Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1362

Search results for: head word (HW)

1362 Word of Mouth and Its Impact on Marketing

Authors: Fatima Naz, Ayesha Tariq


In view of growing of the internet users for e-commerce and taking into account, the emergent impact of word of mouth phenomenon this research has different aims. The aims of this study were built following dissimilar discussion with teachers and colleagues enlightening that word of mouth information for online purchasing do not have the same effect for everybody. Then they were born following dissimilar researchers together with what was already done in previous researches and what was completed. As a result different aims were drawn; the initial aim of this research is to study the attention of the customers in the word of mouth to power their online purchasing activities. The next aim is to analyze the people influenced by the interest of word of mouth. The following aim is to examine the marketing behavior bearing in mind the internet progress and word of mouth, their consideration for word of mouth marketing. In the form of research questions the aims of the study are: 1) How community utilizes and multiplies word of mouth information about online purchasing experience? 2) How communities perceive the word of mouth marketing? 3) How marketers take the word of mouth phenomenon and how they handle it?

Keywords: belief, power, inspiration, self-expression, positive attitude to online marketing, forwarding of contents, purchasing decision, standard marketing

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1361 Text Emotion Recognition by Multi-Head Attention based Bidirectional LSTM Utilizing Multi-Level Classification

Authors: Vishwanath Pethri Kamath, Jayantha Gowda Sarapanahalli, Vishal Mishra, Siddhesh Balwant Bandgar


Recognition of emotional information is essential in any form of communication. Growing HCI (Human-Computer Interaction) in recent times indicates the importance of understanding of emotions expressed and becomes crucial for improving the system or the interaction itself. In this research work, textual data for emotion recognition is used. The text being the least expressive amongst the multimodal resources poses various challenges such as contextual information and also sequential nature of the language construction. In this research work, the proposal is made for a neural architecture to resolve not less than 8 emotions from textual data sources derived from multiple datasets using google pre-trained word2vec word embeddings and a Multi-head attention-based bidirectional LSTM model with a one-vs-all Multi-Level Classification. The emotions targeted in this research are Anger, Disgust, Fear, Guilt, Joy, Sadness, Shame, and Surprise. Textual data from multiple datasets were used for this research work such as ISEAR, Go Emotions, Affect datasets for creating the emotions’ dataset. Data samples overlap or conflicts were considered with careful preprocessing. Our results show a significant improvement with the modeling architecture and as good as 10 points improvement in recognizing some emotions.

Keywords: text emotion recognition, bidirectional LSTM, multi-head attention, multi-level classification, google word2vec word embeddings

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1360 A Word-to-Vector Formulation for Word Representation

Authors: Sandra Rizkallah, Amir F. Atiya


This work presents a novel word to vector representation that is based on embedding the words into a sphere, whereby the dot product of the corresponding vectors represents the similarity between any two words. Embedding the vectors into a sphere enabled us to take into consideration the antonymity between words, not only the synonymity, because of the suitability to handle the polarity nature of words. For example, a word and its antonym can be represented as a vector and its negative. Moreover, we have managed to extract an adequate vocabulary. The obtained results show that the proposed approach can capture the essence of the language, and can be generalized to estimate a correct similarity of any new pair of words.

Keywords: natural language processing, word to vector, text similarity, text mining

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1359 An Exploratory Study of the Effects of Head Movement on Engagement within a Telepresence Environment

Authors: B. S. Bamoallem, A. J. Wodehouse, G. M. Mair


Communication takes place not only through speech, but also by means of gestures such as facial expressions, gaze, head movements, hand movements and body posture, and though there has been rapid development, communication platforms still lack this type of behavior. We believe communication platforms need to fully achieve this verbal and non-verbal behavior in order to make interactions more engaging and more efficient. In this study we decided to focus our research on the head rather than any other body part as it is a rich source of information for speech-related movement Thus we aim to investigate the value of incorporating head movements into the use of telepresence robots as communication platforms; this will be done by investigating a system that reproduces head movement manually as closely as possible.

Keywords: engagement, nonverbal behaviours, head movements, face-to-face interaction, telepresence robot

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1358 Math Word Problems: Context and Achievement

Authors: Irena Smetackova


The important part of school mathematics are word problems which represent the connection between school knowledge and life reality. To find the reasons why students consider word problems to be difficult, it is necessary to take into consideration the motivational settings, besides mathematical knowledge and reading skills. Our goal is to identify whether the familiar or unfamiliar context of math word problem influences solving success rate and if so, whether the reasons are motivational or cognitive. For this purpose, we conducted three steps study in group of fifty pupils 9-10 years old. In the first step, we asked pupils to create ‘the best’ word problems for entered numerical formula. The set of 19 word problems with different contexts were selected. In the second step, pupils were asked to evaluate (without solving) how they like each item and how easy it is for them. The 6 word problems with low preference and low estimated success rate were selected and combined with other 6 problems with high preference and success rate. In the third step, the same pupils were asked to solve the word problems. The analysis showed that pupils attitudes and solving toward word problems varied by the context. The strong gender patterns both in preferred contexts and in estimated success rates were identified however the real success rate did not differ so strongly. The success gap between word problems with and without preferred contexts were stronger than the gap between problems with and without real experience with the context. The hypothesis that motivational factors are more important than cognitive factors was confirmed.

