Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 42

Search results for: contrast-induced nephropathy

42 Association of AGT (M268T) Gene Polymorphism in Diabetes and Nephropathy in Pakistan

Authors: Syed M. Shahid, Rozeena Shaikh, Syeda N. Nawab, Abid Azhar

Abstract:

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a prevalent non-communicable disease worldwide. DM may lead to many vascular complications like hypertension, nephropathy, retinopathy, neuropathy and foot infections. Pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy (DN) is implicated by the polymorphisms in genes encoding the specific components of renin angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS) which include angiotensinogen (AGT), angiotensin-II receptor and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) genes. This study was designed to explore the possible association of AG (M268T) polymorphism in the patients of diabetes and nephropathy in Pakistan. Study subjects included 100 controls, 260 diabetic patients without renal insufficiency and 190 diabetic nephropathy patients with persistent albuminuria. Fasting blood samples were collected from all the subjects after getting institutional ethical approval and informed consent. The biochemical estimations, PCR amplification and direct sequencing for the specific region of AGT gene was carried out. A significantly high frequency of TT genotype and T allele of AGT (M268T) was observed in the patients of diabetes with nephropathy as compared to controls and diabetic patients without any known renal impairment. The TT genotype and T allele of AGT (M268T) polymorphism may be considered as a genetic risk factor for the development and progression of nephropathy in diabetes. Further cross sectional population studies would be of help to establish and confirm the observed possible association of AGT gene variations with development of nephropathy in diabetes.

Keywords: RAAS, AGT (M268T), diabetes, nephropathy

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41 Association Nephropathy and Hypertension in Diabetic Patients

Authors: Bahlous Afef, Bouzid Kahena, Bardkis Ahlem, Mrad Mehdi, Kalai Eya, Sonia Bahri, Abdelmoula Jaouida

Abstract:

Diabetic nephropathy is the first cause of chronic renal failure and hemodialysis use in several countries including Tunisia. The role of hypertension (HT) as major risk factor for nephropathy is undeniable. The aim of our study was to determine the relationship between blood pressure and nephropathy in a population of diabetic type 2 recently discovered. Materials and methods: We conducted a prospective study focused on 60 patients with type 2 diabetes recently discovered (<5 years). Each patient have benefited from: -a full clinical examination with measurement of blood pressure - exploring a blood-glucose control and renal function -urinary exploration with the determination of proteinuria microalbuminumie of 24 hours with a immunoturbidimetric method using Architect (ABBOTT CI 8200). Results and discussion: Hypertension was present in 46.7% of cases. Twenty patients, 35% of the study population showed nephropathy. Four of these patients (6.66% of cases) had proteinuria, while 16 (26.6% of patients) had microalbuminuria (> 30mg/24 hours). Systolic blood pressure was significantly (p < 0.05) associated with the presence of nephropathy (139 +19.44) vs. for the group with normal renal function (128.65 +15.12 mmHg). Conclusion: The etiology of diabetic nephropathy is multifactorial. However, systolic blood pressure and glycemic control remains the major risk factors. Better glycemic control and treatment of hypertension allowed preventing and slowing the progression of diabetic nephropathy.

Keywords: hypertension, nephropathy, hemodialysis, diabetes

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40 Lessons Learned in Implementing Programs to Delay Diabetic Nephropathy Management in Primary Health Care: Case Study in Sakon Nakhon Province

Authors: Sasiwan Tassana-iem, Sumattana Glangkarn

Abstract:

Diabetic nephropathy is a major complication in diabetic patients whom as the glomerular filtration rate falls. The affects their quality of life and results in loss of money for kidney replacement therapy costs. There is an existing intervention, but the prevalence remains high, thus this research aims to study lessons learned in implementing programs to delay diabetic nephropathy management in primary health care. Method: The target settings are, 24 sub-district health promoting hospital in Sakon Nakhon province. Participants included the health care professionals, head of the sub-district health promoting hospital and the person responsible for managing diabetic nephropathy in each hospital (n= 50). There are 400 patients with diabetes mellitus in an area. Data were collected using questionnaires, patient records data, interviews and focus groups and analyzed by statistics and content analysis. Result: Reflection of participants that the interventions to delay diabetic nephropathy management in each area, the Ministry of Public Health has a policy to screen and manage this disease. The implementing programs aimed to provide health education, innovative teaching media used in communication to educate. Patients and caregivers had misunderstanding about the actual causes and prevention of this disease and how to apply knowledge suitable for daily life. Conclusion: The obstacles to the success of the implementing programs to delay diabetic nephropathy management in primary health care were most importantly, the patient needs self-care and should be evaluated for health literacy. This is crucial to promote health literacy; to access and understand health information as well to decide their health-related choices based on health information which will promote and maintain a good health. This preliminary research confirms that situation of diabetic nephropathy still exists. The results of this study will lead to the development of delay in diabetic nephropathy implementation among patients in the province studied.

Keywords: diabetic nephropathy, chronic kidney disease, primary health care, implementation

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39 Role of Human Wharton’s Jelly Mesenchymal Stem Cells Conditioned Media in Alleviating Kidney Injury via Inhibition of Renin-Angiotensin System in Diabetic Nephropathy

Authors: Pardis Abolghasemi, Benyamin Hatamsaz

Abstract:

Background: Diabetic nephropathy is a serious health problem described by specific kidney structure and functional disturbance. Renoprotective effects of the stem cells secretase have been shown in many kidney diseases. The aim is to evaluate the capability of human Wharton’s jelly mesenchymal stem cells conditioned media (hWJMSCs-CM) to alleviate DN in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes. Methods: Diabetic nephropathy was induced by injection of STZ (60 mg/kg, IP) in twenty rats. Conditioned media was extracted from hWJMSCs at third passages. At week 8, diabetic rats were divided into two groups: treated (hWJMSCs-CM, 500 μl/rat for three weeks, IP) and not treated (DN). In the 11th week, three groups (control, DN and DN+hWJMSCs-CM) were kept in metabolic cages and urine was collected for 24h. Blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) were continuously recorded. The serum samples were maintained for measuring BUN, Cr and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity. The left kidney was kept at -80°C for ACE activity assessment. The right kidney and pancreas were used for histopathologic evaluation. Result: Diabetic nephropathy was detected by microalbuminuria and increased albumin/creatinine ratio, as well as the pancreas and renal structural disturbance. Glomerular filtration rate, BP and HR increased in the DN group. The ACE activity was elevated in the serum and kidneys of the DN group. Administration of hWJMSCs-CM modulated the renal functional and structural disturbance and decreased the ACE activity. Conclusion: Conditioned media was extracted from hWJMSCs may have a Renoprotective effect in diabetic nephropathy. This may happen through regulation of ACE activity and renin-angiotensin system inhibition.

