Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 19510

Search results for: data cleaning

19510 Research of Data Cleaning Methods Based on Dependency Rules

Authors: Yang Bao, Shi Wei Deng, WangQun Lin

Abstract:

This paper introduces the concept and principle of data cleaning, analyzes the types and causes of dirty data, and proposes several key steps of typical cleaning process, puts forward a well scalability and versatility data cleaning framework, in view of data with attribute dependency relation, designs several of violation data discovery algorithms by formal formula, which can obtain inconsistent data to all target columns with condition attribute dependent no matter data is structured (SQL) or unstructured (NoSQL), and gives 6 data cleaning methods based on these algorithms.

Keywords: data cleaning, dependency rules, violation data discovery, data repair

Procedia PDF Downloads 346
19509 Photovoltaic Array Cleaning System Design and Evaluation

Authors: Ghoname Abdullah, Hidekazu Nishimura

Abstract:

Dust accumulation on the photovoltaic module's surface results in appreciable loss and negatively affects the generated power. Hence, in this paper, the design of a photovoltaic array cleaning system is presented. The cleaning system utilizes one drive motor, two guide rails, and four sweepers during the cleaning process. The cleaning system was experimentally implemented for one month to investigate its efficiency on PV array energy output. The energy capture over a month for PV array cleaned using the proposed cleaning system is compared with that of the energy capture using soiled PV array. The results show a 15% increase in energy generation from PV array with cleaning. From the results, investigating the optimal scheduling of the PV array cleaning could be an interesting research topic.

Keywords: cleaning system, dust accumulation, PV array, PV module, soiling

Procedia PDF Downloads 57
19508 Green Technologies and Sustainability in the Care and Maintenance of Protective Textiles

Authors: R. Nayak, T. Panwar, R. Padhye

Abstract:

Protective textiles get soiled, stained and even worn during their use, which may not be usable after a certain period due to the loss of protective performance. They need regular cleaning and maintenance, which helps to extend the durability of the clothing, retains their useful properties and ensures that fresh clothing is ready to wear when needed. Generally, the cleaning processes used for various protective clothing include dry-cleaning (using solvents) or wet cleaning (using water). These cleaning processes can alter the fabric surface properties, dimensions, and physical, mechanical and performance properties. The technology of laundering and dry-cleaning has undergone several changes. Sustainable methods and products are available for faster, safer and improved cleaning of protective textiles. We performed a comprehensive and systematic review of green technologies and eco-friendly products for sustainable cleaning of protective textiles. Special emphasis is given on the care and maintenance procedures of protective textiles for protection from fire, bullets, chemical and other types of protective clothing.

Keywords: Sustainable cleaning, protective textiles, ecofriendly cleaning, ozone laundering, ultrasonic cleaning

Procedia PDF Downloads 161
19507 The Cleaning Equipment to Prevents Dust Diffusion of Bus Air Filters

Authors: Jiraphorn Satechan, Thanaphon Khamthieng, Warunee Phanwong

Abstract:

This action research aimed at designing and developing the cleaning equipment to preventing dust diffusion of bus air filter. Quantitative and qualitative data collection methods were used to conduct data from October 1st, 2018 to September 30th, 2019. All of participants were male (100.0%) with aged 40- 49 years and 57.15%, of them finish bachelor degree. 71.43% of them was a driver and 57.15% of them had the working experience between 10 and 15 years. Research revealed that the participants assessed the quality of the bus air filter cleaning equipment for preventing dust diffusion at a moderate level (σ= 0.29), and 71.43 of them also suggested the development methods in order to improve the quality of bus air filters cleaning equipment as follows: 1) to install the circuit breaker for cutting the electricity and controlling the on-off of the equipment and to change the motor to the DC system, 2) should install the display monitor for wind pressure and electricity system as well as to install the air pressure gauge, 3) should install the tank lid lock for preventing air leakage and dust diffusion by increasing the blowing force and sucking power, 4) to stabilize the holding points for preventing the filter shaking while rotating and blowing for cleaning and to reduce the rotation speed in order to allow the filters to move slowly for the air system to blow for cleaning more thoroughly, 5) the amount of dust should be measured before and after cleaning and should be designed the cleaning equipment to be able to clean with a variety of filters, and sizes. Moreover, the light-weight materials should be used to build the cleaning equipment and the wheels should be installed at the base of the equipment in order to make it easier to move.

Keywords: Cleaning Equipment, Bus Air Filters, Preventing Dust Diffusion, Innovation

Procedia PDF Downloads 43
19506 Development of new Ecological Cleaning Process of Metal Sheets

Authors: L. M. López López, J. V. Montesdeoca Contreras, A. R. Cuji Fajardo, L. E. Garzón Muñoz, J. I. Fajardo Seminario

Abstract:

In this article a new method of cleaning process of metal sheets for household appliances was developed, using low-pressure cold plasma. In this context, this research consist in analyze the results of metal sheets cleaning process using plasma and compare with pickling process to determinate the efficiency of each process and the level of contamination produced. Surface Cleaning was evaluated by measuring the contact angle with deionized water, diiodo methane and ethylene glycol, for the calculus of the surface free energy by means of the Fowkes theories and Wu. Showing that low-pressure cold plasma is very efficient both in cleaning process how in environment impact.

Keywords: efficient use of plasma, ecological impact of plasma, metal sheets cleaning means, plasma cleaning process.

