imogiri, Bantul District of Yogyakarta Special Region, Indonesia. Samples were collected by pitfall-sugar bait trap in August 2015. Result showed 5 orders, 8 families, and 17 genera of soil surface insects were found. The diversity category of soil surface insects in tobacco agricultural ecosystem was poor. Dominant genus was Monomorium with dominance index score 0.07588. Percentages of insects’ roles were omnivores 43%, detritivores 24%, predators 19%, and herbivores 14%.

Keywords: diversity, Indonesia, soil surface insect, tobacco

Procedia PDF Downloads 217
171 A Computational Approach for the Prediction of Relevant Olfactory Receptors in Insects

Authors: Zaide Montes Ortiz, Jorge Alberto Molina, Alejandro Reyes

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Insects are extremely successful organisms. A sophisticated olfactory system is in part responsible for their survival and reproduction. The detection of volatile organic compounds can positively or negatively affect many behaviors in insects. Compounds such as carbon dioxide (CO2), ammonium, indol, and lactic acid are essential for many species of mosquitoes like Anopheles gambiae in order to locate vertebrate hosts. For instance, in A. gambiae, the olfactory receptor AgOR2 is strongly activated by indol, which accounts for almost 30% of human sweat. On the other hand, in some insects of agricultural importance, the detection and identification of pheromone receptors (PRs) in lepidopteran species has become a promising field for integrated pest management. For example, with the disruption of the pheromone receptor, BmOR1, mediated by transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), the sensitivity to bombykol was completely removed affecting the pheromone-source searching behavior in male moths. Then, the detection and identification of olfactory receptors in the genomes of insects is fundamental to improve our understanding of the ecological interactions, and to provide alternatives in the integrated pests and vectors management. Hence, the objective of this study is to propose a bioinformatic workflow to enhance the detection and identification of potential olfactory receptors in genomes of relevant insects. Applying Hidden Markov models (Hmms) and different computational tools, potential candidates for pheromone receptors in Tuta absoluta were obtained, as well as potential carbon dioxide receptors in Rhodnius prolixus, the main vector of Chagas disease. This study showed the validity of a bioinformatic workflow with a potential to improve the identification of certain olfactory receptors in different orders of insects.

Keywords: bioinformatic workflow, insects, olfactory receptors, protein prediction

Procedia PDF Downloads 32
170 Strategies of Drug Discovery in Insects

Authors: Alaaeddeen M. Seufi

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Many have been published on therapeutic derivatives from living organisms including insects. In addition to traditional maggot therapy, more than 900 therapeutic products were isolated from insects. Most people look at insects as enemies and others believe that insects are friends. Many beneficial insects rather than Honey Bees, Silk Worms and Shellac insect could insure human-insect friendship. In addition, insects could be MicroFactories, Biosensors or Bioreactors. InsectFarm is an amazing example of the applied research that transfers insects from laboratory to market by Prof Mircea Ciuhrii and co-workers. They worked for 18 years to derive therapeutics from insects. Their research resulted in production of more than 30 commercial medications derived from insects (e.g. Imunomax, Noblesse, etc.). Two general approaches were followed to discover drugs from living organisms. Some laboratories preferred biochemical approach to purify components of the innate immune system of insects and insect metabolites as well. Then the purified components could be tested for many therapeutic trials. Other researchers preferred molecular approach based on proteomic studies. Components of the innate immune system of insects were then tested for their medical activities. Our Laboratory team preferred to induce insect immune system (using oral, topical and injection routes of administration), then a transcriptomic study was done to discover the induced genes and to identify specific biomarkers that can help in drug discovery. Biomarkers play an important role in medicine and in drug discovery and development as well. Optimum biomarker development and application will require a team approach because of the multifaceted nature of biomarker selection, validation, and application. This team uses several techniques such as pharmacoepidemiology, pharmacogenomics, and functional proteomics; bioanalytical development and validation; modeling and simulation to improve and refine drug development. Our Achievements included the discovery of four components of the innate immune system of Spodoptera littoralis and Musca domestica. These components were designated as SpliDef (defesin), SpliLec (lectin), SpliCec (cecropin) and MdAtt (attacin). SpliDef, SpliLec and MdAtt were confirmed as antimicrobial peptides, while SpliCec was additionally confirmed as anticancer peptide. Our current research is going on to achieve something in antioxidants and anticoagulants from insects. Our perspective is to achieve something in the mass production of prototypes of our products and to reach it to the commercial level. These achievements are the integrated contributions of everybody in our team staff.

