Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5262

Search results for: eating behavior

5262 Knowledge and Eating Behavior of Teenage Pregnancy

Authors: Udomporn Yingpaisuk, Premwadee Karuhadej

Abstract:

The purposed of this research was to study the eating habit of teenage pregnancy and its relationship to the knowledge of nutrition during pregnancy. The 100 samples were derived from simple random sampling technique of the teenage pregnancy in Bangkae District. The questionnaire was used to collect data with the reliability of 0.8. The data were analyzed by SPSS for Windows with multiple regression technique. Percentage, mean and the relationship of knowledge of eating and eating behavior were obtained. The research results revealed that their knowledge in nutrition was at the average of 4.07 and their eating habit that they mentioned most was to refrain from alcohol and caffeine at 82% and the knowledge in nutrition influenced their eating habits at 54% with the statistically significant level of 0.001.

Keywords: teenage pregnancy, knowledge of eating, eating behavior, alcohol, caffeine

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5261 Stress and Dysfunctional Eating Behavior in COVID-19 Pandemic: A Gender Perspective

Authors: Vanshika Chutani, Priya Bhatnagar

Abstract:

The pandemic has brought us to a standpoint where stress as a physical, cognitive, and behavioral construct is inevitable. The current research provides an overview of the relationship between stress and dysfunctional eating behavior during the challenging time of the COVID-19 pandemic. The present paper also aims to highlight the gender-specific differences in perception of stress and its correlation with dysfunctional eating behavior in the COVID-19 pandemic. Perceived Stress Scale-10 (PSS) and Adult Eating Behavior questionnaire (AEBQ) were used on a heterogeneous sample between 20-40 years. The research was conducted on 50 participants, 25 male, and 25 female. Quantitative analysis was done with SPSS 22.0. The results of the investigation revealed a significant difference in stress level, t(48)=2.01, p<0.01, with women (M=22.24. SD=5.23) having a higher stress level than men (M=19.04, SD=4.89). There was no significant difference in dysfunctional eating behavior between males and females. There was a significant positive correlation between stress and dysfunctional eating behavior in females, whereas, in males, there was no significant positive correlation between stress and dysfunctional eating behavior. The research extrapolates that the pandemic led to elevated stress levels in both genders and gender differences existed, and males & females responded differently on dysfunctional eating behavior. The research has also outlined intervention to help individuals cope with stress and dysfunctional eating behavior. The findings of the research propose the execution of different intervention programs and psychological first aid to help individuals who are predisposed to develop eating disorders.

Keywords: stress, dysfunctional eating behavior, gender-specific differences, COVID-19

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5260 Association between Eating Behavior in Children Aged 7-10 Years Old and Their Mother’s Feeding Practice: A Study among the Families in Isfahan, Iran

Authors: Behnaz Farahani, Razieh Sotoudeh, Ali Vahdani, Hamed Abdi

Abstract:

Individual differences in eating behavior can cause underweight or overweight and obesity. Thus influencing factors on children’s eating behavior such as mothers’ feeding practices are needed to be more investigated. The goals of this survey are to evaluate the association of (i) parental pressure and children’s food avoidant tendency, (ii) parental restriction and children’s food approach tendency, (iii) modeling of healthy eating in front of children and their children’s eating behavior. 760 mothers of children aged 7-10 from schools in Isfahan were asked to complete questionnaires including Child Feeding Questionnaire, Children’s Eating Behavior Questionnaire, Modeling Questionnaire, and self-administered demographic questionnaire in which mothers reported their children’s height and weight as well. Of those mothers, 745 completed the questionnaires for the children’s index (mean age: 8.513±1.112) during the 2011-2012 school year. The results of this quantitative, descriptive, cross-sectional analysis indicated that “parental restriction” was positively associated with child food responsiveness (P,0.000) and food enjoyment (P,0.000) and surprisingly, it was positively associated with Food Fussiness(0.000) .Parental pressure to eat was positively associated with child satiety responsiveness (P,0.000), slowness (P,0.000), and fussiness (P,0.00) and negatively associated with Food responsiveness(p,0.000)and Enjoyment of food (p,0.002), modeling of healthy eating were positively associated with Enjoyment of food / q (p,0.000) and negatively with food fussiness (P,0.000). The results of this survey will improve interventions and maternal guidance on their feeding practices and their association with children’s eating behavior and weight.

Keywords: feeding practices, eating behavior, pressure to eat, restriction, modeling, satiety responsiveness, slowness in eating, food fussiness, food responsiveness, enjoyment of food

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5259 The Effect of Mindfulness on Eating Enjoyment and Behavior in Preschool and Elementary Children: A Field Experiment across Four Schools

Authors: Phan Hong, David Lishner, Matthew Hanson

Abstract:

Sixty-five children across four school research sites participated in the present experiment, which was designed to examine whether mindfulness promotes eating enjoyment and diverse eating behaviors in preschool- and early elementary-age children. Children, ages 3-9 years old, were randomly assigned to a 4-week mindfulness intervention condition or a 4-week exposure, control condition. Each week for four days, children received one of four different foods (celery, cauliflower, kidney beans, or garbanzo beans). Children either received instructions to mindfully engage with the food or were given the food and allowed to eat without mindfulness prompts from the researchers. Following the eating exercise, they recorded the amount eaten and rated their enjoyment level. Across all sessions, researchers modeled eating behaviors for the children by eating all the offered food. Results suggested that a brief mindfulness intervention promoted more diverse eating behaviors and more overall food consumption of typically not preferred and unfamiliar foods (celery, cauliflower, and garbanzo beans), compared with an exposure, control condition in preschool children and elementary-age children. However, food enjoyment ratings did not significantly differ between the two conditions for any of the foods. Implications of the finding for addressing eating behavior of young children are considered.

