Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3344

Search results for: occupational stress

3344 Occupational Stress, Perceived Fairness, and Organizational Citizenship Behavior among Bank Workers in Nigeria

Authors: K. M. Ngbea, F. Ugwu, J. M. Uwouku, P. Atsehe, A. Ucho, P. N. Achakpa-Ikyo, P. Azende

Abstract:

This study examined occupational stress, perceived fairness and organizational citizenship behavior among bank workers. The participants were 198 (118) males and (80) female's bank employees from selected banks within Makurdi metropolis and questionnaire were used for data collection. Three hypotheses were tested and it was found that employees with high perception of occupational stress differ significantly from their counterparts at perceived fairness also influenced organizational citizenship behavior.On the other hand, there is no interaction effect of occupational stress and perceived fairness on organizational citizenship behavior. The implication of findings, limitations, recommendations and conclusions were discussed.

Keywords: occupational stress, perceived fairness, organizational citizenship, behavior

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3343 Occupational Stress in Nurses of a Maternity Ward in Lubango, Angola

Authors: Lídia Chienda, Tchilissila A. Simoes

Abstract:

Angola is known for the low quality of maternal health services, registering one of the highest maternal and child mortality of Africa. Working in these health facilities may be of great challenge for health professionals. In this study, we aimed to identify the presence of occupational stress in 76 nurses working in a maternity ward in Lubango, Southern Angola. The participants completed the Health Professional Stress Questionnaire and reported a moderate and high level of stress. To these individuals, 'receiving a low salary,' 'inadequate/insufficient salary,' 'overwork or very demanding work' and 'working long hours in a row' seemed to be the main indicators of occupational stress. Moreover, there was an influence of the work overload, the remuneration earned, the career, and family conflicts in the occupational stress index. These results contributed to a better understanding of the difficulties Angolan nurses are facing and the need to implement policies that envisage the wellbeing of this population.

Keywords: Africa, maternity wards, nursing, occupational stress

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3342 MindFlow: A Collective Intelligence-Based System for Helping Stress Pattern Diagnosis

Authors: Andres Frederic

Abstract:

We present the MindFlow system supporting the detection and the diagnosis of stresses. The heart of the system is a knowledge synthesis engine allowing occupational health stakeholders (psychologists, occupational therapists and human resource managers) to formulate queries related to stress and responding to users requests by recommending a pattern of stress if one exists. The stress pattern diagnosis is based on expert knowledge stored in the MindFlow stress ontology including stress feature vector. The query processing may involve direct access to the MindFlow system by occupational health stakeholders, online communication between the MindFlow system and the MindFlow domain experts, or direct dialog between a occupational health stakeholder and a MindFlow domain expert. The MindFlow knowledge model is generic in the sense that it supports the needs of psychologists, occupational therapists and human resource managers. The system presented in this paper is currently under development as part of a Dutch-Japanese project and aims to assist organisation in the quick diagnosis of stress patterns.

Keywords: occupational stress, stress management, physiological measurement, accident prevention

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3341 Relationship of Religious Coping with Occupational Stress and the Quality of Working Life of Midwives in Maternity Hospitals in Zahedan

Authors: Fatemeh Roostaee, Zahra Nikmanesh

Abstract:

This study was done to investigate the role of religious coping components on occupational stress and the quality of working life of midwives. The method of study was descriptive-correlation. The sample was comprised of all midwives in maternity hospitals in Zahedan during 1393. Participants were selected through applying census method. The instruments of data collection were three questionnaires: the quality of working life, occupational stress, and religious opposition. For statistical analysis, Pearson correlation and step by step regression analysis methods were used. The results showed that there is a significant negative relationship between the component of religious activities (r=-0/454) and occupational stress, and regression analysis was also shown that the variable of religious activities has been explained 45% of occupational stress variable changes. The Pearson correlation test showed that there isn't any significant relationship between religious opposition components and the quality of life. Therefore, it is necessary to present essential trainings on (the field of) strengthening compatibility strategies and religious activities to reduce occupational stress.

Keywords: the quality of working life, occupational stress, religious, midwife

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3340 Occupational Stress and Lipid Profile among Drivers in Ismailia City, Egypt

Authors: Amani Waheed, Adel Mishriky, Rasha Farouk, Essam Abdallah, Sarah Hussein

Abstract:

Background: Occupational stress plays a crucial role in professional drivers' health. They are exposed to high workloads, low physical activity, high demand and low decisions as well as poor lifestyle factors including poor diet, sedentary work, and smoking. Dyslipidemia is a well-established modifiable cardiovascular risk factor. Occupational stress and other forms of chronic stress have been associated with raised levels of atherogenic lipids. Although stress management has some evidence in improving lipid profile, the association between occupational stress and dyslipidemia is not clear. Objectives: To assess the relational between occupational stress and lipid profile among professional drivers. Methodology: A cross-sectional study conducted at a large company in Ismailia City, Egypt, where, 131 professional drivers divided into 44 car drivers, 43 bus drivers, and 44 truck drivers were eligible after applying exclusion criteria. Occupational stress index (OSI), non-occupational risk factors of dyslipidemia were assessed using interview structured questionnaire. Blood pressure, body mass index (BMI) and lipid profile were measured. Results: The mean of total OSI score was 79.98 ± 6.14. The total OSI score is highest among truck drivers (82.16 ± 4.62), then bus drivers (80.26 ± 6.02) and lowest among car drivers (77.55 ± 6.79) with statistically significant. Eighty percent had Dyslipidemia. The duration of driving hours per day, exposure to passive smoking and increased BMI were the risk factors. No statistical significance between Total OSI score and dyslipidemia. Using, logistic regression analysis, occupational stress, duration of driving hours per day, and BMI were positive significant predictors for dyslipidemia. Conclusion: Professional drivers are exposed to occupational stress. A high proportion of drivers have dyslipidemia. Total OSI score doesn't have statistically significant relation with dyslipidemia.

