Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2769

Search results for: randomized controlled trial

2769 The Predictive Value of Extensor Grip Test for the Effectiveness of Treatment for Tennis Elbow: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Authors: Mohammad Javad Zehtab, S. Alireza Mirghasemi, Ali Majlesara, Parvin Tajik, Babak Siavashi

Abstract:

Objective: There are different modalities proposed for tennis elbow treatment with few randomized trials comparing them. We designed a study to compare the effectiveness of five different modalities and determine the usefulness of recently proposed extensor grip test (EGT) in predicting the response to treatment. Methods: In a randomized controlled clinical trial 92 of 98 tennis elbow patients in Sina hospital of Tehran, Iran between 2006 and 2007 fulfill trial entry criteria, among these patients 56 (60.9%) had positive EGT result. Stratified on EGT result, patients allocated randomly to 5 treatment groups: Brace (B) group, physiotherapy (P), brace + physiotherapy (BP), injection (I) and injection + physiotherapy (IP). Results: Patients who had positive result of EGT had better response to treatments: less SOC (p = 0.06), less PFFQ and patients’ satisfaction scores (p < 0.001). Among the treatment IP was the most successful, then BP, P and B, respectively; injection was the worst treatment modality. Response to treatment was comparable in all groups between EGT positive and negative patients except bracing; in which positive EGT was correlated with a dramatic response to treatment. Conclusion: In all patients IP and then BP is recommended but in EGT negatives, bracing seems to be of no use. Injection alone is not recommended in either group.

Keywords: tennis elbow, extensor grip test, physiotherapy, tennis elbow treatment

Procedia PDF Downloads 183
2768 Evaluation of Three Commercially Available Materials in Reducing the White Spot Lesions During Fixed Orthodontic Treatment: A Prospective Randomized Controlled Trial

Authors: Sayeeda Laeque Bangi

Abstract:

Objectives: Treating white spot lesions (WSL) to create a sound and esthetically pleasing enamel surface is a question yet to be fully answered. The objective of this randomized controlled trial was to measure and compare the degree of regression of WSL during orthodontic treatment achieved by using three commercially available materials. Methods: A single-blinded randomized prospective clinical trial, comprising 80 patients categorized into four groups (one control group and three experimental groups, with 20 subjects per group) using block randomization, was conducted. Group A (control group): Colgate strong toothpaste; and experiments groups were Group B: GC tooth mousse, Group C: Phos-Flur mouthwash and Group D: SHY-NM. Subjects were instructed to use the designated dentifrice/mouthwash and photographs were taken at baseline, third and sixth months, and white spot lesions were reassessed in the maxillomandibular anterior teeth. Results: All the three groups had shown an improvement in WSL. But Group B has shown the greatest difference in mean values of decalcification index (DI) scores. Conclusion: All three commercially available products showed a regression of WSL over a 6-month duration. GC tooth mousse proved to be the most effective means of treating WSL over other regimens.

Keywords: white spot lesions, dentifrices, orthodontic therapy, remineralization

Procedia PDF Downloads 15
2767 3D-printing for Ablation Planning in Patients Undergoing Atrial Fibrillation Ablation: 3D-GALA Trial

Authors: Terentes Printzios Dimitrios, Loanna Gourgouli, Vlachopoulos Charalambos

Abstract:

Aims: Atrial fibrillation (AF) remains one of the major causes of stroke, heart failure, sudden death and cardiovascular morbidity. Ablation techniques are becoming more appealing after the latest results of randomized trials showing the overall clinical benefit. On the other hand, imaging techniques and the frontier application of 3D printing are emerging as a valuable ally for cardiac procedures. However, no randomized trial has directly assessed the impact of preprocedural imaging and especially 3D printing guidance for AF ablation. The present study is designed to investigate for the first time the effect of 3D printing of the heart on the safety and effectiveness of the ablation procedure. Methods and design: The 3D-GALA trial is a randomized, open-label, controlled, multicentre clinical trial of 2 parallel groups designed to enroll a total of 100 patients undergoing ablation using cryo-balloon for paroxysmal and persistent AF. Patients will be randomized with a patient allocation ratio of 1: 1 to preprocedural MRI scan of the heart and 3D printing of left atrium and pulmonary veins and cryoablation versus standard cryoablation without imaging. Patients will be followed up to 6 months after the index procedure. The primary outcome measure is the reduction of radiation dose and contrast amount during pulmonary veins isolation. Secondary endpoints will include the percentage of atrial fibrillation relapse at 24h-Holter electrocardiogram monitoring at 6 months after initial treatment. Discussion: To our knowledge, the 3D-GALA trial will be the first study to provide evidence about the clinical impact of preprocedural imaging and 3D printing before cryoablation.

Keywords: atrial fibrillation, cardiac MRI, cryoablation, 3-d printing

Procedia PDF Downloads 44
2766 A Nutritional Wellness Program for Overweight Health Care Providers in Hospital Setting: A Randomized Controlled Trial Pilot Study

Authors: Kim H. K. Choy, Oliva H. K. Chu, W. Y. Keung, B. Lim, Winnie P. Y. Tang

Abstract:

Background: The prevalence of workplace obesity is rising worldwide; therefore, the workplace is an ideal venue to implement weight control intervention. This pilot randomized controlled trial aimed to develop, implement, and evaluate a nutritional wellness program for obese health care providers working in a hospital. Methods: This hospital-based nutritional wellness program was an 8-week pilot randomized controlled trial for obese health care providers. The primary outcomes were body weight and body mass index (BMI). The secondary outcomes were serum fasting glucose, fasting cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density (HDL) and low-density (LDL) lipoprotein, body fat percentage, and body mass. Participants were randomly assigned to the intervention (n = 20) or control (n = 22) group. Participants in both groups received individual nutrition counselling and nutrition pamphlets, whereas only participants in the intervention group were given mobile phone text messages. Results: 42 participants completed the study. In comparison with the control group, the intervention group showed approximately 0.98 kg weight reduction after two months. Participants in intervention group also demonstrated clinically significant improvement in BMI, serum cholesterol level, and HDL level. There was no improvement of body fat percentage and body mass for both intervention and control groups. Conclusion: The nutritional wellness program for obese health care providers was feasible in hospital settings. Health care providers demonstrated short-term weight loss, decrease in serum fasting cholesterol level, and HDL level after completing the program.