Keywords: children, control trial, eating behavior, eating enjoyment, mindfulness, schools

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5258 The Dietary Behavior of Eating Alone in Middle-Aged Populations by Body Mass Index (BMI)

Authors: Pil Kyoo Jo, Youngmee Lee, Jee Young Kim, Yu Jin Oh, Sohyun Park, Young Ha Joo, Hye Suk Kim, Semi Kang

Abstract:

A growing number of people are living alone and eating alone. People might have different dietary behaviors between eating alone and eating with others, it can influence their weight and health. The purpose of this study was to investigate the dietary behavior of eating alone in middle-aged populations in South Korea. We used the nationally representative data from the 5th Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), 2010-2012 and a cross-sectional survey on the eating behaviors among adults (N=1318, 530 men, 788 women) aged from 20 to 54 years. Results showed that ‘underweight’ group ate more amount of food when eating with others compared to eating alone and ‘overweight’ and ‘obesity’ groups had opposite respondent (p<0.05). When having a meal alone, ‘underweight’ group ate food until didn’t feel hungry and ‘overweight’ and ‘obesity’ groups ate leftover food even they felt full (p<0.01). The ‘overweight’ and ‘obesity’ groups usually ate alone than ‘underweight’ group did (p<0.05). All groups had faster meal time when eating alone than eating with others and usually ate processed foods for convenience when eating alone. Younger people, aged 10-30, ate more processed food than older people did. South Koreans spend nearly 45% of their total food consumption from processed foods. This research was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea for 2011 Korea-Japan Basic Scientific Cooperation Program (NRF-2011B00003). This work was supported by the Ministry of Education of the Republic of Korea and the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF-2015S1A5B6037369).

Keywords: BMI, dietary behavior, eating alone, middle-aged populations

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5257 The Relationship between Body Image, Eating Behavior and Nutritional Status for Female Athletes

Authors: Selen Muftuoglu, Dilara Kefeli

Abstract:

The present study was conducted by using the cross-sectional study design and to determine the relationship between body image, eating behavior and nutritional status in 80 female athletes who were basketball, volleyball, flag football, indoor soccer, and ice hockey players. This study demonstrated that 70.0% of the female athletes had skipped meal. Also, female athletes had a normal body mass index (BMI), but 65.0% of them indicated that want to be thinner. On the other hand, we analyzed that their daily nutrients intake, so we observed that 43.4% of the energy was from the fatty acids, especially saturated fatty acids, and they had lower fiber, calcium and iron intake. Also, we found that BMI, waist circumference, waist to hip ratio were negatively correlated with Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire and The Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire score and they were lower in who had meal skipped or not received diet therapy. As a conclusion, nutrition education is frequently neglected in sports programs. There is a paucity of nutrition education interventions among different sports.

Keywords: body image, eating behavior, eating disorders, female athletes, nutritional status

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5256 Variants of Fat Mass Obesity Associated rs 9939609 Associated with Obesity and Eating Behavior in Adolescent of Minangkabau Ethnic

Authors: Susmiati, Ingrid S. Surono, Jamsari, Nur Indrawati Lipoeto

Abstract:

There are two contradicting opinions on the relationship between fat mass obesity associated (FTO) rs 9939609 variants and obesity on various ethnics and races. The first opinion agrees that there is an association between the two variables, yet another one disagree. Minangkabau ethnic had a different dietary pattern with other ethnics in Indonesia. They had higher fat and low fiber intakes compared to the other ethnics groups. There is little research in genetic factors that influence eating behavior (food preference or food selection). The objective of this study was to investigate the association between FTO rs 9939609 variants with obesity and eating behavior in adolescent girls of Minangkabau Ethnic. The research design was case control study. A total of 275 adolescent girls aged 12-15 years old (130 obese and 145 normal) were randomly chosen from four districts at West Sumatera (Padang, Padang Pariaman, Padang Panjang and Tanah Datar). Genetic variants of FTO rs 9939609 were analyzed with Tetra-primer Amplification Refractory Mutation System-Polimerase Chain Reaction (AMRS PCR), eating behavior were gathered using eating habits questionnaire, and Body Mass Index (BMI) was calculated according to BMI Z-score (WHO). The result showed that genetic variants of FTO rs 9939609 (TT, TA and AA genotype) had associated with obesity (p = 0,013), whereas subject with An Allele was significantly associated with obesity (odds ratio 1,62 [95% confidential interval, 1,00-2,60]). Subjects with An Allele carrier reported a higher consumption of fried food (p < 0.05) as compared to TT genotypes carriers. There is no association between genetic variants and meal frequency, fruit and fiber intakes p > 0.05. The genetic variants of FTO rs 9939609 are associated with obesity and eating behavior in adolescent of Minangkabau Ethics.