Procedia PDF Downloads 258
19505 Microscopic Features Influences on Textile Fabrics Self-Cleaning Ability

Authors: Ayat Adnan Atwah

Abstract:

Self-cleaning ability in textile fabrics was comprehensively investigated in the last decade. Most of these investigations have used surface roughness, and low surface energy features to establish a self-cleaning mechanism. Extensive research articles and reviews have been published to describe these processes along with their microscopic features. When these reviewed with a critical eye, it has been found that a comprehensive effort is still required to compile all these previous research, emphasizing how textile fabrics' microscopic features can influence their self-cleaning ability. No research has been conducted to explore the self-cleaning potential of microscopic geometrical features of fabric at the woven structural level. Researchers used microscopic features to increase the mechanical strength of the fabric. However, they did not change the microscopic features at a woven level to evaluate the self-cleaning ability. In the existing literature, researchers have tried to develop self-cleaning textiles with the help of coatings on the fabric. These coatings are applied to the fabrics by using spray and nanoparticle processing. The coatings create a different surface on the fabric, and hence the changes in the microscopic features of this surface control the self-cleaning ability. Instead of using an additional coating, the microscopic features of the fabric itself can also influence the surface roughness and low surface energy and provide self-cleaning ability at the woven structural level. Key microscopic features like surface roughness, porosity, and wettability of a textile fabric are still not comprehensively investigated for their influence on fabric’s self-cleaning ability. Significantly, the interdependencies between these features with overall fabric geometry at the woven level have not been explored quantitatively. Qualitative observations have been made mainly in the past literature. However, fabrics with self-cleaning ability to be produced in mass production require extensive empirical studies. These studies must involve parametric analysis on varying values of the microscopic features and their quantitative influence on the desired self-cleaning feature.

Keywords: self-cleaning ability, influence, microscopic features, textile fabrics

Procedia PDF Downloads 100
19504 The Effect of Different Surface Cleaning Methods on Porosity Formation and Mechanical Property of AA6xxx Aluminum Gas Metal Arc Welds

Authors: Fatemeh Mirakhorli

Abstract:

Porosity is the main issue during welding of aluminum alloys, and surface cleaning has a critical influence to reduce the porosity level by removing the oxidized surface layer before fusion welding. Developing an optimum and economical surface cleaning method has an enormous benefit for aluminum welding industries to reduce costs related to repairing and repeating welds as well as increasing the mechanical properties of the joints. In this study, several mechanical and chemical surface cleaning methods were examined for butt joint welding of 2 mm thick AA6xxx alloys using ER5556 filler metal. The effects of each method on porosity formation and tensile properties are evaluated. It has been found that, compared to the conventional mechanical cleaning method, the use of chemical cleaning leads to an important reduction in porosity level even after a significant delay between cleaning and welding. The effect of the higher porosity level in the fusion zone to reduce the tensile strength of the welds is shown.

Keywords: gas metal arc welding (GMAW), aluminum alloy, surface cleaning, porosity formation, mechanical property

Procedia PDF Downloads 55
19503 Pilot Scale Production and Compatibility Criteria of New Self-Cleaning Materials

Authors: Jonjaua Ranogajec, Ognjen Rudic, Snezana Pasalic, Snezana Vucetic, Damir Cjepa

Abstract:

The paper involves a chain of activities from synthesis, establishment of the methodology for characterization and testing of novel protective materials through the pilot production and application on model supports. It summarizes the results regarding the development of the pilot production protocol for newly developed self-cleaning materials. The optimization of the production parameters was completed in order to improve the most important functional properties (mineralogy characteristics, particle size, self-cleaning properties and photocatalytic activity) of the newly designed nanocomposite material.

Keywords: pilot production, self-cleaning materials, compatibility, cultural heritage

Procedia PDF Downloads 269
19502 Cleaning Performance of High-Frequency, High-Intensity 360 kHz Frequency Operating in Thickness Mode Transducers

Authors: R. Vetrimurugan, Terry Lim, M. J. Goodson, R. Nagarajan

Abstract:

This study investigates the cleaning performance of high intensity 360 kHz frequency on the removal of nano-dimensional and sub-micron particles from various surfaces, uniformity of the cleaning tank and run to run variation of cleaning process. The uniformity of the cleaning tank was measured by two different methods i.e 1. ppbTM meter and 2. Liquid Particle Counting (LPC) technique. In the second method, aluminium metal spacer components was placed at various locations of the cleaning tank (such as centre, top left corner, bottom left corner, top right corner, bottom right corner) and the resultant particles removed by 360 kHz frequency was measured. The result indicates that the energy was distributed more uniformly throughout the entire cleaning vessel even at the corners and edges of the tank when megasonic sweeping technology is applied. The result also shows that rinsing the parts with 360 kHz frequency at final rinse gives lower particle counts, hence higher cleaning efficiency as compared to other frequencies. When megasonic sweeping technology is applied each piezoelectric transducers will operate at their optimum resonant frequency and generates stronger acoustic cavitational force and higher acoustic streaming velocity. These combined forces are helping to enhance the particle removal and at the same time improve the overall cleaning performance. The multiple extractions study was also carried out for various frequencies to measure the cleaning potential and asymptote value.