Keywords: mathematics, context of reality, motivation, cognition, word problems

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1357 Morphological Rules of Bangla Repetition Words for UNL Based Machine Translation

Authors: Nawab Yousuf Ali, S. Golam, A. Ameer, Ashok Toru Roy


This paper develops new morphological rules suitable for Bangla repetition words to be incorporated into an inter lingua representation called Universal Networking Language (UNL). The proposed rules are to be used to combine verb roots and their inflexions to produce words which are then combined with other similar types of words to generate repetition words. This paper outlines the format of morphological rules for different types of repetition words that come from verb roots based on the framework of UNL provided by the UNL centre of the Universal Networking Digital Language (UNDL) foundation.

Keywords: Universal Networking Language (UNL), universal word (UW), head word (HW), Bangla-UNL Dictionary, morphological rule, enconverter (EnCo)

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1356 High Temperature Creep Analysis for Lower Head of Reactor Pressure Vessel

Authors: Dongchuan Su, Hai Xie, Naibin Jiang


Under severe accident cases, the nuclear reactor core may meltdown inside the lower head of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV). Retaining the melt pool inside the RPV is an important strategy of severe accident management. During this process, the inner wall of the lower head will be heated to high temperature of a thousand centigrade, and the outer wall is immersed in a large amount of cooling water. The material of the lower head will have serious creep damage under the high temperature and the temperature difference, and this produces a great threat to the integrity of the RPV. In this paper, the ANSYS program is employed to build the finite element method (FEM) model of the lower head, the creep phenomena is simulated under the severe accident case, the time dependent strain and stress distribution is obtained, the creep damage of the lower head is investigated, the integrity of the RPV is evaluated and the theoretical basis is provided for the optimized design and safety assessment of the RPV.

Keywords: severe accident, lower head of RPV, creep, FEM

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1355 Optimum Flight Altitude

Authors: Ravi Nandu, Anmol Taploo


As per current scenario, commercial aircrafts have been very well functioning with higher efficiency, but there is something that affects it. Every aircraft runs with the combustion produced by mixture of fuel and air. For example: A flight to travel from Mumbai to Kolkata it takes 2h: 30 min and from Kolkata to Mumbai it takes 2h: 45 min. It happens due to head and tail wind. Due to head wind air craft travels faster than its usual velocity and it takes 2h: 30 min to reach to Kolkata, while it takes 2h;45min vis versa. This lag in time is caused due to head wind that increases the drag and reduces the relative velocity of the plane. So in order to reduce this wastage of fuel there is an optimal flight altitude at which the head and tail wind action is reduced compared to the present scenario.

Keywords: drag, head wind, tail wind, aircraft

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1354 Mike Hat: Coloured-Tape-in-Hat as a Head Circumference Measuring Instrument for Early Detection of Hydrocephalus in an Infant

Authors: Nyimas Annissa Mutiara Andini


Every year, children develop hydrocephalus during the first year of life. If it is not treated, hydrocephalus can lead to brain damage, a loss in mental and physical abilities, and even death. To be treated, first, we have to do a proper diagnosis using some examinations especially to detect hydrocephalus earlier. One of the examination that could be done is using a head circumference measurement. Increased head circumference is a first and main sign of hydrocephalus, especially in infant (0-1 year age). Head circumference is a measurement of a child's head largest area. In this measurement, we want to get the distance from above the eyebrows and ears and around the back of the head using a measurement tape. If the head circumference of an infant is larger than normal, this infant might potentially suffer hydrocephalus. If early diagnosis and timely treatment of hydrocephalus could be done most children can recover successfully. There are some problems with early detection of hydrocephalus using regular tape for head circumference measurement. One of the problem is the infant’s comfort. We need to make the infant feel comfort along the head circumference measurement to get a proper result of the examination. For that, we can use a helpful stuff, like a hat. This paper is aimed to describe the possibility of using a head circumference measuring instrument for early detection of hydrocephalus in an infant with a mike hat, coloured-tape-in-hat. In the first life, infants’ head size is about 35 centimeters. First three months after that infants will gain 2 centimeters each month. The second three months, infant’s head circumference will increase 1 cm each month. And for the six months later, the rate is 0.5 cm per month, and end up with an average of 47 centimeters. This formula is compared to the WHO’s head circumference growth chart. The shape of this tape-in-hat is alike an upper arm measurement. This tape-in-hat diameter is about 47 centimeters. It contains twelve different colours range by age. If it is out of the normal colour, the infant potentially suffers hydrocephalus. This examination should be done monthly. If in two times of measurement there still in the same range abnormal of head circumference, or a rapid growth of the head circumference size, the infant should be referred to a pediatrician. There are the pink hat for girls and blue hat for boys. Based on this paper, we know that this measurement can be used to help early detection of hydrocephalus in an infant.