Keywords: body mass index, dyslipidaemia, occupational stress, professional drivers

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3339 Identifying the Source of Stress and Coping Strategies of Undergraduate Occupational Therapy Students' of BHPI in Bangladesh

Authors: Md. Toufiq Hasan

Abstract:

This research set out to explore the source of stress and coping strategies of undergraduate Occupational Therapy students’ of Bangladesh Health Professions Institute (BHPI) in Bangladesh. For that reason, a quantitative and prospective type survey has been conducted by the researcher with 27 student participants of BHPI Occupational Therapy department whose stress scores were ≥40 according to Zung’s self-rating depression scale. Data was collected by using Bengali and English joined questionnaire of Inventory of College Students’ Recent Life Experience and Ways of Coping Scale. The researcher followed ‘Comprehensive sampling’ procedure to study the entire group of population. From the in-depth analysis to data found some source of stress and coping strategies of the students’. Stress was found significantly more in 2nd year students rather than other years. Female students were more vulnerable for stress rather than male. The age ranges 18-20 years of students are more vulnerable for stress. The main sources of stresses are found that, a lot of responsibilities and too many things to do at once and not enough time to meet their obligation or duties. The important coping strategies are found that, they criticized or lectured their selves, tried not to burn their bridges, but leave things open somewhat and inspired to do something creative. Findings of the study highlighted the need for teachers-students interactive relationship for better academic performance. The study also discloses some important recommendations for the students and teachers. At last the findings of the study will help the Occupational Therapy students and teachers of BHPI.

Keywords: BHPI undergraduate occupational therapy students, stress, source of stress, coping strategies

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3338 Sources of Occupational Stress among Teachers in Command Secondary Schools of Nigerian Army

Authors: Mary Esere, Mogbekeloluwa Fakokunde, Adetoun Idowu

Abstract:

Background: Working in a military setting could elicit some amount of stressful doses into ones system because of the attendant peculiar characteristics found in the military environment. Thus, this study was carried out to find out the sources of occupational stress among teachers in various Command Secondary Schools within 2 Division of Nigerian Army. Method: The study employed a survey method. Simple random sampling technique was used to select the schools in the Division. A total of 200 respondents participated in the study. Sources of Teachers’ Occupational Stress Questionnaire (STOSQ) was administered to the respondents to collect relevant data. The t-test and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) statistics were used to test the hypotheses. Findings: From the study, it was discovered that teachers in this setting do experience occupational stress. Their major sources of stress bother on issues relating to salaries and allowances and staff welfare concerns. The findings also revealed that there were no significant differences in the sources of occupational stress among the teachers in respect to gender and marital status. Discussion: Based on these findings, it was recommended that the Appropriate Superior Authority (ASA) should reconstitute the proscribed Armed Forces Schools Management Board (AFSMB) where issues, such as staff salaries and welfare concerns for teachers working in the schools under the three services (Army, Navy, Airforce) will always be addressed. This will go a long way in enhancing the psychological well-being of the teachers.

Keywords: Nigerian army, occupational stress, sources, teachers

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3337 Quality of Working Life and Occupational Stress in High School Teachers

Authors: S. Silva

Abstract:

Some professions had an increased risk for occupational stress and less quality of working life. Among several professions this risk is particularly preoccupant in teachers, namely high school teachers. This study aims to characterize the work stress in teachers and understand how the work stress influences their quality of working life. One hundred teachers, 60 women and 40 men with mean age of 43,2 years (SD=7,8), from North Portugal teaching in several high schools filled in the following questionnaires: Social-Demographic Questionnaire, Teacher Stress Questionnaire and the Survey of Professional Life, during January to March 2015. The results of our study show that high school teachers have several occupational stressors (M=5) and poor perceived quality of working life. They are unsatisfied with their current job and they refer to a considerable job frustration. 33% referred to no expectations about a better future in these profession and 40% have no career development. There is a strong negative correlation between stress and teacher quality of working life (r=-.775). Moderate levels of stress are related to more favorable quality of working life (r=.632). Stress, frequent in teachers, is a significant predictor of poor quality of working life. There are several stressors affecting the teachers’ performance. Career development is not considered among this professional class and it seems related to current job frustration. Considering the role of high school teacher in the development and learning of students, these results should be taken in consideration when planning the graduation and interventions with teachers.

