Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3244

Search results for: radio biology experiments

3244 Development of a Laboratory Laser-Produced Plasma “Water Window” X-Ray Source for Radiobiology Experiments

Authors: Daniel Adjei, Mesfin Getachew Ayele, Przemyslaw Wachulak, Andrzej Bartnik, Luděk Vyšín, Henryk Fiedorowicz, Inam Ul Ahad, Lukasz Wegrzynski, Anna Wiechecka, Janusz Lekki, Wojciech M. Kwiatek

Abstract:

Laser produced plasma light sources, emitting high intensity pulses of X-rays, delivering high doses are useful to understand the mechanisms of high dose effects on biological samples. In this study, a desk-top laser plasma soft X-ray source, developed for radio biology research, is presented. The source is based on a double-stream gas puff target, irradiated with a commercial Nd:YAG laser (EKSPLA), which generates laser pulses of 4 ns time duration and energy up to 800 mJ at 10 Hz repetition rate. The source has been optimized for maximum emission in the “water window” wavelength range from 2.3 nm to 4.4 nm by using pure gas (argon, nitrogen and krypton) and spectral filtering. Results of the source characterization measurements and dosimetry of the produced soft X-ray radiation are shown and discussed. The high brightness of the laser produced plasma soft X-ray source and the low penetration depth of the produced X-ray radiation in biological specimen allows a high dose rate to be delivered to the specimen of over 28 Gy/shot; and 280 Gy/s at the maximum repetition rate of the laser system. The source has a unique capability for irradiation of cells with high pulse dose both in vacuum and He-environment. Demonstration of the source to induce DNA double- and single strand breaks will be discussed.

Keywords: laser produced plasma, soft X-rays, radio biology experiments, dosimetry

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3243 Impact of Radio on Rural Development: A Study of Ipokia Local Government Area, Nigeria

Authors: Haruna Shola Adeosun, Adeoye Odedeji

Abstract:

This paper examines the impact of radio on rural development. The researcher employed survey method to gather primary data. The objectives and questions were used from and hypotheses were formulated were raised from the statement of the problem. Cultivation theory was used as the theoretical study. The populations of the study were the inhabitant of Ipokia Local Government. Questionnaires were administered on the 400 respondents. Data gathered were analyzed, interpreted and hypotheses of the study were tested. The finding revealed that; radio has impacted on the rural dwellers and there is a significant relationship between radio and rural dwellers. Also, radio has brought socio-economic development on rural dwellers. The study recommended that radio messages should be designed in line with the pre-existing attitudes of the rural dwellers. It was also discovered that radio stations should endeavour to use local dialects especially when the radio programme is aimed at the rural dwellers that effective communication that can increase active participation of government and the public. Finally, the study recommends that radio stations should be well funded to produce programmes that would serve the purpose of educating and informing the public on issues relevant to them and there is need to establish community radio stations that will be closer to rural dwellers.

Keywords: impact, radio, rural, development

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3242 BER Analysis of Energy Detection Spectrum Sensing in Cognitive Radio Using GNU Radio

Authors: B. Siva Kumar Reddy, B. Lakshmi

Abstract:

Cognitive Radio is a turning out technology that empowers viable usage of the spectrum. Energy Detector-based Sensing is the most broadly utilized spectrum sensing strategy. Besides, it is a lot of generic as receivers does not like any information on the primary user's signals, channel data, of even the sort of modulation. This paper puts forth the execution of energy detection sensing for AM (Amplitude Modulated) signal at 710 KHz, FM (Frequency Modulated) signal at 103.45 MHz (local station frequency), Wi-Fi signal at 2.4 GHz and WiMAX signals at 6 GHz. The OFDM/OFDMA based WiMAX physical layer with convolutional channel coding is actualized utilizing USRP N210 (Universal Software Radio Peripheral) and GNU Radio based Software Defined Radio (SDR). Test outcomes demonstrated the BER (Bit Error Rate) augmentation with channel noise and BER execution is dissected for different Eb/N0 (the energy per bit to noise power spectral density ratio) values.

Keywords: BER, Cognitive Radio, GNU Radio, OFDM, SDR, WiMAX

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3241 A Survey of Baseband Architecture for Software Defined Radio

Authors: M. A. Fodha, H. Benfradj, A. Ghazel

Abstract:

This paper is a survey of recent works that proposes a baseband processor architecture for software defined radio. A classification of different approaches is proposed. The performance of each architecture is also discussed in order to clarify the suitable approaches that meet software-defined radio constraints.

