Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 274

Search results for: dental caries

274 Modification of Toothpaste Formula Using Pineapple Cobs and Eggshell Waste as a Way to Decrease Dental Caries

Authors: Achmad Buhori, Reza Imam Pratama, Tissa Wiraatmaja, Wanti Megawati


Data from many countries indicates that there is a marked increase of dental caries. The increases in caries appear to occur in lower socioeconomic groups. It is possible that the benefits of prevention of dental caries are not reaching these groups. However, there is a way to decrease dental caries by adding 5% of bromelain and calcium as an active agent in toothpaste. Bromelain can break glutamine-alanine bond and arginine-alanine bond which is a constituent of amino acid that causes dental plague which is one of the factors of dental caries. Calcium help rebuilds the teeth by strengthening and repairing enamel. Bromelain can be found from the extraction of pineapple (Ananas comosus) cobs (88.86-94.22 % of bromelain recovery during extraction based on the enzyme unit) and calcium can be taken from eggshell (95% of dry eggshell consist of calcium). The aim of this experiment is to make a toothpaste which contains bromelain and calcium as an effective, cheap, and healthy way to decrease dental caries around the world.

Keywords: bromelain, calcium, dental caries, dental plague, toothpaste

Procedia PDF Downloads 186
273 Resons for Seeking Dental Care, Caries Profile and Treatment Need of Children in Tabuk, KSA

Authors: Syed Ameer Haider Jafri, Mariam Amri


Dental caries is the most prevalent dental disease of childhood. The aims and objectives of this study were to identify the most common reason for seeking dental treatment and to determine caries profile and there is a treatment need in children visiting the hospital. A total of 170 Saudi children of age 1-5 years studied. Results show the most common reason for visiting hospital was decay followed by pain. These children show mean DMFT/DMFS of 9.8/22.4 and most commonly needed treatment was one-surface restoration followed by pulp treatment.

Keywords: dental caries, DMFT/DMFS index, prevalence, dental treatment need

Procedia PDF Downloads 413
272 Assessment of Dental Caries in Children of Age 6 and 7 Years Old in Albania

Authors: Mimoza Canga, Irene Malagnino, Ruzhdie Qafmolla, Vergjini Mulo, Gresa Baboci, Vito Antonio Malagnino


Background: Dental caries represents the most widespread pathology in childhood. The prevalence of dental caries varies with age, gender, socio economic status, geographical location, nutrition habits, and oral hygiene. Objective: The objective of the present longitudinal study is to show clearly the prevalence of dental caries in the children of age 6 and 7 years old in Vlore, Albania, in a two year time period with controls done every 6 months. Materials and methods: The present study was conducted on 530 children, with a controlled sample for a time period of 24 months from September 2019- September 2021. The children in the study had different economic and social backgrounds. The teeth controls were done by the dentists who work at the hospital of the city. The present study was conducted in accordance with Helsinki declaration. Permissions were obtained in written form, which allowed us to perform the observations. Parents had the right to withdraw their children at any time. Statistical analysis was performed using IBM SPSS Statistics 23.0. The significance level (α) was set at 0.05, whereas P-value and analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used to analyze the data. Results: The data of the present study showed that the age group of 6 years old had 139 or 52.3% of the children with dental caries and 127 or 47.7% of them had no dental caries, while at the age of 7 there were 184 or 69.7% of the children with dental caries problems in the permanent molars and 80 or 30.3% of them had no dental caries. In the present study, it was observed that there is a statistically significant association between age group and presence of caries. Children 7 years old had higher presence of dental caries (χ2 = 16.934 (df 1) p-value < 0.001). According to the present research, there is a statistically significant correlation between period of time and the presence of dental caries. Furthermore, in the actual research, it was established that in the time 18-24 months, the prevalence of dental caries was high (χ2=15,318 (df 1) p-value = 0.004). Conclusion: According to the results of the present study performed in Albania in a two year time period with controls done every 6 months, it is proved that the prevalence of dental caries was 17.4 percent higher among children 7 years old in comparison with the children 6 years old.

Keywords: age, children, dental caries, permanent molars

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271 Oral Microflora and the Risk of Dental Caries in Portuguese Children

Authors: Sara Sousa, Veronique Gomes, Nélio Veiga, Maria José Correia


Objectives: To assess the presence or absence of Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus gordonii and Streptococcus salivarius in the oral biofilm of children in an elementary school of Viseu, Portugal, and verify the relationship between Streptococcus gordonii and Streptococcus salivarius and the absence of dental caries. Methods: A cross-sectional study was designed with a final sample of 40 children aged 6-11 years old. Oral examination was accomplished with the identification of their oral health status and oral biofilm collection. Analysis of biological samples by molecular techniques of DNA isolation and identification of three Streptococci bacteria by Polimerase Chain Reaction (PCR) was made. Results: We identified Streptococcus salivarius and Streptococcus gordoni only in the lower interincisal region. These species were also present mainly in the first permanent non-decayed molars. On the contrary, Streptococcus mutans was found mostly in decayed first permanent molars. Conclusion: This preliminary study establishes a possible association between the absence of dental caries and the presence of Streptococcus gordonii and Streptococcus salivarius. Since these two species are described as alkali producers, it is suggested that their presence somehow confers protection against caries. These results support new dental caries prevention strategies based on oral biofilm modulation by enrichment with alkalinogenic species.

Keywords: dental caries, oral biofilm, Streptococcus gordonii, Streptococcus salivarius

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270 Association between Dental Caries and Asthma among 12-15 Years Old School Children Studying in Karachi, Pakistan: A Cross Sectional Study

Authors: Wajeeha Zahid, Shafquat Rozi, Farhan Raza, Masood Kadir


Background: Dental caries affects the overall health and well-being of children. Findings from various international studies regarding the association of dental caries with asthma are inconsistent. With the increasing burden of caries and childhood asthma, it becomes imperative for an underdeveloped country like Pakistan where resources are limited to identify whether there is a relationship between the two. This study aims to identify an association between dental caries and asthma. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 544 children aged 12-15 years recruited from five private schools in Karachi. Information on asthma was collected through the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) questionnaire. The questionnaire addressed questions regarding child’s demographics, physician diagnoses of asthma, type of medication administered, family history of asthma and allergies, dietary habits and oral hygiene behavior. Dental caries was assessed using DMFT Index (Decayed, Missing, Filled teeth) index The data was analyzed using Cox proportional Hazard algorithm and crude and adjusted prevalence ratios with 95% CI were reported. Results: This study comprises of 306 (56.3%) boys and 238 (43.8%) girls. The mean age of children was 13.2 ± (0.05) years. The total number of children with carious teeth (DMFT > 0) were 166/544 (30.5%), and the decayed component contributed largely (22.8%) to the DMFT score. The prevalence of physician’s diagnosed asthma was 13%. This study identified almost 7% asthmatic children using the internationally validated International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) tool and 8 children with childhood asthma were identified by parent interviews. Overall prevalence of asthma was 109/544 (20%). The prevalence of caries in asthmatic children was 28.4% as compared to 31% among non-asthmatic children. The adjusted prevalence ratio of dental caries in asthmatic children was 0.8 (95% CI 0.59-1.29). After adjusting for carious food intake, age, oral hygiene index and dentist visit, the association between asthma and dental caries turned out to be non-significant. Conclusion: There was no association between asthma and dental caries among children who participated in this study.