Keywords: career, quality of working life, stress, teachers

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3336 The Relationship between Personal, Psycho-Social and Occupational Risk Factors with Low Back Pain Severity in Industrial Workers

Authors: Omid Giahi, Ebrahim Darvishi, Mahdi Akbarzadeh

Abstract:

Introduction: Occupational low back pain (LBP) is one of the most prevalent work-related musculoskeletal disorders in which a lot of risk factors are involved that. The present study focuses on the relation between personal, psycho-social and occupational risk factors and LBP severity in industrial workers. Materials and Methods: This research was a case-control study which was conducted in Kurdistan province. 100 workers (Mean Age ± SD of 39.9 ± 10.45) with LBP were selected as the case group, and 100 workers (Mean Age ± SD of 37.2 ± 8.5) without LBP were assigned into the control group. All participants were selected from various industrial units, and they had similar occupational conditions. The required data including demographic information (BMI, smoking, alcohol, and family history), occupational (posture, mental workload (MWL), force, vibration and repetition), and psychosocial factors (stress, occupational satisfaction and security) of the participants were collected via consultation with occupational medicine specialists, interview, and the related questionnaires and also the NASA-TLX software and REBA worksheet. Chi-square test, logistic regression and structural equation modeling (SEM) were used to analyze the data. For analysis of data, IBM Statistics SPSS 24 and Mplus6 software have been used. Results: 114 (77%) of the individuals were male and 86 were (23%) female. Mean Career length of the Case Group and Control Group were 10.90 ± 5.92, 9.22 ± 4.24, respectively. The statistical analysis of the data revealed that there was a significant correlation between the Posture, Smoking, Stress, Satisfaction, and MWL with occupational LBP. The odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) derived from a logistic regression model were 2.7 (1.27-2.24) and 2.5 (2.26-5.17) and 3.22 (2.47-3.24) for Stress, MWL, and Posture, respectively. Also, the SEM analysis of the personal, psycho-social and occupational factors with LBP revealed that there was a significant correlation. Conclusion: All three broad categories of risk factors simultaneously increase the risk of occupational LBP in the workplace. But, the risks of Posture, Stress, and MWL have a major role in LBP severity. Therefore, prevention strategies for persons in jobs with high risks for LBP are required to decrease the risk of occupational LBP.

Keywords: industrial workers occupational, low back pain, occupational risk factors, psychosocial factors

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3335 Using Wearable Technology to Monitor Workers’ Stress for Construction Safety: A Conceptual Framework

Authors: Namhun Lee, Seong Jin Kim

Abstract:

The construction industry represents one of the largest industries in the United States, yet it continues to face several occupational health and safety challenges. Many workers on construction sites are suffering from extended exposure to stressful situations such as poor and hazardous work environments and task complexity. Stress can be commonly defined as a feeling of emotional or physical tension, which can easily impact construction safety and result in a higher rate of job-related injuries in the construction industry. Physiological signals transmitted from wearable biosensors can be used to detect excessive stress. Therefore, workers’ stress should be detected and mitigated to prevent any type of serious incident or accident proactively. By doing this, construction productivity, as well as job satisfaction, would also be improved in the construction industry. To establish a foundation in this field of research, a conceptual framework for using wearable technology for construction safety has been developed for continuous and automatic monitoring of worker’s stress. The conceptual framework will serve as a foothold in future studies on the application of wearable technology for construction safety.

Keywords: construction safety, occupational stress, stress monitoring, wearable biosensors

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3334 The Association of Work Stress with Job Satisfaction and Occupational Burnout in Nurse Anesthetists

Authors: I. Ling Tsai, Shu Fen Wu, Chen-Fuh Lam, Chia Yu Chen, Shu Jiuan Chen, Yen Lin Liu

Abstract:

Purpose: Following the conduction of the National Health Insurance (NHI) system in Taiwan since 1995, the demand for anesthesia services continues to increase in the operating rooms and other medical units. It has been well recognized that increased work stress not only affects the clinical performance of the medical staff, long-term work load may also result in occupational burnout. Our study aimed to determine the influence of working environment, work stress and job satisfaction on the occupational burnout in nurse anesthetists. The ultimate goal of this research project is to develop a strategy in establishing a friendly, less stressful workplace for the nurse anesthetists to enhance their job satisfaction, thereby reducing occupational burnout and increasing the career life for nurse anesthetists. Methods: This was a cross-sectional, descriptive study performed in a metropolitan teaching hospital in southern Taiwan between May 2017 to July 2017. A structured self-administered questionnaire, modified from the Practice Environment Scale of the Nursing Work Index (PES-NWI), Occupational Stress Indicator 2 (OSI-2) and Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) manual was collected from the nurse anesthetists. The relationships between two numeric datasets were analyzed by the Pearson correlation test (SPSS 20.0). Results: A total of 66 completed questionnaires were collected from 75 nurses (response rate 88%). The average scores for the working environment, job satisfaction, and work stress were 69.6%, 61.5%, and 63.9%, respectively. The three perspectives used to assess the occupational burnout, namely emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and sense of personal accomplishment were 26.3, 13.0 and 24.5, suggesting the presence of moderate to high degrees of burnout in our nurse anesthetists. The presence of occupational burnout was closely correlated with the unsatisfactory working environment (r=-0.385, P=0.001) and reduced job satisfaction (r=-0.430, P=0.000). Junior nurse anesthetists (<1-year clinical experience) reported having higher satisfaction in working environment than the seniors (5 to 10-year clinical experience) (P=0.02). Although the average scores for work stress, job satisfaction, and occupational burnout were lower in junior nurses, the differences were not statistically different. The linear regression model, the working environment was the independent factor that predicted occupational burnout in nurse anesthetists up to 19.8%. Conclusions: High occupational burnout is more likely to develop in senior nurse anesthetists who experienced the dissatisfied working environment, work stress and lower job satisfaction. In addition to the regulation of clinical duties, the increased workload in the supervision of the junior nurse anesthetists may result in emotional stress and burnout in senior nurse anesthetists. Therefore, appropriate adjustment of clinical and teaching loading in the senior nurse anesthetists could be helpful to improve the occupational burnout and enhance the retention rate.