Keywords: weight management, weight control, health care providers, hospital

Procedia PDF Downloads 156
2765 Evaluation of a Personalized Online Decision Aid for Colorectal Cancer Screening: a Randomized Controlled Trial

Authors: Linda P.M. Pluymen, Mariska M.G. Leeflang, I. Stegeman, Henock G. Yebyo, Anne E.M. Brabers, Patrick M. Bossuyt, E dekker, Anke J. Woudstra, Mirjam P. Fransen

Abstract:

Weighing the benefits and harms of colorectal cancer screening can be difficult for individuals. An existing online decision aid was expanded with a benefit-harm analysis to help people make an informed decision about participating in colorectal cancer screening. In a randomized controlled trial, we investigated whether those in the intervention group who used the decision aid with benefit-harm analysis were more certain about their decision than those in the control group who used the decision aid without benefit-harm analysis. Participants were 623 (39% of those invited) men and women aged 45 until 75 years old. Analyses were performed in those 386 participants (62%) who reported to have completed the entire decision aid. No statistically significant differences were observed between intervention and control group in decisional conflict score (mean difference 2.4, 95% CI -0.9, 5.6), clarity of values (mean difference 1.0, 95% CI -4.4, 6.6), deliberation score (mean difference 0.5, 95% CI -0.6, 1.7), anxiety score (mean difference 0.0, 95% CI -0.3, 0.3) and risk perception score (mean difference 0.1, -0.1, 0.3). Adding a benefit-harm analysis to an online decision aid did not improve informed decision making about participating in colorectal cancer screening.

Keywords: benefit-harm analysis, decision aid, informed decision making, personalized decision making

Procedia PDF Downloads 8
2764 Allopurinol Prophylactic Therapy in the Prevention of Contrast Induced Nephropathy in High Risk Patients Undergoing Coronary Angiography: A Prospective Randomized Controlled Trial

Authors: Seyed Fakhreddin Hejazi, Leili Iranirad, Mohammad Sadeghi, Mohsen Talebizadeh

Abstract:

Background: Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) remains to be a potentially serious complication of radiographic procedures. We performed this clinical trial to assess the preventive effect of allopurinol against CIN in high-risk patients undergoing coronary angiography. Methods: In this prospective randomized controlled trial, 140 patients with at least two risk factors for CIN undergoing coronary angiography were randomly assigned to either the allopurinol group or the control group. Patients in the allopurinol group received 300 mg allopurinol 24 hours before a procedure and intravenous hydration for 12 hours before and after coronary angiography, whereas patients in the control group received intravenous hydration. Serum creatinine (SCr), blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and uric acid were measured before contrast exposure and at 48 hours. CIN was defined as an increase of 25% in serum creatinine (SCr) or >0.5 mg/dl 48 hours after contrast administration. Results: CIN occurred in 11 out of 70 (7.9%) patients in the control group and in 8 out of 70 (5.7%) patients in the allopurinol group. There was no significant difference in the incidence of CIN between the two groups at 48 hours after administering the radiocontrast agent (p = 0.459). However, there were significant differences between the two groups in SCr, BUN, uric acid, and eGFR 48 hours after radiocontrast administration (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Our findings revealed that allopurinol had no substantial efficacy over hydration protocol in high-risk patients for the development of CIN.

Keywords: contrast-induced nephropathy, allopurinol, coronary angiography, contrast agent

Procedia PDF Downloads 157
2763 A Double-Blind, Randomized, Controlled Trial on N-Acetylcysteine for the Prevention of Acute Kidney Injury in Patients Undergoing Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

Authors: Sara Ataei, Molouk Hadjibabaie, Amirhossein Moslehi, Maryam Taghizadeh-Ghehi, Asieh Ashouri, Elham Amini, Kheirollah Gholami, Alireza Hayatshahi, Mohammad Vaezi, Ardeshir Ghavamzadeh

Abstract:

Acute kidney injury (AKI) is one of the complications of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and is associated with increased mortality. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is a thiol compound with antioxidant and vasodilatory properties that has been investigated for the prevention of AKI in several clinical settings. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of intravenous NAC on the prevention of AKI in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation patients. A double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial was conducted, and 80 patients were recruited to receive 100 mg/kg/day NAC or placebo as intermittent intravenous infusion from day -6 to day +15. AKI was determined on the basis of the Risk-Injury-Failure-Loss-Endstage renal disease and AKI Network criteria as the primary outcome. We assessed urine neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (uNGAL) on days -6, -3, +3, +9, and +15 as the secondary outcome. Moreover, transplant-related outcomes and NAC adverse reactions were evaluated during the study period. Statistical analysis was performed using appropriate parametric and non-parametric methods including Kaplan–Meier for AKI and generalized estimating equation for uNGAL. At the end of the trial, data from 72 patients were analyzed (NAC: 33 patients and placebo: 39 patients). Participants of each group were not different considering baseline characteristics. AKI was observed in 18% of NAC recipients and 15% of placebo group patients, and the occurrence pattern was not significantly different (p = 0.73). Moreover, no significant difference was observed between groups for uNGAL measures (p = 0.10). Transplant-related outcomes were similar for both groups, and all patients had successful engraftment. Three patients did not tolerate NAC because of abdominal pain, shortness of breath and rash with pruritus and were dropped from the intervention group before transplantation. However, the frequency of adverse reactions was not significantly different between groups. In conclusion, our findings could not show any clinical benefits from high-dose NAC particularly for AKI prevention in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation patients.

Keywords: acute kidney injury, N-acetylcysteine, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, urine neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, randomized controlled trial

Procedia PDF Downloads 348
2762 Mediation Analysis of the Efficacy of the Nimotuzumab-Cisplatin-Radiation (NCR) Improve Overall Survival (OS): A HPV Negative Oropharyngeal Cancer Patient (HPVNOCP) Cohort

Authors: Akshay Patil

Abstract:

Objective: Mediation analysis identifies causal pathways by testing the relationships between the NCR, the OS, and an intermediate variable that mediates the relationship between the Nimotuzumab-cisplatin-radiation (NCR) and OS. Introduction: In randomized controlled trials, the primary interest is in the mechanisms by which an intervention exerts its effects on the outcomes. Clinicians are often interested in how the intervention works (or why it does not work) through hypothesized causal mechanisms. In this work, we highlight the value of understanding causal mechanisms in randomized trial by applying causal mediation analysis in a randomized trial in oncology. Methods: Data was obtained from a phase III randomized trial (Subgroup of HPVNOCP). NCR is reported to significantly improve the OS of patients locally advanced head and neck cancer patients undergoing definitive chemoradiation. Here, based on trial data, the mediating effect of NCR on patient overall survival was systematically quantified through progression-free survival(PFS), disease free survival (DFS), Loco-regional failure (LRF), and the disease control rate (DCR), Overall response rate (ORR). Effects of potential mediators on the HR for OS with NCR versus cisplatin-radiation (CR) were analyzed by Cox regression models. Statistical analyses were performed using R software Version 3.6.3 (The R Foundation for Statistical Computing) Results: Effects of potential mediator PFS was an association between NCR treatment and OS, with an indirect-effect (IE) 0.76(0.62 – 0.95), which mediated 60.69% of the treatment effect. Taking into account baseline confounders, the overall adjusted hazard ratio of death was 0.64 (95% CI: 0.43 – 0.96; P=0.03). The DFS was also a significant mediator and had an IE 0.77 (95% CI; 0.62-0.93), 58% mediated). Smaller mediation effects (maximum 27%) were observed for LRF with IE 0.88(0.74 – 1.06). Both DCR and ORR mediated 10% and 15%, respectively, of the effect of NCR vs. CR on the OS with IE 0.65 (95% CI; 0.81 – 1.08) and 0.94(95% CI; 0.79 – 1.04). Conclusion: Our findings suggest that PFS and DFS were the most important mediators of the OS with nimotuzumab to weekly cisplatin-radiation in HPVNOCP.

