Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 206

Search results for: cohesion

206 Grammatical and Lexical Cohesion in the Japan’s Prime Minister Shinzo Abe’s Speech Text ‘Nihon wa Modottekimashita’

Authors: Nadya Inda Syartanti

Abstract:

This research aims to identify, classify, and analyze descriptively the aspects of grammatical and lexical cohesion in the speech text of Japan’s Prime Minister Shinzo Abe entitled Nihon wa Modotte kimashita delivered in Washington DC, the United States on February 23, 2013, as a research data source. The method used is qualitative research, which uses descriptions through words that are applied by analyzing aspects of grammatical and lexical cohesion proposed by Halliday and Hasan (1976). The aspects of grammatical cohesion consist of references (personal, demonstrative, interrogative pronouns), substitution, ellipsis, and conjunction. In contrast, lexical cohesion consists of reiteration (repetition, synonym, antonym, hyponym, meronym) and collocation. Data classification is based on the 6 aspects of the cohesion. Through some aspects of cohesion, this research tries to find out the frequency of using grammatical and lexical cohesion in Shinzo Abe's speech text entitled Nihon wa Modotte kimashita. The results of this research are expected to help overcome the difficulty of understanding speech texts in Japanese. Therefore, this research can be a reference for learners, researchers, and anyone who is interested in the field of discourse analysis.

Keywords: cohesion, grammatical cohesion, lexical cohesion, speech text, Shinzo Abe

Procedia PDF Downloads 67
205 Empirical Investigation for the Correlation between Object-Oriented Class Lack of Cohesion and Coupling

Authors: Jehad Al Dallal

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The design of the internal relationships among object-oriented class members (i.e., attributes and methods) and the external relationships among classes affects the overall quality of the object-oriented software. The degree of relatedness among class members is referred to as class cohesion and the degree to which a class is related to other classes is called class coupling. Well designed classes are expected to exhibit high cohesion and low coupling values. In this paper, using classes of three open-source Java systems, we empirically investigate the relation between class cohesion and coupling. In the empirical study, five lack-of-cohesion metrics and eight coupling metrics are considered. The empirical study results show that class cohesion and coupling internal quality attributes are inversely correlated. The strength of the correlation highly depends on the cohesion and coupling measurement approaches.

Keywords: class cohesion measure, class coupling measure, object-oriented class, software quality

Procedia PDF Downloads 151
204 Empirical Exploration for the Correlation between Class Object-Oriented Connectivity-Based Cohesion and Coupling

Authors: Jehad Al Dallal

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Attributes and methods are the basic contents of an object-oriented class. The connectivity among these class members and the relationship between the class and other classes play an important role in determining the quality of an object-oriented system. Class cohesion evaluates the degree of relatedness of class attributes and methods, whereas class coupling refers to the degree to which a class is related to other classes. Researchers have proposed several class cohesion and class coupling measures. However, the correlation between class coupling and class cohesion measures have not been thoroughly studied. In this paper, using classes of three open-source Java systems, we empirically investigate the correlation between several measures of connectivity-based class cohesion and coupling. Four connectivity-based cohesion measures and eight coupling measures are considered in the empirical study. The empirical study results show that class connectivity-based cohesion and coupling internal quality attributes are inversely correlated. The strength of the correlation depends highly on the cohesion and coupling measurement approaches.

Keywords: object-oriented class, software quality, class cohesion measure, class coupling measure

Procedia PDF Downloads 234
203 Theoretical Exploration for the Impact of Accounting for Special Methods in Connectivity-Based Cohesion Measurement

Authors: Jehad Al Dallal

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Class cohesion is a key object-oriented software quality attribute that is used to evaluate the degree of relatedness of class attributes and methods. Researchers have proposed several class cohesion measures. However, the effect of considering the special methods (i.e., constructors, destructors, and access and delegation methods) in cohesion calculation is not thoroughly theoretically studied for most of them. In this paper, we address this issue for three popular connectivity-based class cohesion measures. For each of the considered measures we theoretically study the impact of including or excluding special methods on the values that are obtained by applying the measure. This study is based on analyzing the definitions and formulas that are proposed for the measures. The results show that including/excluding special methods has a considerable effect on the obtained cohesion values and that this effect varies from one measure to another. For each of the three connectivity-based measures, the proposed theoretical study recommended excluding the special methods in cohesion measurement.