Keywords: FTO rs9939609, obesity, eating behavior, adolescents

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5255 Eating Behavior and Nutritional Status of Pregnant Women Living in Keserwan Lebanon

Authors: Cynthia Zgheib, Yonna Sacre

Abstract:

Pregnancy, this particular moment in the life of a woman, requires monitoring of eating behavior changes. However, the food choices during pregnancy should be varied and healthy, including the consumption of different food groups. Nutritional status is the process of acquisition and consumption of food. Therefore, a varied diet is associated with good nutritional status. This is why the nutrition education is a strategy commonly applied to improve maternal nutrition during pregnancy. Thus, it is crucial to assess 'The eating behavior and nutritional status of pregnant women living in Keserwan Lebanon.' In order to evaluate the association of different persona, socioeconomic and sociodemographic factors with the eating behavior and nutrition in the concerned study category, a cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted on a sample of 150 pregnant women aging between 18 and 40 years randomly selected from the hospitals and clinics located in Keserwan area and equally distributed between different cities and villages of the area according to altitude. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the eating behavior of the concerned population and to compare it to the recommendation of the food guide pyramid, their level of food awareness and finally to analyze their blood tests in order to detect any nutrients deficiency that they may face during the course of their pregnancy. Sociodemographic, lifestyle, eating behaviour, health, eating patterns, awareness, and food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) were collected through a validated questionnaire specifically adapted for the purpose of the study. Statistical analysis was carried out, and multivariate models were used in order to evaluate the association between several independent variables and the eating behaviour and nutritional status of Lebanese pregnant women The final analysis has shown that 48.7% of pregnant women were aged between 30 and 40 years old, 56% had a normal BMI between 18.5 and 24.9, thus age affects the eating behavior, so the older are the pregnant women, and the healthier is their eating behavior. In fact, 80.7% had acceptable food behavior which is based on an equilibrium between both quantity and quality of food, although the recommended foods are foods found in the food pyramid and available in the Lebanese diet. In addition, 68% had an acceptable level of awareness concerning the health importance of good eating habits, therefore, it is positively affecting their food choices. Moreover, 50 % have an acceptable nutritional status which is confirmed by their biological tests. Future governmental or national studies and programs could be settled aiming to increase the awareness about the good eating behaviors and nutritional status of Lebanese pregnant women.

Keywords: eating behavior, nutritional status, level of awareness, pregnant woman

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5254 Eating Behaviours in Islam and Mental Health: A Preventative Approach

Authors: Muhammad Rafiq, Lamae Zulfiqar, Nazish Idrees Chaudhary

Abstract:

A growing number of research focuses on healthy and unhealthy eating behaviors and their impact on health. It was intended to study the Islamic point of view on eating behavior, its impact on mental health and preventative strategies in the light of the Quran and Sunnah. Different articles and Islamic sayings related to eating behaviors and mental health were reviewed in detail. It was also revealed scientifically and through Islamic point of view that appropriate quantity, quality and timings of food have positive effects on mental health. Therefore, a 3Rs model of eating behaviors has been proposed.

Keywords: food intake, mental health, quality of food, quantity of food

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5253 A Hybrid Model of Structural Equation Modelling-Artificial Neural Networks: Prediction of Influential Factors on Eating Behaviors

Authors: Maryam Kheirollahpour, Mahmoud Danaee, Amir Faisal Merican, Asma Ahmad Shariff

Abstract:

Background: The presence of nonlinearity among the risk factors of eating behavior causes a bias in the prediction models. The accuracy of estimation of eating behaviors risk factors in the primary prevention of obesity has been established. Objective: The aim of this study was to explore the potential of a hybrid model of structural equation modeling (SEM) and Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) to predict eating behaviors. Methods: The Partial Least Square-SEM (PLS-SEM) and a hybrid model (SEM-Artificial Neural Networks (SEM-ANN)) were applied to evaluate the factors affecting eating behavior patterns among university students. 340 university students participated in this study. The PLS-SEM analysis was used to check the effect of emotional eating scale (EES), body shape concern (BSC), and body appreciation scale (BAS) on different categories of eating behavior patterns (EBP). Then, the hybrid model was conducted using multilayer perceptron (MLP) with feedforward network topology. Moreover, Levenberg-Marquardt, which is a supervised learning model, was applied as a learning method for MLP training. The Tangent/sigmoid function was used for the input layer while the linear function applied for the output layer. The coefficient of determination (R²) and mean square error (MSE) was calculated. Results: It was proved that the hybrid model was superior to PLS-SEM methods. Using hybrid model, the optimal network happened at MPLP 3-17-8, while the R² of the model was increased by 27%, while, the MSE was decreased by 9.6%. Moreover, it was found that which one of these factors have significantly affected on healthy and unhealthy eating behavior patterns. The p-value was reported to be less than 0.01 for most of the paths. Conclusion/Importance: Thus, a hybrid approach could be suggested as a significant methodological contribution from a statistical standpoint, and it can be implemented as software to be able to predict models with the highest accuracy.

Keywords: hybrid model, structural equation modeling, artificial neural networks, eating behavior patterns

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5252 Eating Constitutes Human Dignity: A Metaphysical Anthropology Perspective

Authors: Sri Poedjiastoeti

Abstract:

One of the traits of living beings is eating. As the living beings, people must provide their life by taking material. They must assimilate for themselves with substances. They grow and develop themselves by changing what they eat and digest into their own substance. This happened in the so-called eating. This article aims to analyze distinction between human beings and other infrahumans when facing and eating food. It uses the analytical description with metaphysical anthropology approach. As a result, to give the expression that eating is not simply to put food in mouth, chew and swallow it. Eating constitutes a sacred ceremonial if it is done in accordance with human dignity. They face food with distance and moderation as well as civilize or make their behaviour better for it. Accordingly, they are being to be human.

Keywords: human beings, behaviour, eating, dignity

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5251 Eating Behaviour and the Nature of Food Consumption in a Malaysian Adults Sample

Authors: Madihah Shukri

Abstract:

Research examining whether eating behaviour is related to unhealthy or healthy eating pattern is required to explain the mechanisms underlying obesity, and to inform health intervention aim to prevent and treat obesity. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between eating behaviours and nature of food consumption. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of 588 adults (males = 231 and females = 357). The Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (DEBQ) was used to measure restrained, emotional and external eating. Nature of food consumption was assessed by self-reported consumption of fruit and vegetables, sweet food, junk food and snacking. Results: Results revealed that emotional eating was found to be the principal predictor of the consumption of less healthy food (sweet food, junk food and snacking), while external eating predicted sweet food intake. Intake of fruit and vegetable was associated with restrained eating. In light of the significant associations between eating behaviour and nature of food consumption, acknowledging individuals eating styles can have implications for tailoring effective nutritional programs in the context of obesity and chronic disease epidemic.