Keywords: mediation analysis, cancer data, survival, NCR, HPV negative oropharyngeal

Procedia PDF Downloads 46
2761 The Effect of Normal Cervical Sagittal Configuration in the Management of Cervicogenic Dizziness: A 1-Year Randomized Controlled Study

Authors: Moustafa Ibrahim Moustafa

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to determine the immediate and long term effects of a multimodal program, with the addition of cervical sagittal curve restoration and forward head correction, on severity of dizziness, disability, frequency of dizziness, and severity of cervical pain. 72 patients with cervicogenic dizziness, definite hypolordotic cervical spine, and forward head posture were randomized to experimental or a control group. Both groups received the multimodal program, additionally, the study group received the Denneroll cervical traction. All outcome measures were measured at three intervals. The general linear model indicated a significant group × time effects in favor of experimental group on measures of anterior head translation (F=329.4 P < .0005), cervical lordosis (F=293.7 P < .0005), severity of dizziness (F=262.1 P < .0005), disability (F=248.9 P < .0005), frequency of dizziness (F=53.9 P < .0005), and severity of cervical pain (F=350.1 P < .0005). The addition of Dennroll cervical traction to a multimodal program can positively affect dizziness management outcomes.

Keywords: randomized controlled trial, traction, dizziness, cervical

Procedia PDF Downloads 206
2760 A Randomized Controlled Trial of the Effects of Meditation Awareness Training (Mat) on Work-Related Stress and Job Performance

Authors: Edo Shonin, William Van Gordon, Mark D. Griffiths

Abstract:

Due to its potential to concurrently improve Work-Related Wellbeing (WRW) and job performance; occupational stakeholders are becoming increasingly interested in meditation. Despite this, there is a scarcity of methodologically robust research examining the utility of meditation within occupational contexts. This study conducted the first randomized controlled trial to assess the effects of meditation on outcomes relating to both WRW and job performance. Office-based middle-hierarchy managers (n=152) were allocated to either an eight-week meditation intervention (Meditation Awareness Training: MAT) or an active control intervention. MAT participants demonstrated significant improvements (with strong effect-sizes) over control-group participants in levels of work-related stress, job satisfaction, psychological distress, and employer-rated job performance. It is concluded that MAT appears to be effective for improving both WRW and job performance in middle-hierarchy managers. There are a number of novel implications: (i) meditation can effectuate a perceptual shift in how employees experience their work and psychological environment and may thus constitute a cost-effective WRW intervention, (ii) meditation-based (i.e., present-moment-focused) working styles may be more effective than goal-based (i.e., future-orientated) working styles, and (iii) meditation may reduce the separation made by employees between their own interests and those of the organizations they work for.

Keywords: work-related stress, workplace wellbeing, occupational stress, job performance, meditation awareness training, mindfulness

Procedia PDF Downloads 223
2759 Comparison of Efficacy between Low-Residue Diet and Clear-Liquid Diet in Colonoscopic Bowel Preparation at a Surgical Clinic: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Authors: Sopana Wongtawee

Abstract:

Purpose: Adequate bowel cleansing is essential for a high quality, effective and safe colonoscopy. The aims of this study were to compare the efficacy of bowel preparation based on a low-residue diet before 8:00 followed by a clear-liquid diet, and a low-residue diet until 16:00 one day before colonoscopy using sodium phosphate solution (Xubil ®), the side effects of the two protocols and the patient satisfaction with them. Method: This was an endoscopist-blinded, prospective, randomized, controlled trial. A total of 224 patients (112 in each group) scheduled for outpatient colonoscopy met the criteria.They were randomized to either a low-residue diet consisting of white rice porridge with either fish, chicken or eggs before 8:00 followed by a clear-liquid diet (Group 1) or a low-residue diet consisting of the same food and drink, until 16:00 the day before colonoscopy(Group 2). All of them received 45 ml of sodium phosphate solution (Xubil ®) and three glasses of water (300 ml/glass) the evening before and the morning of the procedure. The cleansing efficacy of bowel preparation was rated according to the modified Rajawithi hospital bowel preparation score scale, patient satisfaction with bowel preparation was rated using Likert scale, and side effects of the 2 protocols was assessed using a patient questionnaire. Results: The cleansing efficacy between the two groups was significantly different (p=0.02). Satisfaction with bowel preparation and side effects were not different, except for the feeling of hunger in the first group (p=0.001). Conclusion: The low-residue diet consisting of white rice porridge with fish, chicken or eggs until 16:00 one day before colonoscopy achieved a better bowel-cleansing efficacy than the protocol consisting of clear liquid all day and rice porridge only before 8:00 one day before colonoscopy.

Keywords: bowel preparation, colonoscopy, sodium phosphate solution, nursing management

Procedia PDF Downloads 292
2758 Hearing Conservation Program for Vector Control Workers: Short-Term Outcomes from a Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial

Authors: Rama Krishna Supramanian, Marzuki Isahak, Noran Naqiah Hairi

Abstract:

Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is one of the highest recorded occupational diseases, despite being preventable. Hearing Conservation Program (HCP) is designed to protect workers hearing and prevent them from developing hearing impairment due to occupational noise exposures. However, there is still a lack of evidence regarding the effectiveness of this program. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a Hearing Conservation Program (HCP) in preventing or reducing audiometric threshold changes among vector control workers. This study adopts a cluster randomized controlled trial study design, with district health offices as the unit of randomization. Nine district health offices were randomly selected and 183 vector control workers were randomized to intervention or control group. The intervention included a safety and health policy, noise exposure assessment, noise control, distribution of appropriate hearing protection devices, training and education program and audiometric testing. The control group only underwent audiometric testing. Audiometric threshold changes observed in the intervention group showed improvement in the hearing threshold level for all frequencies except 500 Hz and 8000 Hz for the left ear. The hearing threshold changes range from 1.4 dB to 5.2 dB with largest improvement at higher frequencies mainly 4000 Hz and 6000 Hz. Meanwhile for the right ear, the mean hearing threshold level remained similar at 4000 Hz and 6000 Hz after 3 months of intervention. The Hearing Conservation Program (HCP) is effective in preserving the hearing of vector control workers involved in fogging activity as well as increasing their knowledge, attitude and practice towards noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL).