Keywords: object-oriented class, software quality, class cohesion measure, class cohesion, special methods

Procedia PDF Downloads 210
202 A Test to Express Diagnostic Cohesion of Football Team

Authors: Alexandra O. Savinkina

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We proposed to assess the cohesion of a football team by its subject-goal and subject-value unity according to the A.V. Petrovsky theory. Goal unity was measured by the degree of compliance of the priority targets for various players in the team. Values were estimated by the coincidence of the ideas about a perfect football player. On the basis of the provisional diagnosis of the six teams, we had made the lists of goals and values. The tests were piloted on 35 football teams. The results allowed not only to compare quantitatively the cohesion of the different teams, but also to identify subgroups within the team.

Keywords: cohesion, football, psychodiagnostic, soccer, sports team, value-orientation unity

Procedia PDF Downloads 181
201 Coherence and Cohesion in IELTS Academic Writing: Helping Students to Improve

Authors: Rory Patrick O'Kane

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More universities and third level institutions now require at least an IELTS Band 6 for entry into courses of study for non-native speakers of English. This presentation focuses on IELTS Academic Writing Tasks 1 and 2 and in particular on the marking criterion of Coherence and Cohesion. A requirement for candidates aiming at Band 6 and above is that they produce answers which show a clear, overall progression of information and ideas and which use cohesive devices effectively. With this in mind, the presenter will examine what exactly is meant by coherence and cohesion and various strategies which can be used to assist students in improving their scores in this area. A number of classroom teaching ideas will be introduced, and participants will have the opportunity to compare and discuss sample answers written by candidates for this examination with a specific focus on coherence and cohesion. Intended audience: Teachers of IELTS Academic Writing.

Keywords: coherence, cohesion, IELTS, strategies

Procedia PDF Downloads 166
200 Family Cohesion, Interpersonal Difficulties and Mental Health Problems in University Students

Authors: Narmeen Ali, Muhammad Arshad

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Cohesion has an exact association with family functioning and enmeshment (togetherness) on one side and disengagement (separateness) on the other. Family cohesion can apprehend as a concerned association that family members have with each other and an affirmation of association inside the family. Family cohesion, assigned as the level of congruity or sympathetic or emotional attachment that relatives have toward each other, and it was seen to be associated with relational well-being and feeling of comfort in the young generation. The cross-sectional research design was used by the researcher to answer the research questions. A stratified sampling technique was used to collect the data from the participants. The data was collected equally from the males and females of different universities and different departments of Lahore, Pakistan. A self-report questionnaire was developed of given literature and which were found to be associated with family cohesion, interpersonal difficulties and mental health problems of university students. The demographic information included age, gender, university’s name, class, family system, parent’s education, parent’s profession, number of siblings and birth order. Correlation shows the negative relation between balanced cohesion and interpersonal difficulties, while interpersonal difficulties have a highly positive relationship with mental health problems. Mental health problems also have a negative correlation with the balanced family cohesion. Gender, family system, depression and anxiety are the significant predictors of interpersonal difficulties scale in university students. And gender showed a significant difference regarding family cohesion and interpersonal difficulty scale, as women reported more interpersonal difficulties than men.

Keywords: family cohesion, interpersonal difficulties, mental health problems, university students

Procedia PDF Downloads 46
199 Rasch Analysis in the Development of 'Kohesif-Ques': An Instrument to Measure Social Cohesion

Authors: Paramita Sekar Ayu, Sunjaya Deni Kurniadi, Yamazaki Chiho, Hilfi Lukman, Koyama Hiroshi

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Social cohesion, or closeness among members of society, is an important determinant of population health. A cohesive society is a crucial societal condition for a positive life evaluation and subjective wellbeing, and people living in a cohesive society are happier and more satisfied with life and achieve better health status. The objective of this study was to compose and validate a questionnaire for measuring social cohesion with Rasch analysis. We develop a set of 13 questions to measure 4 dimensions of social cohesion. Random samples of 166 Bandung citizens’ were selected to answer the questionnaire. To evaluate the questionnaire’s validity and reliability, Rasch analysis (a psychometric model for analyzing categorical data on questionnaire responses) was carried out using Winsteps version 3.75.0. Rasch analysis was performed on the response given to 13 items included in the questionnaire. The reliability coefficient, Cronbach’s alpha was 0.70, model RMSE 0.08, SD 0.54, separation 7.14, and reliability of 0.98. ‘Kohesif-Ques’ is a useful instrument to assess social cohesion.

