Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5363

Search results for: cultural practices

5363 Reforming Traditional and Cultural Practices in Nigeria for Enhancement and Sustainable Development in the 21st Century: A Case Study of the Jukun People

Authors: Iliya Ibrahim Gimba


Human beings or groups over the world have a traditional and cultural practices which guide and direct their ways of life. They value and promote these practices not minding the attitude of others towards them. In spite of the place of culture which is an embodiment of these practices in every human society some people still reduce the understanding of culture to idolatry and other archaic and anachronistic arts good perhaps only for the museum. Others consider culture to be just drumming and dancing. Whether a culture is “good” or “bad”, civilized or barbaric, it can be reformed for the betterment of the society. Hence, this paper focuses on reforming traditional and cultural practices in Nigeria for enhancing development in the 21st century using the Jukun people as a case study. Relevant literatures from journals, reports, published books among others will be consulted.

Keywords: Jukun, traditional and cultural practices, sustainable development, human

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5362 Cultural Studies in the Immigration Movements: Memories and Social Collectives

Authors: María Eugenia Peltzer, María Estela Rodríguez


This work presents an approach to the cultural aspects of the Immigrants as part of the Cultural Intangible Heritage of Argentina. The intangible cultural heritage consists of the manifestations, practices, uses, representations, expressions, knowledge, techniques and cultural spaces that communities and groups recognize as an integral part of their cultural heritage. This heritage generates feelings of identity and establishes links with the collective memory, as well as being transmitted and recreated over time according to its environment, its interaction with nature and its history contributing to promote respect for cultural diversity and Human creativity. The Immigrants brings together those who came from other lands and their descendants, thus maintaining their traditions through time and linking the members of each cultural group with a strong sense of belonging through a communicative and effective process.

Keywords: cultural, immigration, memories, social

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5361 Women’s Rights in Conflict with People’s Cultural Autonomy: Problems of Cultural Accommodation

Authors: Nazia Khan


The paper explores the cultural rights accommodation by the state which has left many unresolved problems. The cultural rights sometimes violate the basic individual rights of the members inside the community like women. The paper further explicates certain cultural norms and practices which violates the rights of women inside the community in the name of culture.

Keywords: women, culture, communities, rights, vulnerable, accomadation

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5360 Gender Identity: Omani College Students Negotiate Their Cultural Expectations

Authors: Mohammed Alkharusi


This study addresses issues of gender identity faced by female and male Omani students studying at educational higher institutions. The study interviewed 16 male and female students to understand how cultural expectations of gender influence these students’ communication, and as a result how these students negotiate their gender identity to facilitate communication practices (or not) with the opposite sex. The context, focus, and theoretical underpinnings of the study are presented. Given that the researcher is also an Omani Arab, methodological and ethical challenges (e.g., recruiting and engaging with participants, and conducting semi-structured face-to-face interviews) will be discussed reflexively. The analysis found that students continued to following cultural expectations. They kept minimum interaction with the opposite sex that was illustrated by preferring to work with the same sex in group assignments only, avoiding sitting alone with the opposite sex, and not participating in academic activities. In the social context, the students started negotiating their gender identity and adopted communication practices that facilitated their social communication with the opposite sex. For example, they accepted to work with the opposite sex in different social mixed activities. In conclusion, students desired to maintain their cultural expectations but adopted certain communication practices to interact with the opposite sex.

Keywords: communication, cultural expectations, gender, identity, negotiation

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5359 The Divine Elephant: Asian Elephants in Religions and Religious Practices

Authors: Ashna Sinha, Surendra Varma


The Asian elephant is predominantly found in South Asian and Southeast Asian countries. They are intrinsically associated with the religions, religious and cultural practices and festivals of these regions. Amazingly, these magnificent animals are also mentioned in the texts and are found sculpted on the walls of places of religious significance even in the Middle Eastern countries, and evidently, they have been mentioned in all the major religions. The elephants are intrigued and associated with the cultural and religious practices of Asians for thousands of years. While some of the practices and festivals in certain geographical regions are going on for years; some regions and religions have gone through a cultural shift and cultural adaptation, and have incorporated the participation of these divine beings. The symbolism of elephants is used for preaching and giving philosophical lessons through stories and painted art, across different religions through varying literary and visual artworks. The animals carved on the ancient and present day temples can easily be found in South and South East Asian countries, signifying the importance of the animal in a given religion which the temples are associated with. Though not sculpted but captive elephants are easily found on the premises of the places of worship to give a blessing to the people or to give a tour to show their own connotation with the religion. They are also used for carrying out processions in varying religious and cultural activities, and are considered to be of immense value as they add an extra glamour and publicize the wealth and weightiness of that distinct religion or culture. Our critical review of elephant’s association with religions and their practices show, although they give a higher degree of value and respects to this animal, the practices do not match with their biological design, but profoundly compromise their welfare and conservation. It is time to follow the values the animal enjoy and use the same for their conservation and welfare.