Keywords: power distribution, megasonic sweeping, cavitation intensity, particle removal, laser particle counting, nano, submicron

Procedia PDF Downloads 349
19501 Electrostatic Cleaning System Integrated with Thunderon Brush for Lunar Dust Mitigation

Authors: Voss Harrigan, Korey Carter, Mohammad Reza Shaeri

Abstract:

Detrimental effects of lunar dust on space hardware, spacesuits, and astronauts’ health have been already identified during Apollo missions. Developing effective dust mitigation technologies is critically important for successful space exploration and related missions in NASA applications. In this study, an electrostatic cleaning system (ECS) integrated with a negatively ionized Thunderon brush was developed to mitigate small-sized lunar dust particles with diameters ranging from 0.04 µm to 35 µm, and the mean and median size of 7 µm and 5 µm, respectively. It was found that the frequency pulses of the negative ion generator caused particles to stick to the Thunderon bristles and repel between the pulses. The brush was used manually to ensure that particles were removed from areas where the ECS failed to mitigate the lunar simulant. The acquired data demonstrated that the developed system removed over 91-96% of the lunar dust particles. The present study was performed as a proof-of-concept to enhance the cleaning performance of ECSs by integrating a brushing process. Suggestions were made to further improve the performance of the developed technology through future research.

Keywords: lunar dust mitigation, electrostatic cleaning system, Brushing, Thunderon brush, cleaning rate

Procedia PDF Downloads 148
19500 Application of Artificial Neural Network in Initiating Cleaning Of Photovoltaic Solar Panels

Authors: Mohamed Mokhtar, Mostafa F. Shaaban

Abstract:

Among the challenges facing solar photovoltaic (PV) systems in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), dust accumulation on solar panels is considered the most severe problem that faces the growth of solar power plants. The accumulation of dust on the solar panels significantly degrades output from these panels. Hence, solar PV panels have to be cleaned manually or using costly automated cleaning methods. This paper focuses on initiating cleaning actions when required to reduce maintenance costs. The cleaning actions are triggered only when the dust level exceeds a threshold value. The amount of dust accumulated on the PV panels is estimated using an artificial neural network (ANN). Experiments are conducted to collect the required data, which are used in the training of the ANN model. Then, this ANN model will be fed by the output power from solar panels, ambient temperature, and solar irradiance, and thus, it will be able to estimate the amount of dust accumulated on solar panels at these conditions. The model was tested on different case studies to confirm the accuracy of the developed model.

Keywords: machine learning, dust, PV panels, renewable energy

Procedia PDF Downloads 64
19499 Coated Surface to Reduce Adhesion of Particles in Electrostatic Cleaning System for Lunar Dust Mitigation

Authors: Voss Harrigan, Korey Carter, Mohammad Reza Shaeri

Abstract:

In alignment with NASA’s priority, an effective lunar dust mitigation technology was developed in the present study to remove small-sized lunar dust particles from spacesuits. The developed technology is an electrostatic cleaning system (ECS) integrated with a negatively ionized Thunderon brush, which uses carbon nanotube (CNT) electrodes and a coated fabric. Work Function Matching (WFM) coating was used as the coating material. Since CNT electrodes are flexible, they are suited for spacesuits that are flexible structures and prone to geometrical changes due to astronauts’ movements. The performance of the WFM-coated fabric was compared with that of uncoated fabric. Cleaning rate, as the ratio between the weight of removed particles and the initial weight of particles, was used to characterize the cleaning performance of the technology. It was found that due to reduced adhesion between dust particles and the fabric, the dust mitigation technology equipped with WFM-coated fabric achieved a high cleaning rate of 98% compared to the cleaning rate of 91% for the uncoated fabric. Because of using small-sized particles for the experiments (i.e., the mean and median diameter of 7 µm and 5 µm, respectively), the high cleaning rate of 98% indicates that the developed lunar dust mitigation technology is a promising technique for effective removal of small-sized particles from spacesuits.

Keywords: lunar dust mitigation, electrostatic cleaning system, carbon nanotube electrodes, WFM coating, thunder on brush

Procedia PDF Downloads 17
19498 Investigation of Soot Regeneration Behavior in the DPF Cleaning Device

Authors: Won Jun Jo, Man Young Kim

Abstract:

To meet stringent diesel particulate matter regulations, DPF system is essential after treatment technology providing exceptional reliability and filtration performance. At low load driving conditions, the passive type of DPF system is ineffective for regeneration method due to the inadequate of engine exhaust heat in removing accumulated soot from the filter. Therefore, DPF cleaning device is necessary to remove the soot particles. In this work, the numerical analysis on the active regeneration of DPF in DPF cleaning device is performed to find the optimum operating conditions. In order to find the DPF regeneration characteristics during active regeneration, 5 different initial soot loading condition are investigated. As the initial soot mass increases, the maximum temperature of DPF and regeneration rate also increase.

Keywords: active regeneration, DPF cleaning device, pressure drop, Diesel Particulate Filter, particulate matters, computational fluid dynamics

Procedia PDF Downloads 211
19497 A Clustering-Based Approach for Weblog Data Cleaning

Authors: Amine Ganibardi, Cherif Arab Ali

Abstract:

This paper addresses the data cleaning issue as a part of web usage data preprocessing within the scope of Web Usage Mining. Weblog data recorded by web servers within log files reflect usage activity, i.e., End-users’ clicks and underlying user-agents’ hits. As Web Usage Mining is interested in End-users’ behavior, user-agents’ hits are referred to as noise to be cleaned-off before mining. Filtering hits from clicks is not trivial for two reasons, i.e., a server records requests interlaced in sequential order regardless of their source or type, website resources may be set up as requestable interchangeably by end-users and user-agents. The current methods are content-centric based on filtering heuristics of relevant/irrelevant items in terms of some cleaning attributes, i.e., website’s resources filetype extensions, website’s resources pointed by hyperlinks/URIs, http methods, user-agents, etc. These methods need exhaustive extra-weblog data and prior knowledge on the relevant and/or irrelevant items to be assumed as clicks or hits within the filtering heuristics. Such methods are not appropriate for dynamic/responsive Web for three reasons, i.e., resources may be set up to as clickable by end-users regardless of their type, website’s resources are indexed by frame names without filetype extensions, web contents are generated and cancelled differently from an end-user to another. In order to overcome these constraints, a clustering-based cleaning method centered on the logging structure is proposed. This method focuses on the statistical properties of the logging structure at the requested and referring resources attributes levels. It is insensitive to logging content and does not need extra-weblog data. The used statistical property takes on the structure of the generated logging feature by webpage requests in terms of clicks and hits. Since a webpage consists of its single URI and several components, these feature results in a single click to multiple hits ratio in terms of the requested and referring resources. Thus, the clustering-based method is meant to identify two clusters based on the application of the appropriate distance to the frequency matrix of the requested and referring resources levels. As the ratio clicks to hits is single to multiple, the clicks’ cluster is the smallest one in requests number. Hierarchical Agglomerative Clustering based on a pairwise distance (Gower) and average linkage has been applied to four logfiles of dynamic/responsive websites whose click to hits ratio range from 1/2 to 1/15. The optimal clustering set on the basis of average linkage and maximum inter-cluster inertia results always in two clusters. The evaluation of the smallest cluster referred to as clicks cluster under the terms of confusion matrix indicators results in 97% of true positive rate. The content-centric cleaning methods, i.e., conventional and advanced cleaning, resulted in a lower rate 91%. Thus, the proposed clustering-based cleaning outperforms the content-centric methods within dynamic and responsive web design without the need of any extra-weblog. Such an improvement in cleaning quality is likely to refine dependent analysis.

Keywords: clustering approach, data cleaning, data preprocessing, weblog data, web usage data

Procedia PDF Downloads 109
19496 Development and Evaluation of Economical Self-cleaning Cement

Authors: Anil Saini, Jatinder Kumar Ratan

Abstract:

Now a day, the key issue for the scientific community is to devise the innovative technologies for sustainable control of urban pollution. In urban cities, a large surface area of the masonry structures, buildings, and pavements is exposed to the open environment, which may be utilized for the control of air pollution, if it is built from the photocatalytically active cement-based constructional materials such as concrete, mortars, paints, and blocks, etc. The photocatalytically active cement is formulated by incorporating a photocatalyst in the cement matrix, and such cement is generally known as self-cleaning cement In the literature, self-cleaning cement has been synthesized by incorporating nanosized-TiO₂ (n-TiO₂) as a photocatalyst in the formulation of the cement. However, the utilization of n-TiO₂ for the formulation of self-cleaning cement has the drawbacks of nano-toxicity, higher cost, and agglomeration as far as the commercial production and applications are concerned. The use of microsized-TiO₂ (m-TiO₂) in place of n-TiO₂ for the commercial manufacture of self-cleaning cement could avoid the above-mentioned problems. However, m-TiO₂ is less photocatalytically active as compared to n- TiO₂ due to smaller surface area, higher band gap, and increased recombination rate. As such, the use of m-TiO₂ in the formulation of self-cleaning cement may lead to a reduction in photocatalytic activity, thus, reducing the self-cleaning, depolluting, and antimicrobial abilities of the resultant cement material. So improvement in the photoactivity of m-TiO₂ based self-cleaning cement is the key issue for its practical applications in the present scenario. The current work proposes the use of surface-fluorinated m-TiO₂ for the formulation of self-cleaning cement to enhance its photocatalytic activity. The calcined dolomite, a constructional material, has also been utilized as co-adsorbent along with the surface-fluorinated m-TiO₂ in the formulation of self-cleaning cement to enhance the photocatalytic performance. The surface-fluorinated m-TiO₂, calcined dolomite, and the formulated self-cleaning cement were characterized using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), BET (Brunauer–Emmett–Teller) surface area, and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (EDXRF). The self-cleaning property of the as-prepared self-cleaning cement was evaluated using the methylene blue (MB) test. The depolluting ability of the formulated self-cleaning cement was assessed through a continuous NOX removal test. The antimicrobial activity of the self-cleaning cement was appraised using the method of the zone of inhibition. The as-prepared self-cleaning cement obtained by uniform mixing of 87% clinker, 10% calcined dolomite, and 3% surface-fluorinated m-TiO₂ showed a remarkable self-cleaning property by providing 53.9% degradation of the coated MB dye. The self-cleaning cement also depicted a noteworthy depolluting ability by removing 5.5% of NOx from the air. The inactivation of B. subtiltis bacteria in the presence of light confirmed the significant antimicrobial property of the formulated self-cleaning cement. The self-cleaning, depolluting, and antimicrobial results are attributed to the synergetic effect of surface-fluorinated m-TiO₂ and calcined dolomite in the cement matrix. The present study opens an idea and route for further research for acile and economical formulation of self-cleaning cement.