Keywords: asthma, caries, children, school-based

Procedia PDF Downloads 178
269 Evaluating the Factors That Influence Caries Reduction During Pregnancy

Authors: Mimoza Canga, Irene Malagnino, Vergjini Mulo, Alketa Qafmolla, Vito Antonio Malagnino


Background: Dental caries is the most common dental disease and pregnancy represents a special process of physical, hormonal and metabolic changes in pregnant women, which is accompanied by an imbalance in the oral cavity. Objective: The objective of this study is to evaluate caries reduction after dental visits, the scaling of teeth, fluoridated water, brushing of the teeth and using fluoride toothpaste before and during pregnancy. Materials and methods: This study was conducted in the time period March 2018- September 2021, the age range of the participants was: 18-41 years old. The sample taken under observation was composed of 84 pregnant women. The questionnaire included the demographic characteristics of the sample, such as age, women's education level was primary, secondary, and higher education. Based on women's education level, our analysis found that 25.9% of pregnant women had completed primary education, 35.2% of them had secondary education and 38.9% of pregnant women had higher education. The descriptive and analytical research analysis is formulated as a longitudinal study. Statistical analysis was performed using IBM SPSS Statistics 23.0. The significance level (α) was set at 0.05, whereas P-value and analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used to analyze the data. Results: In the present study, it was observed that there is a strong relationship between dental visits and the scaling of the teeth with the value of P˂ .0001. While the number of teeth with caries before pregnancy and fluoridated water have a P-value=0.002. If we compare the same factor with the number of teeth with dental caries during pregnancy, the correlation is P-value = 0.0001. The number of teeth with caries before pregnancy and carbohydrates consumption has a strong relation with P-value=0.05. According to the present research, the number of teeth with dental caries before pregnancy in relation to brushing the teeth has a P-value ˂ 0.05. Furthermore, in the actual research, it was established that using fluoride toothpaste doesn’t affect the number of teeth with caries before pregnancy with a P-value= .314. Conclusion: According to the results of the present study performed in Albania, it was found out that the periodical dental visits, scaling of the teeth, fluoridated water, brushing of the teeth influenced caries reduction before and during pregnancy. In comparison, the usage of fluoride toothpaste did not have any effect on dental caries reduction in the same time period. The recommendations are as follows: maintaining oral hygiene, using fluoridated water and brushing the teeth regularly. Healthcare providers should inform pregnant women about the importance of oral health and the implementation of measures to manage dental caries.

Keywords: brushing of the teeth, dental visits, dental scaling, fluoridated water, pregnancy

Procedia PDF Downloads 81
268 The Assessment of the Diabetes Mellitus Complications on Oral Health: A Longitudinal Study

Authors: Mimoza Canga, Irene Malagnino, Gresa Baboci, Edit Xhajanka, Vito Antonio Malagnino


Background: Diabetes mellitus is regarded as a very problematic chronic disease that has an effect on a considerable number of people around the world and it is straightforwardly associated with the oral health condition of the patients. Objective: The objective of this study is to analyze and evaluate the impact of diabetes mellitus on oral health. Materials and methods: In the present research were taken into consideration 300 patients with an age range of 11 to 80 years old. The study sample was composed of 191 males, respectively 63.7% of them and 109 females 36.3% of the participants. We divided them into seven age groups: 11-20, 21-30, 31-40, 41-50, 51-60, 61-70, and 71-80 years.This descriptive and analytical research was designed as a longitudinal study. Statistical analysis was performed using IBM SPSS 23.0 statistics. Results: The majority of patients participating in the study belonged to the age range from 41 to 50 years old, precisely 20.7% of them, while 27% of the patients were from 51 to 60 years old. Based on the present research, it resulted that 24.4% of the participant had high blood sugar values 250-300 mg/dl, whereas 19 % of the patients had very high blood sugar values 300-350 mg/dl. Based on the results of the current study, it was observed that 83.7% of patients were affected by gingivitis. In the current study, the significant finding is that 22% of patients had more than 7 teeth with dental caries and 21% of them had 5-7 teeth with dental caries, whereas 29% of the patients had 4-5 dental caries and the remaining 28% of them had 1-3 dental caries. The present study showed that most of the patients, 27% of them had lost more than 7 teeth and 22% of the participants had lost 5-7 teeth, whereas 31% of the patients had lost 4-5 teeth and only 20 % of them had lost 1-3 teeth. This study proved that high blood sugar values had a direct impact on the manifestation of gingivitis and there it was a strong correlation between them with P-value = .001. A strong correlation was found out between dental caries and high blood sugar values with P-value ˂.001. Males with diabetes mellitus were more affected by dental caries and this was proved by the P-value= .02, in comparison to females P-value=.03. The impact of high blood sugar values affects missing teeth and the correlation between them was statistically significant with P-value ˂ .001. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that diabetes mellitus is a possible risk factor in oral health for the reason that Albanian patients over 51 years old, respectively 43% of them have over 5 teeth with dental caries as compared with 49% of the patients who had over 5 missing teeth, whereas the majority 83.7% of them suffered from gingivitis. This study asserts that patients who do not have periodical check-ups of diabetes mellitus are at significant risk of oral diseases.

Keywords: dental caries, diabetes mellitus, gingivitis, missing teeth

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267 Length of Pregnancy and Dental Caries Observation in Relation to BMI

Authors: Edit Xhajanka, Gresa Baboci, Irene Malagnino, Mimoza Canga, Vito Antonio Malagnino


Purpose: This study aimed at identifying dental caries increment or reduction, based on factors such as smoking, the scaling of teeth, BMI before and during pregnancy, carbohydrates consumption in relation to childbirth. Material and method: In this observational study, the sample included a total of 98 pregnant women and their age class was 18-45 years old, with a median age of 31.5 years. The setting of the participants resides in Vlora –Albania. Moreover, 64.4% were from the city and 35.6% were from the nearby villages. The study was conducted in the time period January 2018 –June 2021. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated using the standard formula (kg/m²). Maternal pre, during and post-pregnancy BMI was collected by using a validated questionnaire. Statistical analysis was performed using IBM SPSS Statistics 23.0. The significance level (α) was set at 0.05, whereas P-value and analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used to analyze the data. Results: Based on the data analysis, 44.4% of the sample declared that they did smoke before pregnancy and 55.6% not smoked during their pregnancy. As a result, no association was found between smoking and length of pregnancy P=0.95. There is also a strong relation (P=0.000) between the number of teeth with caries before pregnancy and the number of teeth with caries during pregnancy. There is a significant relationship between the scaling of teeth and childbirth, P=0.05. BMI before and during pregnancy in relation to carbohydrates consumption have a significant correlation P=0.004 and P=0.002. The values of BMI before and during pregnancy in relation to childbirth have a strong correlation: P=0.043 and P=0.040, respectively. As a result, obesity was associated with preterm birth. The percentage of children born during 34-36 weeks of pregnancy was 69%, and children born during 32-34 weeks of pregnancy were 31%. CONCLUSION: There was a positive association between dental caries experience, BMI and carbohydrates consumption. Obesity in pregnancy is increasing worldwide; that is why this study suggests the importance of an appropriate weight before and during pregnancy.