Keywords: rasch analysis, rasch model, social cohesion, quesionnaire

Procedia PDF Downloads 60
198 Theoretical Reflections on Metaphor and Cohesion and the Coherence of Face-To-Face Interactions

Authors: Afef Badri

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The role of metaphor in creating the coherence and the cohesion of discourse in online interactive talk has almost received no attention. This paper intends to provide some theoretical reflections on metaphorical coherence as a jointly constructed process that evolves in online, face-to-face interactions. It suggests that the presence of a global conceptual structure in a conversation makes it conceptually cohesive. Yet, coherence remains a process largely determined by other variables (shared goals, communicative intentions, and framework of understanding). Metaphorical coherence created by these variables can be useful in detecting bias in media reporting.

Keywords: coherence, cohesion, face-to-face interactions, metaphor

Procedia PDF Downloads 150
197 Moderating Role of Positive External Factors in Relationship of Abusive Supervision and Knowledge Sharing

Authors: I.Hussain, A. Gulzar

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Knowledge sharing is very important in organizations for their future progress and survival. This study investigates the impact of destructive leadership (abusive supervision) on knowledge sharing in employees. Further, the authors want to investigate a context variable (group cohesion) and explore its cross level influence on the relationship of abusive supervision and knowledge sharing. Conservation of resource theory (COR) claims loss of psychological capital (an internal positive resource) in employees due to abusive supervision and hence decrease occurs in knowledge sharing. This study tests psychological capital as mediator and group cohesion as moderator in relationship of abusive supervision and knowledge sharing. Data was collected from 239 respondents from more than 40 different organizations and 50 different groups from all over Pakistan. Results show that abusive supervision has negative effect on knowledge sharing through reduction in psychological capital of employees, and increased group cohesion in employees reduces this negative effect improving psychological capital in employees.

Keywords: abusive supervision, knowledge sharing, psychological capital, group cohesion, conservation of resources

Procedia PDF Downloads 129
196 EU Integratıon Impact over the Real Convergence

Authors: Badoiu Mihaela Catalina

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Main focus of COHESION policy was reducing social and economic disparities between member states and regions, sustainable development and equal opportunities. In this perspective, the present study intend to analyze the evolution of the European architecture and its direct impact over the real convergence in the member states.

Keywords: cooperation, European union, member states, cohesion policy

Procedia PDF Downloads 367
195 The Effects of Social Capital and Empowering Leadership on Team Cohesion

Authors: Y. R. Lai, J. C. Jehng, T. T. Chang

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Team is a popular job design in the management settings. Because people on a team need to work together to complete a lot of tasks, the interaction between team members strongly influences team effectiveness. The study examines the effect of social capital and empowering leadership on team cohesion. There are three facets of social capital: structural facet, relational facet, and cognitive facet. Empowering leadership includes enhancing the meaningfulness of work, fostering participation in decision making, expressing confidence in high performance, and providing autonomy from bureaucratic constraints. Data were collected from 181 team members of 47 teams in the real estate agency industry. The results show that the relational social capital, enhancing the meaningfulness of work, and providing autonomy from bureaucratic constraints are positively related to two dimensions of team cohesion: sense of belonging and feelings of moral. Additionally, expressing confidence in high performance is negatively related to sense of belonging.

Keywords: social capital, empowering leadership, team cohesion, team effectiveness

Procedia PDF Downloads 329
194 The Effects of Prosocial and Antisocial Behaviors on Task Cohesion and Burnout: The Role of Affect and Motivational Climate

