Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7649

Search results for: sleep quality

7649 Development of Sleep Quality Index Using Heart Rate

Authors: Dongjoo Kim, Chang-Sik Son, Won-Seok Kang

Abstract:

Adequate sleep affects various parts of one’s overall physical and mental life. As one of the methods in determining the appropriate amount of sleep, this research presents a heart rate based sleep quality index. In order to evaluate sleep quality using the heart rate, sleep data from 280 subjects taken over one month are used. Their sleep data are categorized by a three-part heart rate range. After categorizing, some features are extracted, and the statistical significances are verified for these features. The results show that some features of this sleep quality index model have statistical significance. Thus, this heart rate based sleep quality index may be a useful discriminator of sleep.

Keywords: sleep, sleep quality, heart rate, statistical analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 245
7648 An Exploration of Lighting Quality on Sleep Quality of Children in Elementary Schools

Authors: Mohamed Boubekri, Kristen Bub, Jaewook Lee, Kate Kurry

Abstract:

In this study, we explored the impact of light, particularly daylight on sleep time and quality of elementary school children. Sleep actigraphy was used to measure objectively sleep time and sleep efficiency. Our data show a good correlation between light levels and sleep. In some cases, differences of up to 36 minutes were found between students in low light levels and those in high light level classrooms. We recommend, therefore, that classroom design need to pay attention to the daily daylight exposures elementary school children are receiving.

Keywords: light, daylight, actigraphy, sleep, circadian rhythm, sustainable architecture, elementary school, children

Procedia PDF Downloads 52
7647 Assessment of Sleep Disorders in Moroccan Women with Gynecological Cancer: Cross-Sectional Study

Authors: Amina Aquil, Abdeljalil El Got

Abstract:

Background: Sleep quality is one of the most important indicators related to the quality of life of patients suffering from cancer. Many factors could affect this quality of sleep and then be considered as associated predictors. Methods: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of sleep disorders and the associated factors with impaired sleep quality in Moroccan women with gynecological cancer. A cross-sectional study was carried out within the oncology department of the Ibn Rochd University Hospital, Casablanca, on Moroccan women who had undergone radical surgery for gynecological cancer (n=100). Translated and validated Arabic versions of the following international scales were used: Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), Rosenberg's self-esteem scale (RSES), and Body image scale (BIS). Results: 78% of participants were considered poor sleepers. Most of the patients exhibited very poor subjective quality, low sleep latency, a short period of sleep, and a low rate of usual sleep efficiency. The vast majority of these patients were in poor shape during the day and did not use sleep medication. Waking up in the middle of the night or early in the morning and getting up to use the bathroom were the main reasons for poor sleep quality. PSQI scores were positively correlated with anxiety, depression, body image dissatisfaction, and lower self-esteem (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Sleep quality and its predictors require a systematic evaluation and adequate management to prevent sleep disturbances and mental distress as well as to improve the quality of life of these patients.

Keywords: body image, gynecological cancer, self esteem, sleep quality

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7646 Relationships among Sleep Quality and Quality of Life in Oncology Nurses

Authors: Yi-Fung Lin, Pei-Chen Tsai

Abstract:

Background: The hospital healthcare team provides 24-hour patient care, and therefore shift-work is inevitable in the nursing field. There is an increased awareness that shift-work affecting circadian rhythms may cause various health problems, especially in poor sleep quality, which may harm the quality of life. Purposes: The purpose of this study was to investigate the influences of demographic characteristics on nurses’ sleep quality and quality of life and the relationship between these predictors of nurses’ quality of life. Methods: A cross-sectional, descriptive correlational study was conducted with purposive sampling of 520 female nurses in a medical center in north Taiwan from July to September 2014. Data were collected with structured questionnaires using Psychometric Evaluation of the Chinese version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL-BREF). Outcomes: The main results include: 1) Irregular menstruation, non-regular exercisers, and more daily caffeine consumption have negative impacts on sleep quality. 2) Younger age, fewer children, low education level, low annual income, irregular menstruation, pain during menstrual cycles, non-regular exercisers, constipation, and poor sleep quality all contribute negative impacts on the quality of life. 3) The odds ratio of sleep disturbance between 12-hour shifts and 8-hour shifts was 2.26, but there was no significant difference regarding their quality of life scores. Conclusion: This study showed that there is a strong correlation between oncology nurses’ sleep quality and quality of life. Sleep quality is a significant predictor of quality of life in oncology nurses.

Keywords: oncology nurses, sleep quality, quality of life, shift-work

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7645 Analyzing the Association between Physical Activity and Sleep Quality in College Students: Cross-Sectional Study

Authors: Fildzah Badzlina, Mega Puspa Sari

Abstract:

To rest the body after a full day of activities, the body needs sleep. During sleep, the body's response to external stimuli will be reduced and relatively inactive so that it is used to optimize the body's biological functions that cannot be done when awake. College students often experience poor sleep quality because of the dense activities carried out during the day. In addition, the level of physical activity of college students is also relatively low. Based on previous research, college students who have low physical activity have poor sleep quality. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between physical activity and sleep quality in college students of the University of Muhammadiyah Prof. Dr. Hamka. This study used a cross-sectional research design with 107 respondents as research subjects. Samples were taken using the purposive sampling technique. The data was taken using a google form which was distributed to all college students in September 2021. The statistical test used was Chi-square. The results of this study showed that 85 (79.4%) college students experienced poor sleep quality during the Covid-19 Pandemic Period. Most respondents were 96 women (89.7%) and 32.7% (35 people) aged 20 years. In the pocket money category, most college students (71%) got pocket money less than 500.000 rupiahs per month. A total of 52 respondents (48.6%) had a moderate level of physical activity category. Poor sleep quality was more common in male students (90.9%) compared to female students (78.1%) (p>0.05). In the group with poor sleep quality, 88.9% of students were categorized in Rp. 500.001 to Rp. 1.000.000 for pocket money, 80.3% of students included in the category Rp. 500.000 or less, and 61.5% of students are included in the category of Rp. 1.000.000 or more. Poor sleep quality was more common among students in the age category 20 years (84.1%), compared to students in the age category > 20 years (71.1%). For the level of physical activity in the poor sleep quality group, 87% were included in the category of heavy physical activity, 82.7% included in the moderate level of physical activity, and 68.8% included in the category of low-level physical activity. There was no significant relationship between gender, pocket money, age, and physical activity with sleep quality (p>0.05).