Keywords: nurse anesthetists, working environment, work stress, job satisfaction, occupational burnout

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3333 Proposed Organizational Development Interventions in Managing Occupational Stressors for Business Schools in Batangas City

Authors: Marlon P. Perez

Abstract:

The study intended to determine the level of occupational stress that was experienced by faculty members of private and public business schools in Batangas City with the end in view of proposing organizational development interventions in managing occupational stressors. Stressors such as factors intrinsic to the job, role in the organization, relationships at work, career development and organizational structure and climate were used as determinants of occupational stress level. Descriptive method of research was used as its research design. There were only 64 full-time faculty members coming from private and public business schools in Batangas City – University of Batangas, Lyceum of the Philippines University-Batangas, Golden Gate Colleges, Batangas State University and Colegio ng Lungsod ng Batangas. Survey questionnaire was used as data gathering instrument. It was found out that all occupational stressors were assessed stressful when grouped according to its classification of tertiary schools while response of subject respondents differs on their assessment of occupational stressors. Age variable has become significantly related to respondents’ assessments on factors intrinsic to the job and career development; however, it was not significantly related to role in the organization, relationships at work and organizational structure and climate. On the other hand, gender, marital status, highest educational attainment, employment status, length of service, area of specialization and classification of tertiary school were revealed to be not significantly related to all occupational stressors. Various organizational development interventions have been proposed to manage the occupational stressors that are experienced by business faculty members in the institution.

Keywords: occupational stress, business school, organizational development, intervention, stressors, faculty members, assessment, manage

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3332 The Impact of Psychiatric Symptoms on Return to Work after Occupational Injury

Authors: Kuan-Han Lin, Kuan-Yin Lin, Ka-Chun Siu

Abstract:

The purpose of this systematic review was to determine the impact of post-traumatic stress disorders (PTSD) symptom or depressive symptoms on return to work (RTW) after occupational injury. The original articles of clinical trials and observational studies from PubMed, MEDLINE, and PsycINFO between January 1980 and November 2016 were retrieved. Two reviewers evaluated the abstracts identified by the search criteria for full-text review. To be included in the final analysis, studies were required to use either intervention or observational study design to examine the association between psychiatric symptoms and RTW. A modified checklist designed by Downs & Black and Crombie was used to assess the methodological quality of included study. A total of 58 articles were identified from the electronic databases after duplicate removed. Seven studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were critically reviewed. The rates of RTW in the included studies were reported to be 6% to 63.6% among workers after occupational injuries. This review found that post-traumatic stress symptom and depressive symptoms were negatively associated with RTW. Although the impact of psychiatric symptoms on RTW after occupational injury remains poorly understood, this review brought up the important information that injured workers with psychiatric symptoms had poor RTW outcome. Future work should address the effective management of psychiatric factors affecting RTW among workers.

Keywords: depressive symptom, occupational injury, post-traumatic stress disorder, return to work

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3331 The Efficacy of Mindfulness-Based Interventions on Occupational Stress and Burnout among K-12 Educators: A Review of the Literature

Authors: Kailen Krame

Abstract:

This paper presents a review of the literature on the efficacy of mindfulness-based interventions for reducing occupational stress and burnout among K-12 educators. An in-depth discussion of the incidence and impact of teacher stress and burnout is provided, as a wealth of literature indicates that this issue is of growing concern and has important implications not only for individual educators but also for students and the school as an organization. Given the evidence of a link between teacher wellbeing and student outcomes, this topic is worth further investigation in order to better understand sources of stress and burnout and propose adequate coping strategies for today’s educators. As a potential solution to teacher stress and burnout, mindfulness-based interventions are reviewed in-depth, and an overview of the history, diverse application, and effects of mindfulness practice are provided. Relevant outcomes of educator mindfulness training presented in the literature include increased emotional regulation, self-efficacy, and personal wellbeing, among several others. Lastly, additional implications and benefits of educator mindfulness training are explored, limitations of the current research are reviewed, and apparent best practices are proposed.

Keywords: educator burnout, emotional regulation, mindfulness, self-efficacy, stress-reduction

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3330 An Empirical Analysis of the Employee’s Duty to Disclose Stress-Related Mental Illness to their Employer under the Common Law on Occupational Stress

Authors: Silvanus Tanifon

Abstract:

The common law tort of negligence dealing with stress in the workplace has imposed an obligation on employees to notify their manager of any symptoms of stress or mental ill-health. This duty, which stems from the UK case of Hatton v Sutherland, has been the subject of intense criticisms. Legal scholars and practitioners have argued that in requiring employees to reveal their mental health issues to their employer, the Hatton case failed to consider that most employees would be wary of speaking out due to fear of stigma, dismissal, or lack of awareness. Notwithstanding these concerns, the principle articulated in the Hatton case has remained intact, with judges in England, Northern Ireland, and Ireland applying it in numerous occupational stress claims. Strikingly, there has been no attempt to verify if the concerns voiced by commentators are valid and, if so, what the courts can do to remedy these problems. This study seeks to cover this gap by conducting a systematic survey to find and catalogue all occupational stress claims decided by appellate courts in England, Ireland, and Northern Ireland since the Hatton judgment. It then subjected these cases to a quantitative Systematic Content Analysis, manually coding for (1) instances where employees have failed to reveal symptoms of stress and mental illness to their employer and (2) the reasons for this failure. The study finds that in 30 per cent of the stress claims that have come before the courts, employees have failed to disclose symptoms of stress and psychiatric problems as required by the common law. It also finds that the reasons for this failure range from fear of exposure to stigma, fear of dismissal, fear that the manager would be unsympathetic, lack of awareness about mental illness, among other factors. Based on these findings and insights from the emerging literature on disclosure of mental health issues in the workplace, the study argues that the common law obligation to reveal stress-related mental illness is too burdensome and unreasonable. It concludes by suggesting how the courts could remedy the problems associated with this legal principle.