Keywords: adult, hearing conservation program, noise-induced hearing loss, vector control worker

Procedia PDF Downloads 47
2757 Iron Supplementation for Patients Undergoing Cardiac Surgery: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized-Controlled Trials

Authors: Matthew Cameron, Stephen Yang, Latifa Al Kharusi, Adam Gosselin, Anissa Chirico, Pouya Gholipour Baradari

Abstract:

Background: Iron supplementation has been evaluated in several randomized controlled trials (RCTs) for the potential to increase baseline hemoglobin and decrease the incidence of red blood cell (RBC) transfusion during cardiac surgery. This study's main objective was to evaluate the evidence for iron administration in cardiac surgery patients for its effect on the incidence of perioperative RBC transfusion. Methods: This systematic review protocol was registered with PROSPERO (CRD42020161927) on Dec. 19th, 2019, and was prepared as per the PRISMA guidelines. MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL, Web of Science databases, and Google Scholar were searched for RCTs evaluating perioperative iron administration in adult patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Each abstract was independently reviewed by two reviewers using predefined eligibility criteria. The primary outcome was perioperative RBC transfusion, with secondary outcomes of the number of RBC units transfused, change in ferritin level, reticulocyte count, hemoglobin, and adverse events, after iron administration. The risk of bias was assessed with the Cochrane Collaboration Risk of Bias Tool, and the primary and secondary outcomes were analyzed with a random-effects model. Results: Out of 1556 citations reviewed, five studies (n = 554 patients) met the inclusion criteria. The use of iron demonstrated no difference in transfusion incidence (RR 0.86; 95% CI 0.65 to 1.13). There was a low heterogeneity between studies (I²=0%). The trial sequential analysis suggested an optimal information size of 1132 participants, which the accrued information size did not reach. Conclusion: The current literature does not support the routine use of iron supplementation before cardiac surgery; however, insufficient data is available to draw a definite conclusion. A critical knowledge gap has been identified, and more robust RCTs are required on this topic.

Keywords: cardiac surgery, iron, iron supplementation, perioperative medicine, meta-analysis, systematic review, randomized controlled trial

Procedia PDF Downloads 33
2756 Effects of Virtual Reality on the Upper Extremity Spasticity and Motor Function in Patients with Stroke: A Single Blinded Randomized Controlled Trial

Authors: Kasra Afsahi, Maryam Soheilifar, S. Hossein Hosseini, Omid Seyed Esmaeili, Rouzbeh Kezemi, Noushin Mehrbod, Nazanin Vahed, Tahereh Hajiahmad, Noureddin Nakhostin Ansari

Abstract:

Background: Stroke is a disabling neurological disease. Rehabilitative therapies are important treatment methods. This clinical trial was done to compare the effects of VR beside conventional rehabilitation versus conventional rehabilitation alone on spasticity and motor function in stroke patients. Materials and Methods: In this open-label randomized controlled clinical trial, 40 consecutive patients with stable first-ever ischemic stroke in the past three to 12 months that were referred to a rehabilitation clinic in Tehran, Iran, in 2020 were enrolled. After signing the informed written consent form, subjects were randomly assigned by block randomization of five in each block as cases with 1:1 into two groups of 20 cases; conventional plus VR therapy group: 45-minute conventional therapy session plus 15-minute VR therapy, and conventional group: 60-minute conventional therapy session. VR rehabilitation is designed and developed with different stages. Outcomes were modified Ashworth scale, recovery stage score for motor function, range of motion (ROM) of shoulder abduction/wrist extension, and patients’ satisfaction rate. Data were compared after study termination. Results: The satisfaction rate among the patients was significantly better in the combination group (P=0.003). Only wrist extension was varied between groups and was better in the combination group. The variables generally had a statistically significant difference (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Virtual reality plus conventional rehabilitation therapy is superior versus conventional rehabilitation alone on the wrist and elbow spasticity and motor function in patients with stroke.

Keywords: stroke, virtual therapy, rehabilitation, treatment

Procedia PDF Downloads 52
2755 Effect of Co-Parenting Support on Duration of Exclusive Breastfeeding in a Developing Nation: A Randomised Controlled Trial

Authors: Phomid Techi, L. N. Padmasini, Mohan Mathew

Abstract:

Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of co-parent support on the duration of exclusive breastfeeding by a randomized control trial. Introduction: The current rates of exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months in India is 46% (NFHS3 2008.). The purpose of the study is to evaluate the effectiveness of co-parenting support on duration of exclusive breastfeeding in primi mothers. Design: RCT: Willing parents of healthy TAGA babies born in our hospital were explained about the study purpose and randomly assigned to either trial or control group. The control group was given the usual care. The intervention group received usual care and in addition the trial intervention. Follow-up data was collected at the end of 6 mon. Intervention: Face to face 30-minute discussion in post partum unit on breast feeding benefits, techniques, and problem-solving information followed up by phone calls to mother every 4 weeks to answer questions/concerns. Outcome measures: Duration of exclusive breastfeeding Baseline demographic variables were measured. Results: After obtaining IEC approval a total of 100 couples were recruited, 100 is each group. In the intervention group, the rate of exclusive breastfeeding was 97.2% while in the control group it was 64% (p-value 0.00). Conclusion: Co-parenting support has an important role in promoting exclusive breastfeeding.

Keywords: co-parenting, exclusive breastfeeding, developing nation, randomised control trial

Procedia PDF Downloads 143
2754 Effect of Whole-Body Vibration Training on Self-Reported Physical Disability in Employees with Chronic Low-Back Pain: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Authors: Tobias Stephan Kaeding, Rebecca Schwarz, Momme Kück, Lothar Stein

Abstract:

Introduction: The goal of this randomized and controlled study is to examine whether whole-body vibration (WBV) training is able to reduce self-reported physical disability in office employees with chronic low-back pain. Materials and methods: 41 subjects (68.3% female/mean age 45.5 ± 9.1 years/mean BMI 26.6 ± 5.2) were randomly allocated to an intervention group (INT (n= 21)) or a control group (CON (n=20). The INT participated in WBV training 2.5 times per week for 3 months. The primary outcome was the change in the Roland and Morris disability questionnaire (RMQ) score over the study period. In addition, secondary outcomes included changes in the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI). Results: The compliance with the intervention in the INT reached a mean of 81.1% ± 31.2% with no long-lasting unwanted side effects. We found significant positive effects of 3 months of WBV training in the INT compared to the CON regarding the RMQ (p=0.027) and the ODI (p=0.002). Conclusions: WBV training seems to be an effective, safe and suitable intervention for the reduction of the self-reported physical disability in seated working employees with chronic low-back pain.