Keywords: multi-core architectures, reconfigurable architectures, software defined radio, baseband processor

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3240 An Assessment of the Digital Transformation of Radio

Authors: Fatih Sogut

Abstract:

Developments in information technologies have caused significant changes in terms of radio and television broadcasting. With these changes in terms of production format, transmission techniques and service delivery, the distinction between traditional media and New Media has emerged. The viewer/listener, who was in a passive position before, is now in an active position and has a say in many matters, including content production. Visual and auditory data transfer has diversified and become easier thanks to the convergence phenomenon. These transformations and developments also affected one of the oldest electronic communication tools, radio. In this study, in order to adapt to the new era that emerged with the digital age, the change in radio broadcasting and the factors that led to this change were tried to be explained.

Keywords: Internet, radio broadcasting, digital transformation, Internet broadcasting

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3239 Graphic Calculator Effectiveness in Biology Teaching and Learning

Authors: Nik Azmah Nik Yusuff, Faridah Hassan Basri, Rosnidar Mansor

Abstract:

The purpose of the study is to find out the effectiveness of using Graphic calculators (GC) with Calculator Based Laboratory 2 (CBL2) in teaching and learning of form four biology for these topics: Nutrition, Respiration and Dynamic Ecosystem. Sixty form four science stream students were the participants of this study. The participants were divided equally into the treatment and control groups. The treatment group used GC with CBL2 during experiments while the control group used the ordinary conventional laboratory apparatus without using GC with CBL2. Instruments in this study were a set of pre-test and post-test and a questionnaire. T-Test was used to compare the student’s biology achievement while a descriptive statistic was used to analyze the outcome of the questionnaire. The findings of this study indicated the use of GC with CBL2 in biology had significant positive effect. The highest mean was 4.43 for item stating the use of GC with CBL2 had saved collecting experiment result’s time. The second highest mean was 4.10 for item stating GC with CBL2 had saved drawing and labelling graphs. The outcome from the questionnaire also showed that GC with CBL2 were easy to use and save time. Thus, teachers should use GC with CBL2 in support of efforts by Malaysia Ministry of Education in encouraging technology-enhanced lessons.

Keywords: biology experiments, Calculator-Based Laboratory 2 (CBL2), graphic calculators, Malaysia Secondary School, teaching/learning

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3238 Utilizing Radio as a Resource Alternative for Disseminating Information to University Students in Ibadan, Nigeria: A Study of Lead City FM and Diamond FM Radio Stations

Authors: Olufemi Sunday Onabajo

Abstract:

Radio according to communication scholars is a veritable instrument of mass education. However, its full potentials in boosting higher education have not been realized because of the commercial nature of radio stations in Nigeria. The licensing of campus radio for disseminating information on university curricular is aimed at reinforcing information shared during face to face teaching. This study anchored on Agenda Setting and Technology determinism theories seeks to find out the extent to which university students in Lead City University and University of Ibadan, Nigeria have keyed-in to the philosophy of their campus radio – Lead City FM and Diamond FM in making information dissemination in their domiciled universities less cumbersome. The study employs both qualitative and quantitative methods though the use of depth interview for ten (10) academic staff and five (5) radio personnel of both radio stations; and a questionnaire addressed to 200 students of both institutions using the systematic random sampling technique. The data collected was analyzed using simple percentage and chi-square one tail test, and it was discovered that students of both universities and their radio personnel are yet to realize the potentials of campus radio as a resource alternative to effective learning, and recommends the coming together of all stakeholders to articulate the way forward.

Keywords: disseminating information, effective learning, resource alternative, utilizing radio

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3237 Optimization of a Hand-Fan Shaped Microstrip Patch Antenna by Means of Orthogonal Design Method of Design of Experiments for L-Band and S-Band Applications

Authors: Jaswinder Kaur, Nitika, Navneet Kaur, Rajesh Khanna

Abstract:

A hand-fan shaped microstrip patch antenna (MPA) for L-band and S-band applications is designed, and its characteristics have been reconnoitered. The proposed microstrip patch antenna with double U-slot defected ground structure (DGS) is fabricated on an FR4 substrate which is a very readily available and inexpensive material. The suggested antenna is optimized using Orthogonal Design Method (ODM) of Design of Experiments (DOE) to cover the frequency range from 0.91-2.82 GHz for L-band and S-band applications. The L-band covers the frequency range of 1-2 GHz, which is allocated to telemetry, aeronautical, and military systems for passive satellite sensors, weather radars, radio astronomy, and mobile communication. The S-band covers the frequency range of 2-3 GHz, which is used by weather radars, surface ship radars and communication satellites and is also reserved for various wireless applications such as Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (Wi-MAX), super high frequency radio frequency identification (SHF RFID), industrial, scientific and medical bands (ISM), Bluetooth, wireless broadband (Wi-Bro) and wireless local area network (WLAN). The proposed method of optimization is very time efficient and accurate as compared to the conventional evolutionary algorithms due to its statistical strategy. Moreover, the antenna is tested, followed by the comparison of simulated and measured results.

