Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1852

Search results for: outcome

1852 Using Classifiers to Predict Student Outcome at Higher Institute of Telecommunication

Authors: Fuad M. Alkoot


We aim at highlighting the benefits of classifier systems especially in supporting educational management decisions. The paper aims at using classifiers in an educational application where an outcome is predicted based on given input parameters that represent various conditions at the institute. We present a classifier system that is designed using a limited training set with data for only one semester. The achieved system is able to reach at previously known outcomes accurately. It is also tested on new input parameters representing variations of input conditions to see its prediction on the possible outcome value. Given the supervised expectation of the outcome for the new input we find the system is able to predict the correct outcome. Experiments were conducted on one semester data from two departments only, Switching and Mathematics. Future work on other departments with larger training sets and wider input variations will show additional benefits of classifier systems in supporting the management decisions at an educational institute.

Keywords: machine learning, pattern recognition, classifier design, educational management, outcome estimation

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1851 Visual and Clinical Outcome in Patients with Corneal Lacerations

Authors: Avantika Verma


In industrialized nations, corneal lacerations are one of the most common reason for hospitalization. This study was designed to study visual and clinical outcome in patients presenting with full thickness corneal lacerations in Indian population and to ascertain the impact of various preoperative and operative factors influencing prognosis after repair of corneal lacerations. Males in third decade with injuries at work with metallic objects were common. Lens damage, hyphema, vitreous hemorrhage, retinal detachment and endophthalmitis were seen. All the patients underwent primary repair within first 24 hours of presentation. At 3 months, 74.3% had a good visual outcome. About 5.7% of patients had no perception of light.In conclusion, various demographic and preoperative factors like age, time of presentation, vision at presentation, length of corneal wound, involvement of visual axis, associated ocular features like hyphaema, lenticular changes, vitreous haemorrhage and retinal detachment are significant prognostic indicators for final visual outcome.

Keywords: corneal laceration, corneal wound repair, injury, visual outcome

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1850 Maternal-Fetal Outcome in Pregnant Women with Ebola Virus Disease: A Systematic Review

Authors: Garba Iliyasu, Lamaran Dattijo


Introduction: Ebola virus disease (EVD) is a disease of humans and other primates caused by Ebola viruses. The most widespread epidemic of EVD in history occurred recently in several West African countries. The burden and outcome of EVD in pregnant women remains uncertain. There are very few studies to date reporting on maternal and fetal outcomes among pregnant women with EVD, hence the justification for this comprehensive review of these published studies. Methods: Published studies in English that reported on maternal and or fetal outcome among pregnant women with EVD up to May 2016 were searched in electronic databases (Google Scholar, Medline, Embase, PubMed, AJOL, and Scopus). Studies that did not satisfy the inclusion criteria were excluded. We extracted the following variables from each study: geographical location, year of the study, settings of the study, participants, maternal and fetal outcome.Result: There were 12 studies that reported on 108 pregnant women and 110 fetal outcomes. Six of the studies were case reports, 3 retrospective studies, 2 cross-sectional studies and 1 was a technical report. There were 91(84.3%) deaths out of the 108 pregnant women, while only 1(0.9%) fetal survival was reported out of 110. Survival rate among the 15 patients that had spontaneous abortion/stillbirth or induced delivery was 100%. Conclusion: There was a poor maternal and fetal outcome among pregnant women with EVD, and fetal evacuation significantly improves maternal survival.

Keywords: Africa, ebola, maternofetal, outcome

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1849 LORA: A Learning Outcome Modelling Approach for Higher Education

Authors: Aqeel Zeid, Hasna Anees, Mohamed Adheeb, Mohamed Rifan, Kalpani Manathunga


To achieve constructive alignment in a higher education program, a clear set of learning outcomes must be defined. Traditional learning outcome definition techniques such as Bloom’s taxonomy are not written to be utilized by the student. This might be disadvantageous for students in student-centric learning settings where the students are expected to formulate their own learning strategies. To solve the problem, we propose the learning outcome relation and aggregation (LORA) model. To achieve alignment, we developed learning outcome, assessment, and resource authoring tools which help teachers to tag learning outcomes during creation. A pilot study was conducted with an expert panel consisting of experienced professionals in the education domain to evaluate whether the LORA model and tools present an improvement over the traditional methods. The panel unanimously agreed that the model and tools are beneficial and effective. Moreover, it helped them model learning outcomes in a more student centric and descriptive way.

Keywords: learning design, constructive alignment, Bloom’s taxonomy, learning outcome modelling

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1848 To Prepare a Remedial Teaching Programme for Dyslexic Students of English and Marathi Medium Schools and Study Its Effect on Their Learning Outcome

Authors: Khan Zeenat, S. B. Dandegaonkar


Dyslexia is a neurological disorder which affects the reading and writing ability of children. A sample of 72 dyslexic children (36 from English medium and 36 from Marathi medium schools) of class V from English and Marathi medium schools were selected. The Experimental method was used to study the effect of Remedial Teaching Programme on the Learning outcome of Dyslexic students. The findings showed that there is a Positive effect of remedial teaching programme on the Learning outcome of English and Marathi medium students.