Keywords: back pain, exercise, occupational health management, vibration training

Procedia PDF Downloads 195
2753 Wellbeing Warriors: A Randomized Controlled Trial Examining the Effect of Martial Arts Training on Mental Health Outcomes

Authors: Brian Moore, Stuart Woodcock, Dean Dudley

Abstract:

Mental health problems have significant social and economic consequences; however, many individuals do not seek traditional assistance for mental health difficulties. Martial arts training may provide an inexpensive alternative to traditional psychological therapy. While limited research has suggested martial arts training may be an efficacious intervention, the validity and reliability of this are questionable given the small number of relevant studies and other methodological problems. The study examined the effects of 10-week martial arts-based psycho-social intervention which was evaluated using a randomized controlled trial. The intervention was delivered to 283 secondary school students, aged between 12-14 years, who were recruited from government and catholic secondary schools in New South Wales, Australia. The intervention was delivered in a group format onsite at participating schools and had an intervention dose of 10 x 50-60 minute sessions, once per week for 10 weeks. Data were collected at baseline, post-intervention, and 12-week follow-up. Results found a consistent pattern for strength based wellbeing outcomes. All primary and secondary measures relating to resilience and self-efficacy improved for the intervention group and declined for the control group. As these findings were derived from a robust design and rigorous evaluation, they provide valid and reliable evidence that martial arts-based psycho-social interventions can be considered as an efficacious method of improving strength and wellbeing outcomes.

Keywords: martial arts, mental health, resilience, self-efficacy

Procedia PDF Downloads 58
2752 Acupuncture in the Treatment of Parkinson's Disease-Related Fatigue: A Pilot Randomized, Controlled Study

Authors: Keng H. Kong, Louis C. Tan, Wing L. Aw, Kay Y. Tay

Abstract:

Background: Fatigue is a common problem in patients with Parkinson's disease, with reported prevalence of up to 70%. Fatigue can be disabling and has adverse effects on patients' quality of life. There is currently no satisfactory treatment of fatigue. Acupuncture is effective in the treatment of fatigue, especially that related to cancer. Its role in Parkinson's disease-related fatigue is uncertain. Aims: To evaluate the clinical efficacy of acupuncture treatment in Parkinson's disease-related fatigue. Hypothesis: We hypothesize that acupuncture is effective in alleviating Parkinson's disease-related fatigue. Design: A single center, randomized, controlled study with two parallel arms. Participants: Forty participants with idiopathic Parkinson's disease will be enrolled. Interventions: Participants will be randomized to receive verum (real) acupuncture or placebo acupuncture. The retractable non-invasive sham needle will be used in the placebo group. The intervention will be administered twice a week for five weeks. Main outcome measures: The primary outcome will be the change in general fatigue score of the multidimensional fatigue inventory at week 5. Secondary outcome measures include other subscales of the multidimensional fatigue inventory, movement disorders society-unified Parkinson's disease rating scale, Parkinson's disease questionnaire-39 and geriatric depression scale. All outcome measures will be assessed at baseline (week 0), completion of intervention (week 5) and 4 weeks after completion of intervention (week 9). Results: To date, 23 participants have been recruited and nine have completed the study. The mean age is 63.5±14.2 years, mean duration of Parkinson’s disease is 6.4±1.8 years and mean MDS-UPDRS score is 8.3±2.8. The mean general fatigue score of the multidimensional fatigue inventory is 13.5±4.6. No significant adverse event related to acupuncture is noted. Potential significance: If the results are as expected, this study will provide preliminary scientific evidence for the efficacy of acupuncture in Parkinson's Disease-related fatigue, and opens the door for a larger multicentre trial to be performed. In the longer term, it may lead to the integration of acupuncture in the care of patients with Parkinson's disease.

Keywords: acupuncture, fatigue, Parkinson's disease, trial

Procedia PDF Downloads 210
2751 Oral Betahistine Versus Intravenous Diazepam in Acute Peripheral Vertigo: A Randomized, Double-Blind Controlled Trial

Authors: Saeed Abbasi, Davood Farsi, Soudabeh Shafiee Ardestani, Neda Valizadeh

Abstract:

Objectives: Peripheral vertigo is a common complaint of patients who are visited in emergency departments. In our study, we wanted to evaluate the effect of betahistine as an oral drug vs. intravenous diazepam for the treatment of acute peripheral vertigo. We also wanted to see the possibility of substitution of parenteral drug with an oral one with fewer side effects. Materials and Methods: In this randomized, double-blind study, 101 patients were enrolled in the study. The patients were divided in two groups in a double-blind randomized manner. Group A took oral placebo and 10 mg of intravenous diazepam. Group B received 8mg of oral betahistine and intravenous placebo. Patients’ symptoms and signs (Vertigo severity, Nausea, Vomiting, Nistagmus and Gate) were evaluated after 0, 2, 4, 6 hours by emergency physicians and data were collected by a questionnaire. Results: In both groups, there was significant improvement in vertigo (betahistine group P=0.02 and Diazepam group P=0.03). Analysis showed more improvement in vertigo severity after 4 hours of treatment in betahistine group comparing to diazepam group (P=0.02). Nausea and vomiting were significantly lower in patients receiving diazepam after 2 and 6 hours (P=0.02 & P=0.03).No statistically significant differences were found between the groups in nistagmus, equilibrium & vertigo duration. Conclusion: The results of this randomized trial showed that both drugs had acceptable therapeutic effects in peripheral vertigo, although betahistine was significantly more efficacious after 4 hours of drug intake. As for higher nausea and vomiting in betahistine group, physician should consider these side effects before drug prescription.

Keywords: acute peripheral vertigo, betahistine, diazepam, emergency department

Procedia PDF Downloads 283
2750 REFLEX: A Randomized Controlled Trial to Test the Efficacy of an Emotion Regulation Flexibility Program with Daily Measures

Authors: Carla Nardelli, Jérome Holtzmann, Céline Baeyens, Catherine Bortolon

Abstract:

Background. Emotion regulation (ER) is a process associated with difficulties in mental health. Given its transdiagnostic features, its improvement could facilitate the recovery of various psychological issues. A limit of current studies is the lack of knowledge regarding whether available interventionsimprove ER flexibility (i.e., the ability to implement ER strategies in line with contextual demands), even though this capacity has been associated with better mental health and well-being. Therefore, the aim of the study is to test the efficacy of a 9-weeks ER group program (the Affect Regulation Training-ART), using the most appropriate measures (i.e., experience sampling method) in a student population. Plus, the goal of the study is to explore the potential mediative role of ER flexibility on mental health improvement. Method. This Randomized Controlled Trial will comparethe ER program group to an active control group (a relaxation program) in 100 participants. To test the mediative role of ER flexibility on mental health, daily measures will be used before, during, and after the interventions to evaluate the extent to which participants are flexible in their ER. Expected outcomes. Using multilevel analyses, we expect an improvement in anxious-depressive symptomatology for both groups. However, we expect the ART group to improve specifically on ER flexibility ability and the last to be a mediative variable on mental health. Conclusion. This study will enhance knowledge on interventions for students and the impact of interventions on ER flexibility. Also, this research will improve knowledge on ecological measures for assessing the effect of interventions. Overall, this project represents new opportunities to improve ER skills to improve mental health in undergraduate students.