Keywords: head circumference, hydrocephalus, infant, mike hat

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1353 Network Word Discovery Framework Based on Sentence Semantic Vector Similarity

Authors: Ganfeng Yu, Yuefeng Ma, Shanliang Yang


The word discovery is a key problem in text information retrieval technology. Methods in new word discovery tend to be closely related to words because they generally obtain new word results by analyzing words. With the popularity of social networks, individual netizens and online self-media have generated various network texts for the convenience of online life, including network words that are far from standard Chinese expression. How detect network words is one of the important goals in the field of text information retrieval today. In this paper, we integrate the word embedding model and clustering methods to propose a network word discovery framework based on sentence semantic similarity (S³-NWD) to detect network words effectively from the corpus. This framework constructs sentence semantic vectors through a distributed representation model, uses the similarity of sentence semantic vectors to determine the semantic relationship between sentences, and finally realizes network word discovery by the meaning of semantic replacement between sentences. The experiment verifies that the framework not only completes the rapid discovery of network words but also realizes the standard word meaning of the discovery of network words, which reflects the effectiveness of our work.

Keywords: text information retrieval, natural language processing, new word discovery, information extraction

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1352 Structural Analysis of Hydro-Turbine Head Cover Using Ansys

Authors: Surjit Angra, Manisha Kumari, Vinod Kumar


The objective of the Hydro Turbine Head Cover is to support the guide bearing, guide vane regulating mechanism and even in some design for generator thrust bearing support. Mechanical design of head cover deals with high static as well as fluctuating load acting on the structure. In the present work structural analysis of hydro turbine Head-cover using ANSYS software is carried out. Finite element method is used to calculate stresses on head cover. These calculations were done for the maximum possible loading under operating condition “LCI Quick Shut Down”. The results for equivalent Von-Mises stress, total deformation and directional deformation have been plotted and compared with the existing results whether the design is safe or not.

Keywords: ANSYS, head cover, hydro-turbine, structural analysis, total deformation, Von-Mises stress

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1351 Documentation of Verbal and Written Head Injury Advice Given to All Adults Presenting Following a Head Injury

Authors: Rania Mustafa, Anfal Gadour


Specialty area: Manchester University NHS Foundation Trust, Wythenshawe Hospital Accident and Emergency Department. About, Documentation of verbal and written head injury advice given to all adults presenting following a head injury. Our aim was to assess verbal & written head injury advice for an adult patient attending ED in Wythenshawe hospital during the period from January 2022 to May 2022, with a view to evaluating the NICE head injury guidelines concerning discharge advice and also to review the clinical notes to ensure that all adult patients presenting with a head injury are documented to have received both verbal & written head injury advice as per the NICE guidelines. Here we collected data from a random sample over a 1 month period. This data was furtherly filtered to include the adult patient >16 years and resulted in 54 patients with head injuries attending ED during this time period; then patient’s age, sex and hospital number were used to identify the discharge advice for the purpose of chart review and to assess the documentation of head injuries compliance with recommendation for NICE assessment. Data were checked between January 2022 up to May 2022 to allow more intervals for better assessment. Our finding indicates that documentation of verbal advice, 26% of patients were not recorded to have received this in January compared to only 3% in May & Written advice was not recorded in 44% of patients studied in January compared to 1% in May.

Keywords: head, injuries, advice, leaflets

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1350 A Supervised Approach for Word Sense Disambiguation Based on Arabic Diacritics

Authors: Alaa Alrakaf, Sk. Md. Mizanur Rahman


Since the last two decades’ Arabic natural language processing (ANLP) has become increasingly much more important. One of the key issues related to ANLP is ambiguity. In Arabic language different pronunciation of one word may have a different meaning. Furthermore, ambiguity also has an impact on the effectiveness and efficiency of Machine Translation (MT). The issue of ambiguity has limited the usefulness and accuracy of the translation from Arabic to English. The lack of Arabic resources makes ambiguity problem more complicated. Additionally, the orthographic level of representation cannot specify the exact meaning of the word. This paper looked at the diacritics of Arabic language and used them to disambiguate a word. The proposed approach of word sense disambiguation used Diacritizer application to Diacritize Arabic text then found the most accurate sense of an ambiguous word using Naïve Bayes Classifier. Our Experimental study proves that using Arabic Diacritics with Naïve Bayes Classifier enhances the accuracy of choosing the appropriate sense by 23% and also decreases the ambiguity in machine translation.