Keywords: AMPs, insect, innate immunitty, therappeutics

Procedia PDF Downloads 279
169 Climatic and Environmental Variables Do Not Affect the Diversity of Possible Phytoplasmic Vector Insects Associated with Quercus humboltii Oak Trees in Bogota, Colombia

Authors: J. Lamilla-Monje, C. Solano-Puerto, L. Franco-Lara

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Trees play an essential role in cities due to their ability to provide multiple ecosystem goods and services. Bogota trees are threatened by factors such as pests, pathogens, contamination, among others. Among the pathogens, phytoplasmas are a potential risk for urban trees, generating symptoms that affect the ecosystem services that these trees provide in Bogota, an example of this is the affectation of Q. humboldtii by phytoplasmas, these bacteria are transmitted for insects of the order Hemiptera, this is why the objective of this work was to know if the climatic variables (humidity, precipitation, and temperature) and environmental variables (PM10 and PM2.5) could be related to the distribution of the Oak Quercus entomofauna and specifically with the phytoplasma vector insects in Bogota. For this study, the sampling points were distributed in areas of the city with contrasting variables in two types of locations: parks and streets. A total of 68 trees were sampled in which the associated insects were collected using two methodologies: jameo and agitation traps. The results show that insects of the order Hemiptera were the most abundant, including a total of 1682 individuals represented by 29 morphotypes, within this order individuals from eight families were collected (Aphidae, Aradidae, Berytidae, Cicadellidae, Issidae, Membracidae, Miridae, and Psyllidae), finding as possible vectors the families Cicadellidae, Membracidae, and Psyllidae with 959, 8 and 14 individuals respectively. Within the Cicadellidae family, 21 morphotypes were found, being reported as vectors in the literature: Amplicephalus, Exitianus atratus, Haldorus sp., Xestocephalus desertorum, Idiocerinae sp., Scaphytopius sp., the Membracidae family was represented by two morphotypes and the Psyllidae by one. Results that suggest that there is no correlation between climatic and environmental variables with the diversity of insects associated with oak. Knowing the vector insects of phytoplasmas in oak trees will complete the pathosystem and generate effective vector control.

Keywords: vector insects, diversity, phytoplasmas, Cicadellidae

Procedia PDF Downloads 43
168 Insects and Meteorological Inventories in a Mango-Based Agroforestry System in Bangladesh

Authors: Md. Ruhul Amin, Shakura Namni, Md. Ramiz Uddin Miah, Md. Giashuddin Miah, Mohammad Zakaria, Sang Jae Suh, Yong Jung Kwon

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Insect species abundance and diversity associated with meteorological factors during January to June 2013 at a mango-based agroforestry research field in Bangladesh, and the effects of pests and pollinator species on mango are presented in this study. Among the collected and identified insects, nine species belong to 3 orders were found as pollinator, 11 species in 5 orders as pest, and 13 species in 6 orders as predator. The mango hopper, fruit fly and stone weevil appeared as major pest because of their high levels of abundance and infestation. The hoppers caused 100% inflorescence damage followed by fruit fly (51.7% fruit) and stone weevil (31.0% mature fruit). The major pests exerted significantly higher abundance compared to pollinator, predator and minor pests. Hemipteroid insects were most abundant (60%) followed by Diptera (21%), Hymenoptera (10%), Lepidoptera (5%), and Coleoptera (4%). Insect population increased with increasing trend of temperature and humidity, and revealed peak abundance during April-May. The flower visiting insects differed in their landing duration and showed preference to forage with time of a day. Their foraging activity was found to be peaked between 11.00 am to 01.00 pm. The activity of the pollinators led to higher level of fruit set. This study provides baseline information about the phenological patterns of insect abundance in an agroforestry research field which could be an indication to incorporate some aspects of pest management.

Keywords: agroforestry, abundance, abiotic factors, insects, mango

Procedia PDF Downloads 342
167 The Impact of CO2 on Learning and Memory Duration of Bombus terrestris

Authors: Gholizadeh F.F., Goldansaz S.H., Bandani AR., A. Ashouri

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This study aimed to investigate the direct effects of increasing carbon dioxide (CO₂) concentration on the behavior of Bombus terrestris bumblebees in laboratory conditions to understand the outcomes of the augmentation of this gas in the Earth's atmosphere on the decline of populations of these pollinators. Learning and memory duration of bumblebees were evaluated as two main behavioral factors in social insects at different concentrations of CO₂. In both series of experiments, the behavior of bees under the influence of CO₂ changes compared to the control. Insects kept at high CO₂ concentrations learn less than control bees and spend more time identifying and navigating to discover their food source and access time (nectar consumption). These results showed that bees maybe lose some of their food resources due to poorer identification and act weaker on searching due to less memory and avoiding the enemy in higher CO₂ concentration. Therefore, CO₂ increasing concentration can be one of the reasons for the decline of these pollinating insects' populations by negatively affecting their fitness.