Keywords: common law, disclosure of stress-related psychiatric injury, hatton v sutherland 16 practical propositions, mental health issues in the workplace, negligence law, occupational stress, stress-induced psychiatric injury

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3329 The Psychological Effect of Debriefing Work on Occupational Stress of Police Officers

Authors: Nobumi Nakajima

Abstract:

Objective: Critical Incident Stress Debriefing (CISD) was developed by J.T. Mitchell in 1974 for use with small homogeneous groups of paramedics, and firefighters who were distressed by their jobs. The term “debriefing” is widely used, however, and means many different things (J.T. Mitchell et al., 2001). In Japan, debriefing has been researched as Debriefing Work for psychoeducation to nurses and childcare workers for over twenty years after the Great Hanshin Awaji Earthquake Disaster (Nakajima, 2010). Therefore, Debriefing Work is a Japanese version for human services professionals. National Network for Victim Support Center in one prefecture in Japan cooperates with the prefectural police office and provides an annual training for helpline counselors who work at police stations. Helpline counselors who are not psychological professionals have to deal with various consultations every single day but rarely have the opportunity to talk to each other about their job. The aim of this study was to clarify the psychological effect of Debriefing Work on occupational stress of police officers who work as helpline counselors. Methods: Debriefing Work was conducted for a total of 139 police officers once a year from 2018 to 2020. The procedure was as follows. First of all, a preliminary survey using a questionnaire method to evaluate stress was administered to all participants. Before Debriefing Work, the lecture gave participants a theoretical background as preventive education. Participants form small groups of about six people, and talk about their difficulties at work in accordance with the rules. It is important that they only have what they want to talk about on their mind. A second survey followed that. Results: The response rate for the questionnaire was 135 in 139 participants (97%, 98% male, 96% female). 107 of them reduced stress after Debriefing Work (76%, 80% male, 74% female). A total average was found to decrease significantly after Debriefing Work (t=9.31 (134), p<0.001). Conclusions: The result provides insight that Debriefing Work is useful and meaningful to the police officer who works as a helpline counselor in Japan to keep working without burnout. Needless to say, a police officer is a human service professional of a sort. Continuing practical research is necessary to ascertain the psychological effect of Debriefing Work on occupational stress of a human service professional in Japan.

Keywords: debriefing work, occupational stress, police officer, burnout

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3328 A Randomized Controlled Trial of the Effects of Meditation Awareness Training (Mat) on Work-Related Stress and Job Performance

Authors: Edo Shonin, William Van Gordon, Mark D. Griffiths

Abstract:

Due to its potential to concurrently improve Work-Related Wellbeing (WRW) and job performance; occupational stakeholders are becoming increasingly interested in meditation. Despite this, there is a scarcity of methodologically robust research examining the utility of meditation within occupational contexts. This study conducted the first randomized controlled trial to assess the effects of meditation on outcomes relating to both WRW and job performance. Office-based middle-hierarchy managers (n=152) were allocated to either an eight-week meditation intervention (Meditation Awareness Training: MAT) or an active control intervention. MAT participants demonstrated significant improvements (with strong effect-sizes) over control-group participants in levels of work-related stress, job satisfaction, psychological distress, and employer-rated job performance. It is concluded that MAT appears to be effective for improving both WRW and job performance in middle-hierarchy managers. There are a number of novel implications: (i) meditation can effectuate a perceptual shift in how employees experience their work and psychological environment and may thus constitute a cost-effective WRW intervention, (ii) meditation-based (i.e., present-moment-focused) working styles may be more effective than goal-based (i.e., future-orientated) working styles, and (iii) meditation may reduce the separation made by employees between their own interests and those of the organizations they work for.

Keywords: work-related stress, workplace wellbeing, occupational stress, job performance, meditation awareness training, mindfulness

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3327 Examining Occupational Health and Safety Supervision in Turkey by Comparison to EU Countries

Authors: Nuray Gökçek Karaca

Abstract:

This study aims to examine the application of occupational health and safety supervision in Turkey and EU countries in terms of legal regulations. The results of research reveal that occupational health and safety supervision in EU countries, whatever the understanding of welfare state, is effectively carried out and almost all legal regulations on this subject are consistent with the EU directives. On the other hand, there are serious problems in applications, not legal regulations, of occupational health and safety supervision in Turkey by the side of EU countries. Indeed, Turkey has modern regulations on occupational health and safety supervision whereas there are several problems such as ignoring prevention policy on occupational health and safety supervision, understanding of monotype inspector, problems resulting from this understanding and dispersed structure of occupational health and safety organizations in workplaces. As a result, Turkey needs to carry out effective supervision mechanisms.