Keywords: diabetic nephropathy, mesenchymal stem cells, immunomodulation, anti-inflammation

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38 Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) and Angiotensinogen (AGT) Gene Variants in Pakistani Patients of Diabetes Mellitus and Diabetic Nephropathy

Authors: Rozeena Shaikh, Syed M Shahid, Jamil Ahmad, Qaisar Mansoor, Muhammad Ismail, Abid Azhar

Abstract:

Introduction: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a prevalent non-communicable disease worldwide. In most high-income countries as well as middle-income and low- income countries. DM is among the top causes of deaths. DM may lead to many vascular complications like hypertension, nephropathy, retinopathy, neuropathy, and foot. Diabetic nephropathy (DN) characterized by persistent albuminuria is a leading cause of end stage renal failure (ESRF). Pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy is implicated by the polymorphisms in genes encoding the components of reninangiotensin- aldosteron system (RAAS) which include angiotensinogen (AGT), angiotensin-II receptor and particularly angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) gene. Method: Study subjects include 110 control, 110 patients with DM without hypertension, 110 patients with DM with hypertension and 110 patients with DN. Blood samples were collected for Biochemical analysis and PCR and sequencing for the specific region of both genes. Results: The frequency of DD genotype and D allele of ACE (I/D) was significantly (p<0.05) high in DM normotensive, DM hypertensive and DN patients when compared to control. The ACE G2350A genotypes and allele frequencies were significantly different (p<0.05) in DM hypertensive patients as compared to control and DN, while no difference was observed between DM normotensive and DN when compared to control. The genotypes and alleles of AGT (M268T) polymorphism were significantly different (p<0.05) in DM normotensive, DM hypertensive and DN when compared to control. Conclusion: The DD genotype and D allele of ACE (I/D), GG genotype and G allele of ACE (G2350A) and the TT genotype and T allele of AGT (M268T) polymorphism have shown a significant difference in genotype and allele frequencies between controls and patients.

Keywords: genetic variations, ACE, AGT, diabetes mellitus, diabetic nephropathy, Pakistan

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37 Caring for a Spinal Cord Injury Patient with Diabetic Nephropathy Receiving Hospice Palliative Care

Authors: Li-Ting Kung, Hui-Zhu Chen, Hsin-Tzu Lee, Wan-Yin Hsu

Abstract:

Patients with spinal cord injury combined with diabetic nephropathy may under a lot of painful conditions due to complications related to the illness itself or treatments, such as recurrent pressure ulcers, autonomic and peripheral neuropathy, as well as dialysis, for long term. This case report illustrated the nursing experience of transferring a spine cord injure patient who received hemodialysis due to adverse lifestyle-induced diabetic nephropathy to the hospice ward. Nursing care was provided in this patient from July 25th to August 30th, 2015. The tool of 'Gordon’s 11-item functional health assessment' and clinical observation, interviews as well as physical examination were used as data collections. Based on results of health assessment as above, the patient’s health problems were identified as the following: impaired skin integrity, chronic pain, and hopeless. Besides to relieve the symptom of pain due to disease or the treatment of hemodialysis and provide wound care, the first author also played a role to assist the patient to achieve his goal of receiving the hospice palliative care. Finally, with much effort of nurses to communicate with medical teams between the surgical and hospice wards, the patient was transferred to the hospice ward to have fulfilled his last wish of having a good death. We hope this nursing experience can be applied to other similar cases in the future.

Keywords: diabetic nephropathy, hospice care, palliative care, spinal cord injury

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36 AGEs-Aggravating Renal Lesions in C57BL/6J Mice, STZ-Induced Diabetes Nephropathy Model

Authors: Xing Lv, Hui-Qin Xu

Abstract:

The present study aimed to reveal the mechanism in aggravating STZ induced diabetic nephropathy (DN) by AGEs (advanced glycation end products). At the eighth day, 20 diabetic mice were randomly divided into STZ group and combination (combine AGEs with STZ) group. Simultaneously, AGEs group and normal group were set. Only mice in AGEs group, combination group were fed with high-AGEs diets. Mice diabetic conventional indicators, biochemical analysis were measured. Among the indictors, food consumptions, water intake, urine output, blood glucose, urine protein, urine creatinine, serum urea nitrogen were increased significantly in STZ, combination groups. The AGEs levels in combination group increased significantly when compared with STZ group. Weights and insulin levels in the STZ, combination groups were decreased significantly when compared with normal group, and the difference was significantly between AGEs group and STZ group. As a conclusion, AGEs play an important role in the DN development, inducing kidney damages.

Keywords: AGEs, diabetic nephropathy, serum urea nitrogen, urine protein

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35 Separation of Urinary Proteins with Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis in Patients with Secondary Nephropathies

Authors: Irena Kostovska, Katerina Tosheska Trajkovska, Svetlana Cekovska, Julijana Brezovska Kavrakova, Hristina Ampova, Sonja Topuzovska, Ognen Kostovski, Goce Spasovski, Danica Labudovic

Abstract:

Background: Proteinuria is an important feature of secondary nephropathies. The quantitative and qualitative analysis of proteinuria plays an important role in determining the types of proteinuria (glomerular, tubular and mixed), in the diagnosis and prognosis of secondary nephropathies. The damage of the glomerular basement membrane is responsible for a proteinuria characterized by the presence of large amounts of protein with high molecular weights such as albumin (69 kilo Daltons-kD), transferrin (78 kD) and immunoglobulin G (150 kD). An insufficiency of proximal tubular function is the cause of a proteinuria characterized by the presence of proteins with low molecular weight (LMW), such as retinol binding protein (21 kD) and α1-microglobulin (31 kD). In some renal diseases, a mixed glomerular and tubular proteinuria is frequently seen. Sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) is the most widely used method of analyzing urine proteins for clinical purposes. The main aim of the study is to determine the type of proteinuria in the most common secondary nephropathies such as diabetic, hypertensive nephropathy and preeclampsia. Material and methods: In this study were included 90 subjects: subjects with diabetic nephropathy (n=30), subjects with hypertensive nephropahty (n=30) and pregnant women with preeclampsia (n=30). We divided all subjects according to UM/CR into three subgroups: macroalbuminuric (UM/CR >300 mg/g), microalbuminuric (UM/CR 30-300 mg/g) and normolabuminuric (UM/CR<30 mg/g). In all subjects, we measured microalbumin and creatinine in urine with standard biochemical methods. Separation of urinary proteins was performed by SDS-PAGE, in several stages: linear gel preparation (4-22%), treatment of urinary samples before their application on the gel, electrophoresis, gel fixation, coloring with Coomassie blue, and identification of the separated protein fractions based on standards with exactly known molecular weight. Results: According to urinary microalbumin/creatinin ratio in group of subject with diabetic nephropathy, nine patients were macroalbuminuric, while 21 subject were microalbuminuric. In group of subjects with hypertensive nephropathy, we found macroalbuminuria (n=4), microalbuminuria (n=20) and normoalbuminuria (n=6). All pregnant women with preeclampsia were macroalbuminuric. Electrophoretic separation of urinary proteins showed that in macroalbuminric patients with diabetic nephropathy 56% have mixed proteinuria, 22% have glomerular proteinuria and 22% have tubular proteinuria. In subgroup of subjects with diabetic nephropathy and microalbuminuria, 52% have glomerular proteinuria, 8% have tubular proteinuria, and 40% of subjects have normal electrophoretic findings. All patients with maroalbuminuria and hypertensive nephropathy have mixed proteinuria. In subgroup of patients with microalbuminuria and hypertensive nephropathy, we found: 32% with mixed proteinuria, 27% with normal findings, 23% with tubular, and 18% with glomerular proteinuria. In all normoalbuminruic patiens with hypertensive nephropathy, we detected normal electrophoretic findings. In group of subjects pregnant women with preeclampsia, we found: 81% with mixed proteinuria, 13% with glomerular, and 8% with tubular proteinuria. Conclusion: By SDS PAGE method, we detected that in patients with secondary nephropathies the most common type of proteinuria is mixed proteinuria, indicating both loss of glomerular permeability and tubular function. We can conclude that SDS PAGE is high sensitive method for detection of renal impairment in patients with secondary nephropathies.