Authors: Ali Al-Yaaribi, Maria Kavussanu

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Prosocial and antisocial behavior occurs in sport. Prosocial behavior is voluntary behavior intended to help or benefit another individual, while antisocial behavior is behavior intended to harm or disadvantage another individual. Previous sport morality research has investigated primarily antecedents of prosocial and antisocial behavior. However, the potential consequences of these behaviors remain unexplored. The aims of this study were to examine whether: (a) perceived prosocial and antisocial teammate behavior predicts task cohesion and burnout; (b) affect mediate these relationships; and (c) motivational climate moderates any of these effects. Participants were male (n = 96) and female (n = 176) teams sport players (Mage = 21.86, SD = 4.36), who completed questionnaires measuring the aforementioned variables. Mediation analysis (Hayes, 2013) indicated that prosocial teammate behavior positively predicted task cohesion and negatively predicted burnout; these effects were mediated by positive affect. Also, mastery climate moderated the positive effect of prosocial teammate behavior on task cohesion: The effect of antisocial teammate behavior on task cohesion was stronger for players who perceived a higher mastery climate created by their coaches. Performance climate moderated the negative effect of prosocial teammate behavior on burnout: This effect was only significant for players who perceived moderate or low levels of performance team climate. Antisocial teammate behavior negatively predicted task cohesion and positively predicted burnout, and these effects were mediated by negative affect. Also, performance climate moderated the positive effect of antisocial teammate behavior on burnout, such that the effect of antisocial teammate behavior on burnout was stronger for players who perceived a lower performance climate. The research findings shed some light on the potential role of prosocial and antisocial teammate behaviors as well as coach-created motivational climate on influencing players’ affect, task cohesion, and burnout. Coaches should focus on creating a mastery motivational climate and rewarding prosocial behavior while at the same time trying to deter antisocial behavior among teammates in order to enhance positive affect, task cohesion, and prevent experience of negative affect and burnout.

Keywords: mediation, moderation, morality, teams sport

Procedia PDF Downloads 234
193 Reframing Service Oriented Architecture Design Principles in Software Design Quality

Authors: Purnomo Yustianto, Robin Doss, Novianto B. Kurniawan Suhardi

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Since its inception, the design activities of Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) has been guided with aspects from the Service Design Principles (SDP), such as cohesion, granularity, loose coupling, discoverability, and autonomy, etc. The goal of this paper is two folds. The first is to examine the position of SDP within the context of software quality, and the second is to reframe the aspects of SDP into a more concise terms and relations. This paper is divided into four parts, in which after the introduction, a review on related software quality is provided to determine the quality context of SDP. The third part reviews the original SDP and offers a relation model among the SDP aspects. The fourth part explores the design quality metrics available for SOA and proposes a relationship representing the design quality. Among the aspects of design principles, the cohesion and coupling aspect is determined to be the two important aspects for achieving reusability of a service.

Keywords: SOA, software quality, service design principle, reusability, cohesion, coupling

Procedia PDF Downloads 78
192 Code Refactoring Using Slice-Based Cohesion Metrics and AOP

Authors: Jagannath Singh, Durga Prasad Mohapatra

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Software refactoring is very essential for maintaining the software quality. It is an usual practice that we first design the software and then go for coding. But after coding is completed, if the requirement changes slightly or our expected output is not achieved, then we change the codes. For each small code change, we cannot change the design. In course of time, due to these small changes made to the code, the software design decays. Software refactoring is used to restructure the code in order to improve the design and quality of the software. In this paper, we propose an approach for performing code refactoring. We use slice-based cohesion metrics to identify the target methods which requires refactoring. After identifying the target methods, we use program slicing to divide the target method into two parts. Finally, we have used the concepts of Aspects to adjust the code structure so that the external behaviour of the original module does not change.

Keywords: software refactoring, program slicing, AOP, cohesion metrics, code restructure, AspectJ

Procedia PDF Downloads 397
191 Study on the Effects of Grassroots Characteristics on Reinforced Soil Performance by Direct Shear Test

Authors: Zhanbo Cheng, Xueyu Geng

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Vegetation slope protection technique is economic, aesthetic and practical. Herbs are widely used in practice because of rapid growth, strong erosion resistance, obvious slope protection and simple method, in which the root system of grass plays a very important role. In this paper, through changing the variables value of grassroots quantity, grassroots diameter, grassroots length and grassroots reinforce layers, the direct shear tests were carried out to discuss the change of shear strength indexes of grassroots reinforced soil under different reinforce situations, and analyse the effects of grassroots characteristics on reinforced soil performance. The laboratory test results show that: (1) in the certain number of grassroots diameter, grassroots length and grassroots reinforce layers, the value of shear strength, and cohesion first increase and then reduce with the increasing of grassroots quantity; (2) in the certain number of grassroots quantity, grassroots length and grassroots reinforce layers, the value of shear strength and cohesion rise with the increasing of grassroots diameter; (3) in the certain number of grassroots diameter, and grassroots reinforce layers, the value of shear strength and cohesion raise with the increasing of grassroots length in a certain range of grassroots quantity, while the value of shear strength and cohesion first rise and then decline with the increasing of grassroots length when the grassroots quantity reaches a certain value; (4) in the certain number of grassroots quantity, grassroots diameter, and grassroots length, the value of shear strength and cohesion first climb and then decline with the increasing of grassroots reinforced layers; (5) the change of internal friction angle is small in different parameters of grassroots. The research results are of importance for understanding the mechanism of vegetation protection for slopes and determining the parameters of grass planting.