Keywords: remedial teaching, Dyslexic students, learning outcome, neurological

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1847 Development of National Education Policy-2020 Aligned Student-Centric-Outcome-Based-Curriculum of Engineering Programmes of Polytechnics in India: Faculty Preparedness and Challenges Ahead

Authors: Jagannath P. Tegar


The new National Education Policy (NEP) 2020 of Govt. of India has envisaged a major overhaul of the education system of India, in particular, the revamping of the Curriculum of Higher Education. In this process, the faculty members of the Indian universities and institutions have a challenging role in developing the curriculum, which is a shift from the traditional (content-based) curriculum to a student-centric- outcome-based Curriculum (SC-OBC) to be implemented in all of the Universities and institutions. The efforts and initiatives on the design and implementation of SC-OBC are remarkable in the engineering and technical education landscape of the country, but it is still in its early stages and many more steps are needed for the successful adaptation in every level of Higher Education. The premier institute of Govt. of India (NITTTR, Bhopal) has trained and developed the capacity and capability among the teachers of Polytechnics on the design and development of Student Centric - Outcome Based Curriculum and also providing academic consultancy for reforming curriculum in line of NEP- 2020 envisions for the states such as Chhattisgarh, Bihar and Maharashtra to make them responsibly ready for such a new shift in Higher Education. This research-based paper is on three main aspects: 1) the level of acceptance and preparedness of teachers /faculty towards NEP-2020 and student-centred outcome-based learning. 2) the extent of implementing NEP-2020 and student-centered outcome-based learning at Indian institutions/ universities and 3) the challenges of implementing NEP-2020 and student-centered outcome-based learning outcome-based education in the Indian context. The paper content will inspire curriculum designers and developers to prepare SC-OBC that meets the specific needs of industry and society at large, which is intended in the NEP-2020 of Govt. of India

Keywords: outcome based curriculum, student centric learning, national education policy -2020, implementation of nep-2020. outcome based learning, higher education curriculum

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1846 Spatial Working Memory Is Enhanced by the Differential Outcome Procedure in a Group of Participants with Mild Cognitive Impairment

Authors: Ana B. Vivas, Antonia Ypsilanti, Aristea I. Ladas, Angeles F. Estevez


Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) is considered an intermediate stage between normal and pathological aging, as a substantial percentage of people diagnosed with MCI converts later to dementia of the Alzheimer’s type. Memory is of the first cognitive processes to deteriorate in this condition. In the present study we employed the differential outcomes procedure (DOP) to improve visuospatial memory in a group of participants with MCI. The DOP requires the structure of a conditional discriminative learning task in which a correct choice response to a specific stimulus-stimulus association is reinforced with a particular reinforcer or outcome. A group of 10 participants with MCI, and a matched control group had to learn and keep in working memory four target locations out of eight possible locations where a shape could be presented. Results showed that participants with MCI had a statistically significant better terminal accuracy when a unique outcome was paired with a location (76% accuracy) as compared to a non differential outcome condition (64%). This finding suggests that the DOP is useful in improving working memory in MCI patients, which may delay their conversion to dementia.

Keywords: mild cognitive impairment, working memory, differential outcomes, cognitive process

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1845 The Effect of Age on the Outcome of Teenage Pregnancy in Nigeria: A Demographic Study

Authors: Chinelo Igwenagu


Teenage childbearing in developing countries has been a thing of great concern as it has often led to a number of socioeconomic problems both to the society and to the families affected. The outcome of teenage pregnancy has been generally associated with higher rates of maternal morbidity and mortality, greater risks for delivery complications, low-birth weight infants and child mortality. As a result of teenagers’ physiological and social immaturity and their lack of adequate prenatal care, health risks associated with their pregnancies and childbearing are more pronounced than those of older women. Therefore this study has examined the relationship between the age of teenagers and the outcome of teenage pregnancy. Based on this study, the result of the analysis shows that both teenagers and older mothers suffer similarly during child bearing. Hence improve medical care is paramount in all the situations.

Keywords: childbearing, mortality, Nigeria, pregnancy, prematurity, teenagers

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1844 Development and Validation of Family Outcome Survey – Revised Taiwan Version

Authors: Shih-Heng Sun, Hsiu-Yu Chang


“Family centered service model” becomes mainstream in early intervention. Family outcome should be evaluated in addition child improvement in terms of outcome evaluation in early intervention. The purpose of this study is to develop a surveys to evaluate family outcomes in early intervention. Method: “Family Outcomes Survey- Revised Taiwan Version” (FOS-RT) was developed through translation, back-translation, and review by the original author. Expert meeting was held to determine the content validity. Two hundred and eighty six parent-child dyads recruited from 10 local Early Intervention Resource Centers (EIRC) participated in the study after they signed inform consent. The results showed both parts of FOS-RT exhibits good internal consistency and test-retest reliability. The result of confirmatory factor analysis indicated moderate fit of 5 factor structure of part A and 3 factor structure of part B of FOS-RT. The correlation between different sessions reached moderate to high level reveals some sessions measure similar latent trait of family outcomes. Correlation between FOS-RT and Parents‘ Perceived Parenting Skills Questionnaire was calculated to determine the convergence validity. The moderate correlation indicates the two assessments measure different parts of early intervention outcome although both assessments have similar sub-scales. The results of this study support FOS-RT is a valid and reliable tool to evaluate family outcome after the family and children with developmental disability receive early intervention services.