Keywords: diabetic nephropathy, preeclampsia, hypertensive nephropathy, SDS PAGE

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34 Paeonol Prevents Diabetic Nephropathy Progression in STZ-Induced Diabetic Rats

Authors: Xuan Li, Xiaobing Cui, Nan Meng, Shuangshuang Guo, Lingling Wang

Abstract:

Objective: To investigate the influence of Paeonol on diabetic nephropathy progression in streptozocin (STZ) -induced diabetic rats. Method Male Wistar rats were injected STZ 30mg.kg-1 combined with Freund's complete adjuvant (CFA) 0.1mL/rat once a week for three weeks. The diabetic rats were treated with Paenol for 13 weeks. At the end of the experiments, the rats were anesthetized. Serum and the kidney were collected. Serum superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, malondialdehyde (MDA), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine (Cr) and total cholesterol (Chol) level were detected; kidney paraffin sections were prepared and HE and PAS staining sections were used to evaluate the pathology changes of the kidney. Immunohistochemical analysis was used to observe the expression of VEGF and fibernectin expression in the kidney. Result The blood glucose level remained over 16mmol. L-1 for 13 weeks and the ECM accumulated in the diabetic kidney apparently. Paeonol treatment increased serum SOD activity, however, MDA, BUN, Cr, and Chol level was decreased by paeonol treatment. VEGF and fibernectin expression were increased significantly in the DN rats and paeonol treatment ameliorated the overexpression. Conclusion: paeonol prevented the progression of DN.

Keywords: paeonol, STZ, diabetic nephropathy, fibernectin expression, kidney paraffin sections

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33 Anti-Apoptotic Effect of Pueraria tuberosa in Rats with Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Nephropathy

Authors: Rashmi Shukla, Yamini Bhusan Tripathi

Abstract:

Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is characterized as diabetic kidney disease which involves many pathways e.g. hyperactivated protein kinase c (PKC), polyol pathway, excess production of advanced glycation end product (AGEs) & free radical accumulation etc. All of them results to hypoxia followed by apoptosis of podocytes, glomerulosclerosis, extracellular matrix (ECM) accumulation and fibrosis resulting to irreversible changes in kidney. This is continuously rising worldwide and there are not enough specific drugs, to retard its progress. Due to increasing side effects of allopathic drugs, interest in herbal remedies is growing. Earlier, we have reported that PTY-2 (a phytomedicine, derived from Pueraria tuberosa Linn.) inhibits the accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) through activation of MMP-9. Present study exhibited the therapeutic potential of Pueraria tuberosa in the prevention of podocytes apoptosis and modulation of nephrin expression in streptozotocin (STZ) induced DN rats. DN rats were produced by maintaining persistent hyperglycemia for 8 weeks by intra-peritoneal injection of 55 mg/kg streptozotocin (STZ). These rats were randomly divided in 2 groups, i.e. DN control, and DN+ water extract of Pueraria tuberosa (PTW). One group of age-matched normal rats served as non-diabetic control (group-1), The STZ induced DN rats (group-2) and DN+PTW treated rats (group-3). The PTW was orally administered (0.3g/kg) daily to group-2 rats and drug vector (1 ml of 10% tween 20) in control rats. The treatments were continued for 20 days and blood and urine samples were collected. Rats were then sacrificed to investigate the expression Bcl2, Bax and nephroprotective protein i.e. nephrin in kidney glomerulus. The effect of PTW was evaluated, we have found that the PTW significantly(p < .001) reversed the raised serum urea, serum creatinine, urine protein and improved the creatinine clearance in STZ induce diabetic nephropathy in rats and also significantly(p < .001) prevented the rise in urine albumin excretion. The Western blot analysis of kidney tissue homogenate showed increased expression of Bcl2 in PTW treated rats. The RT-PCR showed the increased expression and accumulation of nephrin mRNA. The confocal photomicrographs also supported the reduction of Bax and a simultaneous increase in Bcl2 and nephrin in glomerular podocytes. Hence, our finding suggests that the nephroprotective role of PTW is mediated via restoration of nephrin thus prevents the podocytes apoptosis and ameliorates diabetic nephropathy. The clinical trial of PTW would prove to be a potential food supplement/ drug of alternative medicine for patients with diabetic nephropathy in early stage.

Keywords: Pueraria tuberosa, diabetic nephropathy, anti-apoptosis, nephrin

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32 Allopurinol Prophylactic Therapy in the Prevention of Contrast Induced Nephropathy in High Risk Patients Undergoing Coronary Angiography: A Prospective Randomized Controlled Trial

Authors: Seyed Fakhreddin Hejazi, Leili Iranirad, Mohammad Sadeghi, Mohsen Talebizadeh

Abstract:

Background: Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) remains to be a potentially serious complication of radiographic procedures. We performed this clinical trial to assess the preventive effect of allopurinol against CIN in high-risk patients undergoing coronary angiography. Methods: In this prospective randomized controlled trial, 140 patients with at least two risk factors for CIN undergoing coronary angiography were randomly assigned to either the allopurinol group or the control group. Patients in the allopurinol group received 300 mg allopurinol 24 hours before a procedure and intravenous hydration for 12 hours before and after coronary angiography, whereas patients in the control group received intravenous hydration. Serum creatinine (SCr), blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and uric acid were measured before contrast exposure and at 48 hours. CIN was defined as an increase of 25% in serum creatinine (SCr) or >0.5 mg/dl 48 hours after contrast administration. Results: CIN occurred in 11 out of 70 (7.9%) patients in the control group and in 8 out of 70 (5.7%) patients in the allopurinol group. There was no significant difference in the incidence of CIN between the two groups at 48 hours after administering the radiocontrast agent (p = 0.459). However, there were significant differences between the two groups in SCr, BUN, uric acid, and eGFR 48 hours after radiocontrast administration (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Our findings revealed that allopurinol had no substantial efficacy over hydration protocol in high-risk patients for the development of CIN.