Keywords: BMI, dental caries, pregnancy, scaling, smoking

Procedia PDF Downloads 118
266 Genotypic Identification of Oral Bacteria Using 16S rRNA in Children with and without Early Childhood Caries in Kelantan, Malaysia

Authors: Zuliani Mahmood, Thirumulu Ponnuraj Kannan, Yean Yean Chan, Salahddin A. Al-Hudhairy


Caries is the most common childhood disease which develops due to disturbances in the physiological equilibrium in the dental plaque resulting in demineralization of tooth structures. Plaque and dentine samples were collected from three different tooth surfaces representing caries progression (intact, over carious lesion and dentine) in children with early childhood caries (ECC, n=36). In caries free (CF) children, plaque samples were collected from sound tooth surfaces at baseline and after one year (n=12). The genomic DNA was extracted from all samples and subjected to 16S rRNA PCR amplification. The end products were cloned into pCR®2.1-TOPO® Vector. Five randomly selected positive clones collected from each surface were sent for sequencing. Identification of the bacterial clones was performed using BLAST against GenBank database. In the ECC group, the frequency of Lactobacillus sp. detected was significantly higher in the dentine surface (p = 0.031) than over the cavitated lesion. The highest frequency of bacteria detected in the intact surfaces was Fusobacterium nucleatum subsp. polymorphum (33.3%) while Streptococcus mutans was detected over the carious lesions and dentine surfaces at a frequency of 33.3% and 52.7% respectively. Fusobacterium nucleatum subsp. polymorphum was also found to be highest in the CF group (41.6%). Follow up at the end of one year showed that the frequency of Corynebacterium matruchotii detected was highest in those who remained caries free (16.6%), while Porphyromonas catoniae was highest in those who developed caries (25%). In conclusion, Streptococcus mutans and Porphyromonas catoniae are strongly associated with caries progression, while Lactobacillus sp. is restricted to deep carious lesions. Fusobacterium nucleatum subsp. polymorphum and Corynebacterium matruchotii may play a role in sustaining the healthy equilibrium in the dental plaque. These identified bacteria show promise as potential biomarkers in diagnosis which could help in the management of dental caries in children.

Keywords: early childhood caries, genotypic identification, oral bacteria, 16S rRNA

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265 Inhibition of Streptococcus Mutans Biofilm Development of Dental Caries In Vitro and In Vivo by Trachyspermum ammi Seeds: An Approach of Alternative Medicine

Authors: Mohd Adil, Rosina Khan, Danishuddin, Asad U. Khan


The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the crude and active solvent fraction of Trachyspermum ammi on S. mutans cariogenicity, effect on expression of genes involved in biofilm formation and caries development in rats. GC–MS was carried out to identify the major components present in the crude and the active fraction of T. ammi. The crude extract and the solvent fraction exhibiting least MIC were selected for further experiments. Scanning electron microscopy was carried out to observe the effect of the extracts on S. mutans biofilm. Comparative gene expression analysis was carried out for nine selected genes. 2-Isopropyl-5-methyl-phenol was found as major compound in crude and the active fraction. Binding site of this compound within the proteins involved in biofilm formation was mapped with the help of docking studies. Real-time RT-PCR analyses revealed significant suppression of the genes involved in biofilm formation. All the test groups showed reduction in caries (smooth surface as well as sulcal surface caries) in rats. Moreover, it also provides new insight to understand the mechanism influencing biofilm formation in S. mutans. Furthermore, the data suggest the putative cariostatic properties of T. Ammi and hence can be used as an alternative medicine to prevent caries infection.

Keywords: bio-film, Streptococcus mutans, dental caries, bio-informatic

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264 Association between Caries Status of First Permanent Molar with Oral Health Care Practice in Children Aged 9-12 Years in Lubuk Kilangan, Padang City

Authors: Cytha Nilam Chairani, Ditha Noviantika, Hidayati Amir, Nurul Khairiyah, Siti Rahmadita, Fadila Khairani


Background: Dental caries is one of the most common diseases with high prevalence in children. The first permanent molar (FPM) has an essential role in establishing the occlusion. Nevertheless, FPM is very prone to caries because of various factors, such as their anatomical structure and early emergence in oral cavity. It is due to the little knowledge from parents and children regarding the timing of emergence of FPM in oral cavity which is still considered as primary teeth. Furthermore, the lack of knowledge from parents and children may affect their oral hygiene practice resulting to carious process. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the status of FPM caries and its association with children’s oral hygiene practice in 9-12-year-old school children in Lubuk Kilangan Community Health Centre, Padang City. Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed in 50 school children (9-12 years old) using random sampling technique from two randomly selected schools in Lubuk Kilangan Community Health Centre, Padang City. A questionnaire was developed from other studies consisting of four closed ended questions regarding oral health practice. The data obtained were analyzed statistically using Mann-Whitney Test to assess the status of FPM caries and its association with children’s oral hygiene practice. Results: The results showed that 32% of children had FPMs sound and the remaining 68% had FPMs carious which were grouped into 1-2 FPMs carious (60%) and 3-4 FPMs carious (8%). The caries status of mandibular FPM (64%) was higher compared to maxillary FPM (10%). Conclusion: There was significant association in subject who did not visit dentist in the last 6 months which had more carious FPMs compared to subject who visited dentist (p < 0.05). There was no significant association between the status of FPM caries and knowledge of the timing eruption of FPM, oral hygiene instruction from parents and tooth brushing (p > 0.05).