Keywords: emotion regulation flexibility, experience sampling method, psychological intervention, emotion regulation skills

Procedia PDF Downloads 17
2749 Does Mirror Therapy Improve Motor Recovery After Stroke? A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

Authors: Hassan Abo Salem, Guo Feng, Xiaolin Huang

Abstract:

The objective of this study is to determine the effectiveness of mirror therapy on motor recovery and functional abilities after stroke. The following databases were searched from inception to May 2014: Cochrane Stroke, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, AMED, PsycINFO, and PEDro. Two reviewers independently screened and selected all randomized controlled trials that evaluate the effect of mirror therapy in stroke rehabilitation.12 randomized controlled trials studies met the inclusion criteria; 10 studies utilized the effect of mirror therapy for the upper limb and 2 studies for the lower limb. Mirror therapy had a positive effect on motor recover and function; however, we found no consistent influence on activity of daily living, Spasticity and balance. This meta-analysis suggests that, Mirror therapy has additional effect on motor recovery but has a small positive effect on functional abilities after stroke. Further high-quality studies with greater statistical power are required in order to accurately determine the effectiveness of mirror therapy following stroke.

Keywords: mirror therapy, motor recovery, stroke, balance

Procedia PDF Downloads 434
2748 Effect of Therapeutic Exercises with or without Positional Release Technique in Treatment of Chronic Mechanical Low Back Pain Patients a Randomized Controlled Trial

Authors: Ghada M. R. Koura, Mohamed N. Mohamed, Ahmed M. F. El Shiwi

Abstract:

Chronic mechanical Low back dysfunction (CMLBD) is the most common problem of the working-age population in modern industrial sociaty; it causes a substantial economic burden due to the wide use of medical services and absence from work. Aim of work: the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of positional release technique on patients with chronic mechanical low back pain. Materials and Methods: Thirty two patients from both sexes were diagnosed with CMLBP, aged 20 to 45 years and were divided randomly into two equal groups; sixteen patients each; group A (control group) received therapeutic exercises that include (Stretch and Strength exercises for back and abdominal muscles). Group B (experimental group) received therapeutic exercises with positional release technique; treatment was applied 3 days/week for 4 weeks. Pain was measured by Visual Analogue Scale, Lumbar range of motion was measured by Inclinometer and Functional disability was measured by Oswestry disability scale. Measurements were taken at two intervals pre-treatment and post-treatment. Results: Data obtained was analyzed via paired and unpaired t-Test. There were statistical differences between the 2 groups, where the experimental group showed greater improvement than control group. Conclusion: Positional release technique is considered as an effective treatment for reducing pain, functional disability and increasing lumbar range of motion in individuals with chronic mechanical low back pain.

Keywords: chronic mechanical low back pain, traditional physical therapy program, positional release technique, randomized controlled trial

Procedia PDF Downloads 510
2747 Antihypertensive Effect of Formulated Apium graveolens: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial

Authors: Maryam Shayani Rad, Seyed Ahmad Mohajeri, Mohsen Mouhebati, Seyed Danial Mousavi

Abstract:

High blood pressure is one of the most important and serious health-threatening because of no symptoms in most people, which can lead to sudden heart attack, heart failure, and stroke. Nowadays, herbal medicine is one of the best and safest strategies for treatment that have no adverse effects. Apium graveolens (celery) can be used as an alternative treatment for many health conditions such as hypertension. Natural compounds reduce blood pressure via different mechanisms in which Apium graveolens extract provides potent calcium channel blocking properties. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over clinical trial was done to evaluate the efficacy of formulated Apium graveolens extract with a maximum yield of 3-n-butylphthalide to reduce systolic and diastolic blood pressure in patients with hypertension. 54 hypertensive patients in the range of 20-68 years old were randomly assigned to the treatment group (26 cases) and the placebo control group (26 cases) and were crossed over after washout duration. The treatment group received at least 2 grams of formulated powder in hard capsules orally, before each meal, 2 times daily. The control group received 2 grams of placebo in hard capsules orally, exactly as the same as shape, time, and doses of treatment group. Treatment was administrated in 12 weeks with 4 weeks washout period at the middle of the study, meaning 4 weeks drug consumption for the treatment group, 4 weeks washout and 4 weeks placebo consumption, and vice versa for the placebo control group. The clinical assessment was done 4 times, including at the beginning and ending of the drug and placebo consumption period by 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) holter, which measured blood pressure every 15 minutes continuously. There was a statistically significant decrease in both systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) at the end of drug duration compared to baseline. The changes after 4 weeks on average was about 12.34 mm Hg for the SBP (P < 0.005) and 7.83 mm Hg for the DBP (P < 0.005). The results from this clinical trial study showed this Apium graveolens extract formulation in the mentioned dosage had a significant effect on blood pressure-lowering for hypertensive patients.

Keywords: Apium graveolens extract, clinical trial, cross-over, hypertension

Procedia PDF Downloads 46
2746 Poliovirus Vaccine Immunity among Chronically Malnourished Pakistani Infants: A Randomized Controlled Trial from Developing Country

Authors: Ali Faisal Saleem, Farheen Quadri, Mach Ondrej, Anita Zaidi

Abstract:

Purpose: Pakistan is the final frontier for a polio-free world. Chronic malnutrition is associated with lack of effective gut immunity, and possibly associated with poliomyelitis in children received multiple OPV. We evaluate IPV dose administered together with OPV results in higher immunogenicity and mucosal immunity compared to OPV alone in chronically malnourished infants. Methods AND Materials: A community-based, unblinded-randomized-trial, conducted in 5 peri-urban, low-middle-income households of Karachi, in infants 9-12 months. Two study groups were non-malnourished (HAZ= -2 or more) and chronic malnourished (HAZ <-2SD), with 2-arms each i) OPV and ii) OPV and IPV. Two blood specimens (2ml) at baseline and at day 28 and two stool specimens (6 gm.) at day 29 and after 7 days. All infants received a bOPV challenge dose after first stool specimen. Calculates sample size was 210 in each arm. Serological (baseline compared to 28 days post-vaccine) and mucosal immunity after one week of bOPV challenge dose were study outcomes. Results: Baseline seroprevalence in malnourished infants were low compared to non-malnourished (P1, P2 and P3 (p=<0.001). There is significant rise in antibody titer and P1 seroprevalence in Mal A and B after receiving study vaccine; much higher in Mal B. Infants randomized to bOPV + IPV study vaccine showed incremental immune response against P1 (Mal B, 92.2%; Nor B, 98.4%), P2 (Mal B, 90.4%; Nor B, 94.7%), and P3 (Mal B, 85.6% and Nor B, 93.5%) was observed. A significant proportion of infants in malnourished (P1, 13%; P2, 24%; P3, 26%) and normally nourished group (P1, 5%; P2, 11%; P3, 14%) were found to be seronegative at baseline. Infants who received BOPV + IPV as their study vaccine showed a very high seroconversion response after vaccine (p=<0.001 for P1, P2 and P3). Majority of the specimens were negative at baseline (Mal A, 2%, Mal B, 1%; Nor A, 2%; Nor B, 1%), and remains negative after bOPV challenge dose (Mal A, 8%, Mal B, 6%; Nor A, 11%; Nor B, 10%). Conclusion: Malnourished-infants have low poliovirus-seroprevalence that increased remarkably after IPV. There is less viral shedding after IPV in infants.