Keywords: design of experiments, hand fan shaped MPA, L-Band, orthogonal design method, S-Band

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3236 UWB Open Spectrum Access for a Smart Software Radio

Authors: Hemalatha Rallapalli, K. Lal Kishore

Abstract:

In comparison to systems that are typically designed to provide capabilities over a narrow frequency range through hardware elements, the next generation cognitive radios are intended to implement a broader range of capabilities through efficient spectrum exploitation. This offers the user the promise of greater flexibility, seamless roaming possible on different networks, countries, frequencies, etc. It requires true paradigm shift i.e., liberalization over a wide band of spectrum as well as a growth path to more and greater capability. This work contributes towards the design and implementation of an open spectrum access (OSA) feature to unlicensed users thus offering a frequency agile radio platform that is capable of performing spectrum sensing over a wideband. Thus, an ultra-wideband (UWB) radio, which has the intelligence of spectrum sensing only, unlike the cognitive radio with complete intelligence, is named as a Smart Software Radio (SSR). The spectrum sensing mechanism is implemented based on energy detection. Simulation results show the accuracy and validity of this method.

Keywords: cognitive radio, energy detection, software radio, spectrum sensing

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3235 Predicting the Product Life Cycle of Songs on Radio - How Record Labels Can Manage Product Portfolio and Prioritise Artists by Using Machine Learning Techniques

Authors: Claus N. Holm, Oliver F. Grooss, Robert A. Alphinas

Abstract:

This research strives to predict the remaining product life cycle of a song on radio after it has been played for one or two months. The best results were achieved using a k-d tree to calculate the most similar songs to the test songs and use a Random Forest model to forecast radio plays. An 82.78% and 83.44% accuracy is achieved for the two time periods, respectively. This explorative research leads to over 4500 test metrics to find the best combination of models and pre-processing techniques. Other algorithms tested are KNN, MLP and CNN. The features only consist of daily radio plays and use no musical features.

Keywords: hit song science, product life cycle, machine learning, radio

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3234 The Management of Radio Spectrum Resources in Thailand

Authors: Pongsawee Supanonth

Abstract:

This research is the study of Spectrum Management and the increase in efficiency of Spectrum Utilization. It also proves that Cognitive Radio is a newer technology that will change the face of e-communications network today. This study used qualitative research methods by using in-depth interviews to collect data from a sample specific to those who work in Radio channel from 6 key informant and literature review from the related documents in online database. The result is the technique of Dynamic Spectrum Allocation that is the most suitable for Thailand. We conduct in-depth research for future purposes. Moreover, we can also develop a model that can be used in regulating and managing spectrum that is most suitable for Thailand. And also develop an important tool which can be of importance to allocation of spectrum as a natural resource appropriately. It will also guarantee quality and high benefit in a substantial way.

Keywords: cognitive radio, management of radio spectrum, spectrum management, spectrum scarcity

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3233 Artificial Neural Networks for Cognitive Radio Network: A Survey

Authors: Vishnu Pratap Singh Kirar

Abstract:

The main aim of the communication system is to achieve maximum performance. In cognitive radio, any user or transceiver have the ability to sense best suitable channel, while the channel is not in use. It means an unlicensed user can share the spectrum of licensed user without any interference. Though the spectrum sensing consumes a large amount of energy and it can reduce by applying various artificial intelligent methods for determining proper spectrum holes. It also increases the efficiency of Cognitive Radio Network (CRN). In this survey paper, we discuss the use of different learning models and implementation of Artificial Neural Network (ANN) to increase the learning and decision-making capacity of CRN without affecting bandwidth, cost and signal rate.