Keywords: conservation, elephant, religion, welfare

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5358 Implication to Environmental Education of Indigenous Knowledge and the Ecosystem of Upland Farmers in Aklan, Philippines

Authors: Emily Arangote


This paper defined the association between the indigenous knowledge, cultural practices and the ecosystem its implication to the environmental education to the farmers. Farmers recognize the need for sustainability of the ecosystem they inhabit. The cultural practices of farmers on use of indigenous pest control, use of insect-repellant plants, soil management practices that suppress diseases and harmful pests and conserve soil moisture are deemed to be ecologically-friendly. Indigenous plant materials that were more drought- and pest-resistant were grown. Crop rotation was implemented with various crop seeds to increase their disease resistance. Multi-cropping, planting of perennial crops, categorization of soil and planting of appropriate crops, planting of appropriate and leguminous crops, alloting land as watershed, and preserving traditional palay seed varieties were found to be beneficial in preserving the environment. The study also found that indigenous knowledge about crops are still relevant and useful to the current generation. This ensured the sustainability of our environment and incumbent on policy makers and educators to support and preserve for generations yet to come.

Keywords: cultural practices, ecosystem, environmental education, indigenous knowledge

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5357 Sacred Spaces, Scarred Bodies: Understanding Forms of and Meanings Associated with Female Circumcision amongst Somali Women in Johannesburg

Authors: Z. Jinnah


International migration is associated with a disruption of social environments and social control. At the same time, the reproduction of cultural and social norms in the Diaspora provides a space for the (re)negotiation of gender roles, rights, and practices. This paper explores the relationship between mobility and the practice of female circumcision amongst Somalis in Johannesburg. Based on 4 years of ethnographic fieldwork, this paper explores the social determinants of cultural norms and practices, the linkages between class and tradition, and argues that the new social environment in South Africa conditions the ways in which Somali women relate to their bodies, and therefore understand the meanings associated with and practices of female circumcision.

Keywords: migration, gender, Somali women, female circumcision, Johannesburg

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5356 Kelantan Malay Cultural Landscape: The Concept of Kota Bharu Islamic City

Authors: Mohammad Rusdi Mohd Nasir, Ismail Hafiz Salleh


Kota Bharu, as an Islamic City, represents a symbolic icon in the urban development of the Islamic state of Kelantan, Malaysia. This research seeks to provide a basis for new approaches to landscape planning that shows greater respect for the traditional vernacular landscape. In addition, this research also intends to distinguish the prospects for the future Kelantan Malay cultural landscape, building upon the multiple historical influences in the evolution of the cultural landscape using multiple methods including literature review, observation, document analysis and content analysis. The study of the Kelantan Malay cultural landscape is particularly important in view of its distinctive contribution to Malay heritage by identifying the elements, characteristics, history and their influences. As a result, this research recognizes the importance of incorporating the existing heritage alongside contemporary design as well as further research on the Kelantan Malay cultural landscape. Optimistically, there will be better landscape practices in the future to understand the past, the present and the future prospects of the vernacular tradition, in order to ensure that our architecture, landscape and urbanism practices express its values.

Keywords: Malay culture, Malay heritage, cultural landscape, Islamic concept

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5355 Aligning Cultural Practices through Information Exchange: A Taxonomy in Global Manufacturing Industry

Authors: Hung Nguyen


With the rise of global supply chain network, the choice of supply chain orientation is critical. The alignment between cultural similarity and supply chain information exchange could help identify appropriate supply chain orientations, which would differentiate the stronger competitors and performers from the weaker ones. Through developing a taxonomy, this study examined whether the choices of action programs and manufacturing performance differ depending on the levels of attainment cultural similarity and information exchange. This study employed statistical tests on a large-scale dataset consisting of 680 manufacturing plants from various cultures and industries. Firms need to align cultural practices with the level of information exchange in order to achieve good overall business performance. There appeared to be consistent three major orientations: the Proactive, the Initiative and the Reactive. Firms are experiencing higher payoffs from various improvements are the ones successful alignment in both information exchange and cultural similarity The findings provide step-by-step decision making for supply chain information exchange and offer guidance especially for global supply chain managers. In including both cultural similarity and information exchange, this paper adds greater comprehensiveness and richness to the supply chain literature.