Keywords: Bombus terrestris, CO₂, learning, memory duration

Procedia PDF Downloads 32
166 Dynamic of an Invasive Insect Gut Microbiome When Facing to Abiotic Stress

Authors: Judith Mogouong, Philippe Constant, Robert Lavallee, Claude Guertin

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The emerald ash borer (EAB) is an exotic wood borer insect native from China, which is associated with important environmental and economic damages in North America. Beetles are known to be vectors of microbial communities related to their adaptive capacities. It is now established that environmental stress factors may induce physiological events on the host trees, such as phytochemical changes. Consequently, that may affect the establishment comportment of herbivorous insect. Considering the number of insects collected on ash trees (insects’ density) as an abiotic factor related to stress damage, the aim of our study was to explore the dynamic of EAB gut microbial community genome (microbiome) when facing that factor and to monitor its diversity. Insects were trapped using specific green Lindgren© traps. A gradient of the captured insect population along the St. Lawrence River was used to create three levels of insects’ density (low, intermediate, and high). After dissection, total DNA extracted from insect guts of each level has been sent for amplicon sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA gene and fungal ITS2 region. The composition of microbial communities among sample appeared largely diversified with the Simpson index significantly different across the three levels of density for bacteria. Add to that; bacteria were represented by seven phyla and twelve classes, whereas fungi were represented by two phyla and seven known classes. Using principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) based on Bray Curtis distances of 16S rRNA sequences, we observed a significant variation between the structure of the bacterial communities depending on insects’ density. Moreover, the analysis showed significant correlations between some bacterial taxa and the three classes of insects’ density. This study is the first to present a complete overview of the bacterial and fungal communities associated with the gut of EAB base on culture-independent methods, and to correlate those communities with a potential stress factor of the host trees.

Keywords: gut microbiome, DNA, 16S rRNA sequences, emerald ash borer

Procedia PDF Downloads 70
165 Host Plant Range of Aphidophagus Hoverflies in Relation to Their Pray Aphids in Thatta Pakistan

Authors: Kamal Khan Abro, Attaullah Ansari, Mahpara Pirzada

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Hoverflies are commonly known as flower flies, sun flies or garden flies. Hoverflies are very important group of insects because their ecosystem services are diverse. They are an attractive group of insects with their striped abdomens. They are day-flying insects from small to large size, have worldwide distribution, but mostly prefer to live in relatively cold weather areas. In the world, about 6,000 species of 200 genera of two sub-families have been described. Their larvae exhibit a variety of feeding modes i.e. aphidophagous, saprophagous, zoophagous and Phytophagus, where adults are floral visitors of hundreds of different plants species. These floral resources enhance the longevity and fecundity of adult dipterous flies. Many syrphid species also have been documented as efficient crop pollinators. Aphids are commonly called plant louse, greenflies and blackflies. They are major pest of crops; about 4000 species of aphids have been described, feeding on 250 species of plants.

Keywords: host plant range, aphidophagous hoverflies, their prey aphids, Thatta Pakistan

Procedia PDF Downloads 128
164 Climate Change and Its Effects on Terrestrial Insect Diversity in Mukuruthi National Park, Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve, Tamilnadu, India

Authors: M. Elanchezhian, C. Gunasekaran, A. Agnes Deepa, M. Salahudeen

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In recent years climate change is one of the most emerging threats facing by biodiversity both the animals and plants species. Elevated carbon dioxide and ozone concentrations, extreme temperature, changes in rainfall patterns, insects-plant interaction are the main criteria that affect biodiversity. In the present study, which emphasis the climate change and its effects on terrestrial insect diversity in Mukuruthi National Park a protected areas of Western Ghats in India. Sampling was done seasonally at the three areas using pitfall traps, over the period of January to December 2013. The statistical findings were done by Shannon wiener diversity index (H). A significant seasonal variation pattern was detected for total insect’s diversity at the different study areas. Totally nine orders of insects were recorded. Diversity and abundance of terrestrial insects shows much difference between the Natural, Shoal forest and the Grasslands.

Keywords: biodiversity, climate change, mukuruthi national park, terrestrial invertebrates

Procedia PDF Downloads 396
163 Spatio-Temporal Variability in Reciprocal Resource Subsidies across Adjacent Terrestrial and Aquatic Eastern Cape Ecosystems

Authors: Tiyisani L. Chavalala, Nicole B. Richoux, Martin H. Villet

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Rivers and their adjacent ecosystems are linked by reciprocal ecological subsidies. Rivers receive nutrients and energy from land, and these transfers can represent important food subsidies, a phenomenon known as allochthony. Emergence of adult aquatic invertebrates can also provide important food sources to terrestrial consumers. Reciprocal subsidies are influenced by factors such as canopy cover, river flow rate and channel width, which can be highly variable through space and time. The aim of this study is to identify and quantify the main trophic links between adjacent ecosystems (terrestrial and freshwater systems) in several Eastern Cape Rivers with different catchment sizes and flow rates and to develop an understanding of the factors that affect the strength of these links and their spatial dynamics. Food sources and consumers were sampled during four seasons (August 2016, November 2016, February 2017 and May 2017), and stable isotope ratios will serve as tracers to estimate the food web structures. Emergence traps are being used to quantify the rates of emergence of adult aquatic insects, and infall-pan traps are being used to quantify the terrestrial insects falling into rivers as potential food subsidies.