Keywords: dental caries, children, first permanent molar, oral hygiene practice

Procedia PDF Downloads 198
263 Xerostomia and Caries Incidence in Relation to Metabolic Control in Children and Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes

Authors: Eftychia Pappa, Heleni Vastardis, Christos Rahiotis, Andriani Vazaiou


The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of dry-mouth symptoms (xerostomia) and compare it with alterations in salivary characteristics of children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes (DM1), as measured with the use of chair-side saliva tests. This study also investigated the possible association between salivary dysfunction and incidence of caries, in relation to the level of metabolic control. A cross-sectional study was performed on young patients (6-18 years old) allocated among 3 groups: 40 patients poorly-controlled (DM1-A, HbA1c>8%), 40 well-controlled (DM1-B, HbA1c≤8%) and 40 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. The study was approved by the Research Ethics Committee of University of Athens and the parents signed written informed consent. All subjects were examined for dental caries, oral hygiene and salivary factors. Assessments of salivary function included self-reported xerostomia, quantification of resting and stimulated whole saliva flow rates, pH values, buffering capacity and saliva’s viscosity. Salivary characteristics were evaluated with the use of GC Saliva Check Buffer (3Μ ESPE). Data were analysed by chi-square and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Subjects with diabetes reported xerostomia more frequently than healthy controls (p<0.05). Unstimulated salivary flow rate and pH values remained significantly lower in DM1-A compared to DM1-B and controls. Low values of resting salivary flow rate were associated with a higher prevalence of dental caries in children and adolescents with poorly-controlled DM1 (p<0.05). The results suggested that diabetes-induced alterations in salivary characteristics are indicative of higher caries susceptibility of diabetics and chair-side saliva tests are a useful tool for the evaluation of caries risk assessment.

Keywords: caries risk assessment, saliva diagnostic tests, type 1 diabetes, xerostomia

Procedia PDF Downloads 219
262 Comparison Between Nano Composite and Pits and Fissure Sealant: In Vitro Study

Authors: Osama Safwat Mohamed


Pits and fissures dental caries can be prevented using sealant material. This study aimed to compare the microleakage and interfacial morphology of flowable nanocomposites and conventional pit and fissure sealants. 60 extracted intact and caries-free permanent mandibular third molars. The teeth were randomly divided into three groups (n = 20) according to the material used for pit and fissure sealant. Group I: Unfilled resin-based pits and fissure sealant, Group II: Unfilled resin-based pits and fissure sealant with bond and Group III: Nano flowable composite resin with bond. The results showed that nano-flowable composite was significantly better than the conventional sealants groups p = 0.000. As well there was better as well, there were gaps between sealants and the tooth surfaces in groups I and II, but for group III, there was close contact between the nano-flowable composite and tooth surfaces. It was concluded that nano-flowable composite showed better microleakage and interfacial morphology results than conventional pits and fissure sealant and offered promising results at the fissure sealing.

Keywords: pits and fissures, Sealant, nanocomposite, dental caries

Procedia PDF Downloads 49
261 Impact Analysis of a School-Based Oral Health Program in Brazil

Authors: Fabio L. Vieira, Micaelle F. C. Lemos, Luciano C. Lemos, Rafaela S. Oliveira, Ian A. Cunha


Brazil has some challenges ahead related to population oral health, most of them associated with the need of expanding into the local level its promotion and prevention activities, offer equal access to services and promote changes in the lifestyle of the population. The program implemented an oral health initiative in public schools in the city of Salvador, Bahia. The mission was to improve oral health among students on primary and secondary education, from 2 to 15 years old, using the school as a pathway to increase access to healthcare. The main actions consisted of a team's visit to the schools with educational sessions for dental cavity prevention and individual assessment. The program incorporated a clinical surveillance component through a dental evaluation of every student searching for dental disease and caries, standardization of the dentists’ team to reach uniform classification on the assessments, and the use of an online platform to register data directly from the schools. Sequentially, the students with caries were referred for free clinical treatment on the program’s Health Centre. The primary purpose of this study was to analyze the effects and outcomes of this school-based oral health program. The study sample was composed by data of a period of 3 years - 2015 to 2017 - from 13 public schools on the suburb of the city of Salvador with a total number of assessments of 9,278 on this period. From the data collected the prevalence of children with decay on permanent teeth was chosen as the most reliable indicator. The prevalence was calculated for each one of the 13 schools using the number of children with 1 or more dental caries on permanent teeth divided by the total number of students assessed for school each year. Then the percentage change per year was calculated for each school. Some schools presented a higher variation on the total number of assessments in one of the three years, so for these, the percentage change calculation was done using the two years with less variation. The results show that 10 of the 13 schools presented significative improvements for the indicator of caries in permanent teeth. The mean for the number of students with caries percentage reduction on the 13 schools was 26.8%, and the median was 32.2% caries in permanent teeth institution. The highest percentage of improvement reached a decrease of 65.6% on the indicator. Three schools presented a rise in caries prevalence (8.9, 18.9 and 37.2% increase) that, on an initial analysis, seems to be explained with the students’ cohort rotation among other schools, as well as absenteeism on the treatment. In conclusion, the program shows a relevant impact on the reduction of caries in permanent teeth among students and the need for the continuity and expansion of this integrated healthcare approach. It has also been evident the significative of the articulation between health and educational systems representing a fundamental approach to improve healthcare access for children especially in scenarios such as presented in Brazil.

Keywords: primary care, public health, oral health, school-based oral health, data management

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260 A Furaneol-Containing Glass-Ionomer Cement for Enhanced Antibacterial Activity

Authors: Dong Xie, Yuling Xu, Leah Howard


Secondary caries is found to be one of the main reasons to the restoration failure of dental restoratives. To prevent secondary caries formation, dental restoratives ought to be made antibacterial. In this study, a natural fruit component furaneol was tethered onto polyacid, the formed polyacid was used to formulate the light-curable glass-ionomer cements, and then the effect of this new antibacterial compound on compressive strength (CS) and antibacterial activity of the formed cement was evaluated. Fuji II LC glass powders were used as fillers. Compressive strength (CS) and S. mutans viability were used to evaluate the mechanical strength and antibacterial activity of the formed cement. The experimental cement showed a significant antibacterial activity, accompanying with an initial CS reduction. Increasing the compound loading significantly decreased the S. mutans viability from 5 to 81% and also reduced the initial CS of the formed cements from 4 to 58%. The cement loading with 7% antibacterial polymer showed 168 MPa, 7.8 GPa, 243 MPa, 46 MPa, and 57 MPa in yield strength, modulus, CS, diametral tensile strength and flexural strength, respectively, as compared to 141, 6.9, 236, 42 and 53 for Fuji II LC. The cement also showed an antibacterial function to other bacteria. No human saliva effect was noticed. It is concluded that the experimental cement may potentially be developed to a permanent antibacterial cement.