Keywords: college students, physical activity, sleep quality, university students

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7644 The Effect of Progressive Muscle Relaxation and Sleep Hygiene Education to Change Sleep Quality Index Scores of Patient with Breast Cancer

Authors: Ika Wulansari, Yati Afiyanti, Indang Trihandini

Abstract:

Sleeping disorder experienced by patients with breast cancer can affect the physical, mental, health, and well-being. This study examines the effect of progressive muscle relaxation training and sleep hygiene education to change sleep quality scores of the patient with breast cancer. The study design using quasi-experiment with pre-post test within the control group, involving 62 breast cancer patients using consecutive sampling method in Jakarta. Statistical test results with independent t-test showed a significant difference in score of sleep quality between in intervention group and the control group (6,66±3,815; 9,30±3,334, p-value = 0,005). Progressive muscle relaxation exercise and sleep hygiene education proven to be affective to change the patients sleeping quality, so that it can be an alternative therapeutic option to overcome sleeping disorders.

Keywords: sleeping disorders, breast cancer, progressive muscle relaxation, sleep hygiene education

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7643 Evaluation of the Effect of Auriculotherapy on Pain Control and Sleep Quality in Chronic Patients

Authors: Fagner Luiz P. Salles, Janaina C. Oliveira, Ivair P. Cesar

Abstract:

Statement of the Problem: Auriculotherapy (AT) is a TCM technique, which uses seeds instead of needles, based physiologically on the mechanical stimulation of the cranial nerves. In the context of understanding the new concept of health of the WHO, the AT is an integrative approach for achieving Global Health Care so as to achieve the global health care concerns. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of auriculotherapy on pain and sleep quality in patients with chronic pain. Methodology and Theoretical Orientation: This study was performed between February and March 2017 at the Faculdade Estácio de Sá de Vitória, Brazil. The pain evaluation was through VAS in 4 periods: maximum, minimum, average and at the time of evaluation; the evaluation of sleep quality was used the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Socio-demographic data included: gender, age, use of medication and BMI. All data are presented as mean (standard deviation), Teste Mann-Whitney and T-student with P-values < 0.05 were regarded as significant. Findings: Participated in this study thirty-two individuals with age (M = 43.18, SD = 17.86), the time with pain in years (M = 3.67, SD = 3.68), 81.7% were female, 75% of the individuals used medication and BMI (M = 26.67; SD = 6.20). The pain presented improvement in the maximum level and the average of the pain and sleep quality before did not have statistically significant results. Conclusion and Significance: This study showed that TA is efficacy for reduction levels of pain. However, AT was not effective in improving sleep quality.

Keywords: auriculotherapy, chronic pain, sleep quality, integrative approach

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7642 Research Progress on the Correlation between Tinnitus and Sleep Behaviors

Authors: Jiajia Peng

Abstract:

Tinnitus is one of the common symptoms of ear diseases and is characterized by the abnormal perception of sound without external stimulation. Tinnitus is agony and seriously affects the life of the general population by approximately 1%. Sleep disturbance is a common problem in patients with tinnitus. Lack of sleep will lead to the accumulation of metabolites in the brain and cannot be cleared in time. These substances enhance sympathetic nerve reactivity in the auditory system, resulting in tinnitus occurrence or aggravation. Then, tinnitus may aggravate sleep disturbance, thus forming a vicious circle. Through a systematic review of the relevant literature, we summarize the research on tinnitus and sleep. Although the results suggest that tinnitus is often accompanied by sleep disturbance, the impact of unfavorable sleep habits on tinnitus is not clear. In particular, the relationships between sleep behaviors and other chronic diseases have been revealed. To reduce the incidence rate of tinnitus, clinicians should pay attention to the relevance between different sleep behaviors and tinnitus.

Keywords: Tinnitus, sleep, sleep factor, sleep behavior

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7641 The Relationship between Amplitude and Stability of Circadian Rhythm with Sleep Quality and Sleepiness: A Population Study, Kerman 2018

Authors: Akram Sadat Jafari Roodbandi, Farzaneh Akbari, Vafa Feyzi, Zahra Zare, Zohreh Foroozanfar

Abstract:

Introduction: Circadian rhythm or sleep-awake cycle in 24 hours is one of the important factors affecting the physiological and psychological characteristics in humans that contribute to biochemical, physiological and behavioral processes and helps people to set up brain and body for sleep or active awakening during certain hours. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the characteristics of circadian rhythms on the sleep quality and sleepiness according to their demographic characteristics such as age. Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive-analytic study was carried out among the general population of Kerman, aged 15-84 years. After dividing the age groups into 10-year demographic characteristics questionnaire, the type of circadian questionnaire, Pittsburgh sleep quality questionnaire and Euporth sleepiness questionnaire were completed in equal numbers between men and women of that age group. Using cluster sampling with effect design equal 2, 1300 questionnaires were distributed during the various hours of 24 hours in public places in Kerman city. Data analysis was done using SPSS software and univariate tests and linear regressions at a significance level of 0.05. Results: In this study, 1147 subjects were included in the study, 584 (50.9%) were male and the rest were women. The mean age was 39.50 ± 15.38. 133 (11.60%) subjects from the study participants had sleepiness and 308 (26.90%) subjects had undesirable sleep quality. Using linear regression test, sleep quality was the significant correlation with sex, hours needed for sleep at 24 hours, chronic illness, sleepiness, and circadian rhythm amplitude. Sleepiness was the meaningful relationship with marital status, sleep-wake schedule of other family members and the stability of circadian rhythm. Both women and men, with age, decrease the quality of sleep and increase the rate of sleepiness. Conclusion: Age, sex, and type of circadian people, the need for sleep at 24 hours, marital status, sleep-wake schedule of other family members are significant factors related to the sleep quality and sleepiness and their adaptation to night shift work.