Keywords: microsized-titanium dioxide (m-TiO₂), self-cleaning cement, photocatalysis, surface-fluorination

Procedia PDF Downloads 54
19495 Cleaning of Scientific References in Large Patent Databases Using Rule-Based Scoring and Clustering

Authors: Emiel Caron

Abstract:

Patent databases contain patent related data, organized in a relational data model, and are used to produce various patent statistics. These databases store raw data about scientific references cited by patents. For example, Patstat holds references to tens of millions of scientific journal publications and conference proceedings. These references might be used to connect patent databases with bibliographic databases, e.g. to study to the relation between science, technology, and innovation in various domains. Problematic in such studies is the low data quality of the references, i.e. they are often ambiguous, unstructured, and incomplete. Moreover, a complete bibliographic reference is stored in only one attribute. Therefore, a computerized cleaning and disambiguation method for large patent databases is developed in this work. The method uses rule-based scoring and clustering. The rules are based on bibliographic metadata, retrieved from the raw data by regular expressions, and are transparent and adaptable. The rules in combination with string similarity measures are used to detect pairs of records that are potential duplicates. Due to the scoring, different rules can be combined, to join scientific references, i.e. the rules reinforce each other. The scores are based on expert knowledge and initial method evaluation. After the scoring, pairs of scientific references that are above a certain threshold, are clustered by means of single-linkage clustering algorithm to form connected components. The method is designed to disambiguate all the scientific references in the Patstat database. The performance evaluation of the clustering method, on a large golden set with highly cited papers, shows on average a 99% precision and a 95% recall. The method is therefore accurate but careful, i.e. it weighs precision over recall. Consequently, separate clusters of high precision are sometimes formed, when there is not enough evidence for connecting scientific references, e.g. in the case of missing year and journal information for a reference. The clusters produced by the method can be used to directly link the Patstat database with bibliographic databases as the Web of Science or Scopus.

Keywords: clustering, data cleaning, data disambiguation, data mining, patent analysis, scientometrics

Procedia PDF Downloads 126
19494 Anticorrosive Polyurethane Clear Coat with Self-Cleaning Character

Authors: Nihit Madireddi, P. A. Mahanwar

Abstract:

We have aimed to produce a self-cleaning transparent polymer coating with polyurethane (PU) matrix as the latter is highly solvent, chemical and weather resistant having good mechanical properties. Nano-silica modified by 1H, 1H, 2H, 2H-perflurooctyltriethoxysilane was incorporated into the PU matrix for attaining self-cleaning ability through hydrophobicity. The modification was confirmed by particle size analysis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Thermo-gravimetric (TGA) studies were carried to ascertain the grafting of silane onto the silica. Several coating formulations were prepared by varying the silica loading content and compared to a commercial equivalent. The effect of dispersion and the morphology of the coated films were assessed by SEM analysis. All coating standardized tests like solvent resistance, adhesion, flexibility, acid, alkali, gloss etc. have been performed as per ASTM standards. Water contact angle studies were conducted to analyze the hydrophobic character of the coating. In addition, the coatings were also subjected to salt spray and accelerated weather testing to analyze the durability of the coating.

Keywords: FAS, nano-silica, PU clear coat, self-cleaning

Procedia PDF Downloads 223
19493 Photocatalytic Self-Cleaning Concrete Production Using Nano-Size Titanium Dioxide

Authors: Amin Akhnoukh, Halla Elea, Lawrence Benzmiller

Abstract:

The objective of this research is to evaluate the possibility of using nano-sized materials, mainly titanium dioxide (TiO2), in producing economic self-cleaning concrete using photo-catalysis process. In photo-catalysis, the nano-particles react and dissolve smog, dust, and dirt particles in the presence of sunlight, resulting in a cleaned concrete surface. To-date, the Italian cement company (Italcementi) produces a proprietary self-cleaning cementitious material that is currently used in government buildings and major highways in Europe. The high initial cost of the proprietary product represents a major obstacle to the wide spread of the self-cleaning concrete in industrial and commercial projects. In this research project, titanium dioxide nano-sized particles are infused to the top layer of a concrete pour before the concrete surface is finished. Once hardened, a blue dye is applied to the concrete surface to simulate smog and dirt effect. The concrete surface is subjected to direct light to investigate the effectiveness of the nano-sized titanium dioxide in cleaning the concrete surface. The outcome of this research project proved that the titanium dioxide can be successfully used in reducing smog and dirt particles attached to the concrete when infused to the surface concrete layer. The majority of cleansing effect due to photocatalysis happens within 24 hours of photocatalysis process. The non-proprietary mix can be used in highway, industrial, and commercial projects due to its economy and ease of production.

Keywords: self-cleaning concrete, photocatalysis, Smog-eating concrete, titanium dioxide

Procedia PDF Downloads 283
19492 Improving Cleanability by Changing Fish Processing Equipment Design

Authors: Lars A. L. Giske, Ola J. Mork, Emil Bjoerlykhaug

Abstract:

The design of fish processing equipment greatly impacts how easy the cleaning process for the equipment is. This is a critical issue in fish processing, as cleaning of fish processing equipment is a task that is both costly and time consuming, in addition to being very important with regards to product quality. Even more, poorly cleaned equipment could in the worst case lead to contaminated product from which consumers could get ill. This paper will elucidate how equipment design changes could improve the work for the cleaners and saving money for the fish processing facilities by looking at a case for product design improvements. The design of fish processing equipment largely determines how easy it is to clean. “Design for cleaning” is the new hype in the industry and equipment where the ease of cleaning is prioritized gets a competitive advantage over equipment in which design for cleaning has not been prioritized. Design for cleaning is an important research area for equipment manufacturers. SeaSide AS is doing continuously improvements in the design of their products in order to gain a competitive advantage. The focus in this paper will be conveyors for internal logistic and a product called the “electro stunner” will be studied with regards to “Design for cleaning”. Often together with SeaSide’s customers, ideas for new products or product improvements are sketched out, 3D-modelled, discussed, revised, built and delivered. Feedback from the customers is taken into consideration, and the product design is revised once again. This loop was repeated multiple times, and led to new product designs. The new designs sometimes also cause the manufacturing processes to change (as in going from bolted to welded connections). Customers report back that the concrete changes applied to products by SeaSide has resulted in overall more easily cleaned equipment. These changes include, but are not limited to; welded connections (opposed to bolted connections), gaps between contact faces, opening up structures to allow cleaning “inside” equipment, and generally avoiding areas in which humidity and water may gather and build up. This is important, as there will always be bacteria in the water which will grow if the area never dries up. The work of creating more cleanable design is still ongoing, and will “never” be finished as new designs and new equipment will have their own challenges.