Keywords: early intervention, family service, outcome evaluation, parenting skills, family centered

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1843 Patient-Reported Adverse Drug Reactions, Medication Adherence and Clinical Outcomes among major depression disorder Patients in Ethiopia: A Prospective Hospital Based Study.

Authors: Tadesse Melaku Abegaz


Background: there was paucity of data on the self-reported adverse drug reactions (ADRs), level of adherence and clinical outcomes with antidepressants among major depressive disorder (MDD) patients in Ethiopia. Hence, the present study sought to determine the level of adherence for and clinical outcome with antidepressants and the magnitude of ADRs. Methods: A prospective cross-sectional study was employed on MDD patients from September 2016 to January 2017 at Gondar university hospital psychiatry clinic. All patients who were available during the study period were included under the study population. The Naranjo adverse drug reaction probability scale was employed to assess the adverse drug reaction. The rate of medication adherence was determined using morisky medication adherence measurement scale eight. Clinical Outcome of patients was measured by using patient health questionnaire. Multivariable logistic carried out to determine factors for adherence and patient outcome. Results: two hundred seventy patients were participated in the study. More than half of the respondents were males 122(56.2%). The mean age of the participants was 30.94 ± 8.853. More than one-half of the subjects had low adherence to their medications 124(57.1%). About 186(85.7%) of patients encountered ADR. The most common ADR was weight gain 29(13.2). Around 198(92.2%) ADRs were probable and 19(8.8%) were possible. Patients with long standing MDD had high risk of non-adherence COR: 2.458[4.413-4.227], AOR: 2.424[1.185-4.961]. More than one-half 125(57.6) of respondents showed improved outcome. Optimal level of medication adherence was found to be associated with reduced risk of progression of the diseases COR: 0.37[0.110-5.379] and AOR: 0.432[0.201-0.909]. Conclusion: Patient reported adverse drug reactions were more prevalent in major depressive disorder patients. Adherence to medications was very poor in the setup. However, the clinical outcome was relatively higher. Long standing depression was associated with non-adherence. In addition, clinical outcome of patients were affected by non-adherence. Therefore, adherence enhancing interventions should be provided to improve medication adherence and patient outcome.

Keywords: adverse drug reactions, clinical outcomes, Ethiopia, prospective study, medication adherence

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1842 Motor Vehicle Accidents During Pregnancy: Analysis of Maternal and Fetal Outcome at a University Hospital

Authors: Manjunath Attibele, Alsawafi Manal, Al Dughaishi Tamima


Introduction: The purpose of this study was to describe the clinical characteristics and types of mechanisms of injuries caused by Motor vehicle accidents (MVA) during pregnancy. To analyze the patterns of accidents during pregnancy and its adverse consequences on both maternal and fetal outcome. Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study on pregnant patients who met with MVAs The study period was from January 1, 2010, to December 31, 2019. All relevant data were retrieved from electronic patients’ records from the hospital information system and from the antenatal ward admission register Results: Out of 168 women who had motor vehicle accidents during the study period, of which, 39 (23.2%) women during pregnancy. Twenty-one (53.8%) women were over 30 years old. Thirty-five (89.7%) women were Omanis, and 27 (69.2%) were in their third trimester. Twenty-three (59%) of accidents happened at night, and 31 (79.5%) of them happened on a weekday. Twenty-two (56.4%) of women were driving themselves, and 24 (61.5%) of them were not using any seatbelt. Accident related abdominal & back pain was seen in 23(59%) women. Regarding the outcome of pregnancy, 23 (74.2%) had a normal vaginal delivery. The mean accident to delivery interval was 7 weeks. Thirty (96.7%) of involved newborns were relatively healthy. One woman (3.2%) had a ruptured uterusleading to fetal death (3.2%). Conclusion: This study showed that the incidence of motor vehicle accidents during pregnancy is around 23.2% . Majority had trauma-associated pain. One serious injury to a woman causing a ruptured uterus which lead to fetal death. Majority of involved newborns were relatively healthy. No reported maternal death.

Keywords: motor vehicle accidents, pregnancy, maternal outcome, fetal outcome

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1841 Formation of Academia-Industry Collaborative Model to Improve the Quality of Teaching-Learning Process

Authors: M. Dakshayini, P. Jayarekha


In traditional output-based education system, class room lecture and laboratory are the traditional delivery methods used during the course. Written examination and lab examination have been used as a conventional tool for evaluating student’s performance. Hence, there are certain apprehensions that the traditional education system may not efficiently prepare the students for competent professional life. This has led for the change from Traditional output-based education to Outcome-Based Education (OBE). OBE first sets the ideal programme learning outcome consecutively on increasing degree of complexity that students are expected to master. The core curriculum, teaching methodologies and assessment tools are then designed to achieve the proposed outcomes mainly focusing on what students can actually attain after they are taught. In this paper, we discuss a promising applications based learning and evaluation component involving industry collaboration to improve the quality of teaching and student learning process. Incorporation of this component definitely improves the quality of student learning in engineering education and helps the student to attain the competency as per the graduate attributes. This may also reduce the Industry-academia gap.