Keywords: circadian type, sleep quality, sleepiness, age, shift work

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7640 Combat Capability Improvement Using Sleep Analysis

Authors: Gabriela Kloudova, Miloslav Stehlik, Peter Sos

Abstract:

The quality of sleep can affect combat performance where the vigilance, accuracy and reaction time are a decisive factor. In the present study, airborne and special units are measured on duty using actigraphy fingerprint scoring algorithm and QEEG (quantitative EEG). Actigraphic variables of interest will be: mean nightly sleep duration, mean napping duration, mean 24-h sleep duration, mean sleep latency, mean sleep maintenance efficiency, mean sleep fragmentation index, mean sleep onset time, mean sleep offset time and mean midpoint time. In an attempt to determine the individual somnotype of each subject, the data like sleep pattern, chronotype (morning and evening lateness), biological need for sleep (daytime and anytime sleepability) and trototype (daytime and anytime wakeability) will be extracted. Subsequently, a series of recommendations will be included in the training plan based on daily routine, timing of the day and night activities, duration of sleep and the number of sleeping blocks in a defined time. The aim of these modifications in the training plan is to reduce day-time sleepiness, improve vigilance, attention, accuracy, speed of the conducted tasks and to optimize energy supplies. Regular improvement of the training supposed to have long-term neurobiological consequences including neuronal activity changes measured by QEEG. Subsequently, that should enhance cognitive functioning in subjects assessed by the digital cognitive test batteries and improve their overall performance.

Keywords: sleep quality, combat performance, actigraph, somnotype

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7639 Clinical and Sleep Features in an Australian Population Diagnosed with Mild Cognitive Impairment

Authors: Sadie Khorramnia, Asha Bonney, Kate Galloway, Andrew Kyoong

Abstract:

Sleep plays a pivotal role in the registration and consolidation of memory. Multiple observational studies have demonstrated that self-reported sleep duration and sleep quality are associated with cognitive performance. Montreal Cognitive Assessment questionnaire is a screening tool to assess mild cognitive (MCI) impairment with a 90% diagnostic sensitivity. In our current study, we used MOCA to identify MCI in patients who underwent sleep study in our sleep department. We then looked at the clinical risk factors and sleep-related parameters in subjects found to have mild cognitive impairment but without a diagnosis of sleep-disordered breathing. Clinical risk factors, including physician, diagnosed hypertension, diabetes, and depression and sleep-related parameters, measured during sleep study, including percentage time of each sleep stage, total sleep time, awakenings, sleep efficiency, apnoea hypopnoea index, and oxygen saturation, were evaluated. A total of 90 subjects who underwent sleep study between March 2019 and October 2019 were included. Currently, there is no pharmacotherapy available for MCI; therefore, identifying the risk factors and attempting to reverse or mitigate their effect is pivotal in slowing down the rate of cognitive deterioration. Further characterization of sleep parameters in this group of patients could open up opportunities for potentially beneficial interventions.

Keywords: apnoea hypopnea index, mild cognitive impairment, sleep architecture, sleep study

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7638 Adolescent Sleep Hygiene Scale and Adolescent Sleep Wake Scale: Factorial Analysis and Validation for Indian Population

Authors: Sataroopa Mishra, Mona Basker, Sneha Varkki, Ram Kumar Pandian, Grace Rebekah

Abstract:

Background: Sleep deprivation is a matter of public health importance among adolescents. We used adolescent sleep wake scale and adolescent sleep hygiene scale to determine the sleep quality and sleep hygiene respectively of school going adolescents in Vellore city of India. The objective of the study was to do factorial analysis of the scales and validate it for use in local population. Methods: Observational questionnaire based cross sectional study. Setting: Community based school survey in a semi-urban setting in three schools in Vellore city. Data collection: Non probability sample was collected form students studying in standard 9 and 11. Students filled Adolescent Sleep Wake scale (ASWS) and Adolescent Sleep Hygiene Scale (ASHS) translated into vernacular language. Data Analysis: Exploratory Factorial Analysis was used to see the factor loading of various components of the two scales. Confirmatory factorial analysis is subsequently planned for assessing the internal validity of the scales.Results: 557 adolescents were included in the study of 12 – 17 years old. Exploratory factorial analysis of adolescent sleep hygiene scale indicated significant factor loading for 18 items from 28 items originally devised by the authors and has been reconstructed to four domains instead of 9 domains in the original scale namely sleep stability, cognitive – emotional, Physiological - bed time routine - behavioural arousal factor (activites before bedtime and during bed time), Sleep environment (lighting and bed sharing). Factorial analysis of Adolescent sleep wake scale showed factor loading of 18 items out of 28 items in original scale reconstructed into 5 aspects of sleep quality. Conclusions: The factorial analysis gives a reconstructed scale useful for the local population. Further a confirmatory factorial analysis has been subsequently planned to determine the internal consistency of the scale for local population.

Keywords: factorial analysis, sleep hygiene, sleep quality, adolescent sleep scale

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7637 Sleep Quality as Perceived by Critically Ill Patients at El Manial University Hospitals

Authors: Mohamed Adel Ahmed, Warda Youssef Morsy , Hanaa Ali El Feky

Abstract:

Background: Literature review cited that sleep is absolutely essential for surviving and reclamation of the quality of life. Critically ill patients often have poor sleep quality with prolonged sleep latency, sleep fragmentation, decreased sleep efficiency and frequent arousals. Nurses have a unique role for the early diagnosis of sleep disorders, decreasing stressors levels and providing the necessary environmental regulations to create a therapeutic ambiance. The aim of the study: to assess perceived sleep quality and identify factors affecting sleep quality among adult critically ill patients At El Manial University Hospital. Research Design: A descriptive exploratory design was utilized. Research questions: a) how do adult critically ill patients perceive sleep quality in the Critical Care Department of El Manial University Hospital? b) What are the factors affecting sleep quality among adult critically ill patients at El Manial University Hospital? Setting: selected critical and cardiac care units at El Manial University Hospital. Sample: A samples of convenience consisting of 100 adult male and female patients were included in the study. Tools of data collection: tool 1: Socio-demographic and Medical Data Sheet, tool 2: Modified St Mary's Hospital Sleep Questionnaire tool 3: Factors Affecting Sleep Quality Questionnaire among ICU Patients Results: The current study revealed that 76.0% of the studied sample had lack of sleep disturbance before hospitalization. However, 84 % had sleep disturbances during ICU stay, of these more than two-thirds (67 %) had moderate sleep disturbance. Presence of strange and bad odors, noise, having pain, fear of death and a loud voice produced by the ICU personnel had the most significant negative impact on patients’ sleep in percentage of 52.4, 50, 61.9, 45.2, 52.4, respectively. Conclusion: Sleep disturbances in the ICU are multifactorial, and ICU patients’ perceived degrees of sleep disturbance as a moderate. Recommendations: Based on findings of the present study, the following are recommended to be done by ICU nurses; create a healing ICU environment that should incorporate noise, light and temperature controls; decrease stimuli during night time hours to promote regulation of the circadian rhythm, allow usage of sleeping aids such as relaxing music, eye patches and earplugs into their daily nursing practice; cluster nursing activities and eliminate non-essential treatments during night time hours to allow uninterrupted sleep periods of at least 90 minutes to complete one sleep cycle , and minimize staff conversation, alarm noise and light during the quiet night time hours.