Keywords: culture, information exchange, supply chain orientation, similarity

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5354 Attitude to Cultural Diversity and Inclusive Pedagogical Practices in the Classroom: A Correlational Study

Authors: Laura M. Espinoza, Karen A. Hernández, Diana B. Ledezma


Currently, in Chile, migratory movements are generated, where the country receives constantly people from Latin America such as Colombia, Peru, Venezuela, Haiti, among others. This phenomenon has reached the schools of Chile, where immigrant children and adolescents are educated in a context of cultural diversity. However, education professionals face this recent phenomenon without prior preparation to carry out their pedagogical practices in the classroom. On the other hand, research on how to understand and guide the processes of cultural diversity especially within the school is even scarce and recent in Latin America and specifically in Chile. The general purpose of the study is to analyze the relationships between teaching efforts towards multiculturalism and inclusive pedagogical practices in the schools of the city of La Serena and Coquimbo, in Chile. The study refers to a quantitative approach, with a correlational design. The selection of the participants was not intentional probabilistic. It comprises 88 teachers of preschool, primary, secondary and special education, who work in two schools with similar characteristics. For the collection of information on the independent variable, the attitude scale towards Immigration and the attitude scale towards Multiculturalism in the school are applied. To obtain information on the independent variable, the guide for the evaluation of inclusive practices in the classroom is applied. Both instruments have statistical validation. A Spearman correlation analysis was made to achieve the objective of the study. Among the main findings, we will find the relationships between the positive perceptions of multiculturalism at school and inclusive practices such as the physical conditions of the classroom, planning, methodology, use of time and evaluation. These findings are relevant to the teaching and learning processes of students in Chilean classrooms and contribute to literature for the understanding of educational processes in contexts of cultural diversity.

Keywords: cultural diversity, immigration, inclusive pedagogical practices, multiculturalism

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5353 A Postcolonial Feminist Exploration of Zulu Girl Child’s Position and Gender Dynamics in Religio-Cultural Context

Authors: G. T. Ntuli


This paper critically examines the gender dynamics of a Zulu girl child in her religio-cultural context from the postcolonial feminist perspective. As one of the former colonized ethnic groups in the South African context, the Zulu tribe used to have particular and contextual religio-cultural ways of a girl’s upbringing. This included traditional and cultural norms that any member of the community could not infringe without serious repercussions from the community members. However, the postcolonial social position of a girl child within this community became ambiguous and unpredictable due to colonial changes that enhanced gender dynamics that propelled tribal communities into deeper patriarchal structures. In the empirical study conducted within the Zulu context, which investigated the retrieval of ubuntombi (virginity) as a Zulu cultural heritage, identity and sex education as a path to adulthood, it was found that a Zulu girl child’s social position is geared towards double oppression due to gender dynamics that she experiences in her lifetime. It is these gender dynamics that are examined in this paper from the postcolonial feminist perspective. These gender dynamics are at play from the birth of a girl child, developmental stage to puberty and marriage rituals. These rituals and religio-cultural practices are meant to shape and mold a ‘good woman’ in the Zulu cultural context but social gender inequality that elevates males over females propel women social status into life denying peripheral positions. Consequently, in the place of a ‘good woman’ in the communal view, an oppressed and dehumanized woman becomes the outcome of such gender dynamics, more often treated with contempt, despised and violated in many demeaning ways. These do not only leave women economically and socio-politically impoverished, but also having to face violence of all kinds such as domestic, emotional, sexual and gender-based violence that are increasingly becoming a scourge in some of the sub-Saharan African countries including South Africa. It is for this reason that this paper becomes significant, not only within the Zulu context where the research was conducted, but also in all the countries that practice and promote patriarchal tendencies in the name of religio-cultural practices. There is a need for a different outlook as to what it means to be a ‘good woman’ in the cultural context, because if the goodness of a woman is determined by life denying cultural practices, such practices need to be deconstructed and discarded.

Keywords: feminist, gender dynamics, postcolonial, religio-cultural, Zulu girl child

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5352 Defending Indigenous Working Urban Spaces Trough Visual Activism in Quito

Authors: Katherine Anson


This paper takes a closer look at the use of day-to-day informal working practices in Latin American spatial, cultural activism against gentrification. Through a discursive analysis of the Ecuadorian communally made film documentary San Roque: A House for All (2015), and the study of the political conflict around the gentrification of the place, the essay illustrates how the purposeful showcase of indigenous uses of space claims ownership over the city’s downtown area. This argument concludes that by making visible everyday indigenous ways of production in relation to space, the video contests the neoliberalist aim to proletarianize the urban poor, and therefore, to transform them into a landless group. This approach demonstrates that through representations of their own cultural working practices grassroots organizations consciously deconstruct/contest the capitalist urbanization of space.