Keywords: Arabic natural language processing, machine learning, machine translation, Naive bayes classifier, word sense disambiguation

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1349 Expressivity of Word-Formation in English and Russian Advertising Lexicon

Authors: Voronina Ekaterina Borisovna


The problem of expressivity of advertising lexicon is studied in the article. The comparison of English and Russian advertising lexicons is done. The objects of the analysis were English and Russian advertising texts, both printed advertising texts and texts extracted from the commercials. Some conclusions concerning the expressivity of advertising lexicon were made. Expressivity can be included in the semantic structure of words or created by word-formation means. Expressivity caused by morphological derivatives includes such facilities as derivational affixes, models and types of word formation.

Keywords: advertising lexicon, expressivity, word-formation means, linguistics

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1348 Accounting as Addressed in the Qur’aan

Authors: Shahriar M. Saadullah, Abdul-Quddoos Abdul-Basith, Zaki K. Abushawish


As a part of academic research in Islamic Accounting it is important to know how the word Accounting is discussed in the Qur’aan. This paper identifies and analyzes the word Accounting in the Qur’aan, which is significant to know and understand. The paper uses a methodology of identifying the root word of Accounting Hasaba (حسب) in the Qur’aan with the help of Islam 360 software and analyzes the use of the relevant words derived from the root word. Then the paper attempts to connect the findings to the contemporary Accounting issues. The paper finds that the root word of Accounting Hasaba (حسب) appears in the Qur’aan 109 times but it is only used in the sense Account, Accountable, or Accounting 45 times. These words appear in 44 different verses in the Qur’aan, appearing twice in one of the verses. The paper divides these verses into 8 different themes namely, Day of Accounting, without any Accounting, Accounting of Time, Self-Accounting, Swift in Accounting, Accounting is only with God, Awareness and the Good Accounting, and Heedlessness and the Bad Accounting. The way the words Account, Accounting, and Accountable is discussed in the Qur’aan links to the contemporary accounting issues including Ethics, Agency Theory, and Internal Control. The links discovered in the paper clearly shows the timeless nature of the message of the Qur’aan.

Keywords: accounting, contemporary accounting issues, Qur'aan, root word of accounting hasaba

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1347 Pudhaiyal: A Maze-Based Treasure Hunt Game for Tamil Words

Authors: Aarthy Anandan, Anitha Narasimhan, Madhan Karky


Word-based games are popular in helping people to improve their vocabulary skills. Games like ‘word search’ and crosswords provide a smart way of increasing vocabulary skills. Word search games are fun to play, but also educational which actually helps to learn a language. Finding the words from word search puzzle helps the player to remember words in an easier way, and it also helps to learn the spellings of words. In this paper, we present a tile distribution algorithm for a Maze-Based Treasure Hunt Game 'Pudhaiyal’ for Tamil words, which describes how words can be distributed horizontally, vertically or diagonally in a 10 x 10 grid. Along with the tile distribution algorithm, we also present an algorithm for the scoring model of the game. The proposed game has been tested with 20,000 Tamil words.

Keywords: Pudhaiyal, Tamil word game, word search, scoring, maze, algorithm

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1346 Affective Transparency in Compound Word Processing

Authors: Jordan Gallant


In the compound word processing literature, much attention has been paid to the relationship between a compound’s denotational meaning and that of its morphological whole-word constituents, which is referred to as ‘semantic transparency’. However, the parallel relationship between a compound’s connotation and that of its constituents has not been addressed at all. For instance, while a compound like ‘painkiller’ might be semantically transparent, it is not ‘affectively transparent’. That is, both constituents have primarily negative connotations, while the whole compound has a positive one. This paper investigates the role of affective transparency on compound processing using two methodologies commonly employed in this field: a lexical decision task and a typing task. The critical stimuli used were 112 English bi-constituent compounds that differed in terms of the effective transparency of their constituents. Of these, 36 stimuli contained constituents with similar connotations to the compound (e.g., ‘dreamland’), 36 contained constituents with more positive connotations (e.g. ‘bedpan’), and 36 contained constituents with more negative connotations (e.g. ‘painkiller’). Connotation of whole-word constituents and compounds were operationalized via valence ratings taken from an off-line ratings database. In Experiment 1, compound stimuli and matched non-word controls were presented visually to participants, who were then asked to indicate whether it was a real word in English. Response times and accuracy were recorded. In Experiment 2, participants typed compound stimuli presented to them visually. Individual keystroke response times and typing accuracy were recorded. The results of both experiments provided positive evidence that compound processing is influenced by effective transparency. In Experiment 1, compounds in which both constituents had more negative connotations than the compound itself were responded to significantly more slowly than compounds in which the constituents had similar or more positive connotations. Typed responses from Experiment 2 showed that inter-keystroke intervals at the morphological constituent boundary were significantly longer when the connotation of the head constituent was either more positive or more negative than that of the compound. The interpretation of this finding is discussed in the context of previous compound typing research. Taken together, these findings suggest that affective transparency plays a role in the recognition, storage, and production of English compound words. This study provides a promising first step in a new direction for research on compound words.