Keywords: legal rules, occupational health and safety, inspection, supervision, legislation

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3326 Psychological Contract Violation and Occupational Stressors amongst UK Police Officers

Authors: Fazeelat Duran, Darren Bishopp, Jessica Woodhams

Abstract:

Psychological contract refers to the perceptions of an employee and their employer regarding their mutual obligations towards each other. The rationale for applying the psychological contract theory in UK policing was to investigate its impact on their wellbeing because the psychological contract is a useful tool in identifying factors having a negative effect on the wellbeing of employees. The paper will report on a study, which examined how occupational stressors and psychological contract violation may influence the wellbeing (e.g. Physical Stress and General Health) of a sample of police officers (N=127). The design of the study was cross-sectional and based on data collected through a self-report survey. The results of hierarchical regression analyses and structural equation model, suggest that occupational stressors and psychological contract violation play a critical role in both physical and psychological health. The implications of these findings and the utility of considering the psychological contract will be discussed.

Keywords: police officers, psychological contract, occupational stressors, wellbeing

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3325 Gender, Occupational Status, Work-to-Family Conflict, and the Roles of Stressors among Korean Immigrants: Rethinking the Concept of the 'Stress of Higher Status'

Authors: Il-Ho Kim, Samuel Noh, Kwame McKenzie, Cyu-Chul Choi

Abstract:

Introduction: The ‘stress of higher status’ hypothesis suggests that workers with higher-status occupations are more likely to experience work-to-family conflict (WFC) than those with lower-status occupations. Yet, the occupational difference in WFC and its mechanisms have not been explicitly explored within Asian culture. This present study examines (a) the association between occupational status and WFC and (b) the mediating roles of work-related stressors and resources, focused on gender perspectives using a sample of Korean immigrants. Methods: Data were derived from a cross-sectional survey of foreign born Korean immigrants who were currently working at least two years in the Greater Area of Toronto or surrounding towns. The sample was stratified for equivalent presentations of micro-business owners (N=555) and paid employees in diverse occupational categories (N=733). Results: We found gender differences and similarities in the link between occupational status and WFC and the mediating roles of work-related variables. Compared to skilled/unskilled counterparts, male immigrants in professional, service, and microbusiness jobs reported higher levels of WFC, whereas female immigrants in higher-status occupations were more likely to have WFC with the exception of the highest levels of WFC among microbusiness owners. Regardless of gender, both male and female immigrants who have longer weekly work hours, shift work schedule, and high emotional and psychological demands were significantly associated with high levels of WFC. However, skill development was related to WFC only among male immigrants. Regarding the mediating roles of work-related factors, among female immigrants, the occupational difference in WFC was fully mediated by weekly work hours, shift work schedule, and emotional and psychological demands with the exception of the case of microbusiness workers. Among male immigrants, the occupational differences remained virtually unchanged after controlling for these mediators. Conclusions: Our results partially confirmed the ‘stress of higher status’ hypothesis among female immigrants. Additionally, work-related stressors seem to be critical mediators of the link between occupations and WFC only for female immigrants.

Keywords: work-to-family conflict, gender, work conditions, job demands, job resources

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3324 Employers' Occupational Health and Safety Training Obligations in Framework Directive and Training Procedure and Rules in Turkey

Authors: Nuray Gökçek Karaca, Berrin Gökçek

Abstract:

Employers occupational safety and health training obligations are regulated in 89/391/EEC Framework Directive and also in 6331 numbered Occupational Health and Safety Law in Turkey. The main objective of this research is to determine and evaluate the employers’ occupational health and safety training obligations in Framework Directive in comparison with the 6331 numbered Occupational Health and Safety Law and to examine training principles in Turkey. For this purpose, employers’ occupational health and safety training obligations examined in Framework Directive and Occupational Health and Safety Law. This study carried out through comparative scanning model and literature model. The research data were collected through European Agency and ministry legislations. As a result, employers’ occupational health and safety training obligations in the 6331 numbered Occupational Health and Safety Law are compatible with the 89/391/EEC numbered Framework Directive and training principles are determined by in different ways like the trained workers, training issues, training period, training time, and trainers. In this study, employers’ training obligations are evaluated in detail.

Keywords: directive, occupational health and safety, training, work accidences

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3323 Ceramic Employees’ Occupational Health and Safety Training Expectations in Turkey

Authors: Erol Karaca

Abstract:

This study aims to analyze ceramic employees’ occupational health and safety training expectations. To that general objective, the study tries to examine whether occupational health and safety training expectations of ceramic employees meaningfully differentiate depending on demographic features and professional, social and economic conditions. For this purpose, the research data was collected through “Questionnaire of Occupational Health and Safety Training Expectation” (QSOHSTE) consisting of 25 open and close-ended questions developed by the researcher on the base of the literature review. QSOHSTE was applied to 125 ceramic employees working in Kutahya, Turkey. Data obtained from questionnaires were analyzed via SPSS 21. The findings, obtained from the study, revealed that employees’ agreement level to occupational health and safety training expectation statements is generally high-level. These findings also reveals that employees have various expectations about occupational health and safety training. These expectations are increasing sensitivity towards occupational health and safety training about the prevention of occupational accidents and diseases, contributing occupational health and safety training in establishing healthy and safe working environment, requiring occupational health and safety training before starting work, in case of changing working equipment and new technological applications, necessity of measurement and evaluation after occupational health and safety training. Besides these findings, employees’ agreement level to occupational health and safety training expectation statements also varies in terms of educational level, professional seniority, income level and perception of economic condition.