Keywords: eating behaviour, food consumption, adult, Malaysia

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5250 Effectiveness of Short-Term Cognitive-Behavioral Group Therapy on Binge Eating Disorder in Females

Authors: Saeed Dehnavi, Ismail Asadallahi, Fatemeh Rahmatian, Elahe Rahimian

Abstract:

Purpose: Due to an increasing prevalence of over eating disorders, this paper aims to investigate the effectiveness of short-term group cognitive-behavioral therapy on reducing binge eating behavior and depression symptoms among females suffered from binge eating disorder (BED) in Qazvin, Iran. Methodology: This is aquasi-experimental study (pre-post testing plan with control group). Using a convenience sampling technique, binge eating scale (BES) and clinical interviews, 30 persons were selected among all clients who had referred to weight loss centers in Qazvin, these persons were randomly placed into two control and experimental groups. The experimental group participated in a seven-session plan on short-term cognitive-behavioral group therapy. Results: The results showed that the short term group cognitive-behavioral therapy results in a significant reduction in binge eating signs and depressive symptoms within the experimental group, compared to the control. Conclusion: Regarding the results, it is known that short-term group cognitive-behavioral therapy is effective in reducing overeating symptoms. Hence, it can be used as an economical and effective treatment method for individuals suffering from BED.

Keywords: cognitive-behavioral group therapy, binge eating disorder, depression

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5249 A Study of School Meals: How Cafeteria Culture Shapes the Eating Habits of Students

Authors: Jillian Correia, Ali Sakkal

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Lunchtime can play a pivotal role in shaping student eating habits. Studies have previously indicated that eating a healthy meal during the school day can improve students’ well-being and academic performance, and potentially prevent childhood obesity. This study investigated the school lunch program in the United Kingdom in order to gain an understanding of the attitudes and beliefs surrounding school meals and the realities of student food patterns. Using a qualitative research methodology, this study was conducted in three primary and secondary school systems in London, United Kingdom. In depth interviews consisting of 14 headteachers, teachers, staff, and chefs and fieldwork observations of approximately 830 primary and secondary school students in the three schools’ cafeterias provided the data. The results of interview responses and fieldwork observation yielded the following set of themes: (a) school meals are publicly portrayed as healthful and nutritious, yet students’ eating habits do not align with this advertising, (b) the level of importance placed on school lunch varies widely among participants and generates inconsistent views concerning who is responsible (government, families, caterers, or schools) for students’ eating habits, (c) role models (i.e. teachers and chefs) present varying levels of interaction with students and conflicting approaches when monitoring students’ eating habits. The latter finding expanded upon Osowski, Göranzon, and Fjellström’s (2013) concept of teacher roles to formulate three education philosophies – the Removed Authority Role Model, the Accommodating Role Model, and the Social Educational Role Model – concluding that the Social Educational Role Model was the most effective at fostering an environment that encouraged healthy eating habits and positive behavior. For schools looking to cultivate strong relationships between students and teachers and facilitate healthier eating habits, these findings were used to construct three key recommendations: (1) elevate the lunch environment by encouraging proper dining etiquette, (2) get teachers eating at the table with students, and (3) shift the focus from monitoring behavior to a teacher-student dialogue centered on food awareness.

Keywords: food culture, eating habits, school meals, student behavior, education, food patterns, lunchtime

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5248 A Review on Using Executive Function to Understand the Limited Efficacy of Weight-Loss Interventions

Authors: H. Soltani, Kevin Laugero

Abstract:

Obesity is becoming an increasingly critical issue in the United States due to the steady and substantial increase in prevalence over the last 30 years. Existing interventions have been able to help participants achieve short-term weight loss, but have failed to show long-term results. The complex nature of behavioral change remains one of the most difficult barriers in promoting sustainable weight-loss in overweight individuals. Research suggests that the 'intention-behavior gap' can be explained by a person’s ability to regulate higher-order thinking, or Executive Function (EF). A review of 63 research articles was completed in fall of 2017 to identify the role of EF in regulating eating behavior and to identify whether there is a potential for improving dietary quality by enhancing EF. Results showed that poor EF is positively associated with obesogenic behavior, namely increased consumption of highly palatable foods, eating in the absence of hunger, high saturated fat intake and low fruit and vegetable consumption. Recent research has indicated that interventions targeting an improvement in EF can be successful in helping promote healthy behaviors. Furthermore, interventions of longer duration have a more lasting and versatile effect on weight loss and maintenance. This may present an opportunity for the increasingly ubiquitous use of mobile application technology.