Keywords: outcome-based education, programme learning outcome, teaching-learning process, evaluation, industry collaboration

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1840 Predictive Value Modified Sick Neonatal Score (MSNS) On Critically Ill Neonates Outcome Treated in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU)

Authors: Oktavian Prasetia Wardana, Martono Tri Utomo, Risa Etika, Kartika Darma Handayani, Dina Angelika, Wurry Ayuningtyas


Background: Critically ill neonates are newborn babies with high-risk factors that potentially cause disability and/or death. Scoring systems for determining the severity of the disease have been widely developed as well as some designs for use in neonates. The SNAPPE-II method, which has been used as a mortality predictor scoring system in several referral centers, was found to be slow in assessing the outcome of critically ill neonates in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU). Objective: To analyze the predictive value of MSNS on the outcome of critically ill neonates at the time of arrival up to 24 hours after being admitted to the NICU. Methods: A longitudinal observational analytic study based on medical record data was conducted from January to August 2022. Each sample was recorded from medical record data, including data on gestational age, mode of delivery, APGAR score at birth, resuscitation measures at birth, duration of resuscitation, post-resuscitation ventilation, physical examination at birth (including vital signs and any congenital abnormalities), the results of routine laboratory examinations, as well as the neonatal outcomes. Results: This study involved 105 critically ill neonates who were admitted to the NICU. The outcome of critically ill neonates was 50 (47.6%) neonates died, and 55 (52.4%) neonates lived. There were more males than females (61% vs. 39%). The mean gestational age of the subjects in this study was 33.8 ± 4.28 weeks, with the mean birth weight of the subjects being 1820.31 ± 33.18 g. The mean MSNS score of neonates with a deadly outcome was lower than that of the lived outcome. ROC curve with a cut point MSNS score <10.5 obtained an AUC of 93.5% (95% CI: 88.3-98.6) with a sensitivity value of 84% (95% CI: 80.5-94.9), specificity 80 % (CI 95%: 88.3-98.6), Positive Predictive Value (PPV) 79.2%, Negative Predictive Value (NPV) 84.6%, Risk Ratio (RR) 5.14 with Hosmer & Lemeshow test results p>0.05. Conclusion: The MSNS score has a good predictive value and good calibration of the outcomes of critically ill neonates admitted to the NICU.

Keywords: critically ill neonate, outcome, MSNS, NICU, predictive value

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1839 Maternal Health Outcome and Economic Growth in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Dynamic Panel Analysis

Authors: Okwan Frank


Maternal health outcome is one of the major population development challenges in Sub-Saharan Africa. The region has the highest maternal mortality ratio, despite the progressive economic growth in the region during the global economic crisis. It has been hypothesized that increase in economic growth will reduce the level of maternal mortality. The purpose of this study is to investigate the existence of the negative relationship between health outcome proxy by maternal mortality ratio and economic growth in Sub-Saharan Africa. The study used the Pooled Mean Group estimator of ARDL Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) and the Kao test for cointegration to examine the short-run and long-run relationship between maternal mortality and economic growth. The results of the cointegration test showed the existence of a long-run relationship between the variables considered for the study. The long-run result of the Pooled Mean group estimates confirmed the hypothesis of an inverse relationship between maternal health outcome proxy by maternal mortality ratio and economic growth proxy by Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita. Thus increasing economic growth by investing in the health care systems to reduce pregnancy and childbirth complications will help reduce maternal mortality in the sub-region.

Keywords: economic growth, maternal mortality, pool mean group, Sub-Saharan Africa

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1838 Functional Outcome and Quality of Life of Conservative versus Surgical Management of Adult Potts Disease: A Prospective Cohort Study

Authors: Mark Angelo Maranon, David Endriga


Objective: The aim of the study is to determine the differences in functional outcome and quality of life of adult patients with Potts disease who have undergone surgical versus non-surgical management. Methods: In this prospective cohort study, 45 patients were followed up for 1 year after undergoing pharmacologic treatment alone versus a combination of anti-Kochs and surgery for Potts disease. Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and Short Form-36 (SF-36) were obtained on initiation of treatment, after three months, six months and one year. Results: ASIA scores from the onset of treatment and after 1 year significantly improved (p<0.001) for both non-surgical and surgical patients. ODI scores significantly improved after 6 months of treatment for both surgical and non-surgical patients. Both surgical and non-surgical patients showed significant improvement in their SF-36 scores, but scores were noted to be higher in patients who underwent surgery. Conclusions: Significant improvement with regards to functional outcome and quality of life was noted from both surgical and non-surgical patients after 1 year of treatment, with earlier improvements and better final scores in SF 36 and ODI in patients who underwent surgery.

Keywords: tuberculosis, spinal, potts disease, functional outcome

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1837 The Application of Bayesian Heuristic for Scheduling in Real-Time Private Clouds

Authors: Sahar Sohrabi


The emergence of Cloud data centers has revolutionized the IT industry. Private Clouds in specific provide Cloud services for certain group of customers/businesses. In a real-time private Cloud each task that is given to the system has a deadline that desirably should not be violated. Scheduling tasks in a real-time private CLoud determine the way available resources in the system are shared among incoming tasks. The aim of the scheduling policy is to optimize the system outcome which for a real-time private Cloud can include: energy consumption, deadline violation, execution time and the number of host switches. Different scheduling policies can be used for scheduling. Each lead to a sub-optimal outcome in a certain settings of the system. A Bayesian Scheduling strategy is proposed for scheduling to further improve the system outcome. The Bayesian strategy showed to outperform all selected policies. It also has the flexibility in dealing with complex pattern of incoming task and has the ability to adapt.