Keywords: contrast-induced nephropathy, allopurinol, coronary angiography, contrast agent

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31 Study of Contrast Induced Nephropathy in Patients Undergoing Cardiac Catheterization: Upper Egypt Experience

Authors: Ali Kassem, Sharf Eldeen-Shazly, Alshemaa Lotfy

Abstract:

Introduction: Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) has been the third leading cause of hospital-acquired renal failure. Patients with cardiac diseases are particularly at risk especially with repeated injections of contrast media. CIN is generally defined as an increase in serum creatinine concentration of > 0.5 mg/dL or 25% above baseline within 48 hours after contrast administration. Aim of work: To examine the frequency of CIN for patients undergoing cardiac catheterization at Sohag University Hospital (Upper Egypt) and to identify possible risk factors for CIN in these patients. Material and methods: The study included 104 patients with mean age 56.11 ±10.03, 64(61.5%) are males while 40(38.5%) are females. 44(42.3%) patients are diabetics, 43(41%) patients are hypertensive, 6(5.7%) patients have congestive heart failure, 69(66.3%) patients on statins, 74 (71.2 %) are on ACEIs or ARBs, 19(15.4%) are on metformin, 6 (5.8%) are on NSAIDs, 30(28.8%) are on diuretics. RESULTS: Patients were classified at the end of the study into two groups: Group A: Included 91 patients who did not develop CIN. Group B: Included 13 patients who developed CIN, of which serum creatinine raised > 0.5mg/dl in 6 patients and raised > 25% from the baseline after the procedure in 13 patients. The overall incidence of CIN was 12.5%. CIN increased with older age. There was an increase in the incidence of CIN in diabetic versus non-diabetic patients (20.5% and 6.7%) respectively. (p< 0.03). There was a highly significant increase in the incidence of CIN in patients with CHF versus those without CHF (100% and 71%) respectively, (P<0001). Patients on diuretics showed a significant increase in the incidence of CIN representing 61.5% of all patients who developed CIN. Conclusion: Older patients, diabetic patients, patients with CHF and patients on diuretics have higher risk of developing CIN during coronary catheterization and should receive reno-protective measures before contrast exposure.

Keywords: cardiac diseases, contrast-induced nephropathy, coronary catheterization, CIN

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30 Renoprotective Effect of Alcoholic Extract of Bacopa monnieri via Inhibition of Advanced Glycation End Products and Oxidative Stress in Stz-Nicotinamide Induced Diabetic Nephropathy

Authors: Lalit Kishore, Randhir Singh

Abstract:

Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is the major cause of morbidity among diabetic patients. In this study, the effect of Bacopa monnieri Linn. (Brahmi, BM), was studied in a Streptozotocin (STZ)-induced experimental rat model of DN. Diabetic nephropathy was induced in Male Wistar rats (body weight- 300± 10 gms) by single intra-peritoneal injection of STZ (45mg/kg, i.p.) after 15 min of Nicotinamide (230 mg/kg) administration. Different doses of alcoholic extract i.e. 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg was given for 45 days by oral gavage after induction of DN. Blood glucose level, serum insulin, glycosylated haemoglobin, renal parameters (serum urea, uric acid, creatinine and BUN) and lipid profile (total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL, LDL and VLDL levels) were measured. Concentration of thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) and levels of antioxidant enzymes of reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) were evaluated in the kidney, liver and pancreas. At the end of treatment period the alcoholic extract of BM reduced the elevated level of blood glucose, serum insulin, renal parameters, lipid levels, TBARS, AGE’s in kidney and significantly increased body weight, HDL and antioxidant enzymes in dose dependent manner as compared to diabetic control animals. These results suggested the BM possesses significant renoprotective activity.

Keywords: AGE's, lipid profile, oxidative stress, renal parameters

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29 Pattern of Biopsy Proven Renal Disease and Association between the Clinical Findings with Renal Pathology in Eastern Nepal

Authors: Manish Subedi, Bijay Bartaula, Ashok R. Pant, Purbesh Adhikari, Sanjib K. Sharma

Abstract:

Background: The pattern of glomerular disease varies worldwide. In absence of kidney disease/Kidney biopsy registry in Nepal, the exact etiology of different forms of glomerular disease is primarily unknown in our country. Method: We retrospectively analyzed 175 cases of renal biopsies performed from dated September 2014 to August 2016 at B. P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Dharan, Nepal. Results: The commonest indication for renal biopsy was nephrotic syndrome (34.9%), followed by Systemic lupus erythematosus with suspected renal involvement (22.3%). Majority of patients were in the 30-60 year bracket (57.2%), with the mean age of the patients being 35.37 years. The average number of glomeruli per core was 13, with inadequate sampling in 5.1%. IgA nephropathy (17%) was found to be the most common primary glomerular disease, followed by membranous nephropathy (14.6%) and FSGS (14.6%). The commonest secondary glomerular disease was lupus nephritis. Complications associated with renal biopsy were pain at biopsy site in 18% of cases, hematuria in 6% and perinephric hematoma in 4% cases. Conclusion: The commonest primary and secondary glomerular disease was IgA nephropathy and lupus nephritis respectively. The high prevalence of Systemic lupus erythematosus with lupus nephritis among Nepalese in comparison with other developing countries warrants further evaluation. As an initial attempt towards documentation of glomerular diseases in the national context, this study should serve as a stepping stone towards the eventual establishment of a full-fledged national registry of glomerular diseases in Nepal.

Keywords: glomerular, Nepal, renal biopsy, systemic lupus erythematoses

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28 Therapeutic Effect of Cichorium Intybus Aerial Parts Extract against Oxidative Stress and Nephropathy Induced by Streptozotocin in Rats

Authors: Josline Salib, Sayed El-Toumy, Abeer Salama, Enayat Omara, Emad Hassan

Abstract:

Diabetic nephropathy is an important cause of morbidity and mortality and is now among the most common causes of end-stage renal failure (ESRF) in developed countries. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the phenolic compounds content of Cichorium intybus aerial parts extracts as well as the therapeutic effects on diabetic nephropathy, oxidative stress, and anti-inflammatory by characterizing biochemical, histopathological changes and immunohistochemistry in an experimental diabetic rat model as compared with Amaryl. Ten known compounds of flavonoids, coumarins and phenolic acid derivatives were isolated from the C. intybus aqueous methanolic extract. Structures of the isolated compounds were established by chromatography, UV and 1D⁄2D 1H⁄ 13C spectroscopy. The aqueous methanol extract of C. intybus aerial parts was administered to Streptozotocin diabetes rats at doses (100 and 200 mg/kg) for 21 days. After treatment, blood glucose, serum insulin, urea, creatinine, and TNF-α were evaluated. Enzymatic scavengers including catalase (CAT), glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) were determined to evaluate the oxidative status in the renal tissue. Diabetic rats treated with C. intybus extract showed a dose-dependent reduction of fasting blood glucose and kidney antioxidant status in comparison to the diabetic control group. The extract was able to enhance the antioxidant defenses of the kidney by increasing the reduced GSH and CAT content and decreasing MDA content in addition to significantly decreasing kidney nitric oxide content compared to diabetic control rats. Furthermore, the histopathological findings in C. intybus extract administered rats were observed at markedly lesser extent than the diabetic control group. Also, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) levels were decreased significantly after the administration of high-dose C. intybus extract in diabetic rats. Showing significant antihyperglycemic and antioxidant properties of C. intybus aerial parts extract, which is attributed to its polyphenolic content, may offer a potential source for the treatment of diabetes.