Keywords: cleaning, design, equipment, fish processing, innovation

Procedia PDF Downloads 159
19491 A New Criterion for Removal of Fouling Deposit

Authors: D. Bäcker, H. Chaves

Abstract:

The key to improve surface cleaning of the fouling is understanding of the mechanism of separation process of the deposit from the surface. The authors give basic principles of characterization of separation process and introduce a corresponding criterion. The developed criterion is a measure for the moment of separation of the deposit from the surface. For this purpose a new measurement technique is described.

Keywords: cleaning, fouling, separation, criterion

Procedia PDF Downloads 361
19490 Bacterial Exposure and Microbial Activity in Dental Clinics during Cleaning Procedures

Authors: Atin Adhikari, Sushma Kurella, Pratik Banerjee, Nabanita Mukherjee, Yamini M. Chandana Gollapudi, Bushra Shah

Abstract:

Different sharp instruments, drilling machines, and high speed rotary instruments are routinely used in dental clinics during dental cleaning. Therefore, these cleaning procedures release a lot of oral microorganisms including bacteria in clinic air and may cause significant occupational bioaerosol exposure risks for dentists, dental hygienists, patients, and dental clinic employees. Two major goals of this study were to quantify volumetric airborne concentrations of bacteria and to assess overall microbial activity in this type of occupational environment. The study was conducted in several dental clinics of southern Georgia and 15 dental cleaning procedures were targeted for sampling of airborne bacteria and testing of overall microbial activity in settled dusts over clinic floors. For air sampling, a Biostage viable cascade impactor was utilized, which comprises an inlet cone, precision-drilled 400-hole impactor stage, and a base that holds an agar plate (Tryptic soy agar). A high-flow Quick-Take-30 pump connected to this impactor pulls microorganisms in air at 28.3 L/min flow rate through the holes (jets) where they are collected on the agar surface for approx. five minutes. After sampling, agar plates containing the samples were placed in an ice chest with blue ice and plates were incubated at 30±2°C for 24 to 72 h. Colonies were counted and converted to airborne concentrations (CFU/m3) followed by positive hole corrections. Most abundant bacterial colonies (selected by visual screening) were identified by PCR amplicon sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. For understanding overall microbial activity in clinic floors and estimating a general cleanliness of the clinic surfaces during or after dental cleaning procedures, ATP levels were determined in swabbed dust samples collected from 10 cm2 floor surfaces. Concentration of ATP may indicate both the cell viability and the metabolic status of settled microorganisms in this situation. An ATP measuring kit was used, which utilized standard luciferin-luciferase fluorescence reaction and a luminometer, which quantified ATP levels as relative light units (RLU). Three air and dust samples were collected during each cleaning procedure (at the beginning, during cleaning, and immediately after the procedure was completed (n = 45). Concentrations at the beginning, during, and after dental cleaning procedures were 671±525, 917±1203, and 899±823 CFU/m3, respectively for airborne bacteria and 91±101, 243±129, and 139±77 RLU/sample, respectively for ATP levels. The concentrations of bacteria were significantly higher than typical indoor residential environments. Although an increasing trend for airborne bacteria was observed during cleaning, the data collected at three different time points were not significantly different (ANOVA: p = 0.38) probably due to high standard deviations of data. The ATP levels, however, demonstrated a significant difference (ANOVA: p <0.05) in this scenario indicating significant change in microbial activity on floor surfaces during dental cleaning. The most common bacterial genera identified were: Neisseria sp., Streptococcus sp., Chryseobacterium sp., Paenisporosarcina sp., and Vibrio sp. in terms of frequencies of occurrences, respectively. The study concluded that bacterial exposure in dental clinics could be a notable occupational biohazard, and appropriate respiratory protections for the employees are urgently needed.

Keywords: bioaerosols, hospital hygiene, indoor air quality, occupational biohazards

Procedia PDF Downloads 237
19489 Highly Transparent, Hydrophobic and Self-Cleaning ZnO-Durazane Based Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Coatings

Authors: Abderrahmane Hamdi, Julie Chalon, Benoit Dodin, Philippe Champagne

Abstract:

In this report, we present a simple route to realize robust, hydrophobic, and highly transparent coatings using organic polysilazane (durazane) and zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO). These coatings were deposited by spraying the mixture solution on glass slides. Thus, the properties of the films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), UV–vis-NIR spectrophotometer, and water contact angle method. This sprayable polymer mixed with ZnO nanoparticles shows high transparency for visible light > 90%, a hydrophobic character (CA > 90°), and good mechanical and chemical stability. The coating also demonstrates excellent self-cleaning properties, which makes it a promising candidate for commercial use.