Keywords: sleep quality, critically ill, patients, perception

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7636 The Effect of Aerobic Exercise Training on the Improvement of Nursing Staff's Sleep Quality: A Randomized Controlled Study

Authors: Niu Shu Fen

Abstract:

Sleep disturbance is highly prevalent among shift-working nurses. We aimed to evaluate whether aerobic exercise (i.e., walking combined with jogging) improves objective Sleepparameters among female nurses at the end of an 8-week exercise program and 4 weeks after study completion. This single-blinded, parallel design, randomized controlled trial was conducted in the floor classroom of a would-be medical center in northern Taiwan. Sixtyeligible female nurses were randomly assigned to either aerobic exercise (n = 30) or usual care (n = 30) group. The moderate-intensity aerobic exercise program was performed over 5days (60 min per day) a week for 8 weeks after work hours. Objective sleep outcomes including total sleep time (TST), sleep onset latency (SOL), wake after sleep onset (WASO), and sleep efficiency (SE), were retrieved using an Actigraph device. A generalized estimated equation model was used for data analyses. The aerobic exercise group had significant improvements in TST and SE at 4 weeks and 8 weeks compared with baseline evaluation(TST: B = 70.49 and 55.96, both p < 0.001; SE: B = 5.21 and 3.98, p < 0.001 and 0.002).Significant between-group differences were observed in SOL and WASO at 4 weeks but not8 weeks compared with the baseline evaluation (SOL: B = −7.18, p = 0.03; WASO: B =−11.38, p = 0.008). The positive lasting effects for TST were observed only until the 4-week follow-up. To improve sleep quality and quantity, we encourage female nurses to regularly perform moderate-intensity aerobic exercise.

Keywords: sleep quality, aerobic exercise, nurses, shift work

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7635 Relationship between Depression, Stress, and Life Satisfaction among Students

Authors: Rexa Pasha

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The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between depression, stress and life satisfaction with sleep disturbance among Islamic Azad University Ahvaz Branch students. Samples in the study included 230 students who were selected by stratified random sampling. For data collection, the Beck Depression Inventory, stress, life satisfaction and quality of sleep (PSQI) was used. Which all have acceptable reliability and validity. This study was correlation and Data analysis using Pearson correlation and multivariate regression significance level (pKeywords: depression, life satisfaction, sleep disorder, sleep disturbane

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7634 A Survey of the Sleep-Disturbed Bedroom Environmental Factors and the Occupants Bedroom Windows or Door Opening Behaviors

Authors: Chenxi Liao, Mizuho Akimoto, Mariya Bivolarova, Sekhar Chandra, Xiaojun Fan, Li Lan, Jelle Laverge, Pawel Wargocki

Abstract:

The bedroom environment plays an important role in maintaining good sleep quality, which is vital for humans health and next-day performance. A survey of the sleep-disturbed bedroom environmental factors and the occupants’ bedroom windows (BW) or bedroom door (BD) opening behaviors was launched in the capital region of Denmark in 2020 by an online questionnaire. People were asked if they were disturbed by too warm temperature, too cool temperature, noise, or stuffy air during sleep. Also, they reported their BW or the BD opening behaviors in the morning, afternoon, evening, and during sleep. A total of 512 responses were received. Too warm temperature was reported the most among the four sleep-disturbed factors, following too cool temperature, noise, and stuffy air. Whether or not opening BW or the BD was commonly used to improve or change the bedroom environment. The respondents who were disturbed by too warm temperature during sleep opened BW for a longer time in the morning compared to those who were never disturbed by it (OR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.01-1.62). Those who were disturbed by too cool temperatures tended to open BW less frequently in the morning (OR, 1.24; 95% CI, 0.97-1.57). They preferred keeping BW open in the whole day if they realized stuffy air disturbing their sleep, although only a few of them still opened BW during sleep. Those who were disturbed by too cool temperature (OR, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.63-0.92) and noise (OR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.66-0.96) were more likely to sleep with the BD open in a lesser frequency. Opening BW, increasing ventilation rates, could relieve disturbing by stuffy air during sleep, but induced other sleep-disturbed factors such as too cool in winter and noise. Also, opening BW only when people were not sleep was not sufficient to exempt disturbing by stuffy air during sleep. Using mechanical ventilation in bedrooms is necessary to ensure good air quality and meanwhile to avoid thermal discomfort and noise during sleep. Future studies are required to figure out the required flow rate of fresh air of mechanical ventilation during sleep.

Keywords: bedroom environmental, survey, occupants behaviors, windows, door

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7633 Effect of Automatic Self Transcending Meditation on Perceived Stress and Sleep Quality in Adults

Authors: Divya Kanchibhotla, Shashank Kulkarni, Shweta Singh

Abstract:

Chronic stress and sleep quality reduces mental health and increases the risk of developing depression and anxiety as well. There is increasing evidence for the utility of meditation as an adjunct clinical intervention for conditions like depression and anxiety. The present study is an attempt to explore the impact of Sahaj Samadhi Meditation (SSM), a category of Automatic Self Transcending Meditation (ASTM), on perceived stress and sleep quality in adults. The study design was a single group pre-post assessment. Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) were used in this study. Fifty-two participants filled PSS, and 60 participants filled PSQI at the beginning of the program (day 0), after two weeks (day 16) and at two months (day 60). Significant pre-post differences for the perceived stress level on Day 0 - Day 16 (p < 0.01; Cohen's d = 0.46) and Day 0 - Day 60 (p < 0.01; Cohen's d = 0.76) clearly demonstrated that by practicing SSM, participants experienced reduction in the perceived stress. The effect size of the intervention observed on the 16th day of assessment was small to medium, but on the 60th day, a medium to large effect size of the intervention was observed. In addition to this, significant pre-post differences for the sleep quality on Day 0 - Day 16 and Day 0 - Day 60 (p < 0.05) clearly demonstrated that by practicing SSM, participants experienced improvement in the sleep quality. Compared with Day 0 assessment, participants demonstrated significant improvement in the quality of sleep on Day 16 and Day 60. The effect size of the intervention observed on the 16th day of assessment was small, but on the 60th day, a small to medium effect size of the intervention was observed. In the current study we found out that after practicing SSM for two months, participants reported a reduction in the perceived stress, they felt that they are more confident about their ability to handle personal problems, were able to cope with all the things that they had to do, felt that they were on top of the things, and felt less angered. Participants also reported that their overall sleep quality improved; they took less time to fall asleep; they had less disturbances in sleep and less daytime dysfunction due to sleep deprivation. The present study provides clear evidence of the efficacy and safety of non-pharmacological interventions such as SSM in reducing stress and improving sleep quality. Thus, ASTM may be considered a useful intervention to reduce psychological distress in healthy, non-clinical populations, and it can be an alternative remedy for treating poor sleep among individuals and decreasing the use of harmful sedatives.