Keywords: emerging aquatic insects, in-falling terrestrial insects, reciprocal resource subsidies, stable isotopes

Procedia PDF Downloads 94
162 Food and Parasitical Outline on Balls of Raven Corvus corax tingitanus Irby, on 1874 (Aves–Corvidae) in the Public Dump of Oum El Bouaghi (Road of Guelif)

Authors: Faiza Marniche, Amel Milla, Samiha Belmania, Ahlem Fadheli, Salah Eddine Doumandji

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Within the public dump of the region of Oum El Bouaghi across the analysis of pellets of réjection which were picked up during two years 2008 and 2009. The diet of Raven Corvus corax tingitanus is studied in relation with available food represented by insects-preys with a parasitical study, on the pellets of this species. The food stored is gotten from the public dump of Oum El Bouaghi during three seasons, we note that insects are predominant during three seasons, autumn (91.62%), winter (58.95%) and springs (77.78%). The analysis of 42 pellets of rejection collected in this station have revealed that insects dominate the diet of Raven through three seasons , the most presented family is that of the Formicidae in autumn (43.5%) and spring (24.2%) however in winter is that of family Carabidae with a percentage of 9.1%. Parasitic analysis on 30 pellets of this species has indicated the existence of three endoparasites, Isospora sp. (Protozoa-Coccidae), Eimeria sp. (Protozoa-Coccidae) and Nematoda sp.ind. (Metazoa-Nemathelmintes).

Keywords: big raven Corvus corax tingitanus, public dump, Oum El Bouaghi, available food, diet, parasites

Procedia PDF Downloads 222
161 Development of a Nanocompound Based Fibre to Combat Insects

Authors: Merle Bischoff, Thomas Gries, Gunnar Seide

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Pesticides, which harm crop enemies, but can also interfere with the human body, are nowadays mostly used for crop spraying. Silica particles (SiO2) in the nanometer and micrometer scale offer a physical way to combat insects without harming humans and other mammals. Thereby, they allow foregoing pesticides, which can harm the environment. As silica particles are supplied as a powder or in a suspension to farmers, the silica use in large scale agriculture is not sufficient due to erosion through wind and rain. When silica is implemented in a textile’s surface (nanocompound), particles are locally bound and do resist erosion, but can function against bugs. By choosing polypropylene as a matrix polymer, the production of an inexpensive agritextile with an 'anti-bug' effect is made possible. In the Symposium the results of the manufacturing and filament spinning of silica nanocomposites from a polypropylene basis is compared to the fabrication from nanocomposites based on Polybutylene succinate, a biodegradable composite. The investigation focuses on the difference between degradable nanocomposite and stable nanocomposite. Focus will be laid on the filament characteristics as well as the degradation of the nanocompound to underline their potential use and application as an agricultural textile.

Keywords: agriculture, environment, insects, protection, silica, textile, nanocomposite

Procedia PDF Downloads 159
160 Efficacy of Agrobacterium Tumefaciens as a Possible Entomopathogenic Agent

Authors: Fouzia Qamar, Shahida Hasnain

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The objective of the present study was to evaluate the possible role of Agrobacterium tumefaciens as a possible insect biocontrol agent. Pests selected for the present challenge were adult males of Periplaneta americana and last instar larvae of Pieris brassicae and Spodoptera litura. Different ranges of bacterial doses were selected and tested to score the mortalities of the insects after 24 hours, for the lethal dose estimation studies. Mode of application for the inoculation of the bacteria, was the microinjection technique. The evaluation of the possible entomopathogenic carrying attribute of bacterial Ti plasmid, led to the conclusion that the loss of plasmid was associated with the loss of virulence against target insects.

Keywords: agrobacterium tumefaciens, toxicity assessment, biopesticidal attribute, entomopathogenic agent

Procedia PDF Downloads 277
159 Optimization of Headspace Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME) Technique Coupled with GC MS for Identification of Volatile Organic Compounds Released by Trogoderma Variabile

Authors: Thamer Alshuwaili, Yonglin Ren, Bob Du, Manjree Agarwal

Abstract:

