Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9

Search results for: diazepam

9 A Randomised, Single-Dose, Two-Period, Cross-Over Phase I Pharmacokinetic Study to Compare TDS®-Diazepam with Rectal Diazepam in Healthy Adult Subjects

Authors: Faisal O. Al-Otaibi, Arthur T. Tucker, Richard M. Langford, Stuart Ratcliffe, Atholl Johnston, Terry D. Lee, Kenneth B. Kirby, Chandan A. Alam


The Transdermal Delivery System (TDS®) is a proprietary liquid formulation that can be applied to intact skin via a metered pump spray to facilitate drug delivery to the circulation. The aim of this study was to assess the ability of the TDS preparation to deliver diazepam systemically, and to characterize the pharmacokinetic profile of the drug in healthy adult subjects. We conducted a randomized, single-dose, two-period, crossover phase I (pharmacokinetic) comparative study in twelve healthy volunteers. All volunteers received both 10 mg TDS-diazepam topically to the upper chest and 10 mg of the rectal diazepam preparation (Diastat®, 10 mg diazepam gel), with a minimum washout of 14 days between dosing episodes. Both formulations were well tolerated in all volunteers. Following topical application of TDS-diazepam, the mean AUC0-72h was 1241 ng/mL.h and the Cmax 34 ng/mL. The values for rectal Diastat were 4109 ng/mL.h and 300 ng/mL respectively. This proof of concept study demonstrates that the TDS preparation successfully delivered diazepam systemically to adults. As expected, the concentration of diazepam following the TDS application was lower and not bioequivalent to rectal gel. Future development of this unique system is required.

Keywords: transdermal delivery system, diazepam, seizure, bioequivalence, pharmacokinetic

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8 Oral Betahistine Versus Intravenous Diazepam in Acute Peripheral Vertigo: A Randomized, Double-Blind Controlled Trial

Authors: Saeed Abbasi, Davood Farsi, Soudabeh Shafiee Ardestani, Neda Valizadeh


Objectives: Peripheral vertigo is a common complaint of patients who are visited in emergency departments. In our study, we wanted to evaluate the effect of betahistine as an oral drug vs. intravenous diazepam for the treatment of acute peripheral vertigo. We also wanted to see the possibility of substitution of parenteral drug with an oral one with fewer side effects. Materials and Methods: In this randomized, double-blind study, 101 patients were enrolled in the study. The patients were divided in two groups in a double-blind randomized manner. Group A took oral placebo and 10 mg of intravenous diazepam. Group B received 8mg of oral betahistine and intravenous placebo. Patients’ symptoms and signs (Vertigo severity, Nausea, Vomiting, Nistagmus and Gate) were evaluated after 0, 2, 4, 6 hours by emergency physicians and data were collected by a questionnaire. Results: In both groups, there was significant improvement in vertigo (betahistine group P=0.02 and Diazepam group P=0.03). Analysis showed more improvement in vertigo severity after 4 hours of treatment in betahistine group comparing to diazepam group (P=0.02). Nausea and vomiting were significantly lower in patients receiving diazepam after 2 and 6 hours (P=0.02 & P=0.03).No statistically significant differences were found between the groups in nistagmus, equilibrium & vertigo duration. Conclusion: The results of this randomized trial showed that both drugs had acceptable therapeutic effects in peripheral vertigo, although betahistine was significantly more efficacious after 4 hours of drug intake. As for higher nausea and vomiting in betahistine group, physician should consider these side effects before drug prescription.

Keywords: acute peripheral vertigo, betahistine, diazepam, emergency department

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7 Effect of Diazepam on Internal Organs of Chrysomya megacephala Using Micro-Computed Tomograph

Authors: Sangkhao M., Butcher B. A.


Diazepam (known as valium) is a medication for calming effect. Many reports on committed suicide cases shown that diazepam is frequently used for this purpose. This research aims to study effect of diazepam on the development of forensically important blowflies, Chrysomya megacephala (Diptera: Calliphoridae) using micro-computed tomography (micro CT). In this study, four rabbits were treated with three different lethal doses of diazepam and one control (LD₀, LD₅₀, LD₁₀₀ and LC). The rabbit’s livers were removed for rearing the blowflies. Pupae were sampled for two series (ages; S1: 24h and S2: 120h) of development. After preparing the specimens, all samples were performed Micro CT using Skyscan 1172. The results shown the effect of diazepam on internal organs and tissues such as brain, cavity of the body, gas bubble, meconium and especially fat body. In the control group, in series 1 (LCS1), fat body was equally dispersed in the head, thorax, and abdomen, development of internal organs were not completed, however, brain, thoracic muscle, wings, legs and rectum were able to observe at 24h after developing into the pupal stage. Development of each organ in the control group in the series two was completed. In the treatment groups, LD₀, LD₅₀, LD₁₀₀ (Series 1 and Series 2), tissues are different, such as gas bubble in LD₀S1, was observed due to rapidity morphological changes during the metamorphosis of blowfly’s pupa in this treatment. Meconium was observed in LD₅₀S2 group because excretion of metabolic waste was not completed. All of the samples in the treatment groups had differentiation of fat bodies because metabolic activities were not completed and these changes affected on functions of every internal system. Discovering of differentiated fat bodies are important results because fat bodies of insect functions as liver in human, therefore it is shown that toxin eliminates from blowfly’s body and homeostatic maintenance of the hemolymph proteins, lipid and carbohydrates in each treatment group are abnormal.