Keywords: compound processing, semantic transparency, typed production, valence

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1345 Modelling the Effect of Head and Bucket Splitter Angle on the Power Output of a Pelton Turbine

Authors: J. A. Ujam, J. L. Chukwuneke, C. H. Achebe, G. O. R. Ikwu


This work investigates the effect of head and bucket splitter angle on the power output of a pelton turbine (water turbine), so as to boost the efficiency of Hydro-electric power generation systems. A simulation program was developed using MatLab to depict the force generated by the bucket as the water jet strikes the existing splitter angle (100 to 150) and predicted (10 to 250) splitter angles. Result shows that in addition to the existing splitter angle, six more angles have been investigated for the two operating conditions to give maximum power. The angles are 250, 60 and 190 for high head and low flow with increased pressure while low head and high flow with decreased pressure are 230, 210 and 30 in order of the maximum generating power. The Turbine power output for simulation was more than that of the experiment. This was as a result of their head conditions and the bucket splitter angle.

Keywords: bucket splitter angle, force, head, modelling, pelton turbine, power output, shaft output

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1344 The Predictors of Head and Neck Cancer-Head and Neck Cancer-Related Lymphedema in Patients with Resected Advanced Head and Neck Cancer

Authors: Shu-Ching Chen, Li-Yun Lee


The purpose of the study was to identify the factors associated with head and neck cancer-related lymphoedema (HNCRL)-related symptoms, body image, and HNCRL-related functional outcomes among patients with resected advanced head and neck cancer. A cross-sectional correlational design was conducted to examine the predictors of HNCRL-related functional outcomes in patients with resected advanced head and neck cancer. Eligible patients were recruited from a single medical center in northern Taiwan. Consecutive patients were approached and recruited from the Radiation Head and Neck Outpatient Department of this medical center. Eligible subjects were assessed for the Symptom Distress Scale–Modified for Head and Neck Cancer (SDS-mhnc), Brief International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) Core Set for Head and Neck Cancer (BCSQ-H&N), Body Image Scale–Modified (BIS-m), The MD Anderson Head and Neck Lymphedema Rating Scale (MDAHNLRS), The Foldi’s Stages of Lymphedema (Foldi’s Scale), Patterson’s Scale, UCLA Shoulder Rating Scale (UCLA SRS), and Karnofsky’s Performance Status Index (KPS). The results showed that the worst problems with body HNCRL functional outcomes. Patients’ HNCRL symptom distress and performance status are robust predictors across over for overall HNCRL functional outcomes, problems with body HNCRL functional outcomes, and activity and social functioning HNCRL functional outcomes. Based on the results of this period research program, we will develop a Cancer Rehabilitation and Lymphedema Care Program (CRLCP) to use in the care of patients with resected advanced head and neck cancer.

Keywords: head and neck cancer, resected, lymphedema, symptom, body image, functional outcome

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1343 The Role of Reading Self-Efficacy and Perception of Difficulty in English Reading among Chinese ESL Learners

Authors: Kevin Chan, Kevin K. H. Chung, Patcy P. S. Yeung, H. L. Ip, Bill T. C. Chung, Karen M. K. Chung


Purpose: Recent evidence shows that reading self-efficacy and students perceived difficulty in reading are significantly associated with word reading and reading fluency. However, little is known about these relationships among students learning to read English as a second language, particularly in Chinese students. This study examined the contributions of reading self-efficacy, perception of difficulty in reading, and cognitive-linguistic skills to performance on English word reading and reading fluency in Chinese students. Method: A sample of 122 second-and third-grade students in Hong Kong, China, participated in this study. Students completed the measures of reading self-efficacy and perception of difficulty in reading. They were assessed on their English cognitive-linguistic and reading skills: rapid automatized naming, nonword reading, phonological awareness, word reading, and one-minute word reading. Results: Results of path analysis indicated that when students’ grades were controlled, reading self-efficacy was a significant correlate of word reading and reading fluency, whereas perception of difficulty in reading negatively predicted word reading. Conclusion: These findings underscore the importance of taking students’ reading self-efficacy and perception of difficulty in reading and their cognitive-linguistic skills into consideration when designing reading intervention and instructions for students learning English as a second language.

