Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 107

Search results for: Uganda

107 The Image of Uganda in Germany: Assessing the Perceptions of Germans about Uganda as a Tourist Destination

Authors: K. V. Nabichu

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The rationale of this research was to review how Germans perceive Uganda as a tourism destination, after German visitors arrivals to Uganda remain few compared to other destinations like Kenya. It was assumed that Uganda suffers a negative image in Germany due to negative media influence. The study findings indicate that Uganda is not a popular travel destination in Germany, there is generally lack of travel information about Uganda. Despite the respondents’ hearing about Uganda’s and her beautiful attractions, good climate and friendly people, they also think Uganda is unsafe for travel. Findings further show that Uganda is a potential travel destination for Germans due to her beautifull landscape, rich culture, wild life, primates and the Nile, however political unrest, insecurity, the fear for diseases and poor hygiene hinder Germans from travelling to Uganda. The media, internet as well as friends and relatives were the major primary sources of information on Uganda while others knew about Uganda through their school lessons and sports. Uganda is not well advertised and promoted in Germany.

Keywords: destination Uganda and Germany, image, perception, negative media influence

Procedia PDF Downloads 232
106 Spatial Variation of WRF Model Rainfall Prediction over Uganda

Authors: Isaac Mugume, Charles Basalirwa, Daniel Waiswa, Triphonia Ngailo

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Rainfall is a major climatic parameter affecting many sectors such as health, agriculture and water resources. Its quantitative prediction remains a challenge to weather forecasters although numerical weather prediction models are increasingly being used for rainfall prediction. The performance of six convective parameterization schemes, namely the Kain-Fritsch scheme, the Betts-Miller-Janjic scheme, the Grell-Deveny scheme, the Grell-3D scheme, the Grell-Fretas scheme, the New Tiedke scheme of the weather research and forecast (WRF) model regarding quantitative rainfall prediction over Uganda is investigated using the root mean square error for the March-May (MAM) 2013 season. The MAM 2013 seasonal rainfall amount ranged from 200 mm to 900 mm over Uganda with northern region receiving comparatively lower rainfall amount (200–500 mm); western Uganda (270–550 mm); eastern Uganda (400–900 mm) and the lake Victoria basin (400–650 mm). A spatial variation in simulated rainfall amount by different convective parameterization schemes was noted with the Kain-Fritsch scheme over estimating the rainfall amount over northern Uganda (300–750 mm) but also presented comparable rainfall amounts over the eastern Uganda (400–900 mm). The Betts-Miller-Janjic, the Grell-Deveny, and the Grell-3D underestimated the rainfall amount over most parts of the country especially the eastern region (300–600 mm). The Grell-Fretas captured rainfall amount over the northern region (250–450 mm) but also underestimated rainfall over the lake Victoria Basin (150–300 mm) while the New Tiedke generally underestimated rainfall amount over many areas of Uganda. For deterministic rainfall prediction, the Grell-Fretas is recommended for rainfall prediction over northern Uganda while the Kain-Fritsch scheme is recommended over eastern region.

Keywords: convective parameterization schemes, March-May 2013 rainfall season, spatial variation of parameterization schemes over Uganda, WRF model

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105 Health Sector Budgetary Allocations and Their Implications on Health Service Delivery and Universal Health Coverage in Uganda

Authors: Richard Ssempala, Francis Kintu, Christine K. Tashobya

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Funding for health remains a key constraint facing many developing countries, Uganda inclusive. Uganda’s health sector budget to the national budgetary allocation has stagnated between 8.2% to 10% over the years. Using data collected from different government documents, we sought to establish the implications of the budget allocation over the period (FY2010/11-2018/19) on health services delivery in Uganda to inform policymakers specifically Members of Parliament who are critical in making sectorial allocation on the steps they can adapt to change the terrain of health financing in Uganda. Findings revealed that the contribution of public funding to the health sector is low (15.7%) with private sources (42.6%) and donors contributing much more, with the bulk of private funds, are out of pocket. The study further revealed that low budget allocation had been manifested in inadequate and poorly motivated health workers, essential drug stock-outs that ultimately contribute to poor access to services, catastrophic health expenditures, and high morbidity rates. We recommend for a substantial and sustained increase in the government health budget, optimizing the available resources by addressing wastages, prioritizing health promotion, prevention and finally, institutionalizing the National Health Insurance Scheme.

Keywords: budget allocations, universal health coverage, health service delivery, Uganda

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104 Oil Revenues Anticipation, Global Entanglements and Indigenous Rights: Negotiating a Potential Resource Curse in Uganda

Authors: Nsubuga Bright Titus

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The resource curse is an unavoidable phenomenon among oil producing states in Africa. There is no oil production currently in Uganda although exploration projections set 2020 as the year of initial production. But as the exploration proceeds and Production Sharing Agreements (PSA) are negotiated, so does the anticipation for oil revenues. The Indigenous people of Bunyoro are claiming the right to their indigenous lands through the African Commission on Human and People’s Rights (ACHPR) of the African Union. They urge the commission to investigate the government of Uganda on violations of their human rights. In this paper, oil as a resource curse is examined through the Dutch disease. Regional and global entanglements, as well as the contestation between the indigenous Bunyoro group and the oil industry in Uganda is explored. The paper also demonstrates that oil as a local possibility and national reality has propelled anxiety about oil revenues among various, local actors, State actors, regional and global actors.