Keywords: occupational health and safety, occupational training, occupational expectation, professional seniority

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3322 Matching Coping Strategies to Athletic Retirement Stressors among Japanese Female Athletes

Authors: Miyako Oulevey, David Lavallee, Naohiko Kohtake

Abstract:

Retirement from sport can be stressful to athletes for many reasons. Accordingly, it is necessary to match coping strategies depending on the stressors. One of the athlete career assistance programs for Japanese top athletes in Japan, the Japan Olympic Committee Career Academy (JCA), has focused on the service contents regarding occupational supports which can be said to cope with financial and occupational stress; however, other supports such as psychological support were unclear due to the lack of psychological professionals in the JCA. Tailoring the program, it is important to match the needs of the athletes at athletic retirement with the service contents. Japanese Olympic athletes have been found to retire for different reasons. Especially female athletes who competed in the Summer Olympic Games were found to retire with psychological reasons. The purpose of this research was to investigate the types of stressors Japanese female athletes experience as a result of athletic retirement. As part of the study, 44 female retired athletes from 13 competitive sports completed an open-ended questionnaire. The KJ method was used to analyze stress experienced as a result of retirement. As a result, nine conceptualized stressors were aggregated such as “Conflict with athletic identity”, “Desire to live as an athlete”, and “Career plan after retirement”. In order to match the coping strategies according to the stressors, each stressor was classified with the four types of adjustments; psychological, social, financial, and occupational changes. As a result, the stressor relating to psychological adjustment accounted for 69.0% of coping-related needs, the financial and occupational adjustment was 21.8%, and social adjustment was 9.2%. In conclusion, coping strategies according to the stressors are suggested.

Keywords: athletic retirement, coping, female athlete, stress

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3321 Prevalence of the Musculoskeletal Disorder amongst School Teachers

Authors: Nirav Vaghela, Sanket Parekh

Abstract:

Objective: Musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) represent one of the most common and important occupational health problems in working populations, being responsible for a substantial impact on quality of life and incurring a major economic burden in compensation cost and lost wages. School teachers represent an occupational group among which there appears to be a high prevalence of MSD. Design: Three hundred and fourteen teachers were enrolled in this study. Teachers were interview with the Modified Nordic Questionnaire. Result: In current study total 314 participants have been recruited in that minimum age of participants is 22 and maximum age is 59 with mean 40.5± 9.88. Total prevalence of the MSD is 71.95% among the teachers. In that Female were more affected with 72% than the males with 28%. Conclusion: The teachers here in reported a high prevalence of musculoskeletal pain in the shoulder, knee and back.

Keywords: repetitive stress injury, pain, occupational hazards, disability, abneetism, physical health, quality of life

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3320 Occupational Health and Safety Servicing in Turkey: A New Approach

Authors: Duygu Çelgin

Abstract:

Until the new Occupational Health and Safety Law of Turkey, most of the workers were excluded from the mandatory occupational health and safety services. This new law, made the OHS services mandatory for all workers from all sectors including both public and private. However, in the application some problems and disadvantageous cases are occurred and the government also considered these cases. In this study, the new OHS law of Turkey and the regulations prepared according to the law are studied with the literature search.

Keywords: occupational health and safety in Turkey, OHS servicing in Turkey, safety experts, OHS support

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3319 Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Associated Factors among Patients with Prostate Cancer

Authors: Meral Huri, Sedef Şahin

Abstract:

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is characterized by psychiatric symptoms and triggered by a terrifying experience which may immediately effect cognitive, affective, behavioral and social skills of the individual. One of the most common noncutaneous cancer among men is prostate cancer. The incidence of psychological stress is quite common in men with prostate cancer. The aim of the study was to explore the PTSD frequency among prostate cancer and define the relationship between occupational participation, coping skills and level of perceived social support among patients with prostate cancer. Forty patients diagnosed with prostate cancer were included in the study. After dividing the patients into two groups ( study/ control) according to type of tumor, we recorded their characteristics and evaluations differences. We evaluated the demographic information form, Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID- I)- Clinical Version for PTSD, Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, Styles of Coping Inventory and Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM) before and after 1 month from surgery. The mean age of the study group (n:18) was 65.85.6 years (range: 61-79 years). The mean age of the control group (n: 22) was a little bit higher than the study group with mean age 71.3±6.9 years (range: 60-85 years). There was no statistically significant difference between the groups for age and the other characteristics. According to the results of the study, statistically significant difference was found between the level of PTSD of study and the control group. 22% of study group showed PTSD while 13% of the control group showed PTSD (r: 0.02, p<0.001). The scores of study group and control group showed statistically significant difference in five sub-categories of Styles of Coping Inventory. Patients with prostate cancer showed decreased scores in optimistic, seeking social supports and self-confident approach, while increased scores in helpless and submissive sub-categories than the control group (p<0.001). The scores of Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Supports of study group and control group showed statistically significant difference. The total perceived social supports score of the study group was 71.34 ± 0.75 while it was 75.34 ± 0.64 for the control group. Total and the sub-category scores of study group were statistically significant lower than the control group. According to COPM, mean scores of occupational participation of study group for occupational performance were 4.32±2.24 and 7.01±1.52 for the control group, respectively). Mean Satisfaction scores were 3,22±2.31 and 7.45±1.74 for the study and control group, respectively. The patients with prostate cancer and benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) did not show any statistically difference in activity performance (r:0.87) while patients with prostate cancer showed statistically lower scores than the patients with BPH in activity satisfaction (r:0.02, p<0.001).Psycho-social occupational therapy interventions might help to decrease the prevalence of PTSD by increasing associated factors such as the social support perception, using coping skills and activity participation of patients with prostate cancer.