Keywords: forensic toxicology, forensic entomology, diptera, diazepam

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6 5-[Aryloxypyridyl (or Nitrophenyl)]-4H-1,2,4-Triazoles as Flexible Benzodiazepine Analogs: Synthesis, Receptor Binding Affinity and the Lipophilicity-Dependent Anti-Seizure Onset of Action

Authors: Latifeh Navidpour, Shabnam Shabani, Alireza Heidari, Manouchehr Bashiri, Azadeh Ebrahim-Habibi, Soraya Shahhosseini, Hamed Shafaroodi, Sayyed Abbas Tabatabai, Mahsa Toolabi


A new series of 5-(2-aryloxy-4-nitrophenyl)-4H-1,2,4-triazoles and 5-(2-aryloxy-3-pyridyl)-4H-1,2,4-triazoles, possessing C-3 thio or alkylthio substituents, was synthesized and evaluated for their benzodiazepine receptor affinity and anti-seizure activity. These analogues revealed similar to significantly superior affinity to GABAA/ benzodiazepine receptor complex (IC50 values of 0.04–4.1 nM), relative to diazepam as the reference drug (IC50 value of 2.4 nM). To determine the onset of anti-seizure activity, the time-dependent effectiveness of i.p. administration of compounds on pentylenetetrazole induced seizure threshold was studied and a very good relationship was observed between the lipophilicity (cLogP) and onset of action of studied analogues (r2 = 0.964). The minimum effective dose of the compounds, determined at the time the analogues showed their highest activity, was demonstrated to be 0.025–0.1 mg/kg, relative to diazepam (0.025 mg/kg).

Keywords: 1, 2, 4-triazole, flexible benzodiazepines, GABAA/bezodiazepine receptor complex, onset of action, PTZ induced seizure threshold

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5 Effects of Extract from Lactuca sativa on Sleep in Pentobarbital-Induced Sleep and Caffeine-Induced Sleep Disturbance in Mice

Authors: Hae Dun Kim, Joo Hyun Jang, Geu Rim Seo, Kyung Soo Ra, Hyung Joo Suh


Lactuca sativa (lettuce) has been known for its medical property to relieve anxiety and nervous. This study was implemented to investigate sleep-promoting effects of the lettuce alcohol extract (LAE). Caffeine is widely used psychoactive substance known to induced wakefulness and insomnia to its consumers. In the present study, the sedative-hypnotic activity of the LAE was studied using the method of pentobarbital-induced sleep in the mouse model. The LAE was administrated to mice 30 min before the pentobarbital injection. The LAE prolonged the pentobarbital-induced sleep duration and decreased sleep latency. The effects of LAE were comparable to those of induced by diazepam. Another study was performed to examine whether LAE ameliorates caffeine-induced sleep disturbance in mice. Additionally, caffeine (10 mg/kg, p.o) delayed sleep onset and reduced sleep duration of mice. Conversely, LAE treatment (80 or 160 mg/kg, p.o), especially at 160 mg/kg, normalized the sleep disturbance induced by caffeine. LAE supplementation can counter the sleep disturbance induced by caffeine. These results suggest that LAE possess significant sedative-hypnotic activity, which supports the popular use of lettuce for treatment of insomnia and provide the basis for new drug discovery. Furthermore, these results demonstrate that the lettuce extract may be preferable for the treatment of insomnia.

Keywords: caffeine, Lactuca sativa, sleep duration, sleep latency

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4 Quality of Care for the Maternal Complications at Selected Primary and Secondary Health Facilities of Bangladesh: Lessons Learned from a Formative Research

Authors: Mohiuddin Ahsanul Kabir Chowdhury, Nafisa Lira Huq, Afroza Khanom, Rafiqul Islam, Abdullah Nurus Salam Khan, Farhana Karim, Nabila Zaka, Shams El Arifeen, Sk. Masum Billah