Keywords: self-efficacy, perception of difficulty in reading, english as a second language, word reading

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1342 Development of Femoral Head Osteonecrosis Due to Corticosteroids Consumption; Probable Role of OCP: A Case Report

Authors: S. Alireza Mirghasemi, Shervin Rashidinia, Mohammad Saleh Sadeghi, Mohsen Talebizadeh, Narges Rahimi Gabaran, Seyed Shahin Eftekhari, Sara Shahmoradi


Avascular necrosis of femoral head is a pathologic condition that the main cause is decreased blood supply of femoral head. Among predisposing risk factors, chronic use of corticosteroids, alcoholism, smocking and hip traumas have more important role. Also we can mention OCP consumption as a risk factor among less common predisposing factors that lead to AVNF, in this study we introduce another cause of AVNF with a period of treatment with moderate dose of corticosteroids accompanied by OCP as a probable facilitating factor that leads to AVNF.

Keywords: AVN, corticosteroids consumption, femoral head osteonecrosis, OCP

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1341 Variation in Complement Order in English: Implications for Interlanguage Syntax

Authors: Juliet Udoudom


Complement ordering principles of natural language phrases (XPs) stipulate that Head terms be consistently placed phrase initially or phrase-finally, yielding two basic theoretical orders – Head – Complement order or Complement – Head order. This paper examines the principles which determine complement ordering in English V- and N-bar structures. The aim is to determine the extent to which complement linearisations in the two phrase types are consistent with the two theoretical orders outlined above given the flexible and varied nature of natural language structures. The objective is to see whether there are variation(s) in the complement linearisations of the XPs studied and the implications which such variations hold for the inter-language syntax of English and Ibibio. A corpus-based approach was employed in obtaining the English data. V- and -N – bar structures containing complement structures were isolated for analysis. Data were examined from the perspective of the X-bar and Government – theories of Chomsky’s (1981) Government-Binding format. Findings from the analysis show that in V – bar structures in English, heads are consistently placed phrase – initially yielding a Head – Complement order; however, complement linearisation in the N – bar structures studied exhibited parametric variations. Thus, in some N – bar structures in English the nominal head is ordered to the left whereas in others, the head term occurs to the right. It may therefore be concluded that the principles which determine complement ordering are both Language – Particular and Phrase – specific following insights provided within Phrasal Syntax.

Keywords: complement order, complement–head order, head–complement order, language–particular principles

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1340 Semi-Automated Tracking of Vibrissal Movements in Free-Moving Rodents Captured by High-Speed Videos

Authors: Hyun June Kim, Tailong Shi, Seden Akdagli, Sam Most, Yuling Yan


Quantitative analysis of mouse whisker movement can be used to study functional recovery and regeneration of facial nerve after an injury. However, it is challenging to accurately track mouse whisker movements, and most whisker tracking methods require manual intervention, e.g. fixing the head of the mouse during a study. Here we describe a semi-automated image processing method that is applied to high-speed video recordings of free-moving mice to track whisker movements. We first track the head movement of a mouse by delineating the lower head contour frame-by-frame to locate and determine the orientation of its head. Then, a region of interest is identified for each frame, with subsequent application of the Hough transform to track individual whisker movements on each side of the head. Our approach is used to examine the functional recovery of damaged facial nerves in mice over a course of 21 days.

Keywords: mystacial macrovibrissae, whisker tracking, head tracking, facial nerve recovery

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1339 Speech Recognition Performance by Adults: A Proposal for a Battery for Marathi

Authors: S. B. Rathna Kumar, Pranjali A Ujwane, Panchanan Mohanty


The present study aimed to develop a battery for assessing speech recognition performance by adults in Marathi. A total of four word lists were developed by considering word frequency, word familiarity, words in common use, and phonemic balance. Each word list consists of 25 words (15 monosyllabic words in CVC structure and 10 monosyllabic words in CVCV structure). Equivalence analysis and performance-intensity function testing was carried using the four word lists on a total of 150 native speakers of Marathi belonging to different regions of Maharashtra (Vidarbha, Marathwada, Khandesh and Northern Maharashtra, Pune, and Konkan). The subjects were further equally divided into five groups based on above mentioned regions. It was found that there was no significant difference (p > 0.05) in the speech recognition performance between groups for each word list and between word lists for each group. Hence, the four word lists developed were equally difficult for all the groups and can be used interchangeably. The performance-intensity (PI) function curve showed semi-linear function, and the groups’ mean slope of the linear portions of the curve indicated an average linear slope of 4.64%, 4.73%, 4.68%, and 4.85% increase in word recognition score per dB for list 1, list 2, list 3 and list 4 respectively. Although, there is no data available on speech recognition tests for adults in Marathi, most of the findings of the study are in line with the findings of research reports on other languages. The four word lists, thus developed, were found to have sufficient reliability and validity in assessing speech recognition performance by adults in Marathi.