Keywords: antibacterial, dental materials, strength, cell viability

Procedia PDF Downloads 237
259 Antibacterial Activity of Salvadora persica Extracts against Oral Cavity Bacteria

Authors: Sulaiman A. Alrumman, Abd El-Latif Hesham


Despite medical progress worldwide, dental caries are still widespread. Miswak is derived from the plant arak (Salvadora persica). It is used by Muslim people as a natural product for the cleansing of teeth, to ensure oral and dental hygiene. This study was designed to evaluate the antimicrobial effects of ethanol, methanol, and ethanol/methanol extracts of miswak against three bacterial pathogens of the oral cavity. The pathogens were isolated from the oral cavity of volunteers/patients and were identified on the basis of 16S rRNA gene amplification data. Sequence comparisons were made with 16S rRNA gene sequences available in the GenBank database. The results of sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis identified the three pathogens as being Staphylococcus aureus strain KKU-020, Enterococcus faecalis strain KKU-021 and Klebsiella pneumoniae strain KKU-022. All miswak extracts showed powerful antimicrobial activity against the three pathogens. The maximum zone of inhibition (40.67±0.88 mm) was observed against E. faecalis with ethanolic extracts whilst methanolic extracts showed the minimum zone of inhibition (10.33±0.88 mm) against K. pneumonia KKU-022. Based on the significant effects of the miswak extracts against the oral cavity pathogens in our study, we recommend that miswak is to be used as a dental hygiene method to prevent tooth caries.

Keywords: antibacterial, miswak, Salvadora persica, oral cavity pathogens

Procedia PDF Downloads 226
258 Parental Education and Income Influencing Knowledge, Attitudes, and Perceptions of Oral Health Self-Care Practices

Authors: B. Nair, S. Singh


Oral health behaviors such as dietary preferences and tooth brushing are acquired during a child’s primary socialization period yet many oral health promotion interventions are implemented without taking into account the role and impact of parental influence in supporting healthy oral health behaviors. The aim and objective of this study was to determine the relationship between parental income and level of education with knowledge, attitudes and perceptions of oral health care practices. Methods: The study design was cross-sectional and exploratory, and data collection occurred in two phases. Phase 1 comprised of a self-administered questionnaire. The sample consisted of parents of 313 Grade 1 learners aged between 5-6 years old attending one of twelve selected public primary schools in the Chatsworth Circuit, Durban, South Africa. Phase 2 comprised of focus group discussions held at 5 purposively selected schools. Data collection comprised of a semi-structured face-to-face group interview with the objective of obtaining a deeper understanding of parental knowledge, attitudes and perceptions of dental caries. Results and Discussion: Almost 56% of participants earned a monthly income of less than R6000 (600 US dollars). Nearly three quarters (77.5%) of participants indicated that they did not have medical aid/insurance scheme. More than three-quarters of the participants (76.6%) identified diet as being the primary cause of decayed teeth. More than half of the study sample (56.1%) indicated that milk teeth were important and that rotten teeth (74.6%) could affect the child’s health. Almost half (49.8%) of participants reported that “bad teeth” were inherited. With more than two-thirds of the participants (77.7%), having at most a high school education, there was a correlation between the level of the caregiver’s education and the oral health care of the child. The analysis of the correlation between a child having decayed teeth and income (p=.007); and the manner in which the income is received (p=.003) was statistically significant. The results indicate that more effort needs to be placed in understanding parental knowledge, perceptions and attitudes towards dental caries. Parental level of education, income and oral health literacy is shown to be related to attitudes, and perceptions towards dental caries and its subsequent preventive measures. These findings have important implications for oral health planning at community and facility-based levels.

Keywords: oral health prevention, parental education, dental caries, attitudes and perceptions

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257 The Comparison of pH Saliva before and after Brushing Teeth Using Tooth Paste Containing Betel Leaf Extracts

Authors: Ika Anisyah, Nety Trisnawaty


Mechanical brushing can help control plaque and is the first step to control dental caries. The type of toothpaste used is one of the contributing factors in it since the benefits of toothpaste are to reduce plaque formation and strengthen the teeth against dental caries, clean and polish tooth surfaces, eliminate or reduce bad breath, give a fresh taste to the mouth and maintain gingival health. Betel leaf toothpaste has the ability to inhibit the Streptococcus mutans bacteria that can cause the increase of pH saliva. Betel leaf extracts can increase the pH saliva because betel leaf has an anti bacterial characteristic against Streptococcus mutans so that pH saliva increases. This study aims to see the difference between pH saliva before and after brushing teeth with toothpaste containing betel leaf extracts. This type of research is pre-experimental using One Group Pretest-Posttest Design. This study was conducted on 32 subjects taken randomly from the representatives of students aged 11-12 years old in SD Pesanggrahan 03. The result of statistic test using non parametric test showed a value of 0.000. The resulted value being smaller than 0.05 (p < 0.05) means there is a significant salivary pH difference before and after teeth brushing using toothpaste containing betel leaf. The conclusion of this study showed an increase in salivary pH after teeth brushing with toothpaste containing betel leaves extracts in children aged 11-12 years old.

Keywords: pH saliva, brushing teeth, tooth paste, betel leaves extracts

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256 Health Status among Government and Private Primary School Children in the Central of Thailand

Authors: Petcharat Kerdonfag, Supunnee Thrakul


School health services through regular screening of school students’ health status have been the main responsibility for community or school health nurses. The purposes of these retrospective study were to assess and compare health problems between government and private primary school students in the central region of Thailand. The data were collected from the school health records in October at the end of the first semester in the academic year 2018. Two thousand and fifty primary school health records from government and private primary schools were gathered to assess health problems regarding anthropometric measurements, physical examination/personal hygiene, and clinical findings for this study. Descriptive statistics and Chi-square were used to be analyzed. The results revealed that health problems of all the school students remained high magnitude. The five top ranks for prevalence rate of health problems were dental caries (36.6%), visual acuity problem (27.7%), over-nutrition (16.8%), head lice (12.8%), and under-nutrition (6.8%), respectively. However, when compared between government and private schools among five health problems; dental caries (55.0% vs 19.9%), visual acuity problem (23.1% vs 31.9%), over-nutrition (20.2% vs 13.8%), head lice (26.5% vs 0.3%), and under-nutrition (10.6% vs 3.4%) with Chi-square analysis, there were significantly different (p < .001). The problem of visual acuity seems to be more serious in private schools while other health problems tend to be more critical in government schools. The findings have suggested that parents who have children in the private primary schools should pay more attention to visual health defects whereas parents with children in the government school should pay more vigilance regards to hygiene and health behavior problems.

Keywords: community health nursing, school health service, health status, primary school children

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255 Characterization of Genus Candida Yeasts Isolated from Oral Microbiota of Brazilian Schoolchildren with Different Caries Experience

Authors: D. S. V. Barbieri, R. R. Gomes, G. D. Santos, P. F. Herkert, M. Moreira, E. S. Trindade, V. A. Vicente


The importance of yeast infections has increased in recent decades. The monitoring of Candida yeasts has been relevant in the study of groups and populations. This research evaluated 31 Candida spp. isolates from oral microbiota of 12 Brazilian schoolchildren coinfected with Streptococcus mutans. The isolates were evaluated for their ability to form biofilm in vitro and molecularly characterized based on the sequencing of intergenic spacer regions ITS1-5,8S-ITS2 and variable domains of the large subunit (D1/D2) regions of the rDNA, as well as ABC system genotyping. The sequencing confirmed 26 lineages of Candida albicans, three Candida tropicalis, one Candida guillhermondii and one Candida glabrata. Genetic variability and differences on in biofilm formation were observed among Candida yeasts lineages. At least one Candida strain from each caries activity child was C.albicans genotype A or Candida non-albicans. C. tropicalis was associated with highest cavities rates. These results indicate that the presence of C. albicans genotype A or multi-colonization by non albicans species seem to be associates to the potentialization of caries risk.