Keywords: eating behavior, executive function, nutrition, obesity, weight-loss

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5247 Dancing with Perfectionism and Emotional Inhibition on the Ground of Disordered Eating Behaviors: Investigating Emotion Regulation Difficulties as Mediating Factor

Authors: Merve Denizci Nazligul

Abstract:

Dancers seem to have much higher risk levels for the development of eating disorders, compared to non-dancing counterparts. In a remarkably competitive nature of dance environment, perfectionism and emotion regulation difficulties become inevitable risk factors. Moreover, early maladaptive schemas are associated with various eating disorders. In the current study, it was aimed to investigate the mediating role of difficulties with emotion regulation on the relationship between perfectionism and disordered eating behaviors, as well as on the relationship between early maladaptive schemas and disordered eating behaviors. A total of 70 volunteer dancers (n = 47 women, n = 23 men) were recruited in the study (M age = 25.91, SD = 8.9, range 19–63) from the university teams or private clubs in Turkey. The sample included various types of dancers (n = 26 ballets or ballerinas, n =32 Latin, n = 10 tango, n = 2 hiphop). The mean dancing hour per week was 11.09 (SD = 7.09) within a range of 1-30 hours. The participants filled a questionnaire set including demographic information form, Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire, Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale, three subscales (Emotional Inhibition, Unrelenting Standards-Hypercriticalness, Approval Seeking-Recognition Seeking) from Young Schema Questionnaire-Short Form-3 and Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale. The mediation hypotheses were tested using the PROCESS macro in SPSS. The findings revealed that emotion regulation difficulties significantly mediated the relationship between three distinct subtypes of perfectionism and emotional eating. The results of the Sobel test suggested that there were significant indirect effects of self-oriented perfectionism (b = .06, 95% CI = .0084, .1739), other-oriented perfectionism (b = .15, 95% CI = .0136, .4185), and socially prescribed perfectionism (b = .09, 95% CI = .0104, .2344) on emotional eating through difficulties with emotion regulation. Moreover, emotion regulation difficulties significantly mediated the relationship between emotional inhibition and emotional eating (F(1,68) = 4.67, R2 = .06, p < .05). These results seem to provide some evidence that perfectionism might become a risk factor for disordered eating behaviors when dancers are not able to regulate their emotions. Further, gaining an understanding of how inhibition of emotions leads to inverse effects on eating behavior may be important to develop intervention strategies to manage their disordered eating patterns in risk groups. The present study may also support the importance of using unified protocols for transdiagnostic approaches which focus on identifying, accepting, prompting to express maladaptive emotions and appraisals.

Keywords: dancers, disordered eating, emotion regulation difficulties, perfectionism

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5246 Risk of Disrupted Eating Attitudes in Disabled Athletes

Authors: Zehra Buyuktuncer, Aylin H. Büyükkaragöz, Tuğçe N. Balcı, Nevin Ergun

Abstract:

Background: Undergoing rigid dietary habits for enhancing athletic performance could lead to eating disorders. High prevalence of eating disorders among female athletes has been already reported. However, the risk of disordered eating among disabled athletes is not known. A better knowledge of the different eating behaviors and their prevalence in disabled athletes would be helpful to understand interactions between eating and health. This study aimed to examine the cognitive restraint, uncontrolled eating and emotional eating behaviors in a disabled athlete population. Method: A total of 70 disabled Turkish national athletes (33 female, 37 male) from 5 sport branches (soccer, weight lifting, shooting, table tennis and basketball) were involved in the study. The cognitive restraint, uncontrolled eating and emotional eating behaviors were assessed using the revised version of Three Factor Eating Questionnaire-R18 (TFEQ-R18). The questionnaires were conducted by dietitian during the preparation camps of athletes. Body weight, height and waist circumference (WC) were measured; and body composition was analyzed by bioelectrical impedance analysis method. Results: The TFEQ scales showed a cognitive dietary restraint score of 13.9±4.2, uncontrolled eating score of 17.7±5.8 and emotional eating score of 4.9±2.5. The mean score of total TFEQ-R18 was 36.5±8.62. Neither total TFEQ-R18 score nor subscale scores differed significantly by gender or sport branches (p>0.05, for each). The scores were also similar in BMI groups (n=63; p>0.05). Total TFEQ, uncontrolled eating and emotional eating scores were significantly higher among the athletes with congenital disabilities compared to the scores of the athletes with acquired disabilities (p<0.05, for each). Moreover, the cognitive dietary restraint score was significantly high in athletes who would like to lose weight (p=0.009). Conclusion: Disabled athletes might have a risk of disordered eating. The different eating behaviors among disabled athletes should be assessed using validated tools to develop personalized nutritional strategies for those athletes.

Keywords: disabled athletes, eating behaviour, three-factor eating questionnaire-r18, body composition

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5245 Intervention to Reduce Unhealthy Food and Increasing Food Safety Among Thai Children

Authors: Mayurachat Kanyamee, Srisuda Rassameepong, Narunest Chulakarn

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This experimental pretest-posttest control group design aimed to examine the effects of a family-based intervention on increasing fruit and vegetable intake and reduce fat and sugar intake and nutritional status among school-age children. Children were randomized to experimental 68 children and control 68 children. The experimental group received the intervention based on Social Cognitive Theory. The control group received the school’s usual educational program regarding healthy eating behavior. Data were collected via three questionnaires including: demographic characteristics; fruit and vegetable intake; and fat and sugar intake at baseline, sixteen weeks after baseline. Analysis of the data included the use of descriptive statistic and independent t-test. Results revealed the significant differences between the experimental and control group, regarding: fruit and vegetable intake, fat and sugar intake and nutritional status at sixteenth week after baseline. The findings suggest a family-based intervention, based on SCT, appears to be effective to improve eating behavior, and nutritional status of school -age children. So, the intervention can be applied to improve eating behavior among other groups of children.