Keywords: artificial neural network, cognitive radio, cognitive radio networks, back propagation, spectrum sensing

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3232 Elusive Cats in the CBS Mystery Theater

Authors: Katarzyna Logozna Wypych

Abstract:

Being present in the world’s literature for centuries, cats are one of the most underappreciated and misunderstood species. The affluence of topics and taboos portrayed by cats in literature as well as in other means of art is noteworthy. Not only would the reality without the presence of a cat be less unpredictable, but also certain plot changes could not take place, as only the animal seems to have a causative activity. In radio drama, cats, just like in the real world, modify, bend, and adjust reality to their liking, regardless of human characters. Having only the soundscape at hand, radio drama provides a fascinating insight into the symbolic and disturbing world of the most ambiguous and volatile relationships the animal world and humankind have ever known, that is of cats and people. Compliant with the assumed mysterious ambiance of the show, a vast number of the 1399 episodes of The CBS Radio Mystery Theater starred cats, most of which are not portrayed in a favorable manner. Cats become the beginning, the main body, and the ending of the radio drama in one cat person.

Keywords: cats, felines, horror, mystery, radio drama

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3231 DNA Damage and Apoptosis Induced in Drosophila melanogaster Exposed to Different Duration of 2400 MHz Radio Frequency-Electromagnetic Fields Radiation

Authors: Neha Singh, Anuj Ranjan, Tanu Jindal

Abstract:

Over the last decade, the exponential growth of mobile communication has been accompanied by a parallel increase in density of electromagnetic fields (EMF). The continued expansion of mobile phone usage raises important questions as EMF, especially radio frequency (RF), have long been suspected of having biological effects. In the present experiments, we studied the effects of RF-EMF on cell death (apoptosis) and DNA damage of a well- tested biological model, Drosophila melanogaster exposed to 2400 MHz frequency for different time duration i.e. 2 hrs, 4 hrs, 6 hrs,8 hrs, 10 hrs, and 12 hrs each day for five continuous days in ambient temperature and humidity conditions inside an exposure chamber. The flies were grouped into control, sham-exposed, and exposed with 100 flies in each group. In this study, well-known techniques like Comet Assay and TUNEL (Terminal deoxynucleotide transferase dUTP Nick End Labeling) Assay were used to detect DNA damage and for apoptosis studies, respectively. Experiments results showed DNA damage in the brain cells of Drosophila which increases as the duration of exposure increases when observed under the observed when we compared results of control, sham-exposed, and exposed group which indicates that EMF radiation-induced stress in the organism that leads to DNA damage and cell death. The process of apoptosis and mutation follows similar pathway for all eukaryotic cells; therefore, studying apoptosis and genotoxicity in Drosophila makes similar relevance for human beings as well.

Keywords: cell death, apoptosis, Comet Assay, DNA damage, Drosophila, electromagnetic fields, EMF, radio frequency, RF, TUNEL assay

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3230 Analysis of Decentralized on Demand Cross Layer in Cognitive Radio Ad Hoc Network

Authors: A. Sri Janani, K. Immanuel Arokia James

Abstract:

Cognitive radio ad hoc networks different unlicensed users may acquire different available channel sets. This non-uniform spectrum availability imposes special design challenges for broadcasting in CR ad hoc networks. Cognitive radio automatically detects available channels in wireless spectrum. This is a form of dynamic spectrum management. Cross-layer optimization is proposed, using this can allow far away secondary users can also involve into channel work. So it can increase the throughput and it will overcome the collision and time delay.

Keywords: cognitive radio, cross layer optimization, CR mesh network, heterogeneous spectrum, mesh topology, random routing optimization technique

Procedia PDF Downloads 199
3229 Modern Spectrum Sensing Techniques for Cognitive Radio Networks: Practical Implementation and Performance Evaluation

Authors: Antoni Ivanov, Nikolay Dandanov, Nicole Christoff, Vladimir Poulkov

Abstract:

Spectrum underutilization has made cognitive radio a promising technology both for current and future telecommunications. This is due to the ability to exploit the unused spectrum in the bands dedicated to other wireless communication systems, and thus, increase their occupancy. The essential function, which allows the cognitive radio device to perceive the occupancy of the spectrum, is spectrum sensing. In this paper, the performance of modern adaptations of the four most widely used spectrum sensing techniques namely, energy detection (ED), cyclostationary feature detection (CSFD), matched filter (MF) and eigenvalues-based detection (EBD) is compared. The implementation has been accomplished through the PlutoSDR hardware platform and the GNU Radio software package in very low Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) conditions. The optimal detection performance of the examined methods in a realistic implementation-oriented model is found for the common relevant parameters (number of observed samples, sensing time and required probability of false alarm).