Keywords: biofilm, Candida albicans, oral microbiota, caries

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254 Phenotypic Characterization of Dental Pulp Stem Cells Isolated from Irreversible Pulpitis with Dental Pulp Stem Cells from Impacted Teeth

Authors: Soumya S., Manju Nidagodu Jayakumar, Vellore Kannan Gopinath


Dental pulp inflammation resulting from dental caries often leads to a pathologic condition known as irreversible pulpitis and the currently managed by root canal treatment. Extirpation of the entire pulp tissue is done during this procedure, and the canal space is filled with synthetic materials. Recent studies in the stem cell biology state that some portion of the irreversibly inflamed pulp tissue could be viable with progenitor cells, having the properties similar to that of Mesenchymal stem cells. Hence, we aim to isolate Dental Pulp Stem Cells (DPSCs) from patients diagnosed with severe irreversible pulpitis and characterize the cells for the MSC specific markers. The pulp tissue was collected from the dental clinic and subjected to collagenase/dispase digestion. The isolated cells were expanded in culture, and the phenotypic characterization was done using flow cytometry. MSC specific markers such as CD-90, CD-73, and CD-105 were analysed along with negative markers such as CD-14 and CD-45. The isolated cells expressed positive expression for CD markers with CD90 and CD105 ( > 95%) and CD73 (19%). The cells did not express the negative markers CD-14 and CD-45. The commercially available DPSCs from vital extracted teeth, preferably molar/wisdom teeth with large pulp cavity or incomplete root growth in young patients (aged 15-30 years) showed more than 90% expression for all the CD markers such as CD-90, 73 and 105, whereas negative for CD-14 and CD-45. The DPSCs isolated from inflamed pulp tissue showed a less expression for CD-73 compared to the commercially available DPSCs whereas, as the other two markers were found to show similar percentage of positive expression. This could be attributed to the fact that the pulp population is very heterogeneous and we used the pooled tissue from different patients. Hence the phenotypic characterization and comparison with the commercially available DPSCs proved that the inflamed pulp tissue is a good source of MSC like cells which can be utilized further for regenerative application.

Keywords: collagenase/dispase, dental pulp stem cells, flow cytometry, irreversible pulpitis

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253 Effect of Silver Diamine Fluoride on Reducing Fungal Adhesion on Dentin

Authors: Rima Zakzouk, Noriko Hiraishi, Mohamed Mahdi Alshahni, Koichi Makimura, Junji Tagami


Background and Purpose: Silver diamine fluoride (SDF) is used to prevent and arrest dental caries. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of SDF on reducing Candida albicans adhesion on dentin. Materials and Methods: Bovine dentin disks (6×6 mm) were cut by Isomet and polished using grit silicon carbide papers down to 2000 in order to obtain flat dentin surfaces. Samples were divided into two groups. The first group (SDF group) was treated with 38% SDF for 3 min, while the other group (control group) did not undergo SDF treatment. All samples were exposed to C. albicans suspension, washed after 6 hours incubation at 30 °C before to be tested using XTT (2,3-Bis-(2-Methoxy-4-Nitro-5-Sulfophenyl)-2H-Tetrazolium-5-Carboxanilide) and real time PCR approaches. Statistical analyses of the results were performed at the significance level α = 0.05. Results: SDF inhibited C. albicans adhesion onto dentin. A significant difference was found between the SDF and control groups in both XTT and real time PCR tests. Conclusion: Using SDF to arrest the caries, could inhibit the Candida growth on dentin.

Keywords: silver diamine fluoride, dentin, real time PCR, XTT

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252 Finite Element Modelling for the Development of a Planar Ultrasonic Dental Scaler for Prophylactic and Periodontal Care

Authors: Martin Hofmann, Diego Stutzer, Thomas Niederhauser, Juergen Burger


Dental biofilm is the main etiologic factor for caries, periodontal and peri-implant infections. In addition to the risk of tooth loss, periodontitis is also associated with an increased risk of systemic diseases such as atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and diabetes. For this reason, dental hygienists use ultrasonic scalers for prophylactic and periodontal care of the teeth. However, the current instruments are limited to their dimensions and operating frequencies. The innovative design of a planar ultrasonic transducer introduces a new type of dental scalers. The flat titanium-based design allows the mass to be significantly reduced compared to a conventional screw-mounted Langevin transducer, resulting in a more efficient and controllable scaler. For the development of the novel device, multi-physics finite element analysis was used to simulate and optimise various design concepts. This process was supported by prototyping and electromechanical characterisation. The feasibility and potential of a planar ultrasonic transducer have already been confirmed by our current prototypes, which achieve higher performance compared to commercial devices. Operating at the desired resonance frequency of 28 kHz with a driving voltage of 40 Vrms results in an in-plane tip oscillation with a displacement amplitude of up to 75 μm by having less than 8 % out-of-plane movement and an energy transformation factor of 1.07 μm/mA. In a further step, we will adapt the design to two additional resonance frequencies (20 and 40 kHz) to obtain information about the most suitable mode of operation. In addition to the already integrated characterization methods, we will evaluate the clinical efficiency of the different devices in an in vitro setup with an artificial biofilm pocket model.

Keywords: ultrasonic instrumentation, ultrasonic scaling, piezoelectric transducer, finite element simulation, dental biofilm, dental calculus

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251 Antibacterial Effect of Silver Diamine Fluoride Incorporated in Fissure Sealants

Authors: Nélio Veiga, Paula Ferreira, Tiago Correia, Maria J. Correia, Carlos Pereira, Odete Amaral, Ilídio J. Correia