Keywords: direct shear test, reinforced soil, grassroots characteristics, shear strength indexes

Procedia PDF Downloads 101
190 The Amount of Organic Phosphates (Like DPG) Existing in Blood is Determining Factor of Mammal’s Bulk

Authors: Ramin Amirmardfar

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Throughout Necessary oxygen should be supplied for all cells of a mammal at any moment through blood to make it possible remain alive all cells the mammal’s body. In case a mammal’s bulk is large, there is a farther distance between cells in different tissues and mammals’ heart. Therefore red blood cells in bulky mammal’s body should be capable of conveying oxygen to farther distances. To make it practical, oxygen should be glued red blood cells tenaciously. In other words, cohesion strength of oxygen to red blood cell of bulky mammal’s blood should be much more than the same of small mammal’s blood. In mammal’s bodies, the controlling factor of amount of cohesion of oxygen to red blood cell, are organic phosphates (like DPG). The less DPG in red blood cells of a mammal, the more cohesion of oxygen to red blood cell (at the same rate). As much as oxygen is glued more tenacious to red blood cells, oxygen could been carried to farther distance and as much as oxygen could be conveyed to farther points of heart, bulk of mammal could be larger at the same rate.

Keywords: mammals size, animals size, organic phosphates, DPG, red blood cell, metabolism

Procedia PDF Downloads 268
189 Family Dynamics on Attitude Towards Peace: The Mediating Role of Emotional Regulation Strategies

Authors: Nicole Kaye A. Callanta, Shalimar B. Baruang, Anne Edelienne P. Tadena, Imelu G. Mordeno, Odessa May D. Escalona

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Untold numbers of children and adolescents around the world are exposed increasingly to the war on a daily basis. These experiences shape how they will view themselves, others, and the world. A wealth of studies have shown the role of family dynamics in the development of children’s attitudes, particularly their social behaviors. This specific study, however, contends that family dynamics influence peace and conflict resolution attitude and further asserts that it is brought about by the degree of emotional regulation strategies they use. Utilising purposive sampling, adolescent participant-respondents were from different schools in Southern Philipines, specifically of the cities of Marawi and Iligan, where exposure to warring clans, internal struggle between the Philippine Military and insurgencies, and the recent Marawi Seige caused by Al-Qaeda and ISIS-spawned terrorism. Results showed emotional regulation strategies mediate the relationship between family dynamics, particularly on family cohesion, and attitude towards peace. Thus implying the association between family cohesion and attitude towards peace strengthens with the use of emotional regulation strategies.

Keywords: attitude towards peace, emotional regulation strategies, family cohesion, family dynamics

Procedia PDF Downloads 65
188 Influence of Bottom Ash on the Geotechnical Parameters of Clayey Soil

Authors: Tanios Saliba, Jad Wakim, Elie Awwad

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Clayey soils exhibit undesirable problems in civil engineering project: poor bearing soil capacity, shrinkage, cracking, …etc. On the other hand, the increasing production of bottom ash and its disposal in an eco-friendly manner is a matter of concern. Soil stabilization using bottom ash is a new technic in the geo-environmental engineering. It can be used wherever a soft clayey soil is encountered in foundations or road subgrade, instead of using old technics such as cement-soil mixing. This new technology can be used for road embankments and clayey foundations platform (shallow or deep foundations) instead of replacing bad soil or using old technics which aren’t eco-friendly. Moreover, applying this new technic in our geotechnical engineering projects can reduce the disposal of the bottom ash problem which is getting bigger day after day. The research consists of mixing clayey soil with different percentages of bottom ash at different values of water content, and evaluates the mechanical properties of every mix: the percentages of bottom ash are 10% 20% 30% 40% and 50% with values of water content of 25% 35% and 45% of the mix’s weight. Before testing the different mixes, clayey soil’s properties were determined: Atterbeg limits, soil’s cohesion and friction angle and particle size distribution. In order to evaluate the mechanical properties and behavior of every mix, different tests are conducted: -Direct shear test in order to determine the cohesion and internal friction angle of every mix. -Unconfined compressive strength (stress strain curve) to determine mix’s elastic modulus and compressive strength. Soil samples are prepared in accordance with the ASTM standards, and tested at different times, in order to be able to emphasize the influence of the curing period on the variation of the mix’s mechanical properties and characteristics. As of today, the results obtained are very promising: the mix’s cohesion and friction angle vary in function of the bottom ash percentage, water content and curing period: the cohesion increases enormously before decreasing for a long curing period (values of mix’s cohesion are larger than intact soil’s cohesion) while internal friction angle keeps on increasing even when the curing period is 28 days (the tests largest curing period), which give us a better soil behavior: less cracks and better soil bearing capacity.