Keywords: cultural activism, gentrification, indigenous working traditions, neoliberalism, urban displacement, everyday forms of resistance

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5351 Art Market in Oran: Emergence and Constraints

Authors: Hirreche Baghdad Mohamed


Our researches are linked at cultural policies. The initiation to taste and beauty is a matter for all cultural and educational institutions. It is a downstream process (programs, actions, lessons ...) that begins at a young age in order to inscribe aesthetic values in memories, imaginations and practices. Preparing future art lovers probably takes a lot of time. Upstream, continuity is ensured by the "cultural industries" which make cultural products available to actors in the "art market" through professional training, production, dissemination and sales processes. It turns out that the cultural industries borrow from the "classical" industries the same processes and logics: product, production, marketing, diffusion, profit and profits, supply and demand, the market, the creation of wealth, the entrepreneurship. Today, culture has become a product almost like the others. In the cultural industries system, we protect the rights of authors (owners) and the rights of intermediaries (entrepreneurs of culture) and we provide consumers with an accessible product that meets their needs and expectations. We aim to present an inventory and to reveal through the speeches of the actors themselves, the processes and modes of operation and deployment of the plastic arts market by showing how it is perceived, imagined and lived in the city of 'Oran from the 2000s to the present day. However, it is possible to clarify this field of research by looking at previous periods; and even to make comparisons with other regions in Algeria, in order to give meaning to practices in various contexts.

Keywords: Oran, ALGERIA, fine art, art market

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5350 Traditional Terms, Spaces, Forms and Artifacts in Cultural Semiotics of Southwest Nigeria

Authors: Ajibade Adeyemo


The paper examined local terms used for spaces, forms and building practices in southwest Nigeria as cultural semiotics. Housing has more cultural meaning than mere shelter as shown in building terms such as ‘roof over my head’. The study is significant in the study area because its people were traditionally orally centered until ‘culture contact’ led to graphical presentation and appreciation in the form of drawings which is a modern language of architecture. This semiotic study will facilitate the understanding of the wholesomeness of traditional building practices and thoughts. This is in the culture of the traditional multi-sensory appreciation of architecture, urban design and the arts. It will analyze traditional aphoristic words and terms which are like proverbs which are significant in language because of their metaphorical essence. Many of such terms in the dominant Yoruba language of the study area are oftentimes phenomenal reducing universal terms like the earth and heaven to the simple module of housing. These words could be worth investigating because they are symbolic serve as codes which are cultural tool of regional ethnic significance. Sassure’s and Pierce’s concepts of Semiotics in line with Eco’s concept of semiotics of metaphor shall be deployed.

Keywords: traditional terms, spaces, forms, artifacts, cultural semiotics, southwest

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5349 Different Receptions of Hygienic Architecture in Two Mexican Cities: Cuernavaca and Mexico

Authors: Marcela Dávalos López


In Mexico, the distribution of hygienistarchitecture during the 20th century had different rhythms. The culmination of the urban hygiene system (from sewers to showers, passing through garbage collection) forced neighbors and citizens to participate in the common welfare. This turned the urban references and dissociated the ways of living and led to comfort and health. However, the contrast between two Mexicancities, Cuernavaca and Mexico City shows us very different cultural practices regarding the use of hygienicarchitectures: in the first, thenature of its deepravines marked the destiny of residential architecture, while in Mexico City, state participation alteredthelandscape and homogenized the architectural models of domestic and intímate spaces.

Keywords: Cultural Practices, Dissociated Ways To Comfort, Hygiene Architecture , Mexico

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5348 Digital Metroliteracies: Space, Diversity and Identity

Authors: Sender Dovchin, Alastair Pennycook


This paper looks at the relationship between online space, urban space and digital literacies. The everyday digital literacy practices of Facebook users (with a particular focus on young urban Mongolians) can be understood as ‘metrolingual’ because of the varied ways in which linguistic and cultural resources, spatial repertoires, and online activities are bound together to make meaning. Whereas the initial development of the term metrolingualism was dependent on a notion of physical urban space, we here argue that the digital practices of these Facebook users perform a range of social and cultural identities (sexual, ethnic, and class-based identities) that are both parts of but also adjacent to the metrolingual fabric.