Keywords: cognitive radio, dynamic spectrum access, GNU Radio, spectrum sensing

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3228 Monitoring of Spectrum Usage and Signal Identification Using Cognitive Radio

Authors: O. S. Omorogiuwa, E. J. Omozusi

Abstract:

The monitoring of spectrum usage and signal identification, using cognitive radio, is done to identify frequencies that are vacant for reuse. It has been established that ‘internet of things’ device uses secondary frequency which is free, thereby facing the challenge of interference from other users, where some primary frequencies are not being utilised. The design was done by analysing a specific frequency spectrum, checking if all the frequency stations that range from 87.5-108 MHz are presently being used in Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria. From the results, it was noticed that by using Software Defined Radio/Simulink, we were able to identify vacant frequencies in the range of frequency under consideration. Also, we were able to use the significance of energy detection threshold to reuse this vacant frequency spectrum, when the cognitive radio displays a zero output (that is decision H0), meaning that the channel is unoccupied. Hence, the analysis was able to find the spectrum hole and identify how it can be reused.

Keywords: spectrum, interference, telecommunication, cognitive radio, frequency

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3227 A Self-Coexistence Strategy for Spectrum Allocation Using Selfish and Unselfish Game Models in Cognitive Radio Networks

Authors: Noel Jeygar Robert, V. K.Vidya

Abstract:

Cognitive radio is a software-defined radio technology that allows cognitive users to operate on the vacant bands of spectrum allocated to licensed users. Cognitive radio plays a vital role in the efficient utilization of wireless radio spectrum available between cognitive users and licensed users without making any interference to licensed users. The spectrum allocation followed by spectrum sharing is done in a fashion where a cognitive user has to wait until spectrum holes are identified and allocated when the licensed user moves out of his own allocated spectrum. In this paper, we propose a self –coexistence strategy using bargaining and Cournot game model for achieving spectrum allocation in cognitive radio networks. The game-theoretic model analyses the behaviour of cognitive users in both cooperative and non-cooperative scenarios and provides an equilibrium level of spectrum allocation. Game-theoretic models such as bargaining game model and Cournot game model produce a balanced distribution of spectrum resources and energy consumption. Simulation results show that both game theories achieve better performance compared to other popular techniques

Keywords: cognitive radio, game theory, bargaining game, Cournot game

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3226 Community Radio Broadcasting in Phutthamonthon District, Nakhon Pathom, Thailand

Authors: Anchana Sooksomchitra

Abstract:

This study aims to explore and compare the current condition of community radio stations in Phutthamonthon district, Nakhon Pathom province, Thailand, as well as the challenges they are facing. Qualitative research tools including in-depth interviews, documentary analysis, focus group interviews, and observation are used to examine the content, programming, and management structure of three community radio stations currently in operation within the district. Research findings indicate that the management and operational approaches adopted by the two non-profit stations included in the study, Salaya Pattana and Voice of Dhamma, are more structured and effective than that of the for-profit Tune Radio. Salaya Pattana, backed by the Faculty of Engineering, Mahidol University, and the charity-funded Voice of Dhamma are comparatively free from political and commercial influence, and able to provide more relevant and consistent community-oriented content to meet the real demand of the audience. Tune Radio, on the other hand, has to rely solely on financial support from political factions and business groups, which heavily influence its content.

Keywords: radio broadcasting, programming, management, community radio, Thailand

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3225 An Investigation of Community Radio Broadcasting in Phutthamonthon District, Nakhon Pathom, Thailand

Authors: Anchana Sooksomchitra

Abstract:

This study aims to explore and compare the current condition of community radio stations in Phutthamonthon district, Nakhon Pathom province, Thailand, as well as the challenges they are facing. Qualitative research tools including in-depth interviews; documentary analysis; focus group interviews; and observation, are used to examine the content, programming, and management structure of three community radio stations currently in operation within the district. Research findings indicate that the management and operational approaches adopted by the two non-profit stations included in the study, Salaya Pattana and Voice of Dhamma, are more structured and effective than that of the for-profit Tune Radio. Salaya Pattana – backed by the Faculty of Engineering, Mahidol University, and the charity-funded Voice of Dhamma, are comparatively free from political and commercial influence, and able to provide more relevant and consistent community-oriented content to meet the real demand of the audience. Tune Radio, on the other hand, has to rely solely on financial support from political factions and business groups, which heavily influence its content.