Keywords: automatic self transcending meditation, Sahaj Samadhi meditation, sleep, stress

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7632 A Systematic Review on Assessing the Prevalence, Types, and Predictors of Sleep Disturbances in Childhood Traumatic Brain Injury

Authors: E. Botchway, C. Godfrey, V. Anderson, C. Catroppa

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Introduction: Sleep disturbances are common after childhood traumatic brain injury (TBI). This systematic review aimed to assess the prevalence, types, and predictors of sleep disturbances in childhood TBI. Methods: Medline, Pubmed, PsychInfo, Web of Science, and EMBASE databases were searched. Out of the 547 articles assessed, 15 met selection criteria for this review. Results: Sleep disturbances were common in children and adolescents with TBI, irrespective of injury severity. Excessive daytime sleepiness and insomnia were the most common sleep disturbances reported. Sleep disturbance was predicted by sex, injury severity, pre-existing sleep disturbances, younger age, pain, and high body mass index. Conclusions: Sleep disturbances are highly prevalent in childhood TBI, regardless of the injury severity. Routine assessment of sleep in survivors of childhood TBI is recommended.

Keywords: traumatic brain injury, sleep diatiurbances, childhood, systematic review

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7631 Effects of Extract from Lactuca sativa on Sleep in Pentobarbital-Induced Sleep and Caffeine-Induced Sleep Disturbance in Mice

Authors: Hae Dun Kim, Joo Hyun Jang, Geu Rim Seo, Kyung Soo Ra, Hyung Joo Suh

Abstract:

Lactuca sativa (lettuce) has been known for its medical property to relieve anxiety and nervous. This study was implemented to investigate sleep-promoting effects of the lettuce alcohol extract (LAE). Caffeine is widely used psychoactive substance known to induced wakefulness and insomnia to its consumers. In the present study, the sedative-hypnotic activity of the LAE was studied using the method of pentobarbital-induced sleep in the mouse model. The LAE was administrated to mice 30 min before the pentobarbital injection. The LAE prolonged the pentobarbital-induced sleep duration and decreased sleep latency. The effects of LAE were comparable to those of induced by diazepam. Another study was performed to examine whether LAE ameliorates caffeine-induced sleep disturbance in mice. Additionally, caffeine (10 mg/kg, p.o) delayed sleep onset and reduced sleep duration of mice. Conversely, LAE treatment (80 or 160 mg/kg, p.o), especially at 160 mg/kg, normalized the sleep disturbance induced by caffeine. LAE supplementation can counter the sleep disturbance induced by caffeine. These results suggest that LAE possess significant sedative-hypnotic activity, which supports the popular use of lettuce for treatment of insomnia and provide the basis for new drug discovery. Furthermore, these results demonstrate that the lettuce extract may be preferable for the treatment of insomnia.

Keywords: caffeine, Lactuca sativa, sleep duration, sleep latency

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7630 The Influence of Training and Competition on Cortisol Levels and Sleep in Elite Female Athletes

Authors: Shannon O’Donnell, Matthew Driller, Gregory Jacobson, Steve Bird

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Stress hormone levels in a competition vs. training setting are yet to be evaluated in elite female athletes. The effect that these levels of stress have on subsequent sleep quality and quantity is also yet to be investigated. The aim of the current study was to evaluate different psychophysiological stress markers in competition and training environments and the subsequent effect on sleep indices in an elite female athlete population. The study involved 10 elite female netball athletes (mean ± SD; age = 23 ± 6 yrs) providing multiple salivary hormone measures and having their sleep monitored on two occasions; a match day, and a training day. The training and match were performed at the same time of day and were matched for intensity and duration. Saliva samples were collected immediately pre (5:00 pm) and post session (7:15 pm), and at 10:00 pm and were analysed for cortisol concentrations. Sleep monitoring was performed using wrist actigraphy to assess total sleep time (TST), sleep efficiency (SE%) and sleep latency (SL). Cortisol levels were significantly higher (p < 0.01) immediately post the match vs post training (mean ± SD; 0.925 ± 0.341 μg/dL and 0.239 ± 0.284 μg/dL, respectively) and at 10:00pm (0.143 ± 0.085 μg/dL and 0.072 ± 0.064 μg/dL, respectively, p < 0.01). The difference between trials was associated with a very large effect (ES: 2.23) immediately post (7:15 pm) and a large effect (ES: 1.02) at 10:00 pm. There was a significant reduction in TST (mean ± SD; -117.9 ± 111.9 minutes, p < 0.01, ES: -1.89) and SE% (-7.7 ± 8.5%, p < 0.02, ES: -0.79) on the night following the netball match compared to the training session. Although not significant (p > 0.05), there was an increase in SL following the netball match v the training session (67.0 ± 51.9 minutes and 38.5 ± 29.3 minutes, respectively), which was associated with a moderate effect (ES: 0.80). The current study reports that cortisol levels are significantly higher and subsequent sleep quantity and quality is significantly reduced in elite female athletes following a match compared to a training session.