Keywords: bottom ash, Clayey soil, mechanical properties, tests

Procedia PDF Downloads 116
187 The Effects of Racial Cohesion among White and Maori Populations on Healthcare in New Zealand

Authors: Thomas C. Nash

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New Zealand has a small, yet racially diverse, population of only 4.6 million people, consisting of a majority European immigrant population and a large indigenous Maori population. Because disparities in healthcare often exist among minority populations, it could be expected that the White and Maori populations of New Zealand would have unequal access to healthcare. In order to understand the ways these disparities may present themselves, it became important to travel to New Zealand in order to interview both Western and natural healthcare professionals, public health officials, health activists and Maori people. In observing the various mechanisms within the New Zealand healthcare system, some stand out as effective ways of alleviating the racial disparities often seen in healthcare. These include the efficiency of regional District Health Boards, the benefits of individuals making decisions regarding their treatment plans and the importance of cohesion among the Maori and White populations. In forming a conclusion around these observations, it is evident that the integration of Maori culture into contemporary New Zealand has benefited the healthcare system. This unity has generated support for non-Western medical treatments, in turn forming a healthcare system that creates low barriers to entry for non-traditional forms of healthcare. These low barriers allow individuals to allocate available healthcare resources in ways that are most beneficial for them and are consistent with their tastes and preferences, maximizing efficiency.

Keywords: alternative and complementary healthcare, low barriers to entry, Maori populations, racial cohesion

Procedia PDF Downloads 94
186 Descriptive Analysis of the Relationship between State and Civil Society in Hegel's Political Thought

Authors: Garineh Keshishyan Siraki

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Civil society is one of the most important concepts of the twentieth century and even so far. Modern and postmodern thinkers have provided different definitions of civil society. Of course, the concept of civil society has undergone many changes over time. The relationship between government and civil society is one of the relationships that attracted the attention of many contemporary thinkers. Hegel, the thinker we discussed in this article also explores the relationship between these concepts and emphasizing the dialectical method, he has drawn three lines between family, state, and civil society. In Hegel's view, the creation of civil society will lead to a reduction of social conflict and increased social cohesion. The importance of the issue is due to the study of social cohesion and the ways to increase it. The importance of the issue is due to the study of social cohesion and the ways to increase it. This paper, which uses a descriptive-analytic method to examine Hegel's dialectical theory of civil society, after examining the relationship between the family and the state and finding the concept of civil society as the interface and the interconnected circle of these two, investigates tripartite economic, legal, and pluralistic systems. In this article, after examining the concepts of the market, the right and duty, the individual interests and the development of the exchange economy, Hegel's view is to examine the concept of freedom and its relation with civil society. The results of this survey show that, in Hegel's thought, the separation between the political system and the social system is a natural and necessary thing. In Hegel's view, because of those who are in society, they have selfish features; the community is in tension and contradiction. Therefore, the social realms within which conflicts emerge must be identified and controlled by specific mechanisms. It can also be concluded that the government can act to reduce social conflicts by legislating, using force or forming trade unions. The bottom line is that Hegel wants to reconcile between the individual, the state and civil society and it is not possible to rely on ethics.

Keywords: civil society, cohesion system, economic system, family, the legal system, state

Procedia PDF Downloads 88
185 The Influence of Water Content on the Shear Resistance of Silty Sands

Authors: Mohamed Boualem Salah

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This work involves an experimental study of the behavior of chlef sand under effect of various parameters influencing on shear strength. Because of their distinct nature, sands, silts and clays exhibit completely different behavior (shear strength, the contracting and dilatancy, the angle of internal friction and cohesion etc.). By cons when these materials are mixed, their behavior will become different from each considered alone. The behavior of these mixtures (silty sands etc.) is currently the state of several studies to better use. We studied in this work: The influence of the following factors on the shear strength: (The density, the fines content, the water content). The apparatus used for the tests is the shear box casagrande. This device, although one may have some disadvantages and modern instrumentation is appropriate used to study the shear strength of soils.