Keywords: radio broadcasting, programming, management, community radio, Thailand

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3224 A Cloud-Based Spectrum Database Approach for Licensed Shared Spectrum Access

Authors: Hazem Abd El Megeed, Mohamed El-Refaay, Norhan Magdi Osman

Abstract:

Spectrum scarcity is a challenging obstacle in wireless communications systems. It hinders the introduction of innovative wireless services and technologies that require larger bandwidth comparing to legacy technologies. In addition, the current worldwide allocation of radio spectrum bands is already congested and can not afford additional squeezing or optimization to accommodate new wireless technologies. This challenge is a result of accumulative contributions from different factors that will be discussed later in this paper. One of these factors is the radio spectrum allocation policy governed by national regulatory authorities nowadays. The framework for this policy allocates specified portion of radio spectrum to a particular wireless service provider on exclusive utilization basis. This allocation is executed according to technical specification determined by the standard bodies of each Radio Access Technology (RAT). Dynamic access of spectrum is a framework for flexible utilization of radio spectrum resources. In this framework there is no exclusive allocation of radio spectrum and even the public safety agencies can share their spectrum bands according to a governing policy and service level agreements. In this paper, we explore different methods for accessing the spectrum dynamically and its associated implementation challenges.

Keywords: licensed shared access, cognitive radio, spectrum sharing, spectrum congestion, dynamic spectrum access, spectrum database, spectrum trading, reconfigurable radio systems, opportunistic spectrum allocation (OSA)

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3223 WhatsApp Application and Challenges of Radio Broadcasting in Northern Nigeria: Special Interest on FRCN Kaduna

Authors: Aliyu Damri

Abstract:

This study analyzed the emergence of WhatsApp and how employees at the Federal Radio Corporation of Nigeria, Kaduna defined the concept base on their vast broadcasting experiences for over five decades and application of the phenomenon to the radio station. It also analyzed the nature, patterns, dimensions, features, challenges as well as the effects of WhatsApp as a social networking site with specific interest on the radio outlet. Also, the study identified how the radio organization responded to the challenges in an attempt to adapt to the new pattern of broadcasting characterized by many technological transformations. The study further explained in details such skills journalists need to function optimally using WhatsApp as well as the impacts of the WhatsApp on radio broadcasting. It used a combination of published materials, focus group discussion, in depth interviews and participant observation on the activities of the radio stations to address the research questions. The data generated provided insight to better understand the challenges posed to FRCN Kaduna as a result of WhatsApp application and how FRCN Kaduna responded to the challenges. It also provided information on the skills journalists need to function optimally in using WhatsApp application in the radio station. The interview and focus group discussion’s transcripts and the published materials were analyzed along thematic pattern related to the research questions in the study. The dominant response relied heavily on change in the radio station’s organizational and technical integration of newsrooms, the use of a multiskilled workforce, application of a flexible and user-friendly technology in all aspects of production, expansion of the station’s services in to new media such as internet and mobile phones as well as sharing of ideas across different units in the radio outfit.

Keywords: broadcasting, challenge, northern Nigeria, radio, WhatsApp application

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3222 The Study about the New Monitoring System of Signal Equipment of Railways Using Radio Communication

Authors: Masahiko Suzuki, Takashi Kato , Masahiro Kobayashi

Abstract:

In our company, the monitoring system for signal equipment has already implemented. So, we can know the state of signal equipment, sitting in the control room or the maintenance center. But this system was installed over 20 years ago, so it cannot stand the needs such as 'more stable operation', 'broadband data transfer', 'easy construction and easy maintenance'. To satisfy these needs, we studied the monitoring system using radio communication as a new method which can realize the operation in the terrible environment along railroads. In these studies, we have developed the terminals and repeaters based on the ZigBee protocol and have implemented the application using two different radio bands simultaneously. At last, we got the good results from the fundamental examinations using the developed equipment.

Keywords: monitoring, radio communication, 2 bands, ZigBee

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3221 Experimenting with Error Performance of Systems Employing Pulse Shaping Filters on a Software-Defined-Radio Platform

Authors: Chia-Yu Yao

Abstract:

This paper presents experimental results on testing the symbol-error-rate (SER) performance of quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) systems employing symmetric pulse-shaping square-root (SR) filters designed by minimizing the roughness function and by minimizing the peak-to-average power ratio (PAR). The device used in the experiments is the 'bladeRF' software-defined-radio platform. PAR is a well-known measurement, whereas the roughness function is a concept for measuring the jitter-induced interference. The experimental results show that the system employing minimum-roughness pulse-shaping SR filters outperforms the system employing minimum-PAR pulse-shaping SR filters in the sense of SER performance.