Keywords: speech recognition performance, phonemic balance, equivalence analysis, performance-intensity function testing, reliability, validity

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1338 A Retrospective Analysis of the Impact of the Choosing Wisely Canada Campaign on Emergency Department Imaging Utilization for Head Injuries

Authors: Sameer Masood, Lucas Chartier


Head injuries are a commonly encountered presentation in emergency departments (ED) and the Choosing Wisely Canada (CWC) campaign was released in June 2015 in an attempt to decrease imaging utilization for patients with minor head injuries. The impact of the CWC campaign on imaging utilization for head injuries has not been explored in the ED setting. In our study, we describe the characteristics of patients with head injuries presenting to a tertiary care academic ED and the impact of the CWC campaign on CT head utilization. This retrospective cohort study used linked databases from the province of Ontario, Canada to assess emergency department visits with a primary diagnosis of head injury made between June 1, 2014 and Aug 31, 2016 at the University Health Network in Toronto, Canada. We examined the number of visits during the study period, the proportion of patients that had a CT head performed before and after the release of the CWC campaign, as well as mode of arrival, and disposition. There were 4,322 qualifying visits at our site during the study period. The median presenting age was 44.12 years (IQR 27.83,67.45), the median GCS was 15 (IQR 15,15) and the majority of patients presenting had intermediate acuity (CTAS 3). Overall, 43.17% of patients arrived via ambulance, 49.24 % of patients received a CT head and 10.46% of patients were admitted. Compared to patients presenting before the CWC campaign release, there was no significant difference in the rate of CT heads after the CWC (50.41% vs 47.68%, P = 0.07). There were also no significant differences between the two groups in mode of arrival (ambulance vs ambulatory) (42.94% vs 43.48%, P = 0.72) or admission rates (9.85% vs 11.26%, P = 0.15). However, more patients belonged to the high acuity groups (CTAS 1 or 2) in the post CWC campaign release group (12.98% vs 8.11% P <0.001). Visits for head injuries make up a significant proportion of total ED visits and approximately half of these patients receive CT imaging in the ED. The CWC campaign did not seem to impact imaging utilization for head injuries in the 14 months following its launch. Further efforts, including local quality improvement initiatives, are likely needed to increase adherence to its recommendation and reduce imaging utilization for head injuries.

Keywords: choosing wisely, emergency department, head injury, quality improvement

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1337 Sentence Structure for Free Word Order Languages in Context with Anaphora Resolution: A Case Study of Hindi

Authors: Pardeep Singh, Kamlesh Dutta


Many languages have fixed sentence structure and others are free word order. The accuracy of anaphora resolution of syntax based algorithm depends on structure of the sentence. So, it is important to analyze the structure of any language before implementing these algorithms. In this study, we analyzed the sentence structure exploiting the case marker in Hindi as well as some special tag for subject and object. We also investigated the word order for Hindi. Word order typology refers to the study of the order of the syntactic constituents of a language. We analyzed 165 news items of Ranchi Express from EMILEE corpus of plain text. It consisted of 1745 sentences. Eight file of dialogue based from the same corpus has been analyzed which will have 1521 sentences. The percentages of subject object verb structure (SOV) and object subject verb (OSV) are 66.90 and 33.10, respectively.

Keywords: anaphora resolution, free word order languages, SOV, OSV

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1336 Uncommon Case of Falx Subdural Hematoma

Authors: Thu Nguyen, Jane Daugherty-Luck


Falx subdural hematoma is a life-threatening condition associated with high mortality. We present a patient case who had fallen with no head injury or loss of conspicuousness. She had tenderness along cervical and thoracic lumbar spine. CT head revealed falx subdural hematoma. The patient was managed medically. The pathophysiology of falx subdural hematoma is linked to laceration of bridging veins provoked by frontal or occipital impact. Posttraumatic subdural hematoma is commonly caused by inertia instead of facture or cerebral contusion resulting from direct impact. The theory is consistent with the lack of fracture in most cases in the literature. Our patient had neither contusion nor fracture.