Keywords: chronic malnutrition, infants, IPV, OPV

Procedia PDF Downloads 305
2745 Effect of Vitamin D3 on Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Prognosis, Anthropometric and Body Composition Parameters of Overweight Women: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial

Authors: Nahla Al-Bayyari, Rae’d Hailat

Abstract:

Vitamin D deficiency and overweight are common in women suffering from polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Weight gain in PCOS is an important factor for the development of menstrual dysfunction and signs of hyperandrogenism and alopecia. Features of PCOS such as oligomenorrhea can be predicted by anthropometric measurements as body mass index (BMI). Therefore, the aim of this trial was to study the effect of 50,000 IU/week of vitamin D₃ supplementation on the body composition and on the anthropometric measurements of overweight women with PCOS and to examine the impact of this effect on ovaries ultrasonography and menstrual cycle regularity. The study design was a prospective randomized, double-blinded placebo-controlled clinical trial conducted on 60 overweight Jordanian women aged (18-49) years with PCOS and vitamin D deficiency. The study participants were divided into two groups; vitamin D group (n = 30) who were assigned to receive 50,000 IU/week of vitamin D₃ and placebo group (n = 30) who were assigned to receive placebo tablets orally for 90 days. The anthropometric measurements and body composition were measured at baseline and after treatment for the PCOS and vitamin D deficient women. Also, assessment of the participants’ picture of ovaries by ultrasound and menstrual cycle regulatory were performed before and after treatment. Results showed that there were no significant (p > 0.05) differences between the placebo and vitamin D group basal 25(OH)D levels, body composition and anthropometric parameters. After treatment, vitamin D group serum levels of 25(OH)D increased (12.5 ± 0.61 to 50.2 ± 2.04 ng/mL, (p < 0.001), and decreased (50.2 ± 2.04 to 48.2 ± 2.03 ng/mL, p < 0.001) after 14 days of vitamin D₃ treatment cessation. There were no significant changes in the placebo group. In the vitamin D group, there were significant (p < 0.001) decreases in body weight, BMI, waist, and hip circumferences and fat mass. In addition, there were significant increases (p < 0.05) in fat free mass and total body water. These improvements in both anthropometric and body composition as well as in 25(OH)D concentrations, resulted in significant improvements in the picture of PCOS women ovaries ultrasonography and in menstrual cycle regularity, where nearly most of them (93%) had regular cycles after vitamin D₃ supplementation. In the placebo group, there were only significant decreases (p < 0.05) in waist and hip circumferences. It can be concluded that vitamin D supplementation improving serum 25(OH)D levels and PCOS prognosis by reducing body weight of overweight PCOS women and regulating their menstrual cycle.

Keywords: anthropometric, overweight, polycystic ovary syndrome, vitamin D₃

Procedia PDF Downloads 41
2744 The Effect of Aerobic Exercise Training on the Improvement of Nursing Staff's Sleep Quality: A Randomized Controlled Study

Authors: Niu Shu Fen

Abstract:

Sleep disturbance is highly prevalent among shift-working nurses. We aimed to evaluate whether aerobic exercise (i.e., walking combined with jogging) improves objective Sleepparameters among female nurses at the end of an 8-week exercise program and 4 weeks after study completion. This single-blinded, parallel design, randomized controlled trial was conducted in the floor classroom of a would-be medical center in northern Taiwan. Sixtyeligible female nurses were randomly assigned to either aerobic exercise (n = 30) or usual care (n = 30) group. The moderate-intensity aerobic exercise program was performed over 5days (60 min per day) a week for 8 weeks after work hours. Objective sleep outcomes including total sleep time (TST), sleep onset latency (SOL), wake after sleep onset (WASO), and sleep efficiency (SE), were retrieved using an Actigraph device. A generalized estimated equation model was used for data analyses. The aerobic exercise group had significant improvements in TST and SE at 4 weeks and 8 weeks compared with baseline evaluation(TST: B = 70.49 and 55.96, both p < 0.001; SE: B = 5.21 and 3.98, p < 0.001 and 0.002).Significant between-group differences were observed in SOL and WASO at 4 weeks but not8 weeks compared with the baseline evaluation (SOL: B = −7.18, p = 0.03; WASO: B =−11.38, p = 0.008). The positive lasting effects for TST were observed only until the 4-week follow-up. To improve sleep quality and quantity, we encourage female nurses to regularly perform moderate-intensity aerobic exercise.

Keywords: sleep quality, aerobic exercise, nurses, shift work

Procedia PDF Downloads 34
2743 The Effectiveness of Exercise Therapy on Decreasing Pain in Women with Temporomandibular Disorders and How Their Brains Respond: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial

Authors: Zenah Gheblawi, Susan Armijo-Olivo, Elisa B. Pelai, Vaishali Sharma, Musa Tashfeen, Angela Fung, Francisca Claveria

Abstract:

Due to physiological differences between men and women, pain is experienced differently between the two sexes. Chronic pain disorders, notably temporomandibular disorders (TMDs), disproportionately affect women in diagnosis, and pain severity in opposition of their male counterparts. TMDs are a type of musculoskeletal disorder that target the masticatory muscles, temporalis muscle, and temporomandibular joints, causing considerable orofacial pain which can usually be referred to the neck and back. Therapeutic methods are scarce, and are not TMD-centered, with the latest research suggesting that subjects with chronic musculoskeletal pain disorders have abnormal alterations in the grey matter of their brains which can be remedied with exercise, and thus, decreasing the pain experienced. The aim of the study is to investigate the effects of exercise therapy in TMD female patients experiencing chronic jaw pain and to assess the consequential effects on brain activity. In a randomized controlled trial, the effectiveness of an exercise program to improve brain alterations and clinical outcomes in women with TMD pain will be tested. Women with chronic TMD pain will be randomized to either an intervention arm or a placebo control group. Women in the intervention arm will receive 8 weeks of progressive exercise of motor control training using visual feedback (MCTF) of the cervical muscles, twice per week. Women in the placebo arm will receive innocuous transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation during 8 weeks as well. The primary outcomes will be changes in 1) pain, measured with the Visual Analogue Scale, 2) brain structure and networks, measured by fractional anisotropy (brain structure) and the blood-oxygen level dependent signal (brain networks). Outcomes will be measured at baseline, after 8 weeks of treatment, and 4 months after treatment ends and will determine effectiveness of MCTF in managing TMD, through improved clinical outcomes. Results will directly inform and guide clinicians in prescribing more effective interventions for women with TMD. This study is underway, and no results are available at this point. The results of this study will have substantial implications on the advancement in understanding the scope of plasticity the brain has in regards with pain, and how it can be used to improve the treatment and pain of women with TMD, and more generally, other musculoskeletal disorders.