Keywords: antioxidant activity, anti-diabetic nephropathy, cichorium intybus aerial parts, phenolic compounds

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27 Molecular Modeling a Tool for Postulating the Mechanism of Drug Interaction: Glimepiride Alters the Pharmacokinetics of Sildenafil Citrate in Diabetic Nephropathy Animals

Authors: Alok Shiomurti Tripathi, Ajay Kumar Timiri, Papiya Mitra Mazumder, Anil Chandewar

Abstract:

The present study evaluates the possible drug interaction between glimepiride (GLIM) and sildenafil citrate (SIL) in streptozotocin (STZ) induced in diabetic nephropathic (DN) animals and also postulates the possible mechanism of interaction by molecular modeling studies. Diabetic nephropathy was induced by single dose of STZ (60 mg/kg, ip) and confirms it by assessing the blood and urine biochemical parameters on 28th day of its induction. Selected DN animals were used for the drug interaction between GLIM (0.5mg/kg, p.o.) and SIL (2.5 mg/kg, p.o.) after 29th and 70th day of protocol. Drug interaction were assessed by evaluating the plasma drug concentration using HPLC-UV and also determine the change in the biochemical parameter in blood and urine. Mechanism of the interaction was postulated by molecular modeling study using Maestro module of Schrodinger software. DN was confirmed as there was significant alteration in the blood and urine biochemical parameter in STZ treated groups. The concentration of SIL increased significantly (p<0.001) in rat plasma when co administered with GLIM after 70th day of protocol. Molecular modelling study revealed few important interactions with rat serum albumin and CYP2C9.GLIM has strong hydrophobic interaction with binding site residues of rat serum albumin compared to SIL. Whereas, for CYP2C9, GLIM has strong hydrogen bond with polar contacts and hydrophobic interactions than SIL. Present study concludes that bioavailability of SIL increases when co-administered chronically with GLIM in the management of DN animals and mechanism has been supported by molecular modeling studies.

Keywords: diabetic nephropathy, glimepiride, sildenafil citrate, pharmacokinetics, homology modeling, schrodinger

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26 Prevalence of Microalbuminuria and Its Relation with Various Risk Factors in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

Authors: Singh Baljinder, Sharma Navneet

Abstract:

Microalbuminuria is the earliest detectable marker of diabetic nephropathy. We planned to evaluate the prevalence of microalbuminuria in type 1 diabetics and correlate with various risk factor. We randomly selected 100 type 1 diabetic patients after inclusion and exclusion criteria from DCRC, S. P. Medical College, Bikaner. Clinical examinations for anthropometeric parameters, hypertension, retinopathy, glycaemic status, lipid profile were done and microalbuminuria was estimated by micral test. Microalbuminuria was seen in 38% patients. The mean urinary albumin concentration was 96.61 mg/l in microalbuminuria positive cases, 134 mg/L in hypertensive patients while 74.5 mg/L in normal patients. Mean diabetic duration was 6.43 years in microalbuminurics. Albumin excretion increased significantly with age at onset of 10-18 years and declined thereafter. Microalbuminuria cases exhibited mean cholesterol 181.63 mg%, TG 130.94 mg%, LDL 109.87 mg%, HDL 57.5 mg% and VLDL 30.64 mg%. Mean urinary albumin concentration in patients with retinopathy was 160.52 mg/L while 78.66 mg/L without retinopathy. In multiple stepwise logistic regression analysis, a strong positive association was seen between microalbuminuria and hypertension (OR=5.087, CI=2.1319-12.101), fasting blood sugar (OR=3. 491, CI=1.138-10.70), duration of diabetes (OR=3.41, CI=1.360-8.55) and HbA1c (OR=2.381, CI-=1.1-5.64). The present study indicates that microalbuminuria is a common complication of type 1 diabetes mellitus and can be prevented by careful management of risk factors.

Keywords: type 1 diabetes, microalbuminuria, diabetic nephropathy, retinopathy, hypertension

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25 Morroniside Intervention Mechanism of Renal Lesions, a Combination Model of AGEs Exacerbation of STZ-Induced Diabetes Mellitus

Authors: Hui-Qin Xu, Xing Lv, Yu-Han Tao

Abstract:

The depth study aimed on the mechanism of morroniside in protecting diabetic nephropathy. The diabetic mice models with blood glucose above 15mmol/L were divided into model, aminoguanidine, metformin, captopril, morroniside low-dose, and morroniside high-dose groups. And normal group was set simultaneously. All groups were fed with high AGEs food except normal group. Each group was intragastric administration of the corresponding medicine except model and normal groups. After 12 weeks, all the indictors were measured. It showed that the morroniside could reduce blood glucose significantly, urinary protein, serum urea nitrogen, creatine, pathological changes, AGEs levels, renal cortex RAGE mRNA and RAGE protein expression levels; increase food consumption, water intake, urine volume, insulin secretion. As a conclusion, morroniside from cornus officinalis can protect renal in diabetic mice, its mechanism may be related to the proliferation of islet cells, rectify glycometabolism, reduce serum and kidney AGEs content, and descend renal RAGEmRNA and RAGE protein expression levels.

Keywords: cornus officinalis, diabetic nephropathy, morroniside, RAGE protein

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24 Effect of Erythropoietin Hormone Supplementation on Hypoxia-Inducible Factor1-Alpha in Rat Kidneys with Experimental Diabetic Nephropathy

Authors: Maha Deif, Alaa Eldin Hassan, Eman Shaat, Nesrine Elazhary, Eman Magdy

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Background: Erythropoietin (EPO) is a hematopoietic factor with multiple protective effects. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential effect of EPO administration on renal functions and hypoxia inducible factor 1-alpha (HIF-1a) in diabetic rat kidneys. Methodology: The current study was carried out on 40 male albino rats divided into four groups (n= 10 in each). Group I served as normal control, group II was the diabetic control, group III rats received EPO on the same day of diagnosis of diabetes mellitus (DM), while group IV received the first dose of EPO 2 weeks after the diagnosis of DM. Results: The results showed that EPO supplementation leads to a significant decrease in serum urea, urinary protein and creatinine clearance as well as a significant increase in renal HIF-1a in group III and IV rats compared to the diabetic control group (group II). However, fasting blood glucose was significantly decreased in group III as compared to the diabetic control group in the third week, but no significant difference was reported in the fourth week among groups II, III and IV. Conclusion: EPO administration leads to the improvement of renal functions and increased levels of HIF-1a in diabetic rats.