Keywords: cortisol, netball, performance, recovery

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7629 An Evaluation Study of Sleep and Sleep-Related Factors in Clinic Clients with Sleep Difficulties

Authors: Chi-Feng Lai, Wen-Chun Liao Liao

Abstract:

Many people are bothered by sleep difficulties in Taiwan’s society. However, majority of patients get medical treatments without a comprehensive sleep assessment. It is still a big challenge to formulate a comprehensive assessment of sleep difficulties in clinical settings, even though many assessment tools have existed in literature. This study tries to implement reliable and effective ‘comprehensive sleep assessment scales’ in a medical center and to explore differences in sleep-related factors between clinic clients with or without sleep difficulty complaints. The comprehensive sleep assessment (CSA) scales were composed of 5 dimensions: ‘personal factors’, ‘physiological factors’, ‘psychological factors’, ‘social factors’ and ‘environmental factors, and were first evaluated by expert validity and 20 participants with test-retest reliability. The Content Validity Index (CVI) of the CSA was 0.94 and the alpha of the consistency reliability ranged 0.996-1.000. Clients who visited sleep clinic due to sleep difficulties (n=32, 16 males and 16 females, ages 43.66 ±14.214) and gender-and age- matched healthy subjects without sleep difficulties (n=96, 47 males and 49 females, ages 41.99 ±13.69) were randomly recruited at a ratio of 1:3 (with sleep difficulties vs. without sleep difficulties) to compare their sleep and the CSA factors. Results show that all clinic clients with sleep difficulties did have poor sleep quality (PSQI>5) and mild to moderate daytime sleepiness (ESS >11). Personal factors of long working hours (χ2= 10.315, p=0.001), shift workers (χ2= 8.964, p=0.003), night shift (χ2=9.395, p=0.004) and perceived stress (χ2=9.503, p=0.002) were disruptors of sleep difficulties. Physiological factors from physical examination including breathing by mouth, low soft palate, high narrow palate, Edward Angle, tongue hypertrophy, and occlusion of the worn surface were observed in clinic clients. Psychological factors including higher perceived stress (χ2=32.542, p=0.000), anxiety and depression (χ2=32.868, p=0.000); social factors including lack of leisure activities (χ2=39.857, p=0.000), more drinking habits (χ2=1.798, p=0.018), irregular amount and frequency in meals (χ2=5.086, p=0.024), excessive dinner (χ2=21.511, p=0.000), being incapable of getting up on time due to previous poor night sleep (χ2=4.444, p=0.035); and environmental factors including lights (χ2=7.683, p=0.006), noise (χ2=5.086, p=0.024), low or high bedroom temperature (χ2=4.595, p=0.032) were existed in clients. In conclusion, the CSA scales can work as valid and reliable instruments for evaluating sleep-related factors. Findings of this study provide important reference for assessing clinic clients with sleep difficulties.

Keywords: comprehensive sleep assessment, sleep-related factors, sleep difficulties

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7628 Day-To-Day Variations in Health Behaviors and Daily Functioning: Two Intensive Longitudinal Studies

Authors: Lavinia Flueckiger, Roselind Lieb, Andrea H. Meyer, Cornelia Witthauer, Jutta Mata

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Objective: Health behaviors tend to show a high variability over time within the same person. However, most existing research can only assess a snapshot of a person’s behavior and not capture this natural daily variability. Two intensive longitudinal studies examine the variability in health behavior over one academic year and their implications for other aspects of daily life such as affect and academic performance. Can already a single day of increased physical activity, snacking, or improved sleep have beneficial effects? Methods: In two intensive longitudinal studies with up to 65 assessment days over an entire academic year, university students (Study 1: N = 292; Study 2: N = 304) reported sleep quality, physical activity, snacking, positive and negative affect, and learning goal achievement. Results: Multilevel structural equation models showed that on days on which participants reported better sleep quality or more physical activity than usual, they also reported increased positive affect, decreased negative affect, and better learning goal achievement. Higher day-to-day snacking was only associated with increased positive affect. Both, increased day-to-day sleep quality and physical activity were indirectly associated with better learning goal achievement through changes in positive and negative affect; results for snacking were mixed. Importantly, day-to-day sleep quality was a stronger predictor for affect and learning goal achievement than physical activity or snacking. Conclusion: One day of better sleep or more physical activity than usual is associated with improved affect and academic performance. These findings have important implications for low-threshold interventions targeting the improvement of daily functioning.

Keywords: sleep quality, physical activity, snacking, affect, academic performance, multilevel structural equation model

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7627 Effects of Low Sleep Efficiency and Sleep Deprivation on Driver Physical Fatigue

Authors: Chen-Yu Tsai, Wen-Te Liu, Chen-Chen Lo, Kang Lo, Yin-Tzu Lin

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Background: Driving drowsiness related to insufficient or disordered sleep accounts for a major percentage of vehicular accidents. Sleep deprivation is the primary reason related to low sleep efficiency. Nevertheless, the mechanism of sleep deprivation induces driving fatigue to remain unclear. Objective: The objective of this study is to associate the relationship between insufficient sleep efficiency and driving fatigue. Methodologies: The physical condition while driving was obtained from the questionnaires to classify the state of driving fatigue. Sleep efficiency was quantified as the polysomnography (PSG), and the sleep stages were sentenced by the reregistered Technologist during examination in a hospital in New Taipei City (Taiwan). The independent T-test was used to investigate the correlation between sleep efficiency, sleep stages ratio, and driving drowsiness. Results: There were 880 subjects recruited in this study, who had been done polysomnography for evaluating severity for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) as well as completed the driver condition questionnaire. Four-hundred-eighty-four subjects (55%) were classified as fatigue group, and 396 subjects (45%) were served as the control group. The ratio of stage three sleep (N3) (0.032 ± 0.056) in fatigue group were significantly lower than the control group (p < 0.01). The significantly higher value of snoring index (242.14 ± 205.51 /hours) was observed in the fatigue group (p < 0.01). Conclusion: We observe the considerable correlation between deep sleep reduce and driving drowsiness. To avoid drowsy driving, the sleep deprivation, and the snoring events during the sleeping time should be monitored and alleviated.