Keywords: pulse-shaping filters, FIR filters, jittering, QAM

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3220 Bias Optimization of Mach-Zehnder Modulator Considering RF Gain on OFDM Radio-Over-Fiber System

Authors: Ghazi Al Sukkar, Yazid Khattabi, Shifen Zhong

Abstract:

Most of the recent wireless LANs, broadband access networks, and digital broadcasting use Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing techniques. In addition, the increasing demand of Data and Internet makes fiber optics an important technology, as fiber optics has many characteristics that make it the best solution for transferring huge frames of Data from a point to another. Radio over fiber is the place where high quality RF is converted to optical signals over single mode fiber. Optimum values for the bias level and the switching voltage for Mach-Zehnder modulator are important for the performance of radio over fiber links. In this paper, we propose a method to optimize the two parameters simultaneously; the bias and the switching voltage point of the external modulator of a radio over fiber system considering RF gain. Simulation results show the optimum gain value under these two parameters.

Keywords: OFDM, Mach Zehnder bias voltage, switching voltage, radio-over-fiber, RF gain

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3219 Multi Criteria Authentication Method in Cognitive Radio Networks

Authors: Shokoufeh Monjezi Kouchak

Abstract:

Cognitive radio network (CRN) is future network .Without this network wireless devices can’t work appropriately in the next decades. Today, wireless devices use static spectrum access methods and these methods don’t use spectrums optimum so we need use dynamic spectrum access methods to solve shortage spectrum challenge and CR is a great device for DSA but first of all its challenges should be solved .security is one of these challenges .In this paper we provided a survey about CR security. You can see this survey in tables 1 to 7 .After that we proposed a multi criteria authentication method in CRN. Our criteria in this method are: sensing results, following sending data rules, position of secondary users and no talk zone. Finally we compared our method with other authentication methods.

Keywords: authentication, cognitive radio, security, radio networks

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3218 Software-Defined Radio Based Channel Measurement System of Wideband HF Communication System in Low-Latitude Region

Authors: P. H. Mukti, I. Kurniawati, F. Oktaviansyah, A. D. Adhitya, N. Rachmadani, R. Corputty, G. Hendrantoro, T. Fukusako

Abstract:

HF Communication system is one of the attractive fields among many researchers since it can be reached long-distance areas with low-cost. This long-distance communication can be achieved by exploiting the ionosphere as a transmission medium for the HF radio wave. However, due to the dynamic nature of ionosphere, the channel characteristic of HF communication has to be investigated in order to gives better performances. Many techniques to characterize HF channel are available in the literature. However, none of those techniques describe the HF channel characteristic in low-latitude regions, especially equatorial areas. Since the ionosphere around equatorial region has an ESF phenomenon, it becomes an important investigation to characterize the wideband HF Channel in low-latitude region. On the other sides, the appearance of software-defined radio attracts the interest of many researchers. Accordingly, in this paper a SDR-based channel measurement system is proposed to be used for characterizing the HF channel in low-latitude region.

Keywords: channel characteristic, HF communication system, LabVIEW, software-defined radio, universal software radio peripheral

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3217 Broadening the Public Sphere: Examining the Role of Community Radio in Fostering Participatory Democracy in Selected Communities in Ondo State, Nigeria

Authors: John Ibanga

Abstract:

Since May 1999, when Nigeria returned to uninterrupted democratic rule, there have been various attempts by successive governments at committing themselves to democratic ideals. Such efforts include a revision of communication policies after repeated calls by civil society organisations, development partners, researchers, and academics to allow not only the commencement of campus radio broadcasting but also the takeoff of community radio broadcasting. Thus, in 2015, operating licenses were granted to several communities spread across the six geopolitical zones in the country for the establishment of community radio stations culminating in the establishment of the first community radio in Nigeria on July 17, 2015. And, since citizens’ involvement in policy matters and governance is one of the tenets of participatory democracy, it becomes imperative to investigate how the emerging community radio sector in Nigeria is facilitating participatory democracy among Nigerians, even in the face of attempts by the present government to silence all dissenting voices. This study, therefore, examines how residents in Ondo State, Southwest Nigeria, are utilising programmes on Ejule Nen and Kakaaki community radio stations in Ondo State, Nigeria, to deepen participatory democracy. Much of the existing studies on the role of community radio in participatory democracy and citizens' engagement efforts miss out on Nigeria because of the delayed implementation of community radio policy in Nigeria being Africa’s most populous nation as well as a major player in the affairs of the African continent. While the participatory communication and communication infrastructure theories were used as framework, data were collected from in-depth interviews with staff of the community radio station and community leaders, focus group discussions with the community residents, and qualitative content analysis of programmes on the station. The residents used the community radio stations as platforms for demanding accountability from government, mobilising resources for the execution of a number of community projects, promoting credible electoral practices, and influencing the implementation of free education policy in their communities. Hence the community radio stations became the reliable and authoritative voices of residents for participating in the public sphere and, generally, the democratic process.