The warehouse beetle, Trogoderma variabile Ballion (Coleoptera: Dermestidae), is a major pest of packaged and processed stored products. Warehouse beetle is the common name which was given by Okumura (1972). This pest has been reported to infest 119 different commodities, and it is distributed throughout the tropical and subtropical parts of the world. Also, it is difficult to control because of the insect's ability to stay without food for long times, and it can survive for years under dry conditions and low-moisture food, and it has also developed resistance to many insecticides. The young larvae of these insects can cause damage to seeds, but older larvae prefer to feed on whole grains. The percentage of damage caused by these insects range between 30-70% in the storage. T. variabile is the species most responsible for causing significant damage in grain stores worldwide. Trogoderma spp. is a huge problem for cereal grains, and there are many countries, such as the USA, Australia, China, Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania who have specific quarantine regulations against possible importation. Also, grain stocks can be almost completely destroyed because of the massive populations the insect may develop. However, the purpose of the current research was to optimize conditions to collect volatile organic compound from Trogoderma variabile at different life stages by using headspace solid phase microextraction (SPME) coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and flame ionization detection (FID). Using SPME technique to extract volatile from insects is an efficient, straightforward and nondestructive method. Result of the study shows that 15 insects were optimal number for larvae and adults. Selection of the number of insects depend on the height of the peak area and the number of peaks. Sixteen hours were optimized as the best extraction time for larvae and 8 hours was the optimal number of adults.

Keywords: Trogoderma variabile, warehouse beetle , GC-MS, Solid phase microextraction

Procedia PDF Downloads 37
158 Effect of Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis against Culex pipiens (Insect: Culicidae) Effect of Bti on Two Non-Target Species Eylais hamata (Acari: Hydrachnidia) and Physa marmorata (Gastropoda: Physidae) and Dosage of Their GST Biomarker

Authors: Meriem Mansouri, Fatiha Bendali Saoudi, Noureddine Soltani

Abstract:

Biological control presents a means of control for the protection of the environment. Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis Berliner 1915 is an inseticide of biological origin because it is a bacterium of the Bacillaceae family. This biocide has a biological importance, because of its specific larvicidal action against Culicidae, blood-sucking insects, responsible for several diseases to humans and animals through the world. As well as, its high specificity for these insects. Also, the freshwater mites, this necessarily parasitic group for aquatic species such as the Physidae, also have an effective biological control against the Culicidae, because of their voracious predation to the larvae of these insects. The present work aims to study the effects of the biocide Bacillus thuringiensis var israelinsis, against non-target adults of water mites Eylais hamata Koenike, 1897, as well as its associated host species Physa marmorata Fitzinger, 1833. After 12 days of oral treatment of adults with lethal concentration (LC50:0.08µg/ml), determined from essays on 4th instar larvae of Culex pipiens (hematophagous insects). No adverse effect has been recorded for adult individuals of Eylais hamata, contrary, snail Physa marmorata were sensitive for this dose of Bti. In parallel, after treatment at the Bti by LC50, the enzyme stress bio marker glutathione S-transferase, was measured after 24, 48 and 72 hours. The enzymatic activity of GST has increased after 24 and 48 hours following treatment.

Keywords: biological control, Bacillus thuringiensis var israelinsis, culicidae, hydrachnidia, enzymatic activity

Procedia PDF Downloads 393
157 Food and Parasitic on Balls of Grand Corbeau Corvus corax tingitanus Irby, 1874 (Aves - Corvidae) in the Garbage Dump of Oum El Bouaghi (Guelif Road)

Authors: Faiza Marniche, Amel Milla, Salah Eddine Doumandji, Samiha Belmania, Ahlem Fadheli

Abstract:

Within the public discharge of Oum El Bouaghi region through the analysis of balls of rejection that have been picked up during the year 2008 and 2009. The diet of Grand Corbeau Corvus corax tingitanus is studied in relation to food availability represented by prey-insects with a parasitic study, on the balls of the latter. Food stokes are taken to the public discharge of Oum El Bouaghi during all three seasons, autumn (2008), winter (2009) and spring (2009). We note that insects are dominant in the course of three seasons, fall (91.62%), winter (58.95%) and spring (77.78%). The analysis of 42 balls of rejection collected at the level of this station have revealed that insects dominate the diet of Raven over the three seasons whose family the best represented is those of the Formicidae in autumn (43.5%) and spring (24.2%) however in winter is that of family Carabidae with a percentage of 9.1%. Parasitic analysis on the 30 balls of this species has revealed the existence of three endoparasites, Isospora Sp. (Protozoa-Coccidae), Eimeria Sp. (Protozoa-Coccidae) and Nematoda Sp. IND. (Metazoa - Nemathelmintes).

Keywords: big raven Corvus corax tingitanus, diet, garbage dump, Oum El Bouaghi, parasites

Procedia PDF Downloads 352
156 Evaluation of Radioprotective Effect of Solanun melongena L. in the Survival of Lasioderma serricorne (Coleoptera, Anobiidae) Irradiated with Gamma Rays of Cobalt-60

Authors: Adilson C. Barros, Kayo Okazaki, Valter Arthur

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The radio-protective substances protect the organism from ionizing radiation when previously ingested. Synthetic radio-protectives produce unpleasant side effects and are expensive. This article reports the search for natural radio-protective agents in foods, whose occurrence is widespread, costs are lower and the side effects are non-existent. In this work, we studied the eggplant, a food widely used in Brazil, comparing the radiosensitivity of insects reared on diet eggplant and outside this diet. The eggplant causes change in LD50 parameter of insects population but the response curve needs to be better shaped to conclude something about radioprotection. What we can see is that it seems to contain some radiomodifier substance.