Keywords: driving drowsiness, sleep deprivation, stage three sleep, snoring index

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7626 A Method for Evaluating the Mechanical Stress on Mandibular Advancement Devices

Authors: Tsung-yin Lin, Yi-yu Lee, Ching-hua Hung

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Snoring, the lay term for obstructive breathing during sleep, is one of the most prevalent of obnoxious human habits. Loud snoring usually makes others feel noisy and uncomfortable. Snoring also influences the sleep quality of snorers’ bed partners, because of the noise they do not get to sleep easily. Snoring causes the reduce of sleep quality leading to several medical problems, such as excessive daytime sleepiness, high blood pressure, increased risk for cardiovascular disease and cerebral vascular accident, and etc. There are many non-prescription devices offered for sale on the market, but very limited data are available to support a beneficial effect of these devices on snoring and use in treating obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Mandibular advancement devices (MADs), also termed as the Mandibular reposition devices (MRDs) are removable devices which are worn at night during sleep. Most devices require dental impression, bite registration, and fabrication by a dental laboratory. Those devices are fixed to upper and lower teeth and are adjusted to advance the mandible. The amount of protrusion is adjusted to meet the therapeutic requirements, comfort, and tolerance. Many devices have a fixed degree of advancement. Some are adjustable in a limited degree. This study focuses on the stress analysis of Mandibular Advancement Devices (MADs), which are considered as a standard treatment of snoring that promoted by American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM). This paper proposes a new MAD design, and the finite element analysis (FEA) is introduced to precede the stress simulation for this MAD.

Keywords: finite element analysis, mandibular advancement devices, mechanical stress, snoring

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7625 Effect of Reminiscence Therapy on the Sleep Quality of the Elderly Living in Nursing Homes

Authors: Güler Duru Aşiret

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Introduction: Poor sleep quality is a common problem among the older people living in nursing homes. Our study aimed at assessing the effect of individual reminiscence therapy on the sleep quality of the elderly living in nursing homes. Methods: The study had 22 people in the intervention group and 24 people in the control group. The intervention group had reminiscence therapy once a week for 12 weeks in the form of individual sessions of 25-30 minutes. In our study, we first determined the dates suitable for the intervention group and researcher and planned the date and time of individual reminiscence therapies, which would take 12 weeks. While preparing this schedule, we considered subjects’ time schedules for their regular visits to health facilities and the arrival of their visitors. At this stage, the researcher informed the participants that their regular attendance in sessions would affect the intervention outcome. One topic was discussed every week. Weekly topics included: introduction in the first week; childhood and family life, school days, starting work and work life (a day at home for housewives), a fun day out of home, marriage (friendship for the singles), plants and animals they loved, babies and children, food and cooking, holidays and travelling, special days and celebrations, assessment and closure, in the following weeks respectively. The control group had no intervention. Study data was collected by using an introductory information form and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Results: In our study, participants’ average age was 76.02 ± 7.31. 58.7% of them were male and 84.8% were single. All of them had at least one chronic disease. 76.1% did not need help for performing their daily life activities. The length of stay in the institution was 6.32 ± 3.85 years. According to the participants’ descriptive characteristics, there was no difference between groups. While there was no statistically significant difference between the pretest PSQI median scores (p > 0.05) of both groups, PSQI median score had a statistically significant decrease after 12 weeks of reminiscence therapy (p < 0.05). There was no statistically significant change in the median scores of the subcomponents of sleep latency, sleep duration, sleep efficiency, sleep disturbance and use of sleep medication before and after reminiscence therapy. After the 12-weeks reminiscence therapy, there was a statistically significant change in the median scores for the PSQI subcomponents of subjective sleep quality (p<0.05). Conclusion: Our study found that reminiscence therapy increased the sleep quality of the elderly living in nursing homes. Acknowledgment: This study (project no 2017-037) was supported by the Scientific Research Projects Coordination Unit of Aksaray University. We thank the elderly subjects for their kind participation.

Keywords: nursing, older people, reminiscence therapy, sleep

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7624 Operating Model of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Patients in North Karelia Central Hospital

Authors: L. Korpinen, T. Kava, I. Salmi

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This study aimed to describe the operating model of obstructive sleep apnea. Due to the large number of patients, the role of nurses in the diagnosis and treatment of sleep apnea was important. Pulmonary physicians met only a minority of the patients. The sleep apnea study in 2018 included about 800 patients, of which about 28% were normal and 180 patients were classified as severe (apnea-hypopnea index [AHI] over 30). The operating model has proven to be workable and appropriate. The patients understand well that they may not be referred to a pulmonary doctor. However, specialized medical follow-up on professional drivers continues every year.

Keywords: sleep, apnea patient, operating model, hospital

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7623 Associations between Sleep Problems and Disordered Eating in Japanese Adolescents: A Cross-Sectional Study

Authors: Takaharu Hirai, Yuta Mitobe, Hiromi Hirai

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Introduction: Eating disorders (ED) are serious psychiatric disorders that affect individuals, especially adolescents. It has been suggested that nonclinical ED-like characteristics are related to sleep problems. However, studies exploring the association between potential ED and sleep disorders have primarily been conducted in Europe and the United States. We conducted a survey of Japanese adolescents to investigate this claim. Method: In this cross-sectional study, 398 school-aged adolescents, aged 12–18 years old, matched for gender ratio, responded to a self-administered questionnaire survey. We used the Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26) and the Athens Insomnia Scale (AIS) to measure potential ED and sleep problems, respectively. In this study, participants with an EAT-26 total score of 0–19 points were classified as non-ED, while those with scores of 20 points or higher were classified as potential ED. Result: Of the 398 participants, 17 (4.3%) had an EAT-26 total score of 20 or higher. Among boys, the rate was 6 of 199 participants (3%), and among girls, the rate was 11 of 182 participants (6%). There were 89 participants (22.4%) with an AIS score of 6 points or higher, of which 36 (17.6%) were boys, and 53 (27.5%) were girls. Adolescents with potential ED had significantly higher rates of daytime sleep problems than those without ED. Further, while examining the types of sleep problems, adolescents with potential ED had greater problems with a sense of well-being and physical and mental functioning during the day. In contrast, no significant associations were found between potential ED and sleep initiation, awakenings during the night, early morning awakening, total sleep duration, or overall quality of sleep. Finally, nocturnal and daytime sleep scores were significantly associated with dieting, bulimia, and oral control EAT-26 sub-scores. Discussion: While Japanese adolescents with possible ED do not experience nighttime sleep problems, they do experience problems related to well-being and mental and physical functioning, which are indicators of daytime sleep problems. This may assist with early detection of disordered eating in adolescents. The study suggested that professionals working towards adolescent mental health issues need an approach that comprehensively integrates both sleep problems and potential ED.