Keywords: erythropoietin, diabetic nephropathy, hypoxia-inducible factor1-alpha, renal functions

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23 Prevalence of Lupus Glomerulonephritis in Renal Biopsies in an Eastern Region of the Arab World

Authors: M. Fayez Al Homsi, Reem Al Homsi

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Renal disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Glomerular diseases make a small portion of the renal disease. Lupus glomerulonephritis (GN) is the commonest among the GN of systemic diseases. More than a hundred and eighty-eight consecutive renal biopsies are performed and evaluated for clinically suspected glomerular diseases over a period of two years. As in a standard practice after receiving the ultrasound-guided renal biopsies, the fresh biopsy is divided to three parts, one part is frozen for immunofluorescence evaluation, the second part is placed in 4% glutaraldehyde for electron microscopic evaluation, and the third part is placed in 10% buffered formalin for light microscopic evaluation. Primary glomerular diseases are detected in 83 biopsies; glomerulonephritis (GN) of systemic diseases are identified in 88, glomerular lesions in vascular diseases in 3, glomerular lesions in metabolic diseases in 7, hereditary nephropathies in 2, end-stage kidney in 2, and glomerular lesions in transplantation in 3 biopsies. Among the primary lesions, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (28) and mesangial proliferative GN (26) were the most common. Lupus GN (67) and Ig A nephropathy (20) were the most common of the GN of systemic diseases. Lupus nephritis biopsies included one biopsy diagnosed as class 1 (normal), 17 biopsies class 2 (mesangial proliferation), 5 biopsies class 3 (focal proliferative GN), 39 biopsies class 4 diffuse proliferative GN), 3 biopsies class 5 (membranous GN), and 2 biopsies class 6 (crescentic GN). Lupus GN is the most common among GN of systemic diseases. While diabetes is very common here, diabetic GN (3 biopsies) is not as common as might one expects. Most likely this is due to sampling and reluctance on part of nephrologists and patients in sampling the kidney in diabetes mellitus.

Keywords: diabetes, glomerulonephritis, lupus, mesangial proliferation, nephropathy

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22 Hemodialysis Technique in a Diabetic Population

Authors: Daniel Thompson, Sophie Cerutti, Muhammad Peerbux, Hansraj Bookun

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Introduction: Diabetic nephropathy is the leading cause end stage renal failure in Australia, responsible for 36% of cases. Patients who require dialysis may be suitable for haemodialysis through an arteriovenous fistula (AVF), and preoperatively careful planning is required to select suitable vessels for a long-lasting fistula that provides suitable dialysis access. Due to high levels of vascular disease in diabetic patients, we sought to investigate whether there is a difference in the types of autologous AVFs created for diabetic patients in renal failure compared to their non-diabetic counterparts. Method: Data was collected from the Australasian Vascular Audit, for all vascular surgery completed at St. Vincent’s Hospital Melbourne between 2011-2020. Patients were selected by operative type, creation of AVF, and compared in two groups, diabetic patients and patients without diabetes. Chi-squared test was utilised to determine significance. Results: Data analysis is ongoing and will be complete with updated abstract in time for the conference. Discussion: Diabetic nephropathy is the cause for roughly a third of end stage renal failure in Australia. Diabetic patients present with a unique set of challenges when it comes to dialysis access due to increased risk of peripheral vascular disease and arterial calcification. Care must be taken in the creation of fistulas to minimise complications and increase the chance of long-lasting access. Our study investigates the difference in autologous AVFs between diabetics and non-diabetics, and results may be used to influence location of fistula creation. Further research may be used to investigate patency rates of fistulas in diabetics vs non-diabetics which would further influence treatment decisions.

Keywords: dialysis, diabetes, renal access, fistula

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21 Mitochondrial DNA Defect and Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Diabetic Nephropathy: The Role of Hyperglycemia-Induced Reactive Oxygen Species

Authors: Ghada Al-Kafaji, Mohamed Sabry

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Mitochondria are the site of cellular respiration and produce energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) via oxidative phosphorylation. They are the major source of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and are also direct target to ROS attack. Oxidative stress and ROS-mediated disruptions of mitochondrial function are major components involved in the pathogenicity of diabetic complications. In this work, the changes in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number, biogenesis, gene expression of mtDNA-encoded subunits of electron transport chain (ETC) complexes, and mitochondrial function in response to hyperglycemia-induced ROS and the effect of direct inhibition of ROS on mitochondria were investigated in an in vitro model of diabetic nephropathy using human renal mesangial cells. The cells were exposed to normoglycemic and hyperglycemic conditions in the presence and absence of Mn(III)tetrakis(4-benzoic acid) porphyrin chloride (MnTBAP) or catalase for 1, 4 and 7 days. ROS production was assessed by the confocal microscope and flow cytometry. mtDNA copy number and PGC-1a, NRF-1, and TFAM, as well as ND2, CYTB, COI, and ATPase 6 transcripts, were all analyzed by real-time PCR. PGC-1a, NRF-1, and TFAM, as well as ND2, CYTB, COI, and ATPase 6 proteins, were analyzed by Western blotting. Mitochondrial function was determined by assessing mitochondrial membrane potential and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels. Hyperglycemia-induced a significant increase in the production of mitochondrial superoxide and hydrogen peroxide at day 1 (P < 0.05), and this increase remained significantly elevated at days 4 and 7 (P < 0.05). The copy number of mtDNA and expression of PGC-1a, NRF-1, and TFAM as well as ND2, CYTB, CO1 and ATPase 6 increased after one day of hyperglycemia (P < 0.05), with a significant reduction in all those parameters at 4 and 7 days (P < 0.05). The mitochondrial membrane potential decreased progressively at 1 to 7 days of hyperglycemia with the parallel progressive reduction in ATP levels over time (P < 0.05). MnTBAP and catalase treatment of cells cultured under hyperglycemic conditions attenuated ROS production reversed renal mitochondrial oxidative stress and improved mtDNA, mitochondrial biogenesis, and function. These results show that hyperglycemia-induced ROS caused an early increase in mtDNA copy number, mitochondrial biogenesis and mtDNA-encoded gene expression of the ETC subunits in human mesangial cells as a compensatory response to the decline in mitochondrial function, which precede the mtDNA defect and mitochondrial dysfunction with a progressive oxidative response. Protection from ROS-mediated damage to renal mitochondria induced by hyperglycemia may be a novel therapeutic approach for the prevention/treatment of DN.