Keywords: radioprotector, radiobiology, Solanun melongena L., Lasioderma serricorne

Procedia PDF Downloads 338
155 Biological Control of Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lep: Gelechiidae) with Enthomopathogenic Fungi

Authors: Dahliz Abderrahmène, Lakhdari Wassim, Bouchikh Yamina, Hammi Hamida, Soud Adila, M’lik Randa, Benglia Sara

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Devastating insects constitute one of strains for cultivate tomato. Among this vandal insects, the tomato leafminer (T. absoluta), which has been introduced in Algeria constitute a challenge for both agricultures and scientists. Firstly, this insect is introduced without their natural enemies which may reduce their damage. Secondly, this species has developed insecticide resistance to many active matters. To contribute to establish a control strategy for T. absoluta we have mad an inventory for their enthomopathogenic fungi. Two fungi were identified among others taken from adults and pupae. These fungi are Aspergillus flavus and Metarhizium sp. A study was conducted in laboratory to recognize the efficiency of these antagonists. These species had unregistered a mortality mounts of 42% and 56% respectively.

Keywords: Tuta absoluta, enthomopathogenic fungi, Aspergillus flavus, Metarhizium sp, control strategy

Procedia PDF Downloads 331
154 Alterations in Esterases and Phosphatases of Three Economically Important Stored Grain Insect Pests Exposed to Botanical Extracts, Nicotiana tabacum and Eucalyptus globulus

Authors: Kazam Ali, Muhammad Sagheer, Mansoor-Ul- Hasan, Abdul Rashid, Chaudhary Muhammad Shahid Hanif, Fawad Zafar Ahmad Khan, Hafiz Muhammad Aatif

Abstract:

Natural extracts of two medicinal plants Nicotiana tabacum and Eucalyptus globulus were tested for their toxic and enzyme inhibition effects against three insects species of stored grains Tribolium castaneum, Trogoderma granarium and Sitophilus granarius. Responses of insects varied with exposure periods and dilution levels of acetone extracts of plants. Both plant extracts were lethal to insects but the crude leaf extract of N. tabacum evidenced strong toxic action against three tested insect species. Maximum mortality 36.30% in S. granarius, 25.96% in T. castaneum, and 21.88% in T. granarium were found at 20% dilution level, after 10 days exposure to botanical extract of N. tabacum. The impact of N. tabacum and E. globulus on the activity of esterases; acetylcholinesterase (AChE), α-carboxylesterase (α-CE), β-carboxylesterase (β-CE) and phosphatses; acid phosphatase (AcP), alkaline phosphatase (AlP) of three stored grain insect species were also studied in the survivors of toxicity assay. Whole body homogenates of insects were used for enzyme determination and consumption of high dose rate N. tabacum extract containing diet resulted in maximum 55.33% inhibition of AChE and 26.17% AlP inhibition in T. castaneum, while 44.17% of α-CE and 31.67% inhibition of β-CE activity were noted in S. granarius. Maximum inhibition 23.44% of AcP activity was found in T. granarium exposed to diet treated with the extract of E. globulus. The findings indicate that acetone extracts of N. tabacum and E. globulus are naturally occurring pesticide and facts of the enzyme inhibition relations specify that their effect changes with the insect species.

Keywords: natural extract, medicinal plant, toxic effects, enzyme inhibition, acetone extract

Procedia PDF Downloads 143
153 Biochemical Efficacy, Molecular Docking and Inhibitory Effect of 2,3-Dimethylmaleic Anhydride on Acetylcholinesterases

Authors: Kabrambam D. Singh, Dinabandhu Sahoo, Yallappa Rajashekar

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Evolution has caused many insects to develop resistance to several synthetic insecticides. This problem along with the persisting concern regarding the health and environmental safety issues of the existing synthetic insecticides has urged the scientific fraternity to look for a new plant-based natural insecticide with inherent eco-friendly nature. Colocasia esculenta var. esculenta (L.) Schott (Araceae family) is widely grown throughout the South- East Asian Countries for its edible corms and leaves. Various physico-chemical and spectroscopic techniques (IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and Mass) were used for the isolation and characterization of isolated bioactive molecule named 2, 3-dimethylmaleic anhydride (3, 4-dimethyl-2, 5-furandione). This compound was found to be highly toxic, even at low concentration, against several storage grain pests when used as biofumigant. Experimental studies on the mode of action of 2, 3-dimethylmaleic anhydride revealed that the biofumigant act as inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase enzyme in cockroach and stored grain insects. The knockdown activity of bioactive compound is concurrent with in vivo inhibition of AChE; at KD99 dosage of bioactive molecule showed more than 90% inhibition of AChE activity in test insects. The molecule proved to affect the antioxidant enzyme system; superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) and also found to decrease reduced glutathione (GSH) level in the treated insects. The above results indicate involvement of inhibition of AChE activity and oxidative imbalance as the potential mode of action of 2, 3-dimethylmaleic anhydride. In addition, the study reveals computational docking programs elaborate the possible interaction of 2, 3-dimethylmaleic anhydride with enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE) of Periplaneta americana. Finally, the results represent that toxicity of 2, 3-dimethylmaleic anhydride might be associated with inhibition of AChE activity and oxidative imbalance.