Keywords: behavior, shear strength, sand, silt, friction angle, cohesion, fines content, moisture content

Procedia PDF Downloads 316
184 The Effect of the Water and Fines Content on Shear Strength of Soils

Authors: Ouledja Abdessalam

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This work Contains an experimental study of the behavior of Chlef sand under the effect of various parameters influencing on shear strength. Because of their distinct nature, sands, silts, and clays exhibit completely different behavior (shear strength, the Contracting and dilatancy, the angle of internal friction and cohesion...). By cons when these materials are mixed, their behavior will become different from each considered alone. The behavior of these mixtures (silty sands...) is currently the state of several studies to better use. We have studied in this work: The influence of the following factors on the shear strength: The density (loose and dense), the fines content (silt), The water content. The apparatus used for the tests is the casagrande shear box. This device, although one may have some disadvantages and modern instrumentation is appropriately used to study the shear strength of soils.

Keywords: shear strength, sand, silt, contractancy, dilatancy, friction angle, cohesion, fines content

Procedia PDF Downloads 404
183 The Effect of Water and Fines Content on Shear Strength of Silty Soils

Authors: Dellal Seyyid Ali

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This work Contains an experimental study of the behavior of Chlef sand under effect of various parameters influencing on shear strength. Because of their distinct nature, sands, silts and clays exhibit completely different behavior (shear strength, the Contracting and dilatancy, the angle of internal friction and cohesion ...). By cons when these materials are mixed, their behavior will become different from each considered alone. The behavior of these mixtures (silty sands ...) is currently the state of several studies to better use. We have studied in this work: The influence of the following factors on the shear strength: The density (loose and dense), the fines content (silt), the water content. The apparatus used for the tests is the casagrande shear box. This device, although one may have some disadvantages and modern instrumentation is appropriate used to study the shear strength of soils.

Keywords: shear strength, sand, silt, contractanct, dilatancy, friction angle, cohesion, fines content

Procedia PDF Downloads 176
182 Static Response of Homogeneous Clay Stratum to Imposed Structural Loads

Authors: Aaron Aboshio

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Numerical study of the static response of homogeneous clay stratum considering a wide range of cohesion and subject to foundation loads is presented. The linear elastic–perfectly plastic constitutive relation with the von Mises yield criterion were utilised to develop a numerically cost effective finite element model for the soil while imposing a rigid body constrain to the foundation footing. From the analyses carried out, estimate of the bearing capacity factor, Nc as well as the ultimate load-carrying capacities of these soils, effect of cohesion on foundation settlements, stress fields and failure propagation were obtained. These are consistent with other findings in the literature and hence can be a useful guide in design of safe foundations in clay soils for buildings and other structure.

Keywords: bearing capacity factors, finite element method, safe bearing pressure, structure-soil interaction

Procedia PDF Downloads 226
181 Comparative Study on the Effect of Compaction Energy and Moisture Content on the Strength Properties of Lateritic Soil

Authors: Ahmad Idris, O.A. Uche, Ado Y Abdulfatah

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Lateritic soils are found in abundance and are the most common types of soils used in construction of roads and embankments in Nigeria. Strength properties of the soils depend on the amount of compaction applied and the amount of water available in the soil at the time of compaction. In this study, the influence of the compactive effort and that of the amount of water in the soil in the determination of the shear strength properties of lateritic soil was investigated. Lateritic soil sample was collected from an existing borrow pit in Kano, Nigeria and its basic characteristics were determined and the soil was classified according to AASHTO classification method. The soil was then compacted under various compactive efforts and at wide range of moisture contents. The maximum dry density (MDD) and optimum moisture content (OMC) at each compactive effort was determined. Unconfined undrained triaxial test was carried out to determine the shear strength properties of the soil under various conditions of moisture and energy. Preliminary results obtained indicated that the soil is an A-7-5 soil. The final results obtained shows that as the compaction energy is increased, both the cohesion and friction angle increased irrespective of the moisture content used in the compaction. However, when the amount of water in the soil was increased and compaction effort kept constant, only the cohesion of the soil increases while the friction angle shows no any pattern of variation. It was also found that the highest values for cohesion and friction angle were obtained when the soil was compacted at the highest energy and at OMC.