Keywords: coatings, durability, hydrophobicity, organic polysilazane, self-cleaning, transparence, zinc oxide nanoparticles

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19488 Practical Software for Optimum Bore Hole Cleaning Using Drilling Hydraulics Techniques

Authors: Abdulaziz F. Ettir, Ghait Bashir, Tarek S. Duzan

Abstract:

A proper well planning is very vital to achieve any successful drilling program on the basis of preventing, overcome all drilling problems and minimize cost operations. Since the hydraulic system plays an active role during the drilling operations, that will lead to accelerate the drilling effort and lower the overall well cost. Likewise, an improperly designed hydraulic system can slow drill rate, fail to clean the hole of cuttings, and cause kicks. In most cases, common sense and commercially available computer programs are the only elements required to design the hydraulic system. Drilling optimization is the logical process of analyzing effects and interactions of drilling variables through applied drilling and hydraulic equations and mathematical modeling to achieve maximum drilling efficiency with minimize drilling cost. In this paper, practical software adopted in this paper to define drilling optimization models including four different optimum keys, namely Opti-flow, Opti-clean, Opti-slip and Opti-nozzle that can help to achieve high drilling efficiency with lower cost. The used data in this research from vertical and horizontal wells were recently drilled in Waha Oil Company fields. The input data are: Formation type, Geopressures, Hole Geometry, Bottom hole assembly and Mud reghology. Upon data analysis, all the results from wells show that the proposed program provides a high accuracy than that proposed from the company in terms of hole cleaning efficiency, and cost break down if we consider that the actual data as a reference base for all wells. Finally, it is recommended to use the established Optimization calculations software at drilling design to achieve correct drilling parameters that can provide high drilling efficiency, borehole cleaning and all other hydraulic parameters which assist to minimize hole problems and control drilling operation costs.

Keywords: optimum keys, namely opti-flow, opti-clean, opti-slip and opti-nozzle

Procedia PDF Downloads 252
19487 Effect of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles along with Sodium Hydroxide on Self-Cleaning and Antibacterial Properties of Polyethylene Terephthalate

Authors: Mohammad Mirjalili, Maryam Mohammdi, Loghman Karimi

Abstract:

In this study, synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles was carried out along with the hydrolysis of Polyethylene terephthalate using sodium hydroxide to increase the surface activity and enhance the nanoparticles adsorption. The polyester fabrics were treated with zinc acetate and sodium hydroxide at ultrasound bath, resulting in the formation of ZnO nanospheres. The presence of zinc oxide on the surface of the polyethylene terephthalate was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The self-cleaning property of treated polyethylene terephthalate was evaluated through discoloring methylene blue stain under sunlight irradiation. The antibacterial activities of the samples against two common pathogenic bacteria including Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were also assessed. The results indicated that the photocatalytic and antibacterial activities of the ultrasound treated polyethylene terephthalate improved significantly.

Keywords: zinc oxide, polyethylene terephthalate, self-cleaning, antibacterial

Procedia PDF Downloads 233
19486 Removal of Tar Contents in Syngas by Using Different Fuel from Downdraft Biomass Gasification System

Authors: Muhammad Awais, Wei Li, Anjum Munir

Abstract:

Biomass gasification is a process of converting solid biomass ingredients into a combustible gas which can be used in electricity generation. Regardless of their applications in many fields, biomass gasification technology is still facing many cleaning issues of syngas. Tar production in biomass gasification process is one of the biggest challenges for this technology. The aimed of this study is to evaluate the tar contents in syngas produced from wood chips, corn cobs, coconut shells and mixture of corn cobs and wood chips as biomass fuel and tar removal efficiency of different cleaning units integrated with gassifier. Performance of different cleaning units, i.e., cyclone separator, wet scrubber, biomass filter, and auxiliary filter was tested under two biomass fuels. Results of this study indicate that wood chips produced less tar of 1736 mg/Nm³ as compared to corn cobs which produced tor 2489 mg/Nm³. It is also observed that coconut shells produced a high amount of tar. It was observed that when wood chips were used as a fuel, syngas tar contents were reduced from 6600 to 112 mg/Nm³ while in case of corn cob, they were reduced from 7500 mg/Nm³ to 220 mg/Nm³. Overall tar removal efficiencies of cyclone separator, wet scrubber, biomass filter, and auxiliary filter was 72%, 63%, 74%, 35% respectively.

Keywords: biomass, gasification, tar, cleaning system, biomass filter

Procedia PDF Downloads 85
19485 Deep Feature Augmentation with Generative Adversarial Networks for Class Imbalance Learning in Medical Images

Authors: Rongbo Shen, Jianhua Yao, Kezhou Yan, Kuan Tian, Cheng Jiang, Ke Zhou

Abstract:

This study proposes a generative adversarial networks (GAN) framework to perform synthetic sampling in feature space, i.e., feature augmentation, to address the class imbalance problem in medical image analysis. A feature extraction network is first trained to convert images into feature space. Then the GAN framework incorporates adversarial learning to train a feature generator for the minority class through playing a minimax game with a discriminator. The feature generator then generates features for minority class from arbitrary latent distributions to balance the data between the majority class and the minority class. Additionally, a data cleaning technique, i.e., Tomek link, is employed to clean up undesirable conflicting features introduced from the feature augmentation and thus establish well-defined class clusters for the training. The experiment section evaluates the proposed method on two medical image analysis tasks, i.e., mass classification on mammogram and cancer metastasis classification on histopathological images. Experimental results suggest that the proposed method obtains superior or comparable performance over the state-of-the-art counterparts. Compared to all counterparts, our proposed method improves more than 1.5 percentage of accuracy.