Keywords: cloud computing, scheduling, real-time private cloud, bayesian

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1836 Elementary Education Outcome Efficiency in Indian States

Authors: Jyotsna Rosario, K. R. Shanmugam


Since elementary education is a merit good, considerable public resources are allocated to universalise it. However, elementary education outcomes vary across the Indian States. Evidences indicate that while some states are lagging in elementary education outcome primarily due to lack of resources and poor schooling infrastructure, others are lagging despite resource abundance and well-developed schooling infrastructure. Addressing the issue of efficiency, the study employs Stochastic Frontier Analysis for panel data of 27 Indian states from 2012-13 to 2017-18 to estimate the technical efficiency of State governments in generating enrolment. The mean efficiency of states was estimated to be 58%. Punjab, Meghalaya, and West Bengal were found to be the most efficient states. Whereas Jammu and Kashmir, Nagaland, Madhya Pradesh, and Odisha are one of the most inefficient states. This study emphasizes the efficient utilisation of public resources and helps in the identification of best practices.

Keywords: technical efficiency, public expenditure, elementary education outcome, stochastic frontier analysis

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1835 Investigating the Challenges Faced by English Language Teachers in Implementing Outcome Based Education the Outcome Based Education model in Engineering Universities of Sindh

Authors: Habibullah Pathan


The present study aims to explore problems faced by English Language Teachers (ELT) while implementing the Outcome Based Education (OBE) model in engineering universities of Sindh. OBE is an emerging model initiative of the International Engineering Alliance. Traditional educational systems are teacher-centered or curriculum-centered, in which learners are not able to achieve desired outcomes, but the OBE model enables learners to know the outcomes before the start of the program. OBE is a circular process that begins from the needs and demands of society to stakeholders who ask the experts to produce the alumnus who can fulfill the needs and ends up getting new enrollment in the respective programs who can work according to the demands. In all engineering institutions, engineering courses besides English language courses are taught on the OBE model. English language teachers were interviewed to learn the in-depth of the problems faced by them. The study found that teachers were facing problems including pedagogical, OBE training, assessment, evaluation and administrative support. This study will be a guide for public and private English language teachers to cope with these challenges while teaching the English language on the OBE model. OBE is an emerging model by which the institutions can produce such a product that can meet the demands.

Keywords: problems of ELT teachers, outcome based education (OBE), implementing, assessment

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1834 The Effects of Evidence-Based Nursing Training and Consultation Program on Self-Efficacy and Outcome Expectancy of Evidence-Based Practice among Nurses

Authors: Yea-Pyng Lin


Evidence-based nursing (EBN) can improve quality of patient care and reduce medical expenses. Development of training and consultation program according to nurses’ needs and difficulties is essential to promote their competence and self-efficacy in EBN. However, limited research evaluated the effects of EBN program on EBN self-efficacy among nurses. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of an EBN consultation program on self-efficacy and outcome expectancy of evidence-based practice (EBP) among nurses. A two-group pretest-posttest quasi-experimental design was used. A purposive sample of full-time nurses was recruited from a hospital. Experimental group (n=28) received the EBN consultation program including 18-hour EBN training courses, hand-on practices and group discussion by faculty mentors. Control group (n=33) received regular in-service education with no EBN program. All participants received baseline and post-test assessment using Chinese version of Self-Efficacy in EBP scale (SE-EBP) and Outcome Expectancy for EBP scale (OE-EBP). After receiving EBN consultation program, experimental group’s posttest scores of SE-EBP (t=-4.98, p<0.001) and OE-SEP (t=-3.65, p=0.001) were significantly higher than those of the pretests. By controlling the age and years of nursing work experience, the experimental group‘s SE-EBP(F=10.47, p=0.002) and OE-SEP(F=9.53, p=0.003) scores were significantly improved compared to those of the control group. EBN program focus on hand-on practice and group discussion by faculty mentors in addition to EBN training courses can improve EBP self-efficacy and outcome expectancy among nurses. EBN program focus on English literature reading, database searching, and appraisal practice according to nurses’ needs and difficulties can promote implementation of EBN.

Keywords: evidence-based nursing, evidence-based practice, consultation program, self-efficacy, outcome expectancy

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1833 A Systematic Review of the Transportability of Cognitive Therapy for the Treatment of PTSD among South African Survivors of Rape

Authors: Anita Padmanabhanunni


Trauma-focused cognitive-treatment (CT) models are among the most efficacious in treating PTSD arising from exposure to rape. However, these treatment approaches are severely under-utilised by South African mental health care practitioners owing to concerns around whether treatments developed in Western clinical contexts are transportable and applicable in routine clinical settings. One way of promoting the use of these efficacious treatments in local contexts is by identifying and appraising the evidence from local outcome studies. This paper presents the findings of a systematic review of research evidence from local outcome studies on the effectiveness of CT in the treatment of rape-related PTSD in South Africa. The study found that whilst limited research has been published in South Africa on the outcome of CT in the treatment of rape survivors, the studies that are available afford insights into the effectiveness of CT.