Keywords: exercise therapy, musculoskeletal disorders, physical therapy, rehabilitation, tempomandibular disorders

Procedia PDF Downloads 196
2742 Induction of Labor Using Misoprostol with or without Mifepristone in Intrauterine Death: A Randomized Controlled Study

Authors: Ajay Agrawal, Pritha Basnet, Achala Thakur, Pappu Rizal, Rubina Rai

Abstract:

Context: Rapid expulsion of fetus in intrauterine fetal death (IUFD) is usually requested without any medical grounds for it. So; an efficient, safe method for induction of labor (IOL) is required. Objective: To determine if pre-treatment with mifepristone followed by IOL with misoprostol in late IUFD is more efficacious. Methods: We conducted a randomized controlled trial in 100 patients. Group-A women received single oral dose of 200 mg mifepristone, followed by induction with vaginal misoprostol after 24-hour. Group-B women were induced only with vaginal misoprostol. In each group 5 dose of misoprostol was used 4 hourly. If first cycle was unsuccessful, after break of 12 hour, second course of misoprostol was started. The primary outcome was a measure of induction to delivery time and vaginal delivery within 24 hours. Secondary outcome was to measure need of oxytocin and complications. Results: Maternal age, parity and period of gestation were comparable between groups. Number of misoprostol dose needed in group A was significantly less than group B. Mann Whitney U test showed, women in group A had significantly earlier onset of labor, however total induction to delivery interval was not significant. In group-A, 85.7% delivered within 24 hours of first dose of misoprostol while in group-B 70% delivered within 24 hour (p=0.07). More women in Group B required oxytocin. Conclusion: Pretreatment with mifepristone before IOL following late IUFD is an effective and safe regimen. It appears to shorten the duration of induction to onset of labor.

Keywords: induction of labor, intrauterine fetal death, mifepristone, misoprostol

Procedia PDF Downloads 295
2741 A Randomised Controlled Trial on the Nurse-Led Smartphone-Based Self-Management Programme for Type 2 Diabetes Patients with Poor Glycemic Control

Authors: Wenru Wang

Abstract:

Over the past decades, Asia has emerged as the ‘diabetes epicentre’ in the world due to rapid economic development, urbanization and nutrition transition. There is an urgent need to develop more effective and cost-effective care management strategies in response to this rising diabetes epidemic. This study aims to develop and compare a nurse-led smartphone-based self-management programme with an existing nurse-led diabetes service on health-related outcomes among type 2 diabetes patients with poor glycemic control in Singapore. We proposed a randomized controlled trial with pre- and repeated post-tests control group design. A total of 128 type 2 diabetes patients with poor glycemic control will be recruited from the diabetes clinic of an acute public hospital in Singapore through convenience sampling. Study participants will be either randomly allocated to the experimental group or control group. Outcome measures used will include the 10-item General Self-Efficacy Scale, 11-item Revised Summary of Diabetes Self-care Activities, and 19-item Diabetes-Dependent Quality of Life. Data will be collected at 3-time points: baseline, three months and six months from the baseline, respectively. It is expected that this programme will be an alternative offered to diabetes patients to master their self-care management skills, in addition to the existing diabetes service provided in diabetes clinics in Singapore hospitals. Also, the self-supporting and less resource-intensive nature of this programme, through the use of smartphone app as a mode of intervention delivery, will greatly reduce nurses’ direct contact time with patients and allow more time to be allocated to those who require more attention. The study has been registered with clinicaltrials.gov. The trial registration number is NCT03088475.

Keywords: type 2 diabetes, poor glycaemic control, nurse-led, smartphone-based, self-management, health-relevant outcomes

Procedia PDF Downloads 71
2740 Effectiveness of Mobile Health Augmented Cardiac Rehabilitation (MCard) on Health-Related Quality of Life among Post-Acute Coronary Syndrome Patients: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Authors: Aliya Hisam, Zia Ul Haq, Sohail Aziz, Patrick Doherty, Jill Pell

Abstract:

Objective: To determine the effectiveness of Mobile health augmented Cardiac rehabilitation (MCard) on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among post-acute coronary syndrome(post-ACS) patients. Methodology: In a randomized controlled trial, post-ACS patients were randomly allocated (1:1) to an intervention group (received MCard; counseling, empowering with self-monitoring devices, short text messages, in addition to standard post-ACS care) or control group (standard post-ACS care). HRQoL was assessed by generic Short Form-12 and MacNew quality of life myocardial infarction (QLMI) tools. Participants were followed for 24 weeks with data collection and analysis at three-time points (baseline, 12 weeks and 24 weeks). Result: At baseline, 160 patients (80 in each group; mean age 52.66+8.46 years; 126 males, 78.75%) were recruited, of which 121(75.62%) continued and were analyzed at 12-weeks and 119(74.37%) at 24-weeks. The mean SF-12 physical component score significantly improved in the MCard group at 12 weeks follow-up (48.93 vs. control 43.87, p<.001) and 24 weeks (53.52 vs. 46.82 p<.001). The mean SF-12 mental component scores also improved significantly in the MCard group at 12 weeks follow-up (44.84 vs. control 41.40, p<.001) and 24 weeks follow-up (48.95 vs 40.12, p<.001). At 12-and 24-week follow-up, all domains of MacNew QLMI (social, emotional, physical and global) were also statistically significant (p<.001) improved in the MCard group, unlike the control group. Conclusion: MCard is feasible and effective at improving all domains of HRQoL. There was an improvement in physical, mental, social, emotional and global domains among the MCard group in comparison to the control group. The addition of MCard programs to post-ACS standard care may improve patient outcomes and reduce the burden on the health care setting.

Keywords: acute coronary syndrome, mobile health augmented cardiac rehabilitation (MCard), cardiovascular diseases, cardiac rehabilitation, health-related quality of life, short form 12, MacNew QLMI

Procedia PDF Downloads 62