Introduction: The application of fissure sealants is considered to be an important primary prevention method used in dental medicine. However, the formation of microleakage gaps between tooth enamel and the fissure sealant applied is one of the most common reasons of dental caries development in teeth with fissure sealants. The association between various dental biomaterials may limit the major disadvantages and limitations of biomaterials functioning in a complementary manner. The present study consists in the incorporation of a cariostatic agent – silver diamine fluoride (SDF) – in a resin-based fissure sealant followed by the study of release kinetics by spectrophotometry analysis of the association between both biomaterials and assessment of the inhibitory effect on the growth of the reference bacterial strain Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) in an in vitro study. Materials and Methods: An experimental in vitro study was designed consisting in the entrapment of SDF (Cariestop® 12% and 30%) into a commercially available fissure sealant (Fissurit®), by photopolymerization and photocrosslinking. The same sealant, without SDF was used as a negative control. The effect of the sealants on the growth of S. mutans was determined by the presence of bacterial inhibitory halos in the cultures at the end of the incubation period. In order to confirm the absence of bacteria in the surface of the materials, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) characterization was performed. Also, to analyze the release profile of SDF along time, spectrophotometry technique was applied. Results: The obtained results indicate that the association of SDF to a resin-based fissure sealant may be able to increase the inhibition of S. mutans growth. However, no SDF release was noticed during the in vitro release studies and no statistical significant difference was verified when comparing the inhibitory halo sizes obtained for test and control group.  Conclusions: In this study, the entrapment of SDF in the resin-based fissure sealant did not potentiate the antibacterial effect of the fissure sealant or avoid the immediate development of dental caries. The development of more laboratorial research and, afterwards, long-term clinical data are necessary in order to verify if this association between these biomaterials is effective and can be considered for being used in oral health management. Also, other methodologies for associating cariostatic agents and sealant should be addressed.

Keywords: biomaterial, fissure sealant, primary prevention, silver diamine fluoride

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250 Parents’ Perceptions of the Consent Arrangements for Dental Public Health Programmes in North London: A Qualitative Exploration

Authors: Charlotte Jeavons, Charitini Stavropoulous, Nicolas Drey


Background: Over one-third of five-year-olds and almost half of all eight-year-olds in the UK have obvious caries experience that can be detected by visual screening techniques. School-based caries preventions programs to apply fluoride varnish to young children’s teeth operate in many areas in the UK. Their aim is to reduce dental caries in children. The Department of Health guidance (2009) on consent states information must be provided to parents to enable informed autonomous decision-making prior to any treatment involving their young children. Fluoride varnish schemes delivered in primary schools use letters for this purpose. Parents are expected to return these indicating their consent or refusal. A large proportion of parents do not respond. In the absence of positive consent, these children are excluded from the program. Non-response is more common in deprived areas creating inequality. The reason for this is unknown. The consent process used is underpinned by the ethical theory of deontology that is prevalent in clinical dentistry and widely accepted in bio-ethics. Objective: To investigate parents’ views, understanding and experience of the fluoride varnish program taking place in their child’s school, including their views about the practical consent arrangements. Method: Schools participating in the fluoride varnish scheme operating in Enfield, North London, were asked to take part. Parents with children in nursery, reception, or year one were invited to participate via semi-structured interviews and focus groups. Thematic analysis was conducted. Findings: 40 parents were recruited from eight schools. The global theme of ‘trust’ was identified as the strongest influence on parental responses. Six themes were identified; protecting children from harm is viewed by parents as their role, parents have the capability to decide but lack confidence, sharing responsibility for their child’s oral health with the State is welcomed by a parent, existing relationships within parents’ social networks strongly influences consent decisions, official dental information is not communicated effectively, sending a letter to parents’ and excluding them from meeting dental practitioners is ineffective. The information delivered via a letter was not strongly identified by parents as influencing their response. Conclusions: Personal contact with the person(s) providing information and requesting consent has a greater impact on parental consent responses than written information provided alone. This demonstrates that traditional bio-ethical ideas about rational decision-making where emotions are transcended and interference is not justified unless preventing harm to an unaware person are outdated. Parental decision-making is relational and the consent process should be adapted to reflect this. The current system that has a deontology view of decision making at its core impoverishes parental autonomy and may, ultimately, increase dental inequalities as a result.

Keywords: consent, decision, ethics, fluoride, parents

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249 Synergistic Studies of Liposomes of Clove and Cinnamon Oil in Oral Health Care

Authors: Sandhya Parameswaran, Prajakta Dhuri


Despite great improvements in health care, the world oral health report states that dental problems still persist, particularly among underprivileged groups in both developing and developed countries. Dental caries and periodontal diseases are identified as the most important oral health problems globally. Acidic foods and beverages can affect natural teeth, and chronic exposure often leads to the development of dental erosion, abrasion, and decay. In recent years, there has been an increased interest toward essential oils. These are secondary metabolites and possess antibacterial, antifungal and antioxidant properties. Essential oils are volatile and chemically unstable in the presence of air, light, moisture and high temperature. Hence many novel methods like a liposomal encapsulation of oils have been introduced to enhance the stability and bioavailability. This research paper focuses on two essential oils, clove and cinnamon oil. Clove oil was obtained from Syzygium aromaticum Linn using clavengers apparatus. It contains eugenol and β caryophyllene. Cinnamon oil, from the barks of Cinnamomum cassia, contains cinnamaldehyde, The objective of the current research was to develop a liposomal carrier system containing clove and cinnamon oil and study their synergistic activity against dental pathogens when formulated as a gel. Methodology: The essential oil were first tested for their antimicrobial activity against dental pathogens, Lactobacillus acidophillus (MTCC No. 10307, MRS broth) and Streptococcus Mutans (MTCC No .890, Brain Heart Infusion agar). The oils were analysed by UV spectroscopy for eugenol and cinnamaldehyde content. Standard eugenol was linear between 5ppm to 25ppm at 282nm and standard cinnamaldehde from 1ppm to 5pmm at 284nm. The concentration of eugenol in clove oil was found to be 62.65 % w/w, and that of cinnamaldehyde was found to be 5.15%s w/w. The oils were then formulated into liposomes. Liposomes were prepared by thin film hydration method using Phospholipid, Cholesterol, and other oils dissolved in a chloroform methanol (3:1) mixture. The organic solvent was evaporated in a rotary evaporator above lipid transition temperature. The film was hydrated with phosphate buffer (pH 5.5).The various batches of liposomes were characterized and compared for their size, loading rate, encapsulation efficiency and morphology. The prepared liposomes when evaluated for entrapment efficiency showed 65% entrapment for clove and 85% for cinnamon oil. They were also tested for their antimicrobial activity against dental pathogens and their synergistic activity studied. Based on the activity and the entrapment efficiency the amount of liposomes required to prepare 1gm of the gel was calculated. The gel was prepared using a simple ointment base and contained 0.56% of cinnamon and clove liposomes. A simultaneous method of analysis for eugenol and cinnamaldehyde.was then developed using HPLC. The prepared gels were then studied for their stability as per ICH guidelines. Conclusion: It was found that liposomes exhibited spherical shaped vesicles and protected the essential oil from degradation. Liposomes, therefore, constitute a suitable system for encapsulation of volatile, unstable essential oil constituents.