Keywords: 2, 3-dimethylmaleic anhydride, Colocasia esculenta var. esculenta (L.) Schott, Biofumigant, acetylcholinesterase, antioxidant enzyme, molecular docking

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152 RNA Interference Technology as a Veritable Tool for Crop Improvement and Breeding for Biotic Stress Resistance

Authors: M. Yusuf

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The recent discovery of the phenomenon of RNA interference has led to its application in various aspects of plant improvement. Crops can be modified by engineering novel RNA interference pathways that create small RNA molecules to alter gene expression in crops or plant pests. RNA interference can generate new crop quality traits or provide protection against insects, nematodes and pathogens without introducing new proteins into food and feed products. This is an advantage in contrast with conventional procedures of gene transfer. RNA interference has been used to develop crop varieties resistant to diseases, pathogens and insects. Male sterility has been engineered in plants using RNA interference. Better quality crops have been developed through the application of RNA interference etc. The objective of this paper is to highlight the application of RNA interference in crop improvement and to project its potential future use to solve problems of agricultural production in relation to plant breeding.

Keywords: RNA interference, application, crop Improvement, agricultural production

Procedia PDF Downloads 320
151 Impacts of Sociological Dynamics on Entomophagy Practice and Food Security in Nigeria

Authors: O. B. Oriolowo, O. J. John

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Empirical findings have shown insects to be nutritious and good source of food for man. However, human food preferences are not only determined by nutritional values of food consumed but, more importantly, by sociology and economic pressure. This study examined the interrelation between science and sociology in sustaining the acceptance of entomophagy among college students to combat food insecurity. A twenty items five Likert scale, College Students Entomophagy Questionnaire (CSEQ), was used to elucidate information from the respondents. The reliability coefficient was obtained to be 0.91 using Spearman-Brown Prophecy formula. Three research questions and three hypotheses were raised. Also, quantitative nutritional analysis of few insects and some established conventional protein sources were undertaking in order to compare their nutritional status. The data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics of percentages and inferential statistics of correlation and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). The results obtained showed that entomophagy has cultural heritage among different tribes in Nigeria and is an acceptable practice; it cuts across every social stratum and is practiced among both major religions. Moreover, insects compared favourably in term of nutrient contents when compared with the conventional animal protein sources analyzed. However, there is a gradual decline in the practice of entomophagy among students, which may be attributed to the influence of western civilization. This study, therefore, recommended an intensification of research and enlightenment of people on the usefulness of entomophagy so as to preserve its cultural heritage as well as boost human food security.

Keywords: entomophagy, food security, malnutrition, poverty alleviation, sociology

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150 Assessment of Germination Loss Due to Dusky Cotton Bug (Oxycarenus laetus) in Relation to Cotton Boll Stage and Bug Intensity

Authors: Ali Hassan, Mian Muhammad Awais, Muhammad Rafique Shahid, Farazia Hassan, Shumaila Rasool

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Dusky cotton bug (Oxycarenus laetus) has attained the status of major insect pest of cotton. It is also known as seed bug due to its property of feeding on seeds. It causes floral abscission at flowering stage and reduction in seed germination. Present study was carried out to assess germination loss caused by dusky bug with respect to crop stage and insect intensity. Treatments consisted of three stages immature boll, mature boll and opened boll as well three levels of dusky bug i.e., 50 bugs per boll, 40 bugs per boll along with zero level kept as control. Results showed that the germination percentage was highest in control treatment where no insect was released followed by treatment where 40 insects released and minimum germination showed by treatment in which 50 insects were released. The germination percentage of seeds surpassed after control treatment in the treatment where dusky bugs exposure was given at boll opening stage than on mature boll stage. Minimum germination was observed in immature boll stage. Interaction between crop stages and dusky bug levels showed that germination percentage of seeds was maximum in control treatment then boll opening stage followed by mature boll stage. Minimum seed germination was recorded in dusky bug treatment at immature boll stage which was 34% where 50 insects were released. From the results it is clear that dusky bug should be managed properly at all reproductive stages but immature stage is most critical.