Keywords: diabetic nephropathy, hyperglycemia, reactive oxygen species, oxidative stress, mtDNA, mitochondrial dysfunction, manganese superoxide dismutase, catalase

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20 Elevated Creatinine Clearance and Normal Glomerular Filtration Rate in Patients with Systemic Lupus erythematosus

Authors: Stoyanka Vladeva, Elena Kirilova, Nikola Kirilov

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Background: The creatinine clearance is a widely used value to estimate the GFR. Increased creatinine clearance is often called hyperfiltration and is usually seen during pregnancy, patients with diabetes mellitus preceding the diabetic nephropathy. It may also occur with large dietary protein intake or with plasma volume expansion. Renal injury in lupus nephritis is known to affect the glomerular, tubulointerstitial, and vascular compartment. However high creatinine clearance has not been found in patients with SLE, Target: Follow-up of creatinine clearance values in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus without history of kidney injury. Material and methods: We observed the creatinine, creatinine clearance, GFR and dipstick protein values of 7 women (with a mean age of 42.71 years) with systemic lupus erythematosus. Patients with active lupus have been monthly tested in the period of 13 months. Creatinine clearance has been estimated by Cockcroft-Gault Equation formula in ml/sec. GFR has been estimated by MDRD formula (The Modification of Diet in renal Disease) in ml/min/1.73 m2. Proteinuria has been defined as present when dipstick protein > 1+.Results: In all patients without history of kidney injury we found elevated creatinine clearance levels, but GFRremained within the reference range. Two of the patients were in remission while the other five patients had clinically and immunologically active Lupus. Three of the patients had a permanent presence of high creatinine clearance levels and proteinuria. Two of the patients had periodically elevated creatinine clearance without proteinuria. These results show that kidney disturbances may be caused by the vascular changes typical for SLE. Glomerular hyperfiltration can be result of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis caused by a reduction in renal mass. Probably lupus nephropathy is preceded not only by glomerular vascular changes, but also by tubular vascular changes. Using only the GFR is not a sufficient method to detect these primary functional disturbances. Conclusion: For early detection of kidney injury in patients with SLE we determined that the follow up of creatinine clearance values could be helpful.

Keywords: systemic Lupus erythematosus, kidney injury, elevated creatinine clearance level, normal glomerular filtration rate

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19 Study on Metabolic and Mineral Balance, Oxidative Stress and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Type 2 Diabetic Patients on Different Therapy

Authors: E. Nemes-Nagy, E. Fogarasi, M. Croitoru, A. Nyárádi, K. Komlódi, S. Pál, A. Kovács, O. Kopácsy, R. Tripon, Z. Fazakas, C. Uzun, Z. Simon-Szabó, V. Balogh-Sămărghițan, E. Ernő Nagy, M. Szabó, M. Tilinca

Abstract:

Intense oxidative stress, increased glycated hemoglobin and mineral imbalance represent risk factors for complications in diabetic patients. Cardiovascular complications are most common in these patients, including nephropathy. This study was conducted in 2015 at the Procardia Laboratory in Tîrgu Mureș, Romania on 40 type 2 diabetic adults. Routine biochemical tests were performed on the Konleab 20XTi analyzer (serum glucose, total cholesterol, LDL and HDL cholesterol, triglyceride, creatinine, urea). We also measured serum uric acid, magnesium and calcium concentration by photometric procedures, potassium, sodium and chloride by ion selective electrode, and chromium by atomic absorption spectrometry in a group of patients. Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) dosage was made by reflectometry. Urine analysis was performed using the HandUReader equipment. The level of oxidative stress was measured by serum malondialdehyde dosage using the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances method. MDRD (Modification of Diet in Renal Disease) formula was applied for calculation of creatinine-derived glomerular filtration rate. GraphPad InStat software was used for statistical analysis of the data. The diabetic subject included in the study presented high MDA concentrations, showing intense oxidative stress. Calcium was deficient in 5% of the patients, chromium deficiency was present in 28%. The atherogenic cholesterol fraction was elevated in 13% of the patients. Positive correlation was found between creatinine and MDRD-creatinine values (p<0.0001), 68% of the patients presented increased creatinine values. The majority of the diabetic patients had good control of their diabetes, having optimal HbA1c values, 35% of them presented fasting serum glucose over 120 mg/dl and 18% had glucosuria. Intense oxidative stress and mineral deficiencies can increase the risk of cardiovascular complications in diabetic patients in spite of their good metabolic balance. More than two third of the patients present biochemical signs of nephropathy, cystatin C dosage and microalbuminuria could reveal better the kidney disorder, but glomerular filtration rate calculation formulas are also useful for evaluation of renal function.

Keywords: cardiovascular risk, homocysteine, malondialdehyde, metformin, minerals, type 2 diabetes, vitamin B12

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18 A Paradigm Shift in the Cost of Illness of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus over a Decade in South India: A Prevalence Based Study

Authors: Usha S. Adiga, Sachidanada Adiga

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Introduction: Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is one of the most common non-communicable diseases which imposes a large economic burden on the global health-care system. Cost of illness studies in India have assessed the health care cost of DM, but have certain limitations due to lack of standardization of the methods used, improper documentation of data, lack of follow up, etc. The objective of the study was to estimate the cost of illness of uncomplicated versus complicated type 2 diabetes mellitus in Coastal Karnataka, India. The study also aimed to find out the trend of cost of illness of the disease over a decade. Methodology: A prevalence based bottom-up approach study was carried out in two tertiary care hospitals located in Coastal Karnataka after ethical approval. Direct Medical costs like annual laboratory costs, pharmacy cost, consultation charges, hospital bed charges, surgical /intervention costs of 238 diabetics and 340 diabetic patients respectively from two hospitals were obtained from the medical record sections. Patients were divided into six groups, uncomplicated diabetes, diabetic retinopathy(DR), nephropathy(DN), neuropathy(DNeu), diabetic foot(DF), and ischemic heart disease (IHD). Different costs incurred in 2008 and 2017 in these groups were compared, to study the trend of cost of illness. Kruskal Wallis test followed by Dunn’s test were used to compare median costs between the groups and Spearman's correlation test was used for correlation studies. Results: Uncomplicated patients had significantly lower costs (p <0.0001) compared to other groups. Patients with IHD had highest Medical expenses (p < 0.0001), followed by DN and DF (p < 0.0001 ). Annual medical costs incurred were 1.8, 2.76, 2.77, 1.76, and 4.34 times higher in retinopathy, nephropathy, diabetic foot, neuropathy and IHD patients as compared to the cost incurred in managing uncomplicated diabetics. Other costs also showed a similar pattern of rising. A positive correlation was observed between the costs incurred and duration of diabetes, a negative correlation between the glycemic status and cost incurred. The cost incurred in the management of DM in 2017 was found to be elevated 1.4 - 2.7 times when compared to that in 2008. Conclusion: It is evident from the study that the economic burden due to diabetes mellitus is substantial. It poses a significant financial burden on the healthcare system, individual and society as a whole. There is a need for the strategies to achieve optimal glycemic control and operationalize regular and early screening methods for complications so as to reduce the burden of the disease.