Keywords: cinnamon oil, clove oil, dental caries, liposomes

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248 Design Improvement of Dental Implant-Based on Bone Remodelling

Authors: Solehuddin Shuib, Koay Boon Aik, Zainul Ahmad Rajion


There are many types of mechanical failure on the dental implant. In this project, the failure that needs to take into consideration is the bone resorption on the dental implant. Human bone has its ability to remodel after the implantation. As the dental implant is installed into the bone, the bone will detect and change the bone structure to achieve new biomechanical environment. This phenomenon is known as bone remodeling. The objective of the project is to improve the performance of dental implant by using different types of design. These designs are used to analyze and predict the failure of the dental implant by using finite element analysis (FEA) namely ANSYS. The bone is assumed to be fully attached to the implant or cement. Hence, results are then compared with other researchers. The results were presented in the form of Von Mises stress, normal stress, shear stress analysis, and displacement. The selected design will be analyzed further based on a theoretical calculation of bone remodeling on the dental implant. The results have shown that the design constructed passed the failure analysis. Therefore, the selected design is proven to have a stable performance at the recovery stage.

Keywords: dental implant, FEA, bone remodeling, design

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247 Oral Health of Tobacco Chewers: A Cross-Sectional Study in Karachi, Pakistan

Authors: Warsi A. Ibrahim, Qureshi A. Ambrina, Younus M. Anjum


Introduction: Oral lesions related to commercially available Smokeless Tobacco (ST), such as, Pan, Gutka, Mahwa, Naswar is considered a serious challenge for dental health care providers in Pakistan. Majority of labored Pakistani population consume ST, where public transporters and drivers are no exception. It was necessary to identify individuals of this particular population group and screen their oral health and early signs of pre-cancerous lesions so that appropriate preventive measures could be taken to reduce the burden on health providers. Aim of Study: To estimate Prevalence of ST consumption and perception of use, and to evaluate Oral Health status among public drivers of Karachi. Material & methods: A cross-sectional study survey was conducted over duration of 2 months, through convenient sampling. Sample size (n=615) of public drivers (age > 18 years) all over Karachi was gathered. A structured proforma was used to record socio-demographics, addiction profile, perception of use and oral health status (oral lesions, oral sub-mucosal fibrosis and dental caries) of study participants. Data was entered and analyzed using SPSS version 16.0 using descriptive statistics only. Results: Prevalence of ST consumption among the study participants was figured to 92.5%. Out of these almost 70% suffered from one or the other form of oral lesion(s). Four major types of ST consumption were observed out of which 60 % of oral lesion were related to Gutka chewers showing early signs of oral cancer. In addition, occurrence of Oral sub-mucosal fibrosis (OSF) was found to be significantly high around 54.8%. Overall dental caries status was also high, showing on an average 5 teeth of an individual were decayed, missing or filled deviating from WHO normal criteria (mean < 3). It was thus proven from the study that public drivers relied on oral tobacco consumption because it helps them ‘Improve consciousness’ (p-value: < 0.01; using chi-square test). Multivariate analysis showed that there were higher prevalence of smokeless tobacco among highway drivers versus local drivers (A.O.R: 2.82 [0.83-9.61], p-value: < 0.01) Conclusion: Smokeless tobacco (ST) consumption has a direct effect on oral health. However, the type of ST, the duration of consumption are factors which are directly related to the severity. Moreover, Gutka may be considered as having most lethal effects on oral health which may lead to oral cancer and affect individual’s quality of life. Specific preventive programs must be undertaken to reduce the consumption of Gutka among public transporters and drivers.

Keywords: smokeless tobacco, oral lesions, drivers, public transporters

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246 Nutrition, Dental Status and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder among Underage Refugees in Germany

Authors: Marios Loucas, Rafael Loucas, Oliver Muensterer


Aim of the Study: Over the last two years, there has been a substantial rise of refugees entering Germany, of which approximately one-third are underage. Little is known about the general state of health such as nutrition, dental status and post-traumatic stress disorder among underage refugees. Our study assesses the general health status of underage refugees based on a large sample cohort. Methods: After ethics board approval, we used a structured questionnaire to collect demographic information and health-related elements in 3 large refugee accommodation centers, focusing on nutritional and dental status, as well as symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder. Main results: A total of 461 minor refugees were included. The majority were boys (54.5%), average age was 8 years. Out of the 8 recorded countries of origin, most children came from Syria (33.6%), followed by Afghanistan (23.2%). Of the participants, 50.3% reported DSM-5 criteria of Posttraumatic stress disorder and presented mental health-related problems. The most frequently reported mental abnormalities were concentration disturbances (15.2%), sleep disorders (6.9%), unclear headaches (5.4%). The majority of the participants showed an unfavorable nutritional and dental status. According to the family, the majority of the children rarely eat healthy foods such as fruits, vegetables and fish. However, the majority of these children (over 90%) consume a large quantity of sugary foods and sweetened drinks such as soft drinks and confectionery at least daily. Caries was found in 63% of the minor children included in the study. A large proportion (47%) reported never brushing their teeth. According to the family, 78.3% of refugee children have never been evaluated by a dentist in Germany. The remainder visited a dentist mainly because of unbearable toothache. Conclusions: Minor refugees have specific psychological, nutritional and dental problems that must be considered in order to ensure appropriate medical care. Posttraumatic stress disorder is mainly caused by physical and emotional trauma suffered either during the flight or in the refugee camp in Germany. These data call for widespread screening of psychological, dental and nutritional problems in underage refugees. Dental care of this cohort is completely inadequate. Nutritional programs should focus on educating the families and providing the means to obtain healthy foods for these children.

Keywords: children, nutrition, posttraumatic stress disorder, refugee

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245 Environmental and Health Risks Associated with Dental Waste Management: A Review

Authors: Y. Y. Babanyara, B. A. Gana, T. Garba, M. A. Batari


Proper management of dental waste is a crucial issue for maintaining human health and the environment. The waste generated in the dental clinics has the potential for spreading infections and causing diseases, so improper disposal of these dental wastes can cause harm to the dentist, the people in immediate vicinity of the dentist, waste handlers, general public and the environment through production of toxins or as by-products of the destruction process. Staff that provide dental healthcare ought to be aware of the proper handling and the system of management of dental waste used by different dental hospitals. The method of investigation adopted in the paper involved a desk study in which documents and records relating to dental waste handling were studied to obtain background information on existing dental waste management in Nigeria other countries of the world are also mentioned as examples. Additionally, information on generation, handling, segregation, risk associated during handling and treatment of dental medical waste were sought in order to determine the best method for safe disposal. This article provides dentists with the information they need to properly dispose of mercury and amalgam waste, and provides suggestions for managing the other wastes that result from the day-to-day activities of a dental office such as: used X-ray fixers and developers; cleaners for X-ray developer systems; lead foils, shields and aprons; chemiclave/chemical sterilant solutions; disinfectants, cleaners, and other chemicals; and, general office waste. Additionally, this study may be beneficial for authorities and researchers of developing countries to work towards improving their present dental waste management system.

Keywords: clinic, dental, disposal, environment, waste management

Procedia PDF Downloads 242