Keywords: metrolingualism, digital literacy, Mongolia, Facebook

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5347 Intangible Cultural Heritage as a Strategic Place Branding Tool

Authors: L. Ozoliņa


Place branding as a strategic marketing tool is applied in Latvia since 2000. The main objective of the study is to find unique connecting aspects of the intangible cultural heritage elements on the development of sustainable place branding. The study is based on in-depth semi-structured interviews with Latvian place branding experts and content analysis of Latvia's place brand identities. The study indicates place branding as an internal co-creational and educational process of all involved stakeholders of the place and highlights a critical view on the local place branding practices on the notability of the in-depth research of the intangible cultural heritage.

Keywords: belonging, identity, intangible cultural heritage, narrative, self-image, place branding

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5346 On the Difference between Cultural and Religious Identities

Authors: Mputu Ngandu Simon


Culture and religion are two of the most significant markers of an individual or group's identity. Religion finds its expression in a given culture, and culture is the costume in which a religion is dressed. In other words, there is a crucial relationship between religion and culture which should not be ignored. On the one hand, religion influences the way in which a culture is consumed. A person's consumption of a certain cultural practice is influenced by his/her religious identity. On the other hand, cultural identity plays an important role in how a religion is practiced by its adherents. Some cultural practices become more credible when interpreted in religious terms just as religious doctrines and dogmas need cultural interpretation to be understood by a given people in a given context. This relationship goes so deep that sometimes the boundaries between culture and religion become blurred, and people end up mixing religion and culture. In some cases, the two are considered to be one and the same thing. However, despite this apparent sameness, religion and culture are two distinct aspects of identity, and they should always be considered as such. One results from knowledge, while the other has beliefs as its foundation. This essay explores the difference between cultural and religious identity by drawing from existing literature on this topic as a whole before applying that knowledge to two specific case studies: Christianity and Islam in some African and Asian countries.

Keywords: culture, religion, identity, knowledge, belief

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5345 Adopting a Comparative Cultural Studies Approach to Teaching Writing in the Global Classroom

Authors: Madhura Bandyopadhyay


Teaching writing within multicultural and multiethnic communities poses many unique challenges not the least of which is that of intercultural communication. When the writing is in English, pedagogical imperatives often encounter the universalizing tendencies of standardization of both language use and structural parameters which are often at odds with maintaining local practices which preserve cultural pluralism. English often becomes the contact zone within which individual identities of students play out against the standardization imperatives of the larger world. Writing classes can serve as places which become instruments of assimilation of ethnic minorities to a larger globalizing or nationalistic agenda. Hence, for those outside of the standard practices of writing English, adaptability towards a mastery of those practices valued as standard become the focus of teaching taking away from diversity of local English use and other modes of critical thinking. In a very multicultural and multiethnic context such as the US or Singapore, these dynamics become very important. This paper will argue that multiethnic writing classrooms can greatly benefit from taking up a cultural studies approach whereby the students’ lived environments and experiences are analyzed as cultural texts to produce writing. Such an approach eliminates limitations of using both literary texts as foci of discussion as in traditional approaches to teaching writing and the current trend in teaching composition without using texts at all. By bringing in students’ lived experiences into the classroom and analyzing them as cultural compositions stressing the ability to communicate across cultures, cultural competency is valued rather than adaptability while privileging pluralistic experiences as valuable even as universal shared experience are found. Specifically, while teaching writing in English in a multicultural classroom, a cultural studies approach makes both teacher and student aware of the diversity of the English language as it exists in our global context in the students’ experience while making space for diversity in critical thinking, structure and organization of writing effective in an intercultural context.

Keywords: English, multicultural, teaching, writing

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5344 Women, Culture and Ambiguity: Postcolonial Feminist Critique of Lobola in African Culture and Society

Authors: Goodness Thandi Ntuli


Some cultural aspects in the African context have a tendency of uplifting women while some thrust them into the worst denigration scenarios; hence African Women Theologians refer to culture as a ‘double edged sword. Through socialization and internalization of social norms, some women become custodians of life, denying aspects of the culture that are against them and hand them down to the next generation. This indirectly contributes to the perpetuation of patriarchal tendencies wherein women themselves uphold and endorse such tendencies to their own detriment. One of the findings of the empirical research study conducted among the Zulu young women in the South African context was that, on the one hand, lobola (the bride-price) is one of the cultural practices that contribute a great deal in the vilification of women. On the other hand, a woman whose lobola has been paid is highly esteemed in the cultural context not only by society at large but also by the implicated woman who takes pride in it. Consequently, lobola becomes an ambiguous cultural practice. Thus from the postcolonial feminist perspective, this paper examines and critiques lobola practice while also disclosing and exposing its deep seated cultural reinforcement that is life denying to women. The paper elucidates the original lobola as a cultural practice before colonization and how it became commercialized during colonial times. With commercialization in the modern world, lobola has completely lost its preliminary meaning and ceased to be a life-giving cultural practice, particularly for women. It turned out to be the worst cultural practice that demeans women to the extent that it becomes suicidal to women dignity because, in marriage, they become objects or property to the men who purchased them. Women objectification in marriage does not only leave them culturally trapped in what was perceived to be a good practice, but it also leads to women abuse and gender based or domestic violence. The research has indicated that this kind of violence is escalating and has become so pervasive in the South African context that the country is rated as one of the capital cities of violence against women in the world. Therefore, this paper demonstrates how cultural practices at times indirectly contribute to this national scourge that needs to be condemned, disparaged and rejected. Women in the African context where such cultural activities are still viewed as a norm are in desperate need for true liberation from such ambiguous cultural practices that leave them in the margins in spite of the earned social status they might have achieved.