Keywords: COI, diabetes mellitus, a bottom up approach, economics

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17 Clinical Case Report of Fulminating Leptospirosis in a 4-Months Old Caucasian Dog: Public Health Significance and Ramifications

Authors: N. N. Pilau, M. S. Abubakar, A. Danmaigoro, P. C. Mshelia, Y. Sani

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A severely debilitated 4months old Caucasian male dog presented dehydration, emaciation, vomiting, icteric ocular and oral mucous membranes, generalized lymphadenopathy, hematuria, anorexia and prolonged recumbency. Clinical workup was done in established protocols for diagnosis based on history, clinical signs and selected laboratory tests. Treatment course were administered over 48hours during which the patient died of overwhelming hepatopathy, nephropathy and pneumonia. Postmortem findings supported by ante mortem laboratory test results tentatively diagnosed leptospirosis, a disease endemic and presenting potentially fatal epidemics and zoonoses in some countries amongst the developing regions of the world. This disease is reviewed and a call for attention on the public health significance of the disease is hereby presented through this case report.

Keywords: canine, endemic, leptospirosis, prevalence

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16 Manufacturing an Eminent Mucolytic Medicine Using an Efficient Synthesis Path

Authors: Farzaneh Ziaee, Mohammad Ziaee

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N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) is a well-known mucolytic agent, and recently its efficacy has been examined for the prevention and remediation of several diseases such as lung infections caused by Coronavirus. Also, it is administrated as the main antidote in paracetamol overdose and is effective for the treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This medicine is used as an antioxidant to prevent diabetic kidney disease (nephropathy). In this study, a method for the acylation of amino acids is employed to manufacture this drug in a height yield. Regarding this patented path, NAC can be made in a single batch step at ambient pressure and temperature. Moreover, this study offers a technique to make peptide bonds which is of interest for pharmaceutical and medicinal industries. The separation process was undertaken using appropriate solvents to achieve an excellent purification level. The synthesized drug was characterized via proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR), high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), elemental analysis, and melting point.

Keywords: N-acetylcysteine, synthesis, mucolytic medication, lung anti-inflammatory, COVID-19, antioxidant, pharmaceutical supplement, characterization

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15 A Dynamic Model for Assessing the Advanced Glycation End Product Formation in Diabetes

Authors: Victor Arokia Doss, Kuberapandian Dharaniyambigai, K. Julia Rose Mary

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Advanced Glycation End (AGE) products are the end products due to the reaction between excess reducing sugar present in diabetes and free amino group in protein lipids and nucleic acids. Thus, non-enzymic glycation of molecules such as hemoglobin, collagen, and other structurally and functionally important proteins add to the pathogenic complications such as diabetic retinopathy, neuropathy, nephropathy, vascular changes, atherosclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, rheumatoid arthritis, and chronic heart failure. The most common non-cross linking AGE, carboxymethyl lysine (CML) is formed by the oxidative breakdown of fructosyllysine, which is a product of glucose and lysine. CML is formed in a wide variety of tissues and is an index to assess the extent of glycoxidative damage. Thus we have constructed a mathematical and computational model that predicts the effect of temperature differences in vivo, on the formation of CML, which is now being considered as an important intracellular milieu. This hybrid model that had been tested for its parameter fitting and its sensitivity with available experimental data paves the way for designing novel laboratory experiments that would throw more light on the pathological formation of AGE adducts and in the pathophysiology of diabetic complications.

Keywords: advanced glycation end-products, CML, mathematical model, computational model

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14 Correlation between Diabetic Cataract, HBA1C and Gurakhu, a Clinical Study in Chhattisgarh State

Authors: A. Bhattacharya, Sanjay Gupta, S. H. Bodakhe

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HbA1c is form of the haemoglobin that is used to measure the average plasma glucose concentration over prolonged periods of time. It is formed in a non-enzymatic glycation pathway by hemoglobin's exposure to plasma glucose. In diabetes mellitus, higher amounts of glycated hemoglobin, indicating poorer control of blood glucose levels, have been associated with cardiovascular disease, nephropathy, and retinopathy. Guraku’s basic components are nicotine and jaggery, jaggery is made up of sugarcane so can have a diabetogenic potential which is exacerbated in presence of nicotine. This work had done with the aim to find correlation between Diabetic cataract, HbA1c and Guraku. Subjects were enrolled according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. In this study total 75 subjects were included. In the study it was found that people consuming Guraku had a high level of HbA1c thus are more prone to the development of diabetic cataract. Male subjects are the more than female subjects. Most of the subjects belong to the lower socioeconomical class and not very educated. It could be concluded that this type of study could be useful in indentifying number of subjects suffering from diabetic cataract whose condition get worse by use of nicotine product like Guraku and preventive measure to be taken in prevention of this type of diabetic complication.

Keywords: diabetic cataract, HbA1c, Guraku, diabetogenic potential

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13 Influence of HbA1c on Nitric Oxide Level in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Authors: Dara Kutsyk, Olga Bondarenko, Mariya Sorochka

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In 21-century type 2 diabetes (T2D) has become a global health and social problem in the whole world. The goal of treatment for patients with T2D is to prevent complications of diabetes - macrovascular diseases (heart disease, stroke, and peripheral vascular disease) and microvascular diseases (retinopathy, neuropathy and nephropathy). Nitric oxide (NO) plays an important role in maintaining vascular homeostasis. Loss of NO function is one of the earliest indicators of disease and its progression especially in patients with T2D. Aim: To compare NO level between patients with well and bad controlled glycemia in T2D. Methods: The study included 32 patients with T2D. The diagnosis of T2D was confirmed due to International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria 2015. Patients were divided into two groups: with well controlled glycaemia (HbA1c < 7%) and bad controlled glycaemia (HbA1c > 7%). The control group consists of 15 healthy subjects. Results: NO level in patients with T2D is significantly higher (27,2 ±3,1 µmol), compared to controls (18,86±0,9 µmol; p < 0,001). A significant difference in NO level was found between patients with bad controlled glycaemia (25,9±2,2 µmol) and well controlled glycaemia (28,7 ± 3,0 µmol; p<0,01). The study showed a moderate negative correlation between NO level and HbA1c (-0,399; р< 0,05). Conclusions: Production of NO is impaired in patients with T2D, especially with badly controlled glycaemia. With the increase in HbAc serum NO decreases. This can be the main target for prevention vascular complication in T2D.

Keywords: type 2 diabetes, glycated hemoglobin, nitric oxide, Diabetes mellitus

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