Keywords: laterite, OMC, compaction energy, moisture content

Procedia PDF Downloads 321
180 The Effect of the Low Plastic Fines on the Shear Strength and Mechanical Behavior of Granular Classes of Sand-Silt Mixtures

Authors: El Metmati Abdelhaq

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Shear strength of sandy soils has been considered as the important parameter to study the stability of different civil engineering structures when subjected to monotonic, cyclic and earthquake loading conditions. The objective of this laboratory investigation is to study the influence of the fraction of low plastic fines and gradation on the mechanical behavior of sand-silt mixtures reconstituted in the laboratory. For this purpose, a series of Casagrande shear box tests were carried out on different reconstituted samples of sand-silt mixtures with various gradations at two initial relative densities (Dr = 20 and 91 %) with different fines content ranging from 0 to 40 %. The soil samples were tested under different normal stresses (100, 200 and 300 kPa). The evaluation of the data indicates that the fines content and the gradation have significant influence on the friction angle and the cohesion.

Keywords: mechanical behavior, silty sand, friction angle, cohesion, fines content

Procedia PDF Downloads 291
179 Effect of Clay Content on the Drained Shear Strength

Authors: Navid Khayat

Abstract:

Drained shear strength of saturated soils is fully understood. Shear strength of unsaturated soils is usually expressed in terms of soil suction. Evaluation of shear strength of compacted mixtures of sand–clay at optimum water content is main purpose of this research. To prepare the required samples, first clay and sand are mixed in 10, 30, 50, and 70 percent by dry weight and then compacted at the proper optimum water content according to the standard proctor test. The samples were sheared in direct shear machine. Stress –strain relationship of samples indicated a ductile behavior. Most of the samples showed a dilatancy behavior during the shear and the tendency for dilatancy increased with the increase in sand proportion. The results show that with the increase in percentage of sand a decrease in cohesion intercept c' for mixtures and an increase in the angle of internal friction Φ’is observed.

Keywords: clay, sand, drained shear strength, cohesion intercept

Procedia PDF Downloads 355
178 Homophily in Youth Athletics: Sociodemographics, Group Cohesion, and the Psychology of Performance in Sport

Authors: Brandon Ko

Abstract:

Whether it’s a kitchen staff or a law firm, many groups tend to have homogenous characteristics of race, gender, interests, and goals. Social groups are not typically random samples of the population and will usually have common identifiers. According to Blau, age, sex, and education all play salient roles in shaping relationships within members of society. So if there is some degree of homogeneity within groups, the question arises whether this is beneficial or harmful to a group’s effectiveness. There has been much disagreement in the scientific community as to whether the presence of homophily benefits or hinders an athletic team's cohesiveness. For this paper, a comparative study of research of soccer case studies that followed various, youth players was studied against examinations of the effects that such a culture has on athletes. The case studies were used as evidence to determine what kind of homophily existed within the soccer camps. One case study followed several European developmental clubs such as Bayern Munich and Barcelona. Another study followed eight different players, four of each gender, implementing a similar method of interviewing, observing, and questioning. The individual and team goals of each athlete were reviewed to see which teams and players were ego-oriented and which were team-oriented. Additionally, there had been little research done on the relationship between homophily and how it applies to the sport community, suggesting the need to develop this neglected problem in applied psychology. This paper argues that the benefits of an egalitarian culture and stronger relations with people of a similar socio-demographic outweigh the liabilities of cohesion like being stereotyped and a lack of network outside the group as produced by homophily in athletic competition.

Keywords: group cohesion, homophily, sports psychology, youth athletics

Procedia PDF Downloads 216
177 Evaluation of Drained Shear Strength of Bentonite-Sand Mixtures

Authors: Navid Khayat

Abstract:

Drained shear strength of saturated soils is fully understood. Shear strength of unsaturated soils is usually expressed in terms of soil suction. Evaluation of shear strength of compacted mixtures of sand-bentonite at optimum water content is main purpose of this research. To prepare the required samples, first, bentonite and sand are mixed in 10, 30, 50 and 70 percent by dry weight and then compacted at the proper optimum water content according to the standard proctor test. The samples were sheared in direct shear machine. Stress-strain relationship of samples indicated a ductile behavior. Most of the samples showed a dilatancy behavior during the shear and the tendency for dilatancy increased with the increase in sand proportion. The results show that with the increase in percentage of sand a decrease in cohesion intercept c' for mixtures and an increase in the angle of internal friction Φ’is observed.

Keywords: bentonite, sand, drained shear strength, cohesion intercept

Procedia PDF Downloads 232