Keywords: african, ambiguity, critique, culture, feminist, lobola, postcolonial, society

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5343 Women Right in Islam and Misconceptions: A Critical Study

Authors: Abubakar Ibrahim Usman, Mustapha Halilu


The provisions of rights to women in Islam have generated and are creating a tense and serious debate among Muslims and non-Muslims alike. The Muslims are arguing that Islam provides right to Womenfolk, but their actions, cultural/traditional practices, and treatment reveal otherwise, Non-Muslims, on the other hand, held a different view, saying that Islam has never made such provision. One may not blame their misconception, due to the wide spectrum of treatment given to women in many Muslim societies, which generated, fueled and geared the misconceptions and ceaseless barrage of sensational articles, movies and negative portrayal of Islam today. It has to put in our minds, many actions and Crimes of some Muslims (Who are mostly minority) did not represent the teachings and precepts of Islam, just like one cannot put blame on the parents of a child whose actions fall short of his home background.

Keywords: Islam, women rights, cultural practices, religion

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5342 Heritage and Tourism in the Era of Big Data: Analysis of Chinese Cultural Tourism in Catalonia

Authors: Xinge Liao, Francesc Xavier Roige Ventura, Dolores Sanchez Aguilera


With the development of the Internet, the study of tourism behavior has rapidly expanded from the traditional physical market to the online market. Data on the Internet is characterized by dynamic changes, and new data appear all the time. In recent years the generation of a large volume of data was characterized, such as forums, blogs, and other sources, which have expanded over time and space, together they constitute large-scale Internet data, known as Big Data. This data of technological origin that derives from the use of devices and the activity of multiple users is becoming a source of great importance for the study of geography and the behavior of tourists. The study will focus on cultural heritage tourist practices in the context of Big Data. The research will focus on exploring the characteristics and behavior of Chinese tourists in relation to the cultural heritage of Catalonia. Geographical information, target image, perceptions in user-generated content will be studied through data analysis from Weibo -the largest social networks of blogs in China. Through the analysis of the behavior of heritage tourists in the Big Data environment, this study will understand the practices (activities, motivations, perceptions) of cultural tourists and then understand the needs and preferences of tourists in order to better guide the sustainable development of tourism in heritage sites.

Keywords: Barcelona, Big Data, Catalonia, cultural heritage, Chinese tourism market, tourists’ behavior

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5341 The Impacts of Foreign Culture on Yoruba Crime Films

Authors: Alonge Isaac Olusola


This paper focuses on the evolution and development of Yoruba theatre during the pre-colonial, colonial and post-colonial years and how Yoruba crime films have been influenced by foreign culture. It emphasizes on the transition of theatre from the ground to the stage and from the stage to the screen with emphasis on the contribution of late Chief Hubert Ogunde who is regarded as the doyen of Yoruba and the entire Nigerian theatre. Using the Theory of Post-colonialism, two modern Yoruba crime films are carefully selected from the numerous available ones to highlight and explain the various aspects of Yoruba films that have been greatly influenced by the foreign cultural practices. The questions to be answered here include 'Which attitudes or cultural practices are widely believed to be that of Yoruba?', 'To what extent are they projected in the selected Yoruba crime films?', 'Which attitudes or cultural practices are widely believed to be foreign among the Yoruba people?', 'To what extent are they projected in the selected Yoruba crime films?'. Although, the British colonial masters granted political independence to Nigeria on October 1, 1960, but a seed of multi-culture and counterculture had been sown into the lives of the Yoruba people. Under the literature review, there is an intensive illumination on some scholars’ ideas and views on what constitutes Yoruba culture, the evolution and development of drama, theatre and films in the Yoruba society and the nature of criminals and criminalities in the Yoruba society and the western world in the pre-colonial and post-colonial times. Furthermore, the processes of interaction between man, his values and his thoughts are also highlighted – a situation that procreates criminal or benevolent acts. Consequently, the paper dwells on how colonialism, despite its so-called merits put the gradual process of urbanization and civilization among the originally rustic, cohesive and moralistic Yoruba society on a supersonic speed that culminated in acquisition of attitudes that are alien to the Yoruba culture. Since a drama is nothing but the theatrical replication of what occurs in the real life, the paper then focuses on the submission that Yoruba crime films have experienced a serious foreign influence in form and content as a result of this encounter. In conclusion, the findings of the impact of foreign cultural practices on Yoruba crime films are highlighted and expatiated with a view to recommending a few steps that could be taken to retain the projection of the original Yoruba cultural practices in Yoruba films, especially the ones that have crime as a theme.