Keywords: Entanglements, Extractive resources, Framing, web of relations

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103 Biochar and Food Security in Central Uganda

Authors: Nataliya Apanovich, Mark Wright

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Uganda is among the poorest but fastest growing populations in the world. Its annual population growth of 3% puts additional stress through land fragmentation, agricultural intensification, and deforestation on already highly weathered tropical (Ferralsol) soils. All of these factors lead to decreased agricultural yields and consequently diminished food security. The central region of Uganda, Buganda Kingdom, is especially vulnerable in terms of food security as its high population density coupled with mismanagement of natural resources led to gradual loss of its soil and even changes in microclimate. These changes are negatively affecting livelihoods of smallholder farmers who comprise 80% of all population in Uganda. This research focuses on biochar for soil remediation in Masaka District, Uganda. If produced on a small scale from locally sourced materials, biochar can increase the quality of soil in a cost and time effective manner. To assess biochar potential, 151 smallholder farmers were interviewed on the types of crops grown, agricultural residues produced and their use, as well as on attitudes towards biochar use and its production on a small scale. The interviews were conducted in 7 sub-counties, 32 parishes, and 92 villages. The total farmland covered by the study was 606.2 kilometers. Additional information on the state of agricultural development and environmental degradation in the district was solicited from four local government officials via informal interviews. This project has been conducted in collaboration with the international agricultural research institution, Makerere University in Kampala, Uganda. The results of this research can have implications on the way farmers perceive the value of their agricultural residues and what they decide to do with them. The underlying objective is to help smallholders in degraded soils increase their agricultural yields through the use of biochar without diverting the already established uses of agricultural residues to a new soil management practice.

Keywords: agricultural residues, biochar, central Uganda, food security, soil erosion, soil remediation

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102 Limitations of Recent National Enactments on International Crimes: The Case of Kenya, Uganda and Sudan

Authors: Emma Charlene Lubaale

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The International Criminal Court (ICC) operates based on the principle of complementarity. On the basis of this principle, states enjoy the primary right to prosecute international crimes, with the ICC intervening only when a state with jurisdiction over an international crime is unable or unwilling to prosecute. To ably exercise their primary right to prosecute international crimes domestically, a number of states are taking steps to criminalise international crimes in their national laws. Significant to note, many of the laws enacted are not being applied in the prosecution of the international crimes allegedly committed. Kenya, Uganda and Sudan are some notable states where commission of international crimes is documented. All these states have recently enacted laws on international crimes. Kenya enacted the International Crimes Act in 2008, Uganda enacted the International Criminal Court Act in 2010 and in 2007, Sudan made provision for international crimes under its Armed Forces Act. However, in all these three states, the enacted national laws on international crimes have thus far not featured in any of the proceedings before these states’ courts. Instead, these states have either relied on ordinary crimes to prosecute international crimes or not prosecuted international crimes altogether. This paper underscores the limitations of the enacted laws, explaining why, even with efforts taken by these states to enact national laws on international crimes, these laws cannot be relied on to advance accountability for the international crimes. Notably, the laws in Kenya and Uganda do not have retroactive application. In Sudan, despite the 2007 reforms, the structure of military justice in Sudan has the effect of placing certain categories of individuals beyond the reach of international criminal justice. For Kenya and Uganda, it is concluded that the only benefit that flows from these enactments is reliance on them to prosecute future international crimes. For Sudan, the 2007 reforms will only have the desired impact if reforms are equally made to the structure of military justice.

Keywords: complementarity, national laws, Kenya, Sudan, Uganda, international crimes, limitations

Procedia PDF Downloads 167
101 How Sustainable is Tourism Architecture in Uganda

Authors: Goodman Conrad Kazoroa

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Among the most remarkable socioeconomic phenomena of the post-World War II era has been the expansion of the global tourism industry. Intensifying tourism activity is continuing to affect more and more places and there can no longer be any doubt as to the potential of this sector to affect fundamental economic, social-cultural and environmental change. A phenomenon with far reaching effects like this needs to be carefully controlled and planned so as not to compromise the chances for the future generations to enjoy this resource, therefore the issue of tourism sustainability, as a result, is unveiled. The concept of sustainable tourism remains vague in Uganda as the country has seen an increase in resorts, hotels and lodges especially in most of Uganda’s ecologically vulnerable areas National Parks. To many, sustainable tourism it is merely the application of the sustainable development idea to the sector of tourism. To others, it is the conservation of the environment and its natural resources, realising and appropriately using them to achieve sustainable built environments that promote tourism. Architecture and the built environment can be the first means to link the global dimension of this phenomenon of sustainable tourism to its local implications. The aim of this paper was to critically analyse the extent to which sustainability related considerations have been pursued in the built environments for Uganda’s national parks as means to achieving sustainable tourism. This was achieved by use of a sustainable architecture rating tool that was modified to fit Uganda’s context. The results of this are presented as the final results of the study. There are many examples of sustainable tourism resorts, or what tourism managers and developers claim are sustainable tourism resorts throughout the country. This paper reveals the truth, that is, true sustainable tourism resorts are very few and far between.