Keywords: community, community radio, democracy, participatory democracy

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3216 Creative Radio Advertising in Turkey

Authors: Mehmet Sinan Erguven

Abstract:

A number of authorities argue that radio is an outdated medium for advertising and does not have the same impact on consumers as it did in the past. This grim outlook on the future of radio has its basis in the audio-visual world that consumers now live in and the popularity of Internet-based marketing tools among advertising professionals. Nonetheless, consumers still appear to overwhelmingly prefer radio as an entertainment tool. Today, in Canada, 90% of all adults (18+) tune into the radio on a weekly basis, and they listen for 17 hours. Teens are the most challenging group for radio to capture as an audience, but still, almost 75% tune in weekly. One online radio station reaches more than 250 million registered listeners worldwide, and revenues from radio advertising in Australia are expected to grow at an annual rate of 3% for the foreseeable future. Radio is also starting to become popular again in Turkey, with a 5% increase in the listening rates compared to 2014. A major matter of concern always affecting radio advertising is creativity. As radio generally serves as a background medium for listeners, the creativity of the radio commercials is important in terms of attracting the attention of the listener and directing their focus on the advertising message. This cannot simply be done by using audio tools like sound effects and jingles. This study aims to identify the creative elements (execution formats appeals and approaches) and creativity factors of radio commercials in Turkey. As part of the study, all of the award winning radio commercials produced throughout the history of the Kristal Elma Advertising Festival were analyzed using the content analysis technique. Two judges (an advertising agency copywriter and an academic) coded the commercials. The reliability was measured according to the proportional agreement. The results showed that sound effects, jingles, testimonials, slices of life and announcements were the most common execution formats in creative Turkish radio ads. Humor and excitement were the most commonly used creative appeals while award-winning ads featured various approaches, such as surprise musical performances, audio wallpaper, product voice, and theater of the mind. Some ads, however, were found to not contain any creativity factors. In order to be accepted as creative, an ad must have at least one divergence factor, such as originality, flexibility, unusual/empathic perspective, and provocative questions. These findings, as well as others from the study, hold great value for the history of creative radio advertising in Turkey. Today, the nature of radio and its listeners is changing. As more and more people are tuning into online radio channels, brands will need to focus more on this relatively cheap advertising medium in the very near future. This new development will require that advertising agencies focus their attention on creativity in order to produce radio commercials for their customers that will differentiate them from their competitors.

Keywords: advertising, creativity, radio, Turkey

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3215 Radio Regulation Development and Radio Spectrum Analysis of Earth Station in Motion Service

Authors: Fei Peng, Jun Yuan, Chen Fan, Fan Jiang, Qian Sun, Yudi Liu

Abstract:

Although Earth Station in Motion (ESIM) services are widely used and there is a huge market demand around the world, International Telecommunication Union (ITU) does not have unified conclusion for the use of ESIM yet. ESIM are Mobile Satellite Services (MSS) due to its mobile-based attributes, while multiple administrations want to use ESIM in Fixed Satellite Service (FSS). However, Radio Regulations (RR) have strict distinction between MSS and FSS. In this case, ITU has been very controversial because this kind of application will violate the RR Article and the conflict will bring risks to the global deployment. Thus, this paper illustrates the development of rules, regulations, standards concerning ESIM and the radio spectrum usage of ESIM in different regions around the world. Firstly, the basic rules, standard and definition of ITU’s Radiocommunication Sector (ITU-R) is introduced. Secondly, the World Radiocommunication Conference (WRC) agenda item on radio spectrum allocation for ESIM, e.g. in C/Ku/Ka band, is introduced and multi-view on the radio spectrum allocation is elaborated, especially on 19.7-20.2 GHz & 29.5-30.0 GHz. Then, some ITU-R Recommendations and Reports are analyzed on the specific technique to enable these ESIM to communicate with Geostationary Earth Orbit Satellite (GSO) space stations in the FSS without causing interference at levels in excess of that caused by conventional FSS earth stations. Meanwhile, the opposite opinion on not allocating EISM service in FSS frequency band is also elaborated. Finally, based on the ESIM’s future application, the ITU-R standards development trend is forecasted. In conclusion, using radio spectrum resource in an equitable, rational and efficient manner is the basic guideline of ITU. Although it is not a good approach to obstruct the revise of RR when there is a large demand for radio spectrum resource in satellite industry, still the propulsion and global demand of the whole industry may face difficulties on the unclear application in modify rules of RR.

Keywords: earth station in motion, ITU standards, radio regulations, radio spectrum, satellite communication

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