Keywords: adolescents, potential eating disorders, sleep problems, eating attitudes test-26

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7622 The Moderating Roles of Bedtime Activities and Anxiety and Depression in the Relationship between Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Sleep Problems in Children

Authors: Lian Tong, Yan Ye, Qiong Yan

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Background: Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often experience sleep problems, but the comorbidity mechanism has not been sufficiently studied. This study aimed to determine the comorbidity of ADHD and sleep problems as well as the moderating effects of bedtime activities and depression/anxiety symptoms on the relationship between ADHD and sleep problems. Methods: We recruited 934 primary students from third to fifth grade and their parents by stratified random sampling from three primary schools in Shanghai, China. This study used parent-reported versions of the ADHD Rating Scale-IV, Children’s Sleep Habits Questionnaire, and Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist. We used hierarchical linear regression analysis to clarify the moderating effects of bedtime activities and depression/anxiety symptoms. Results: We found that children with more ADHD symptoms had shorter sleep durations and more sleep problems on weekdays. Screen time before bedtime strengthened the relationship between ADHD and sleep-disordered breathing. Children with more screen time were more likely to have sleep onset delay, while those with less screen time had more sleep onset problems with increasing ADHD symptoms. The high bedtime eating group experienced more night waking with increasing ADHD symptoms compared with the low bedtime eating group. Anxiety/depression exacerbated total sleep problems and further interacted with ADHD symptoms to predict sleep length and sleep duration problems. Conclusions: Bedtime activities and emotional problems had important moderating effects on the relationship between ADHD and sleep problems. These findings indicate that appropriate bedtime management and emotional management may reduce sleep problems and improve sleep duration for children with ADHD symptoms.

Keywords: ADHD, sleep problems, anxiety/depression, bedtime activities, children

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7621 Sleep Ecology, Sleep Regulation and Behavior Problems in Maltreated Preschoolers: A Scoping Review

Authors: Sabrina Servot, Annick St-Amand, Michel Rousseau, Valerie Simard, Evelyne Touchette

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Child maltreatment has a profound impact on children’s development. In its victims, internalizing and externalizing problems are highly prevalent, and sleep problems are common. Furthermore, the environment they live in is often disorganized, lacking routine and consistency. In non-maltreated children, several studies documented the important role of sleep regulation and sleep ecology. A poor sleep ecology (e.g., lack of sleep hygiene and bedtime routine, inappropriate sleeping location) may lead to sleep regulation problems (e.g., short sleep duration, nocturnal awakenings), and sleep regulation problems may increase the risk of behavior problems. Therefore, this scoping review aims to map evidence about sleep ecology and sleep regulation and the associations between sleep ecology, sleep regulation, and behavior problems in maltreated preschoolers. Literature from 1993 was searched in PsycInfo, Pubmed, Medline, Eric, and Proquest Dissertations and Theses. Articles and thesis were comprehensively reviewed based upon inclusion/exclusion criteria: 1) it concerns maltreated children aged 1-5 years, and 2) it addresses at least one of the following: sleep ecology, sleep regulation, and/or their associations with behavior problems in maltreated preschoolers. From the 650 studies screened, nine of them were included. Data were charted according to study characteristics, nature of variable documented, measures, analyses performed, and results of each study, then synthesized in a narrative summary. The main results show all included articles were quantitative. Foster children samples were used in four studies, children experienced different types of maltreatment in six studies, while one was specifically about sexually abused children. Regarding sleep ecology, only one study describing maltreated preschoolers’ sleep ecology was found, while seven studies documented sleep regulation. Among these seven studies, 17 different sleep variables (e.g., parasomnia, dyssomnia, total 24-h sleep duration) were used, each study documenting from one to nine of them. Actigraphic measures were employed in three studies, the others used parent-reported questionnaires or sleep diaries. Maltreated children’s sleep was described and/or compared to non-maltreated children’s sleep, or an intervention group, showing mild differences. As for associations between sleep regulation and behavior problems, five studies investigated it and performed correlational or linear regression analyses between sleep and behavior problems, revealing some significant associations. No study was found about associations between sleep ecology and sleep regulation, between sleep ecology and behavior problems, or between these three variables. In conclusion, literature about sleep ecology, sleep regulation, and their associations with behavior problems are far more scarce in maltreated preschoolers than in non-maltreated ones. At present, there is especially a paucity of research about sleep ecology and the association between sleep ecology and sleep regulation in maltreated preschoolers, while studies on non-maltreated children showed sleep ecology plays a major role in sleep regulation. In addition, as sleep regulation is measured in many different ways among the studies, it is difficult to compare their findings. Finally, it seems necessary that research fill these gaps, as recommendations could be made to clinicians working with maltreated preschoolers regarding the use of sleep ecology and sleep regulation as intervention tools.

Keywords: maltreated preschoolers, sleep ecology, sleep regulation, behavior problems

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7620 Effects of Sleep Deprivation on Athletic Performance in Nigeria Colleges of Education Games

Authors: Rasheed Owolabi Oloyede, Joseph Olusegun Adelusi, Seun Oluwadare

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Sleep has been found to have many recuperative and restorative beneficial effects on athletic recovery. When a person is deprived of sleep this can have many effects on their immune and endocrine systems. Both of these systems are extremely important for the recovery process of any athlete and when we deprive ourselves of sleep, we are depriving ourselves of recovery. This study examined how sleep deprivation can hinder sport performance among selected athletes representing Adeyemi College of Education at Nigeria Colleges of Education Games (NICEGA) competitions at Minna. A total of 32 athletes were sampled for the study. They were exposed to two different activities. Each activity was performed before and after sleep deprivation, the activities were 100m dash, shuttle relay. The athletes were randomly assigned to two groups that are experimental and control groups. Pretest were conducted on both groups before apply treatment to the other group. A day before the activities to be performed the control group was denied of sleep between 10p.m to 5a.m for a period of 6 weeks. The analysis of the data showed that athletes performance in the two selected activities performed on equal basis before the sleep deprivation. After sleep deprivation the performance of experimental group was a little better than the control group that were denied of sleep. It was concluded that sleep allows the body to spend less energy resources on body processes needed while awake, it was concluded that sleep deprivation enables the body system work effectively. The body can expend needed energy, balance and adequate reaction time if it is allowed to have enough rest. Lack of adequate sleep results to dullness of the brain, nervousness and anxiety which all have negative effect on performance of activities by athletes. Based on the findings, it was recommended that extend nightly sleep for several week to reduce your sleep debt before competition. Maintain a low sleep debt by obtaining a sufficient amount of nightly sleep (seven to eight hours for adults, nine or more hours for teens and young adults). Keep a regular sleep-wake schedule, going to bed and waking up at the same times every day.

Keywords: activities, deprivation, performance, sleep

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