Keywords: cognitive treatment, PTSD, South Africa, transportability

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1832 To Compare the Visual Outcome, Safety and Efficacy of Phacoemulsification and Small-Incision Cataract Surgery (SICS) at CEITC, Bangladesh

Authors: Rajib Husain, Munirujzaman Osmani, Mohammad Shamsal Islam


Purpose: To compare the safety, efficacy and visual outcome of phacoemulsification vs. manual small-incision cataract surgery (SICS) for the treatment of cataract in Bangladesh. Objectives: 1. To assess the Visual outcome after cataract surgery 2. To understand the post-operative complications and early rehabilitation 3. To identified which surgical procedure more attractive to the patients 4. To identify which surgical procedure is occurred fewer complications. 5. To find out the socio-economic and demographic characteristics of study patients Setting: Chittagong Eye Infirmary and Training Complex, Chittagong, Bangladesh. Design: Retrospective, randomised comparison of 300 patients with visually significant cataracts. Method: The present study was designed as a retrospective hospital-based research. The sample size was 300 and study period was from July, 2012 to July, 2013 and assigned randomly to receive either phacoemulsification or manual small-incision cataract surgery (SICS). Preoperative and post-operative data were collected through a well designed collection format. Three follow-up were done; i) during discharge ii) 1-3 weeks & iii) 4-11 weeks post operatively. All preoperative and surgical complications, uncorrected and best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and astigmatism were taken into consideration for comparison of outcome Result: Nearly 95% patients were more than 40 years of age. About 52% patients were female, and 48% were male. 52% (N=157) patients came to operate their first eye where 48% (N=143) patients were visited again to operate their second eye. Postoperatively, five eyes (3.33%) developed corneal oedema with >10 Descemets folds, and six eyes (4%) had corneal oedema with <10 Descemets folds for Phacoemulsification surgeries. For SICS surgeries, seven eyes (4.66%) developed corneal oedema with >10 Descemets folds and eight eyes (5.33%) had corneal oedema with < 10 descemets folds. However, both the uncorrected and corrected (4-11 weeks) visual acuities were better in the eyes that had phacoemulsification (p=0.02 and p=0.03), and there was less astigmatism (p=0.001) at 4-11 weeks in the eye that had phacoemulsification. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) of final follow-up 95% (N=253) had a good outcome, borderline 3.10% (N=40) and poor outcome was 1.6% (N=7). The individual surgeon outcome were closer, 95% (BCVA) in SICS and 96% (BCVA) in Phacoemulsification at 4-11 weeks follow-up respectively. Conclusion: outcome of cataract surgery both Phacoemulsification and SICS in CEITC was more satisfactory according to who norms. Both Phacoemulsification and manual small-incision cataract surgery (SICS) shows excellent visual outcomes with low complication rates and good rehabilitation. Phacoemulsification is significantly faster, and modern technology based surgical procedure for cataract treatment.

Keywords: phacoemulsification, SICS, cataract, Bangladesh, visual outcome of SICS

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1831 An Efficient Propensity Score Method for Causal Analysis With Application to Case-Control Study in Breast Cancer Research

Authors: Ms Azam Najafkouchak, David Todem, Dorothy Pathak, Pramod Pathak, Joseph Gardiner


Propensity score (PS) methods have recently become the standard analysis as a tool for the causal inference in the observational studies where exposure is not randomly assigned, thus, confounding can impact the estimation of treatment effect on the outcome. For the binary outcome, the effect of treatment on the outcome can be estimated by odds ratios, relative risks, and risk differences. However, using the different PS methods may give you a different estimation of the treatment effect on the outcome. Several methods of PS analyses have been used mainly, include matching, inverse probability of weighting, stratification, and covariate adjusted on PS. Due to the dangers of discretizing continuous variables (exposure, covariates), the focus of this paper will be on how the variation in cut-points or boundaries will affect the average treatment effect (ATE) utilizing the stratification of PS method. Therefore, we are trying to avoid choosing arbitrary cut-points, instead, we continuously discretize the PS and accumulate information across all cut-points for inferences. We will use Monte Carlo simulation to evaluate ATE, focusing on two PS methods, stratification and covariate adjusted on PS. We will then show how this can be observed based on the analyses of the data from a case-control study of breast cancer, the Polish Women’s Health Study.

Keywords: average treatment effect, propensity score, stratification, covariate adjusted, monte Calro estimation, breast cancer, case_control study

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1830 The Use of Respiratory Index of Severity in Children (RISC) for Predicting Clinical Outcomes for 3 Months-59 Months Old Patients Hospitalized with Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Visayas Community Medical Center, Cebu City from January 2013 - June 2