Keywords: family-based intervention, children, unhealthy food, food safety

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5244 The Effect of Parental Incarceration on Early Adolescent’s Eating and Sleeping Habits

Authors: Lauren Booker

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In the United States, over 2.5 million children have incarcerated parents. Recent studies have shown 13% of young adults and one-fourth of African Americans will experience parental incarceration. The increasing numbers of incarcerated citizens have left these children as collateral damage and are often forgotten, their special needs inadequately meet or understood. Parental arrest and incarceration creates a uniquely traumatic experience in childhood and has long-term consequences for these children. Until recently, the eating and sleeping habits following parental incarceration had been nonexistent in the literature. However, even this groundbreaking study on eating habits and sleeping disorders following parental incarceration did not touch on the root causes of unhealthy eating which may be influenced by food and housing insecurity and environmental factors that may impact a child’s healthy eating and sleeping behaviors. This study will examine those factors as it could greatly aid in the policies and programs that affect children’s health and development. This proposed study will examine the impact of traumatic stress reactions to parental incarceration by studying sleep and eating habits as the hypothesis is that parental incarceration will lead to disordered eating and sleep disturbances in early adolescents.

Keywords: parental incarceration, eating disorder, trauma, family instability

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5243 The Effect of Group Interpersonal Psychotherapy on Eating Disorder Symptom and Fear of Negative Evaluation of Lorestan University Female Students

Authors: S. Gholamrezaei, M. Mehrabizade Honarmand, Y. Zargar

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Introduction: This research was designed to assess the effect of group Interpersonal Psychotherapy on eating disorder symptom and fear of negative evaluation of Lorestan University female students. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 641 female students were randomly selected from various faculties of Lorestan University. Eating disorders symptoms and fear of negative evaluation were assessed by the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26), and Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale, Leary (FNES-B). Data were analyzed by SPSS software (multivariate analyze tests were used). Results: Interpersonal Psychotherapy can improve the eating disorder symptoms and reduce the fear of negative evaluation in girl students of group control in compare with control group. Conclusion: Interpersonal psychotherapy can be effective for eating disorder symptoms, and fear of negative evaluation among female students. Thus, it is suggested that this kind of psychotherapy was used for other psychological disease.

Keywords: interpersonal psychotherapy, eating disorder, fear of negative evaluation, students

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5242 Anxiety and Change in Eating Habits and Health Behaviors among Adult Women during COVID-19 Pandemic Lockdown in Alexandria, Egypt

Authors: Heba Ahmed Abdelaziz, Doaa Tawfik Mohamed Ibrahim

Abstract:

Background: COVID-19 pandemic is the major health problem facing the world recently, causing variable effects on mental health and eating behavior. Aim of the study: Identifying changes in eating patterns and other health behaviors in relation to the anxiety caused by the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown in adult females in Alexandria, Egypt. Method: 344 adult females (20+ years old), were included in online self-administered questionnaire. Results: Severe anxiety symptoms was among 34.6% of the studied females especially; those aged 25-40 years, married, non-working or student females, females who had change in their work routine (half or full time from home). Homemade pastries and bakery product then beverages followed by fresh fruits and vegetables were frequently consumed by the studied females than before lockdown while fast foods were decreased during lockdown. Overweight and obesity were high among most of the participants with different grades of anxiety symptoms. Females with moderate and severe anxiety symptoms reported increase in appetite and body weight with irregular sleeping during lockdown. Conclusion: the current study concluded that stressful situations like lockdown due to COVID-19 pandemic is associated with anxiety (severe, moderate, mild then minimal, respectively) along with changes in eating habits, physical activity, sleeping pattern and smoking.

Keywords: COVID-19, lockdown, females, anxiety, eating, stress, lifestyle

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5241 Associations between Mindfulness, Temporal Discounting, Locus of Control, and Reward-Based Eating in a Sample of Overweight and Obese Adults

Authors: Andrea S. Badillo-Perez, Alexis D. Mitchell, Sara M. Levens

Abstract:

Overeating, and obesity have been associated with addictive behavior, primarily due to behaviors like reward-based eating, the tendency to overeat due to factors such as lack of control, preoccupation over food, and lack of satiation. Temporal discounting (TD), the ability to select future rewards over short term gains, and mindfulness, the process of maintaining present moment awareness, have been suggested to have significant, differential impacts on health-related behaviors. An individual’s health locus of control, the degree to which they feel that they have control over their health is also known to have an impact on health outcomes. The goal of this study was to investigate the relationship between health locus of control and reward-based eating, as well as the relation between TD and mindfulness in a sample (N = 126) of overweight or obese participants from larger health-focused study. Through the use of questionnaires (including the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ), Reward-Based Eating Drive (RED), and Multidimensional Health Locus of Control (MHLOC)), anthropometric measurements, and a computerized TD task, a series of regressions tested the association between subscales of these measures. Results revealed differences in how the mindfulness subscales are associated with TD measures. Specifically the ‘Observing’ (beta =-.203) and ‘Describing’ (beta =.26) subscales were associated with lower TD rates and a longer subjective devaluation time-frame respectively. In contrast, the ‘Acting with Awareness’ subscale was associated with a shorter subjective devaluation timeframe (beta =-.23). These findings suggest that the reflective perspective initiated through the observing and describing components of mindfulness may facilitate delay of gratification, whereas the acting with awareness component of mindfulness, which focuses on the present moment, may make delay of gratification more challenging. Results also indicated that a higher degree of reward-based eating was associated with a higher degree of an external health locus of control based on the power of chance (beta =.10). However, an external locus of control based on the power of others had no significant association with reward-based eating. This finding implies that the belief that health is due to chance is associated with greater reward-based eating behavior, suggesting that interventions that focus on locus of control may be helpful. Overall, findings demonstrate that weight loss interventions may benefit from health locus of control and mindfulness exercises, but caution should be taken as the components of mindfulness appear to have different effects on increasing or decreasing delay of gratification.