Keywords: culture, films, theatre, Yoruba

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5340 Meaning beyond Pleasure in Leisure: Comparison between Korea and France

Authors: Joane Adeclas, Yoonyoung Kim, Taekyun Hur


This study investigates individual’s intrinsic motivation to practice their leisure activities, as well as, how the cultural environment may influence their motivation to practice their activities. Focused on the positive psychology, the present study proposed redefinition of leisure activities considering two factors. First, leisure activities could be as any activities that provide pleasure or meaning to individuals. Second, they can be practiced alone or in groups. In fact, based on this definition, a four-dimensional model of leisure activities was developed, to measure individual’s perception of their leisure experience, based on four factors that are: personal pleasure, social pleasure, personal meaning and social meaning. Furthermore, recent studies have argued that leisure activities can be interpreted and understood differently across cultures. Therefore, the present study proposed to examine the possible role of the cultural context of individual’s leisure practices. To do so, two cultural groups (Koreans vs. French) were compared in terms of the four-dimensional model of leisure activities. Three hundred Koreans and three hundred French participants were asked to answer an online survey about their leisure activities. Participants had to respond to questions related to several aspects of leisure practices as followed: the reason why their practice their leisure activities, the reason why they fail to practice their leisure, and their obsession relate to their leisure activities. Factor analyses based on participant’s responses proposed a moderate fit of the four-dimensional model of leisure activities. Furthermore, significant cultural differences were also found. As a result, the cultural context seems to influence the reason why individuals practice their leisure activities based on our model. In fact, Koreans explained more than French, the practice of their leisure activities with social-pleasurable reasons. At a contrary, French explained more than Koreans, the practice of their leisure activities with social-meaningful reasons. The two cultural groups also significantly differ on their perception of failure. The results showed that French participants used more meaningful social factors to explain why they failed to practice their leisure activities than did Koreans participants. Finally, Koreans and French significantly differed regarding their obsession on their leisure activities. In general, French tend to have more obsession than Koreans about their leisure activities. Those results validated the four-dimensional model of leisure, as well as, the cultural differences in leisure practices. However, further studies are needed to validate this model at an individual and cultural level.

Keywords: culture, leisure, meaning, pleasure

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5339 Exploring Selected Cultures in Mitigating an Array of Social Vices in South Africa: A Literature Review

Authors: M. Kang'ethe Simon, Nomngcoyiya Thanduxolo


The aim of this article is to explore the role of selected cultural practices and assess how they can be a panacea in mitigating the state of social vices in South Africa. The article uses a review of literature methodology. Findings indicate that Africans were hoodwinked by white people to abandon their cultures for western based cultures. African cultures continue to weaken as they succumb to forces of westernization, eurocentrism, modernization, civilization, and globalization. Africans have realised that their cultures abandoned such as virginity testing, sexual mores and taboos and circumcision could be a panacea in mitigating some of the societal ills such as moral decadence and HIV/AIDS. The article urges for a resuscitation of cultural practices such as virginity testing, thigh sex (ukumetsha), circumcision and teachings that accompanied initiation schools; and societies to undergo an attitudinal and cultural paradigm shift that will consider the invaluable aspects of cultures that can effectuate and facilitate mitigation of social ills in African countries such as South Africa.