Keywords: activity performance, occupational therapy, posttraumatic stress disorder, prostate cancer

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3318 Investigation of Occupational Health and Safety of Bakeries in Izmir, Turkey

Authors: Pinar Ercan, Bulut Mert

Abstract:

The baking industry is prone to occupational health challenges like other industries. Workers in bakeries face many hazards in their work environment; hazards have the potential for causing injury, illness or work accidents. Most of these hazards are preventable and arise from the neglect of occupational safety measures. Some bakeries in Izmır Turkey was evaluated according to occupational health and safety. First of all, the production process was evaluated. The survey was administered to a total of 50 employees. The survey consisted of two sections. The first one comprised only demographic questions and items related to job characteristics. The remaining section was assessing the satisfaction and confidence about occupational health and safety in terms of employees consist of a 10-item questionnaire by using HSE (2010) survey with some modifications. Also, hazards, risks and control measures in the bakeries were determined. Risk assessment has been done by the use of '5x5 Risk Assessment Table' for this purpose.

Keywords: bakeries, occupational health and safety, hazards, risks, risk assessment

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3317 The Link between Migration Status and Occupational Health and Safety of Filipino Migrant Workers in South Korea

Authors: Lito M. Amit, Venecio U. Ultra, Young Woong Song

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to document the prevalence and types of work-related health and safety problems among Filipino migrant workers and the link between their migration status and occupational health and safety (OHS) problems. We conducted a survey among 116 Filipino migrant workers who were both legal and undocumented. To assess the various forms of occupational health problems, we utilized the Korean occupational stress scale (KOSS), Nordic musculoskeletal questionnaire (NMQ) and a validated health and safety questionnaire. A focus group discussion (FGD) was also conducted to record relevant information that was limited by the questionnaires. Descriptive data were presented in frequency with percentages, mean, and standard deviation. Chi-square tests and logistic regression analyses were performed to estimate the degree of association between variables (p < 0.05). Among the eight subscales of KOSS, inadequate social support (2.48), organizational injustice (2.57), and lack of reward (2.52) were experienced by workers. There was a 44.83% prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders with arm/elbow having the highest rate, followed by shoulder and low back regions. Inadequate social support and discomfort in organizational climate and overall MSDs prevalence showed significant relationships with migration status (p < 0.05). There was a positive association between migration status and seven items under language and communication. A positive association was seen between migration status and some of the OHS problems of Filipino migrant workers in Korea. Undocumented workers in this study were seen to be more vulnerable to those stressors compared to those employed legally.

Keywords: Filipino workers, migration status, occupational health and safety, undocumented workers

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3316 The Interaction between Hydrogen and Surface Stress in Stainless Steel

Authors: Osamu Takakuwa, Yuta Mano, Hitoshi Soyama

Abstract:

This paper reveals the interaction between hydrogen and surface stress in austenitic stainless steel by X-ray diffraction stress measurement and thermal desorption analysis before and after being charged with hydrogen. The surface residual stress was varied by surface finishing using several disc polishing agents. The obtained results show that the residual stress near surface had a significant effect on hydrogen absorption behavior, that is, tensile residual stress promoted the hydrogen absorption and compressive one did opposite. Also, hydrogen induced equi-biaxial stress and this stress has a linear correlation with hydrogen content.

Keywords: hydrogen embrittlement, residual stress, surface finishing, stainless steel

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3315 Non-Physician Medical Worker Experience during the COVID-19 Pandemic

Authors: William Mahony, L. Jacqueline Hirth, Richard Rupp, Sandra Gonzalez, Roger Zoorob

Abstract:

Background: The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on physicians has been considered by many researchers, but less is known about non-physician healthcare workers. The aim of this study is to examine the association of COVID-19 safety training and communication with stress. Methods: A 91-item online survey was distributed, starting January 2, 2021, to non-physician healthcare workers, including physician assistants, nurse practitioners, and medical assistants (MAs) in the United States through email and social media. A $1 donation was made to the Red Cross for each completed survey. The survey consisted of demographics, occupational questions, and perceived stress (perceived stress scale, PSS). Items on the PSS were combined for an overall score and categorized according to the severity of perceived stress. Chi-square tests were performed for bivariate analyses of categorical variables. Results: Of the 284 participants consenting to complete the survey, 197 participants completed the full survey. MAs made up most of the sample at 79%. Among all respondents, 47% had moderate PSS scores (scored between 14 and 26), and 51% had severe PSS scores (scored between 27 and 40). Unvaccinated participants reported statistically significantly lower levels of perceived stress (p = 0.002). Performing tasks outside of typical job responsibilities was not associated with PSS scores (p = .667). Discussion: Non-physician healthcare workers demonstrated a high level of perceived stress overall. The association between vaccination status and perceived stress should be examined in order to evaluate whether vaccination levels could be improved with further education about the virus and associated risks.

Keywords: COVID-19, SARS-Cov-2, nursing, public health

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