Authors: Karl Owen L. Suan, Juliet Marie S. Lambayan, Floramay P. Salo-Curato


Objective: To predict the outcome among patients admitted with community-acquired pneumonia (ages 3 months to 59 months old) admitted in Visayas Community Medical Center using the Respiratory Index of Severity in Children (RISC). Design: A cross-sectional study design was used. Setting: The study was done in Visayas Community Medical Center, which is a private tertiary level in Cebu City from January-June 2013. Patients/Participants: A total of 72 patients were initially enrolled in the study. However, 1 patient transferred to another institution, thus 71 patients were included in this study. Within 24 hours from admission, patients were assigned a RISC score. Statistical Analysis: Cohen’s kappa coefficient was used for inter-rater agreement for categorical data. This study used frequency and percentage distribution for qualitative data. Mean, standard deviation and range were used for quantitative data. To determine the relationship of each RISC score parameter and the total RISC score with the outcome, a Mann Whitney U Test and 2x2 Fischer Exact test for testing associations were used. A p value less of than 0.05 alpha was considered significant. Results: There was a statistical significance between RISC score and clinical outcome. RISC score of greater than 4 was correlated with intubation and/or mortality. Conclusion: The RISC scoring system is a simple combination of clinical parameters and a reliable tool that will help stratify patients aged 3 months to 59 months in predicting clinical outcome.

Keywords: RISC, clinical outcome, community-acquired pneumonia, patients

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1829 Predicting Match Outcomes in Team Sport via Machine Learning: Evidence from National Basketball Association

Authors: Jacky Liu


This paper develops a team sports outcome prediction system with potential for wide-ranging applications across various disciplines. Despite significant advancements in predictive analytics, existing studies in sports outcome predictions possess considerable limitations, including insufficient feature engineering and underutilization of advanced machine learning techniques, among others. To address these issues, we extend the Sports Cross Industry Standard Process for Data Mining (SRP-CRISP-DM) framework and propose a unique, comprehensive predictive system, using National Basketball Association (NBA) data as an example to test this extended framework. Our approach follows a holistic methodology in feature engineering, employing both Time Series and Non-Time Series Data, as well as conducting Explanatory Data Analysis and Feature Selection. Furthermore, we contribute to the discourse on target variable choice in team sports outcome prediction, asserting that point spread prediction yields higher profits as opposed to game-winner predictions. Using machine learning algorithms, particularly XGBoost, results in a significant improvement in predictive accuracy of team sports outcomes. Applied to point spread betting strategies, it offers an astounding annual return of approximately 900% on an initial investment of $100. Our findings not only contribute to academic literature, but have critical practical implications for sports betting. Our study advances the understanding of team sports outcome prediction a burgeoning are in complex system predictions and pave the way for potential profitability and more informed decision making in sports betting markets.

Keywords: machine learning, team sports, game outcome prediction, sports betting, profits simulation

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1828 Treatment Outcome of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis and Its Associated Factors among Admitted Patients in All Africa Leprosy Rehabilitation and Training Center Hospital, Ethiopia

Authors: Kebede Mairie, Getahun Belete, Mitike Abeba


Background: Leishmania aethiopica is a peculiar parasite causing cutaneous leishmaniasis in Ethiopia and its mainstay treatment is Sodium Stibogluconate. However, its treatment outcome in Ethiopia is not well documented. Objectives: To determine the treatment outcome of admitted cutaneous leishmaniasis patients and its associated factors in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted from 1st November 2021 to 30th March 2022. Medical records of all cutaneous leishmaniasis-diagnosed and admitted patients who received parenteral sodium stibogluconate at All Africa Leprosy Rehabilitation and Training Center (ALERT) hospital, the main Leishmania treatment center in Ethiopia from July 2011 to September 2021 were reviewed. Results: A total of 827 charts of admitted cases from July 2011 to September 2021 were retrieved, but 667 (80.65%) were reviewed. Improvement in the treatment outcome was recorded in 93.36 % in the first course of SSG treatment and 96.23%, 94.62%, and 96.97% subsequently in the second, third and fourth treatment courses, respectively. Female gender and diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis were the two predictive determinants in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Conclusion: The study shows that parenteral sodium stibogluconate therapy treats hospitalized cutaneous leishmaniasis patients well, with female gender and diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis having poor outcomes suggesting the need for a different approach for diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis patients.

Keywords: cutaneous leishmaniasis, leishmania aethiopica, sodium stibogluconate, diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis, pentostam

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1827 The Effect of Diet Intervention for Breast Cancer: A Meta-Analysis

Authors: Bok Yae Chung, Eun Hee Oh


Breast cancer patients require more nutritional interventions than others. However, a few studies have attempted to assess the overall nutritional status, to reduce body weight and BMI by improving diet, and to improve the prognosis of cancer for breast cancer patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of diet intervention in the breast cancer patients through meta-analysis. For the study purpose, 16 studies were selected by using PubMed, ScienceDirect, ProQuest and CINAHL. Meta-analysis was performed using a random-effects model, and the effect size on outcome variables in breast cancer was calculated. The effect size for outcome variables of diet intervention was a large effect size. For heterogeneity, moderator analysis was performed using intervention type and intervention duration. All moderators did not significant difference. Diet intervention has significant positive effects on outcome variables in breast cancer. As a result, it is suggested that the timing of the intervention should be no more than six months, but a strategy for sustaining long-term intervention effects should be added if nutritional intervention is to be administered for breast cancer patients in the future.