Keywords: health locus of control, mindfulness, obesity, reward-based eating, temporal discounting

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5240 Binge Eating among Women Who Suffer from Psychological Abuse in Their Relationship: The Moderating Role of Defense Mechanisms

Authors: Orly Yona Drori, Shirley Ben Shlomo

Abstract:

Objectives: The participants will be able to recognize the predictors of binge eating addiction among women who suffer from psychological abuse in their relationships and will recognize the role of woman's defense mechanisms in moderating the association between psychological abuse and binge eating addiction. Methods: A convenience sample of 380 Israeli women in relationships were located via the Internet, and after consenting to participate in the study, they completed a series of structured questionnaires (The Yale Food Addiction Scale; The Defense Style Questionnaire; psychological maltreatment of women by their male partners; level of differentiation of self; sociodemographic questionnaire). Results: The higher the level of differentiation and mature defense mechanisms, the less addictive a woman is. However, the level of addiction among women who experience psychological abuse within their intimate relations is higher than women who do not experience psychological abuse in their relationship. Among women who experienced psychological abuse in their relations, the defense mechanisms moderate the association between psychological abuse within intimate relations and the extent of the addiction to binge eating. Conclusions: The study contributes to the therapy of women with binge eating addictions, as it raises awareness of therapeutic-related content that could strengthen women and help them to cope with situations in their lives without the need to binge. One of the significant variables for therapeutic work is the level of differentiation of the self. In addition, identifying the types of defense mechanisms might help to match treatment to the woman's emotional needs. The current study found also that it is important to identify the environmental systems by which the addict is surrounded, such as whether woman is in an abusive relationship. Finally the study leads to the recognition that binge eating, which is usually treated with an emphasis on nutritional behavior change, is an addiction, and as such, it requires a combination of mental, nutritional and behavioral therapy. In view of this approach, it is recommended that treating a woman who is addicted to binge eating should involve a multi-disciplinary team comprised of physicians, clinical dietitians, and clinical psychotherapists.

Keywords: binge eating, defence mechanism, food addiction, psychological abuse

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5239 University Students’ Fear of Missing out and Night Eating Syndrome. A Descriptive Correlational Study

Authors: Mohammed Qutishat, Omar Al-Omari, Kholoud Al-Damery, Mohammed Al-Qadiri

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Objective: The current study aims to explore the relationship between Night Eating Syndrome and the experiences of Fear of Missing out (FOMO) among college students in Oman. Methods: The study adopted a descriptive correlational design. The total sample was 366 based on defined inclusion criteria. The questionnaires were distributed over one month during the spring semester of 2020. We used a self-report instrument as a measurement tool to investigate the extents of the research phenomena, and it consists of two major sections: fear of missing out Questionnaires and Night Eating Questionnaire. Results: The respondents' age ranged between 18 and 30. The majority of the participants were female 76.7% (204), single 97.7% (266), in their third academic year 28.6% (76), live in –campus, 57.1% (152). The findings of this study showed that fear of missing out experiences are significantly correlated with age (P=.010), gender (P= .005), and daily sleeping hours (P= .007). However, night eating experiences are significantly associated with age (p=018), living arrangement (P= .017), and sleeping hours (P= .000). Conclusion: This article can define a limiting aspect of the relationship between fear of missing out and night eating behaviors. During academic life, students may find themselves overloaded and use their smartphones to do the simplest tasks they have, leading them to skip their meals frequently and interfere with their eating patterns and psychological function. Health awareness programs or the implementation of healthy eating standards and technology uses can be introduced for undergraduates.

Keywords: fear of missing out, night eating syndrome, smartphone, addiction

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5238 Farmers’ Awareness and Behavior of Chemical Pesticide Uses in Suan Luang Sub-District Municipality, Ampawa, Samut Songkram, Thailand

Authors: Paiboon Jeamponk, Tikamporn Thipsaeng

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This paper is aimed to investigate farmers’ level of awareness and behavior of chemical pesticide uses, by using a case study of Suan Luang Sub- District Municipality, Ampawa, Samut Songkram Province. Questionnaire was employed in this study with the farmers from 46 households to explore their level of awareness in chemical pesticide uses, while interview and observation were adopted in exploring their behavior of chemical pesticide uses. The findings reflected the farmers’ high level of awareness in chemical pesticide uses in the hazardous effects of the chemical to human and environmental health, while their behavior of chemical pesticide uses explained their awareness paid to the right way of using pesticides, for instance reading the direction on the label, keeping children and animals away from the area of pesticide mixing, covering body with clothes and wearing hat and mask, no smoking, eating or drinking during pesticide spray or standing in windward direction.

Keywords: awareness, behavior, pesticide, farmers

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5237 MEAL Project–Modifying Eating Attitudes and Actions through Learning

Authors: E. Oliver, A. Cebolla, A. Dominguez, A. Gonzalez-Segura, E. de la Cruz, S. Albertini, L. Ferrini, K. Kronika, T. Nilsen, R. Baños

Abstract:

The main objective of MEAL is to develop a pedagogical tool aimed to help teachers and nutritionists (students and professionals) to acquire, train, promote and deliver to children basic nutritional education and healthy eating behaviours competencies. MEAL is focused on eating behaviours and not only in nutritional literacy, and will use new technologies like Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) and serious games (SG) platforms to consolidate the nutritional competences and habits.