Keywords: class imbalance, synthetic sampling, feature augmentation, generative adversarial networks, data cleaning

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19484 Construction and Evaluation of Soybean Thresher

Authors: Oladimeji Adetona Adeyeye, Emmanuel Rotimi Sadiku, Oluwaseun Olayinka Adeyeye

Abstract:

In order to resuscitate soybean production and post-harvest processing especially, in term of threshing, there is need to develop an affordable threshing machine which will reduce drudgery associated with manual soybean threshing. Soybean thresher was fabricated and evaluated at Institute of Agricultural Research and Training IAR&T Apata Ibadan. The machine component includes; hopper, threshing unit, shaker, cleaning unit and the seed outlet, all working together to achieve the main objective of threshing and cleaning. TGX1835 - 10E variety was used for evaluation because of its high resistance to pests, rust and pustules. The final moisture content of the used sample was about 15%. The sample was weighed and introduced into the machine. The parameters evaluated includes moisture content, threshing efficiency, cleaning efficiency, machine capacity and speed. The threshing efficiency and capacity are 74% and 65.9kg/hr respectively. All materials used were sourced locally which makes the cost of production of the machine extremely cheaper than the imported soybean thresher.

Keywords: efficiency, machine capacity, speed, soybean, threshing

Procedia PDF Downloads 369
19483 Synthesis and Characterization of Fluorine-Free, Hydrophobic and Highly Transparent Coatings

Authors: Abderrahmane Hamdi, Julie Chalon, Benoit Dodin, Philippe Champagne

Abstract:

This research work concerns the synthesis of hydrophobic and self-cleaning coatings as an alternative to fluorine-based coatings used on glass. The developed, highly transparent coatings are produced by a chemical route (sol-gel method) using two silica-based precursors, hexamethyldisilazane and tetraethoxysilane (HMDS/TEOS). The addition of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) within the gel provides a photocatalytic property to the final coating. The prepared gels were deposited on glass slides using different methods. The properties of the coatings were characterized by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, UV-VIS-NIR spectrophotometer, and water contact angle method. The results show that the obtained coatings are homogeneous and have a hydrophobic character. In particular, after thermal treatment, the HMDS/[email protected] charged gel deposited on glass constitutes a coating capable of degrading methylene blue (MB) under UV irradiation. Optical transmission reaches more than 90% in most of the visible light spectrum. Synthetized coatings have also demonstrated their mechanical durability and self-cleaning ability.

Keywords: coating, durability, hydrophobicity, sol-gel, self-cleaning, transparence

Procedia PDF Downloads 70
19482 A Simplified, Low-Cost Mechanical Design for an Automated Motorized Mechanism to Clean Large Diameter Pipes

Authors: Imad Khan, Imran Shafi, Sarmad Farooq

Abstract:

Large diameter pipes, barrels, tubes, and ducts are used in a variety of applications covering civil and defense-related technologies. This may include heating/cooling networks, sign poles, bracing, casing, and artillery and tank gun barrels. These large diameter assemblies require regular inspection and cleaning to increase their life and reduce replacement costs. This paper describes the design, development, and testing results of an efficient yet simplified, low maintenance mechanical design controlled with minimal essential electronics using an electric motor for a non-technical staff. The proposed solution provides a simplified user interface and an automated cleaning mechanism that requires a single user to optimally clean pipes and barrels in the range of 105 mm to 203 mm caliber. The proposed system employs linear motion of specially designed brush along the barrel using a chain of specific strength and a pulley anchor attached to both ends of the barrel. A specially designed and manufactured gearbox is coupled with an AC motor to allow movement of contact brush with high torque to allow efficient cleaning. A suitably powered AC motor is fixed to the front adapter mounted on the muzzle side whereas the rear adapter has a pulley-based anchor mounted towards the breach block in case of a gun barrel. A mix of soft nylon and hard copper bristles-based large surface brush is connected through a strong steel chain to motor and anchor pulley. The system is equipped with limit switches to auto switch the direction when one end is reached on its operation. The testing results based on carefully established performance indicators indicate the superiority of the proposed user-friendly cleaning mechanism vis-à-vis its life cycle cost.

Keywords: pipe cleaning mechanism, limiting switch, pipe cleaning robot, large pipes

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19481 A Study on Cleaning Mirror Technology with Reduced Water Consumption in a Solar Thermal Power Plant

Authors: Bayarjargal Enkhtaivan, Gao Wei, Zhang Yanping, He Guo Qiang

Abstract:

In our study, traditional cleaning mirror technology with reduced consumption of water in solar thermal power plants is investigated. In developed countries, a significant increase of growth and innovation in solar thermal power sector is evident since over the last decade. These power plants required higher water consumption, however, there are some complications to construct and operate such power plants under severe drought-inflicted areas like deserts where high water-deficit can be seen but sufficient solar energy is available. Designing new experimental equipments is the most important advantage of this study. These equipments can estimate various types of measurements at the mean time. In this study, Glasses were placed for 10 and 20 days at certain positions to deposit dusts on glass surface by using a common method. Dust deposited on glass surface was washed by experimental equipment and measured dust deposition on each glass. After that, experimental results were analyzed and concluded.

Keywords: concentrated solar power (CSP) plant, high-pressure water, test equipment of clean mirror, cleaning technology of glass and mirror

Procedia PDF Downloads 100