Keywords: breast cancer, diet, mete-analysis, intervention

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1826 Outcome of Obstetric Admission to General Intensive Care over a Period of 3 Years

Authors: Kamel Abdelaziz Mohamed


Intoduction:Inadequate knowledge about obstetric admission and infrequent dealing with the obstetric patients in ICU results in high mortality and morbidity. Aim of the work:To evaluate the indications, course, severity of illness, and outcome of obstetric patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). Patients and Methods: We collected baseline data and acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II (APACHE II) scores. ICU mortality was the primary outcome. Results: Seventy obstetric patients were admitted to the ICU over 3 years, 36 of these patients (51.4 %) were admitted during the antepartum period. The primary obstetric indication for ICU admission was pregnancy-induced hypertension (22 patients, 31.4%), followed by sepsis (8 patients, 11.4%) as the leading non-obstetric admission. The mean APACHE II score was 19.6. The predicted mortality rate based on the APACHE II score was 22%, however, only 4 maternal deaths (5.7%) were among the obstetric patients admitted to the ICU. Conclusion: Evaluation of obstetric patients by (APACHE II) scores showed higher predicted mortality rate, however the overall mortality was lower. Regular follow up, together with early detection of complications and prompt ICU admission necessitating proper management by specialized team can improve mortality.

Keywords: obstetric, complication, postpartum, sepsis

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1825 Preoperative 3D Planning and Reconstruction of Mandibular Defects for Patients with Oral Cavity Tumors

Authors: Janis Zarins, Kristaps Blums, Oskars Radzins, Renars Deksnis, Atis Svare, Santa Salaka


Wide tumor resection remains the first choice method for tumors of the oral cavity. Nevertheless, remained tissue defect impacts patients functional and aesthetical outcome, which could be improved using microvascular tissue transfers. Mandibular reconstruction is challenging due to the complexity of composite tissue defects and occlusal relationships for normal eating, chewing, and pain free jaw motions. Individual 3-D virtual planning would provide better symmetry and functional outcome. The main goal of preoperative planning is to develop a customized surgical approach with patient specific cutting guides of the mandible, osteotomy guides of the fibula, pre-bended osteosynthesis plates to perform more precise reconstruction, to decrease the surgery time and reach the best outcome. Our study is based on the analysis of 32 patients operated on between 2019 to 2021. All patients underwent mandible reconstruction with vascularized fibula flaps. Patients characteristics, surgery profile, survival, functional outcome, and quality of life was evaluated. Preoperative planning provided a significant decrease of surgery time and the best arrangement of bone closely similar as before the surgery. In cases of bone asymmetry, deformity and malposition, a new mandible was created using 3D planning to restore the appearance of lower jaw anatomy and functionality.

Keywords: mandibular, 3D planning, cutting guides, fibula flap, reconstruction

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1824 Work Engagement, Sense of Humor and Workplace Outcomes: The Mediating Role of Psychological Capital

Authors: Vandana Maurya


Positive psychological capital is the key contributor to the competitive advantage of the organizations. Moreover, work engagement and sense of humor are also positive notions and are able to facilitate positive workplace behaviour but the mechanism behind these relationships are not well understood. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among work engagement, sense of humor and outcome variables (organizational citizenship behaviour and ethical performance) as well as investigating how psychological capital (PsyCap) mediates the relationships between work engagement, sense of humor and the outcome variables among healthcare professionals. A cross-sectional survey was conducted on healthcare professionals (n= 240). Data were collected using questionnaires which includes Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES), Multi-dimensional Sense of Humor Scale (MSHS), Psychological Capital Questionnaire (PCQ), Organizational Citizenship Behavior Questionnaire, and Ethical Performance Scale (EPS). The results of the regression analyses showed that work engagement and sense of humor both positively predicted the outcome variables. Mediation analysis reveals that psychological capital mediates the relationship between predictor and outcome variables. The study recommends that the framework presented in this study can be an important tool for managers to enhance their employees’ psychological capital by increasing their levels of work engagement and sense of humor. In turn, psychological capital could be a positive resource for employees to dealing more ethically and enhancing more positive workplace behaviour.

Keywords: ethical performance, humor, organizational citizenship behavior, PsyCap, work engagement

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1823 Contribution of Automated Early Warning Score Usage to Patient Safety

Authors: Phang Moon Leng


Automated Early Warning Scores is a newly developed clinical decision tool that is used to streamline and improve the process of obtaining a patient’s vital signs so a clinical decision can be made at an earlier stage to prevent the patient from further deterioration. This technology provides immediate update on the score and clinical decision to be taken based on the outcome. This paper aims to study the use of an automated early warning score system on whether the technology has assisted the hospital in early detection and escalation of clinical condition and improve patient outcome. The hospital adopted the Modified Early Warning Scores (MEWS) Scoring System and MEWS Clinical Response into Philips IntelliVue Guardian Automated Early Warning Score equipment and studied whether the process has been leaned, whether the use of technology improved the usage & experience of the nurses, and whether the technology has improved patient care and outcome. It was found the steps required to obtain vital signs has been significantly reduced and is used more frequently to obtain patient vital signs. The number of deaths, and length of stay has significantly decreased as clinical decisions can be made and escalated more quickly with the Automated EWS. The automated early warning score equipment has helped improve work efficiency by removing the need for documenting into patient’s EMR. The technology streamlines clinical decision-making and allows faster care and intervention to be carried out and improves overall patient outcome which translates to better care for patient.

Keywords: automated early warning score, clinical quality and safety, patient safety, medical technology

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