Keywords: nutritional education, pedagogical ICT platform, serious games, training course

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5236 Eating Patterns and Food Coping Strategy for Students of Prof. Dr. Hamka University During Covid-19 Pandemic

Authors: Chica Riska Ashari, Yoli Farradika

Abstract:

Background: Nutritional problems arise due to food security problems in the family, such as the ability of families to obtain food which is common in poor people due to lack of economic access to buy food. For this reason, it is hoped that there will be actions or behaviors that can be taken to fulfill their food or known as the Food Coping Strategy. The purpose of this study is to identify the eating patterns and Food Coping strategies of household students of prof. DR. HAMKA Muhammadiyah University Jakarta during the covid-19 pandemic. Methods: This study is a quantitative observational study with a cross-sectional approach. The dependent variable in this study is food coping strategies and eating patterns. The location of this research is Prof. DR. Hamka Muhammadiyah University. The population in this study were all students of Prof. DR. HAMKA Muhammadiyah University. The sampling technique is purposive sampling. The minimum number of samples in this study is 97 people with a response rate or drop out an estimate of 10%, so the total number of samples was 107 people. Statistical analysis with descriptive analysis. Results: The results showed that most of the food coping strategies were carried out by the students of the household of Prof. DR. HAMKA Muhammadiyah University, were buying the cheaper food (91.6%), then changing the priority of buying food (75.7%) and household members who carry out this food coping strategy are mothers (59.8%) then followed by students themselves (57, 9%). The diet of most students at the Prof. DR. HAMKA Muhammadiyah University in a day was fond of consuming sugar and foods containing sugar (candy, sugar, honey, sweet drinks) (98.1%) then eggs (97.2%). Conclusion: Food coping strategies are mostly used by households students at Prof. DR. HAMKA Muhammadiyah University who were buying the cheaper food and the member who did this behavior the most were the mothers. The diet of most students at Prof. DR. HAMKA Muhammadiyah University in a day was fond of consuming sugar and foods containing sugar (candy, sugar, honey, sweet drinks).

Keywords: behavior, eating patterns, food coping strategies, food security, students

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5235 Mathematical Description of Functional Motion and Application as a Feeding Mode for General Purpose Assistive Robots

Authors: Martin Leroux, Sylvain Brisebois

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Eating a meal is among the Activities of Daily Living, but it takes a lot of time and effort for people with physical or functional limitations. Dedicated technologies are cumbersome and not portable, while general-purpose assistive robots such as wheelchair-based manipulators are too hard to control for elaborate continuous motion like eating. Eating with such devices has not previously been automated, since there existed no description of a feeding motion for uncontrolled environments. In this paper, we introduce a feeding mode for assistive manipulators, including a mathematical description of trajectories for motions that are difficult to perform manually such as gathering and scooping food at a defined/desired pace. We implement these trajectories in a sequence of movements for a semi-automated feeding mode which can be controlled with a very simple 3-button interface, allowing the user to have control over the feeding pace. Finally, we demonstrate the feeding mode with a JACO robotic arm and compare the eating speed, measured in bites per minute of three eating methods: a healthy person eating unaided, a person with upper limb limitations or disability using JACO with manual control, and a person with limitations using JACO with the feeding mode. We found that the feeding mode allows eating about 5 bites per minute, which should be sufficient to eat a meal under 30min.

Keywords: assistive robotics, automated feeding, elderly care, trajectory design, human-robot interaction

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5234 Avoidant Restrictive Food Intake Disorder and Its Impact on Other Eating Disorders

Authors: I. Caldas, T. Duarte

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Avoidant Restrictive Food Intake Disorder (ARFID) was included for the first time in DSM-5, replacing the old diagnosis of DSM-4 'Early Childhood Eating Disorder'. An ARFID is characterized by a restrictive/avoidant eating pattern that can lead to severe nutritional deficiency, weight loss, nutritional supplementation dependence, and poor psychosocial functioning. This eating pattern is associated with decreased interest in food, worries about food characteristics or the act of ingestion, and lack of concern with weight or body image. This paper aims to understand the impact of this new diagnosis in other Eating Disorders (ED) prevalence, as well as to compare their therapeutic approaches. Methodology: Literature reviewed by PubMed with the following keywords: 'ARFID', 'Prevalence', and 'Eating Disorders'. We selected articles related to this theme, written since 2016. Results: In a population of children hospitalized with ED, 5% to 14% was diagnosed with ARFID, and, as outpatient treatment, the prevalence was 22%. People diagnosed with ARFID have more prevalence of other comorbidities, especially autism spectrum, are younger, and are more often male. Regarding the treatment of ARFID, it most often required nasogastric feeding, and with less suffering associated with this procedure, compared to AN. Despite these differences, 12% of patients diagnosed with ARFID transited to AN during treatment, suggesting that the first pathology may be a risk factor for the development of AN. Conclusions: The differences identified between ARFID and the other EDs are important when analyzed as differential diagnostic hypotheses and therapeutic approaches. Further study is necessary regarding its prevalence, risk factors, and treatment.

Keywords: avoidant restrictive food intake disorder, ARFID, differential diagnoses, eating disorders, prevalence

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5233 Assessment of Healthy Lifestyle Behavior Needs for Older Adults Living with Hypertension

Authors: P. Sutipan, U. Intarakamhang

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The purpose of this study was to assess and prioritize the order of needs with regard to the healthy lifestyle behaviors for older adults living with hypertension. The participants involved 400 hypertensive elderly individuals in Chiang Mai, Thailand. The research instrument was a 26-item needs-assessment questionnaire in a dual response format on a four-level rating scale. The data was analyzed with the use of descriptive statistics and the needs were ranked using the Modified Priority Needs Index (PNIModified). The results indicated that the three priorities of healthy lifestyle behavior were healthy eating (PNImodified = 0.36), exercise (PNImodified = 0.35), and social contribution (PNImodified = 0.34), respectively. The implications of the findings for planning the intervention phase of the project are of particular interest.

Keywords: needs assessment, the modified priority needs index (PNIModified), healthy lifestyle behavior, older adults

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