Keywords: falx subdural hematoma, traumatic head injury, CT head scan, bridging veins, inertia

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1335 Effects of Word Formation Dissimilarities on Youruba Learners of English

Authors: Pelumi Olowofoyeku


English as a language has great reach and influence; it is taught all over the world. For instance, in Nigeria, English language is been taught and learned as a second language; therefore second learners of English in Nigeria have certain problems they contend with. Because of the dissimilarities in word formation patterns of English and Yoruba languages, Yoruba learners of English mostly found in the south west of Nigeria, and some parts of Kwara, Kogi, and Edo states of Nigeria have problems with word formation patterns in English. The objectives of this paper therefore, are: to identify the levels of word formation dissimilarities in English and Yoruba languages and to examine the effects of these dissimilarities on the Yoruba learners of English. The data for this paper were graded words purposely selected and presented to selected students of Adeniran Ogunsanya College of Education, Oto-Ijanikin, Lagos, who are Yoruba learners of English. These respondents were randomly selected to form words which are purposively selected to test the effects of word formation dissimilarities between Yoruba (the respondent’s first language) and English language on the respondents. The dissimilarities are examined using contrastive analysis tools. This paper reveals that there are differences in the word formation patterns of Yoruba and English languages. The writer believes that there is need for language teachers to undertake comparative studies of the two languages involved for methodological reasons. The author then suggests that teachers should identify the problem areas and systematically teach their students. The paper concludes that although English and Yoruba word formation patterns differ very significantly in many respects, there exist language universals in all languages which language educators should take advantage of in teaching.

Keywords: word formation patterns, graded words, ESL, Yoruba learners

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1334 Evaluation of the MCFLIRT Correction Algorithm in Head Motion from Resting State fMRI Data

Authors: V. Sacca, A. Sarica, F. Novellino, S. Barone, T. Tallarico, E. Filippelli, A. Granata, P. Valentino, A. Quattrone


In the last few years, resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) was widely used to investigate the architecture of brain networks by investigating the Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent response. This technique represented an interesting, robust and reliable approach to compare pathologic and healthy subjects in order to investigate neurodegenerative diseases evolution. On the other hand, the elaboration of rs-fMRI data resulted to be very prone to noise due to confounding factors especially the head motion. Head motion has long been known to be a source of artefacts in task-based functional MRI studies, but it has become a particularly challenging problem in recent studies using rs-fMRI. The aim of this work was to evaluate in MS patients a well-known motion correction algorithm from the FMRIB's Software Library - MCFLIRT - that could be applied to minimize the head motion distortions, allowing to correctly interpret rs-fMRI results.

Keywords: head motion correction, MCFLIRT algorithm, multiple sclerosis, resting state fMRI

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1333 Transcription Skills and Written Composition in Chinese

Authors: Pui-sze Yeung, Connie Suk-han Ho, David Wai-ock Chan, Kevin Kien-hoa Chung


Background: Recent findings have shown that transcription skills play a unique and significant role in Chinese word reading and spelling (i.e. word dictation), and written composition development. The interrelationships among component skills of transcription, word reading, word spelling, and written composition in Chinese have rarely been examined in the literature. Is the contribution of component skills of transcription to Chinese written composition mediated by word level skills (i.e., word reading and spelling)? Methods: The participants in the study were 249 Chinese children in Grade 1, Grade 3, and Grade 5 in Hong Kong. They were administered measures of general reasoning ability, orthographic knowledge, stroke sequence knowledge, word spelling, handwriting fluency, word reading, and Chinese narrative writing. Orthographic knowledge- orthographic knowledge was assessed by a task modeled after the lexical decision subtest of the Hong Kong Test of Specific Learning Difficulties in Reading and Writing (HKT-SpLD). Stroke sequence knowledge: The participants’ performance in producing legitimate stroke sequences was measured by a stroke sequence knowledge task. Handwriting fluency- Handwriting fluency was assessed by a task modeled after the Chinese Handwriting Speed Test. Word spelling: The stimuli of the word spelling task consist of fourteen two-character Chinese words. Word reading: The stimuli of the word reading task consist of 120 two-character Chinese words. Written composition: A narrative writing task was used to assess the participants’ text writing skills. Results: Analysis of covariance results showed that there were significant between-grade differences in the performance of word reading, word spelling, handwriting fluency, and written composition. Preliminary hierarchical multiple regression analysis results showed that orthographic knowledge, word spelling, and handwriting fluency were unique predictors of Chinese written composition even after controlling for age, IQ, and word reading. The interaction effects between grade and each of these three skills (orthographic knowledge, word spelling, and handwriting fluency) were not significant. Path analysis results showed that orthographic knowledge contributed to written composition both directly and indirectly through word spelling, while handwriting fluency contributed to written composition directly and indirectly through both word reading and spelling. Stroke sequence knowledge only contributed to written composition indirectly through word spelling. Conclusions: Preliminary hierarchical regression results were consistent with previous findings about the significant role of transcription skills in Chinese word reading, spelling and written composition development. The fact that orthographic knowledge contributed both directly and indirectly to written composition through word reading and spelling may reflect the impact of the script-sound-meaning convergence of Chinese characters on the composing process. The significant contribution of word spelling and handwriting fluency to Chinese written composition across elementary grades highlighted the difficulty in attaining automaticity of transcription skills in Chinese, which limits the working memory resources available for other composing processes.

Keywords: orthographic knowledge, transcription skills, word reading, writing

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