Keywords: Gossypium hirsutum, Oxycarenus laetus, seed bug, seed germination

Procedia PDF Downloads 182
149 Insecticide Efficacy against Jassids in Egg Plants

Authors: Zunnu Raen Akhtar, Farhan Ali, Muhammad Saeed-Ur-Rehman

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Jassids are considered as serious sucking pests in eggplants. Jassids can be controlled using imidacloprid, but it can also result in non-target ecological impacts on eco-system. It can also result in reduced population of predators of jassids in the field. An experiment was conducted on jassids, Amrasca sp. reared on eggplant leaves were treated with insecticide imidacloprid at lower, recommended and higher doses including 1L, 2L, 3L respectively. 3rd instar larvae and adults of jassids were exposed to lower, recommended, higher doses. Mortality tests were repeated three times for each dose and insect growth stage. Imidacloprid was sprayed on the leaves followed by drying. Data was recorded for 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24 hours after spraying insecticide on the leaves. Results showed that higher mortality was observed in higher and recommended doses, while slow mortality was observed in the case of lower dose. It can be asserted that higher and recommended doses causing immediate mortality of insects are better to control Amrasca sp. in the field, it will not cause immediate resistance development in insects against imidacloprid.

Keywords: Amrasca sp., imidacloprid, egg plant, efficacy

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148 Influence of Farnesol on Growth and Development of Dysdercus koenigii

Authors: Shailendra Kumar, Kamal Kumar Gupta

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Dysdercus koenigii is an economically important pest of cotton worldwide. The pest damages the crop by sucking sap, staining lint, reducing the oil content of the seeds and deteriorating the quality of cotton. Plant possesses a plethora of secondary metabolites which are used as defense mechanism against herbivores. One of the important categories of such chemicals is insect growth regulators and the intermediates in their biosynthesis. Farnesol belongs to sesquiterpenoid. It is an intermediate in Juvenile hormone biosynthetic pathway in insects has been widely reported in the variety of plants. This chemical can disrupt the normal metabolic function and therefore, affects various life processes of the insects. Present study tested the efficacy of farnesol against Dysdercus koenigii. 2μl of 5% (100µg) and 10% (200µg) of the farnesol was applied topically on the dorsum of thoracic region of the newly emerged fifth instar nymphs of Dysdercus. The treated insects were observed daily for their survival, weight gain, and developmental anomalies for a period of ten days. The results indicated that treatment with 200µg farnesol decreased survival of the insects to 70% after 24h of exposure. At lower doses, no significant decrease in the survival was observed. However, the surviving nymphs showed alteration in growth, development, and metamorphosis. The weight gain in the treated nymphs showed deviation from control. The treated nymphs showed an increase in mortality during subsequent days and increase in the nymphal duration. The number of nymphs undergoing metamorphosis decreased to 46% and 88% in the treatments with the dose of 200µg and 100µg respectively. Severe developmental anomalies were also observed in the treated nymphs. The treated nymphs moulted into supernumerary nymphs, adultoids, adults with exuviae attached and adults with wing deformities. On treatment with 200µg; 26% adultoid, 4% adults with exuviae attached and 12% adults with wing deformed were produced. Treatment with 100µg resulted in production of 34% adultoid, 26% adults with deformed wing and 4% adults with exuviae attached. Many of the treated nymphs did not metamorphose into adults, remained in nymphal stage and died. Our results indicated potential application plant-derived secondary metabolites like farnesol in the management of Dysdercus population.

Keywords: development, Dysdercus koenigii, farnesol, survival

Procedia PDF Downloads 257
147 Influence of Temperature on the Development and Feeding Activity of Southern Green Stink Bug Nezara viridula (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae)

Authors: Pavitra Sharma, A. K. Singh

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The establishment of pest population in a habitat is greatly influenced by abiotic factors, such as temperature, photoperiod, and humidity. These factors influence the biology and behavior of insects and their pest status. Nezara viridula (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae), commonly known as southern green stink bug, is economically important pest of legumes. Both nymphs and adult suck the sap from different part of the plant and deteriorate the standing crop. Present study involves effects of temperature on incubation, hatching success and nymphal duration of N. viridula. The results indicated that the development of eggs requires optimal temperature range. Temperature conditions above and below the optimum range affect the incubation period as well as the percent hatchability of eggs. At 19°C, the egg incubation period was longest whereas it was shortest at 27°C. The change in temperature from the optimum condition also affected the hatchability of eggs in N. viridula. Decrease in the hatchability was observed with the decrease in temperature. However, the results were not statistically significant. Decrease in temperature from the optimum temperature to 19°C, also resulted in an increase in nymphal duration of N. viridula. However, no such effect of temperature within the studied range was observed on the morphology of nymphs or adults. Variation in temperature also had no adverse effects on the survival of laboratory bred population of Nezara nymphs. The feeding activity of the bug in relation to photoperiod was assessed by counting the number of punctures on the food surface. The results indicated that day-night regime did not affect the feeding activity of the bug significantly. The present study enhances our knowledge about the effect of environmental factors on the biology of insects and developing the strategy for ‘Integrated Pest Management’ of hemipteran insects by management of the physical factors.

Keywords: development, feeding, hatchability, Nezara viridula

Procedia PDF Downloads 98