Keywords: virginity testing (reed dance), circumcision, initiation schools, African Renaissance, thigh sex, moral decadence, cultural custodians, state of anomie

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5338 Analyzing Culture as an Obstacle to Gender Equality in a Non-Western Context: Key Areas of Conflict between International Women’s Rights and Cultural Rights in South Sudan

Authors: C. Leiber


International human rights treaties ensure basic rights to all people, regardless of nationality. These treaties have developed in a predominantly Western environment, and their implementation into non-western contexts often raises questions of the transfer-ability of value systems and governance structures. International human rights treaties also postulate the right to the full enjoyment and expression of one’s own culture, known as cultural rights. Many cultural practices and traditions in South Sudan serve as an obstacle to the adaptation of human rights and internationally agreed-upon standards, specifically those pertaining to women’s rights and gender equality. This paper analyzes the specific social, political, and economic conflicts between women’s rights and cultural rights within the context of South Sudan’s evolution into a sovereign nation. It comprehensively evaluates the legal status of South Sudanese women and –based on the empirical evidence- assesses gender equality in four key areas: Marriage, Education, Violence against Women, and Inheritance. This work includes an exploration into how South Sudanese culture influences, and indeed is intertwined with, social, political, and economic spheres, and how it limits gender equality and impedes the full implementation of international human rights treaties. Furthermore, any negative effects which systemic gender inequality and cultural practices that are oppressive to women have on South Sudan as a developing nation are explored. Finally, those areas of conflict between South Sudanese cultural rights and international women’s rights are outlined which can be mitigated or resolved in favor of elevating gender equality without imperializing or destroying South Sudanese culture.

Keywords: cultural rights, gender equality, international human rights, South Sudan

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5337 Establishment of Thuja Label: Development Prospects for the Marketing Practices of the Handicraft of Essaouira's Marquetry

Authors: Fatima El Kandoussi, Lamiae El Hdiddioui, Mustapha Bouragba


The woodwork of thuja in Essaouira is one of the main crafts in Morocco. Certainly, marquetry reflects both cultural and artistic identity of the city, considering the talent and ancestral knowledge of craftsman working in marquetry. Yet, the production units encounter a considerable number of difficulties among which insufficiencies within marketing practices. Consequently, it is obvious that major improvements are needed, and supportive solutions must be provided in order to improve the Essaouira’s marquetry, as a symbol of the entire province. Thus, the establishment of Thuja Label is a necessary measure that would be the key to ensuring sustainability of this vital craft. The main purpose of this paper is to study marketing practices’ current state of the production units in the marquetry of Essaouira, therefore to recommend remedial actions likely to raise them up to the required functional level.

Keywords: craft, marketing practices, marquetry, thuja label

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5336 Stop Forced Child Marriage: A Comparative Global Law Analysis

Authors: Michelle J. Miller


Millions of girls are forcibly married during the transitional period between puberty and adulthood. At a stage of vulnerability; cultural practices, religious rights, and social standards place girls in a position where they are catapult into womanhood. An advocate against forced child marriage could argue that child rights, cultural rights, religious rights, right to marry, right to life, right to health, right to education, right to be free from slavery, right to be free from torture, right to consent to marriage are all violated by the practice of child marriage. This paper will present how some of these rights are violated and how they establish the need for change.

Keywords: child marriage, forced child marriage, children's rights, religious rights, cultural rights

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5335 Sustainability Adoption Barriers in Small and Mid-size Enterprises (SEMs)

Authors: L.Vaz, L. Ferreira, R. Aparício, J. Pedro, M. Franco


This article concerns a qualitative analysis, through an interview, regarding “Sustainability Adoption Barriers in SMEs.” To begin with, the article provides a state-of-the-art overview through fifty-seven articles initially extracted from the Scopus database. The articles were analyzed, and four main clusters emerged in the literature: 1) sustainability and small and medium-sized companies; 2) sustainable business models; 3) sustainability practices adoption procedures, and 4) adoption difficulties on sustainability practices. Utilizing interviews as a methodology, the article seeks to strengthen knowledge regarding sustainability practices, their barriers and the sustainable procedures adopted by SMEs in a Portuguese context. The results demonstrate that the literature agrees with this case study, where there are numerous sustainable practices, yet, due to financial, political, cultural, and technological factors, barriers emerge in the adoption process. By comparing the literature findings with the conducted interviews of interior Portuguese SMEs, this article develops a contribution to the scientific community through a captivating, intuitive and motivating way.

Keywords: barriers, practices, business model, green

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5334 Mechanisms of Cultural Change Resistance through Cultures

Authors: Horaya Mostafa Ahmed


All cultures are inherently predisposed to change and, at the same time, to resisting change. There are dynamic processes operating that encourage the acceptance of new ideas and things, while there are others that encourage changeless stability. Despite the dramatic changes that have taken place in all human cultures, there are cultures still steadfast and resist change. These cultures resist through some culture mechanisms like, cultural boundaries, ethnocentrism, religion, and cultural relativity. So this paper is an attempt to discover these mechanisms of cultural change resistance and to ask is cultural change always required.

Keywords: cultural change, cultural boundaries, cultural relativity, ethnocentrism, religion, resistance

Procedia PDF Downloads 227