After having astounding achievements in reducing maternal mortality and achieving the target for Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 5, the Government of Bangladesh has set new target to reduce Maternal Mortality Ratio (MMR) to 70 per 100,000 live births aligning with targets of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Aversion of deaths from maternal complication by ensuring quality health care could be an important path to accelerate the rate of reduction of MMR. This formative research was aimed at exploring the provision of quality maternal health services at different level of health facilities. The study was conducted in 1 district hospital (DH) and 4 Upazila health complexes (UHC) of Kurigram district of Bangladesh, utilizing both quantitative and qualitative research methods. We conducted 14 key informant interviews with facility managers and 20 in-depth interviews with health care providers and support staff. Besides, we observed 387 normal deliveries from which we found 17 cases of post partum haemorrhage (PPH) and 2 cases of eclampsia during the data collection period extended from July-September 2016. The quantitative data were analyzed by using descriptive statistics, and the qualitative component underwent thematic analysis with the broad themes of facility readiness for maternal complication management, and management of complications. Inadequacy in human resources has been identified as the most important bottleneck to provide quality care to manage maternal complications. The DH had a particular paucity of human resources in medical officer cadre where about 61% posts were unfilled. On the other hand, in the UHCs the positions mostly empty were obstetricians (75%, paediatricians (75%), staff nurses (65%), and anaesthetists (100%). The workload on the existing staff is increased because of the persistence of vacant posts. Unavailability of anesthetists and consultants does not permit the health care providers (HCP) of lower cadres to perform emergency operative procedures and forces them to refer the patients although referral system is not well organized in rural Bangladesh. Insufficient bed capacity, inadequate training, shortage of emergency medicines etc. are other hindrance factors for facility readiness. Among the 387 observed delivery case, 17 (4.4%) were identified as PPH cases, and only 2 cases were found as eclampsia/pre-eclampsia. The majority of the patients were treated with uterine message (16 out of 17, 94.1%) and injectable Oxytocin (14 out of 17, 82.4%). The providers of DH mentioned that they can manage the PPH because of having provision for diagnostic and blood transfusion services, although not as 24/7 services. Regarding management of eclampsia/pre-eclampsia, HCPs provided Diazepam, MgSO4, and other anti-hypertensives. The UHCs did not have MgSO4 at stock even, and one facility manager admitted that they treat eclampsia with Diazepam only. The nurses of the UHCs were found to be afraid to handle eclampsia cases. The upcoming interventions must ensure refresher training of service providers, continuous availability of essential medicine and equipment needed for complication management, availability of skilled health workforce, availability of functioning blood transfusion unit and pairing of consultants and anaesthetists to reach the newly set targets altogether.

Keywords: Bangladesh, health facilities, maternal complications, quality of care

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3 Effects of Intracerebroventricular Injection of Ghrelin and Aerobic Exercise on Passive Avoidance Memory and Anxiety in Adult Male Wistar Rats

Authors: Mohaya Farzin, Parvin Babaei, Mohammad Rostampour


Ghrelin plays a considerable role in important neurological effects related to food intake and energy homeostasis. As was found, regular physical activity may make available significant improvement of the cognitive functions in various behavioral situations. Anxiety is one of the main concerns of the modern world, affecting millions of individuals’ health. There are contradictory results regarding Ghrelin's effects on anxiety-like behavior, and the plasma level of this peptide is increased during physical activity. Here we aimed to evaluate the coincident effects of exogenous Ghrelin and aerobic exercise on anxiety-like behavior and passive avoidance memory in Wistar rats. Forty-five male Wistar rats (250 ± 20 g) were divided into 9 groups (n=5) and received intra-hippocampal injections of 3.0 nmol Ghrelin and performed aerobic exercise training for 8 weeks. Control groups received the same volume of saline and diazepam as negative and positive control groups, respectively. Learning and memory were estimated using a shuttle box apparatus, and anxiety-like behavior was recorded by an elevated plus-maze test (EPM). Data were analyzed by ANOVA test, and P<0.05 was considered significant. Our findings showed that the combined effect of ghrelin and aerobic exercise improves the acquisition, consolidation, and retrieval of passive avoidance memory in Wistar rats. Furthermore, it is supposed that the ghrelin receiving group spent less time in open arms and fewer open arms entries compared with the control group (P<0.05). However, exercising Wistar rats spent more time in the open arm zone in comparison with a control group (P<0.05). The Exercise + Ghrelin administration established reduced anxiety (P<0.05). The results of this study demonstrate that aerobic exercise contributes to an increase in the endogenous production of ghrelin, and physical activity alleviates anxiety-related behaviors induced by intra-hippocampal injection of Ghrelin. In general, exercise and ghrelin can reduce anxiety and improve memory.

Keywords: anxiety, ghrelin, aerobic exercise, learning, passive avoidance memory

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2 Neuropharmacological and Neurochemical Evaluation of Methanolic Extract of Elaeocarpus sphaericus (Gaertn.) Stem Bark by Using Multiple Behaviour Models of Mice

Authors: Jaspreet Kaur, Parminder Nain, Vipin Saini, Sumitra Dahiya


Elaeocarpus sphaericus has been traditionally used in the Indian traditional medicine system for the treatment of stress, anxiety, depression, palpitation, epilepsy, migraine and lack of concentration. The study was investigated to evaluate the neurological potential such as anxiolytic, muscle relaxant and sedative activity of methanolic extract of Elaeocarpus sphaericus stem bark (MEESSB) in mice. Preliminary phytochemical screening and acute oral toxicity of MEESSB was carried out by using standard methods. The anxiety was induced by employing Elevated Plus-Maze (EPM), Light and Dark Test (LDT), Open Field Test (OFT) and Social Interaction test (SIT). The motor coordination and sedative effect was also observed by using actophotometer, rota-rod apparatus and ketamine-induced sleeping time, respectively. Animals were treated with different doses of MEESSB (i.e.100, 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg orally) and diazepam (2 mg/kg i.p) for 21 days. Brain neurotransmitters like dopamine, serotonin and nor-epinephrine level were estimated by validated methods. Preliminary phytochemical analysis of the extract revealed the presence of tannins, phytosterols, steroids and alkaloids. In the acute toxicity studies, MEESSB was found to be non-toxic and with no mortality. In anxiolytic studies, the different doses of MEESSB showed a significant (p<0.05) effect on EPM and LDT. In OFT and SIT, a significant (p<0.05) increase in ambulation, rearing and social interaction time was observed. In the case of motor coordination activity, the MEESSB does not cause any significant effect on the latency to fall off from the rotarod bar as compared to the control group. Moreover, no significant effects on ketamine-induced sleep latency and total sleeping time induced by ketamine were observed. Results of neurotransmitter estimation revealed the increased concentration of dopamine, whereas the level of serotonin and nor-epinephrine was found to be decreased in the mice brain, with MEESSB at dose 800 mg/kg only. The study has validated the folkloric use of the plant as an anxiolytic in Indian traditional medicine while also suggesting potential usefulness in the treatment of stress and anxiety without causing sedation.

Keywords: anxiolytic, behavior experiments, brain neurotransmitters, elaeocarpus sphaericus

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1 Non-Time and Non-Sense: Temporalities of Addiction for Heroin Users in Scotland

Authors: Laura Roe


This study draws on twelve months of ethnographic fieldwork conducted in 2017 with heroin and poly-substance users in Scotland and explores experiences of time and temporality as factors in continuing drug use. The research largely took place over the year in which drug-related deaths in Scotland reached a record high, and were statistically recorded as the highest in Europe. This qualitative research is therefore significant in understanding both evolving patterns of drug use and the experiential lifeworlds of those who use heroin and other substances in high doses. Methodologies included participant observation, structured and semi-structured interviews, and unstructured conversations with twenty-two regular participants. The fieldwork was conducted in two needle exchanges, a community recovery group and in the community. The initial aim of the study was to assess evolving patterns of drug preferences in order to explore a clinical and user-reported rise in the use of novel psychoactive substances (NPS), which are typically considered to be highly potent, synthetic substances, often available at a low cost. It was found, however, that while most research participants had experimented with NPS with varying intensity, those who used every day regularly consumed heroin, methadone, and alcohol with benzodiazepines such as diazepam or anticonvulsants such as gabapentin. The research found that many participants deliberately pursued the non-fatal effects of overdose, aiming to induce states of dissociation, detachment and uneven consciousness, and did so by both mixing substances and experimenting with novel modes of consumption. Temporality was significant in the decision to consume cocktails of substances, as users described wishing to sever themselves from time; entering into states of ‘non-time’ and insensibility through specific modes of intoxication. Time and temporality similarly impacted other aspects of addicted life. Periods of attempted abstinence witnessed a slowing of time’s passage that was tied to affective states of boredom and melancholy, in addition to a disruptive return of distressing and difficult memories. Abject past memories frequently dominated and disrupted the present, which otherwise could be highly immersive due to the time and energy-consuming nature of seeking drugs while in financial difficulty. There was furthermore a discordance between individual user temporalities and the strict time-based regimes of recovery services and institutional bodies, and the study aims to highlight the impact of such a disjuncture on the efficacy of treatment programs. Many participants had difficulty in adhering to set appointments or temporal frameworks due to their specific temporal situatedness. Overall, exploring increasing tendencies of heroin users in Scotland towards poly-substance use, this study draws on experiences and perceptions of time, analysing how temporality comes to bear on the ways drugs are sought and consumed, and how recovery is imagined and enacted. The study attempts to outline the experiential, intimate and subjective worlds of heroin and poly-substance users while explicating the structural and historical factors that shape them.

Keywords: addiction, poly-substance use, temporality, timelessness

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