Keywords: sustainable tourism, tourism architecture, sustainable architecture, sustainable tourism resorts

Procedia PDF Downloads 261
100 Normative Reflections on the International Court of Justice's Jurisprudence on the Protection of Human Rights in Times of War

Authors: Roger-Claude Liwanga

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This article reflects on the normative aspects of the jurisprudence on the protection of human rights in times of war that the International Court of Justice (ICJ) developed in 2005 in the Case Concerning Armed Activities on the Territory of the Congo (Democratic Republic of Congo v. Uganda). The article focuses on theories raised in connection with the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC)'s claim of the violation of human rights of its populations by Uganda as opposed to the violation of its territorial integrity claims. The article begins with a re-visitation of the doctrine of state extraterritorial responsibility for violations of human rights by suggesting that a state's accountability for the breach of its international obligations is not territorially confined but rather transcends the State's national borders. The article highlights the criteria of assessing the State's extraterritorial responsibility, including the circumstances: (1) where the concerned State has effective control over the territory of another State in the context of belligerent occupation, and (2) when the unlawful actions committed by the State's organs on the occupied territory can be attributable to that State. The article also analyzes the ICJ's opinions articulated in DRC v. Uganda with reference to the relationship between human rights law and humanitarian law, and it contends that the ICJ had revised the traditional interaction between these two bodies of law to the extent that human rights law can no longer be excluded from applying in times of war as both branches are complementary rather than exclusive. The article correspondingly looks at the issue of reparations for victims of human rights violations. It posits that reparations for victims of human rights violations should be integral (including restitution, compensation, rehabilitation, satisfaction, and guarantees of non-repetition). Yet, the article concludes by emphasizing that reparations for victims were not integral in DRC v. Uganda because: (1) the ICJ failed to set a reasonable timeframe for the negotiations between the DRC and Uganda on the amount of compensation, resulting in Uganda paying no financial reparation to the DRC since 2005; and (2) the ICJ did not request Uganda to domestically prosecute the perpetrators of human rights abuses.

Keywords: human rights law, humanitarian law, civilian protection, extraterritorial responsibility

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99 Prevalence and Correlates of Anxiety and Depression among Family Carers of Cancer

Authors: Godfrey Katende, Lillian Nakimera

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The process of caregiving may cause emotional distress in form of anxiety and depression among family carers of cancer patients. Little is known about the prevalence anxiety and depression among family carers of cancer patients in Uganda. This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the prevalence of anxiety and depression among family carers of cancer patients and related factors associated with abnormal levels of anxiety and depression. A total of 119 family carers from Uganda Cancer Institute (UCI) were assessed by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) standardized questionnaire. The prevalence of anxiety and depression among family carers was high (45% and 26 % respectively); (2) abnormal levels of anxiety (ALA) and depression (ALD) was significantly associated with being a relative carer. Incorporating evidence based psychological therapies targeting family carers into usual care of cancer patients is imperative.

Keywords: anxiety, cancer, carer, cross-sectional design, depression, Uganda

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98 Multi-Sectoral Prioritization of Zoonotic Diseases in Uganda, 2017: The Perspective of One Health Experts

Authors: Musa Sekamatte

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Background: Zoonotic diseases continue to be a public health burden in countries around the world. Uganda is especially vulnerable due to its location, biodiversity, and population. Given these concerns, the Ugandan government in collaboration with the Global Health Security Agenda conducted a zoonotic disease prioritization workshop to identify zoonotic diseases of concern to multiple Ugandan ministries. Materials and Methods: The One Health Zoonotic Disease Prioritization tool, developed by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), was used for prioritization of zoonotic diseases in Uganda. Workshop participants included voting members representing human, animal, and environmental health ministries as well as key partners who observed the workshop. Over 100 articles describing characteristics of these zoonotic diseases were reviewed for the workshop. During the workshop, criteria for prioritization were selected, and questions and weights relevant to each criterion were determined. Next steps for multi-sectoral engagement for the prioritized zoonoses were then discussed. Results: 48 zoonotic diseases were considered during the workshop. Criteria selected to prioritize zoonotic diseases in order of importance were (1) severity of disease in humans in Uganda, (2) availability of effective control strategies, (3) potential to cause an epidemic or pandemic in humans or animals, (4) social and economic impacts, and (5) bioterrorism potential. Seven zoonotic diseases were identified as priorities for Uganda: anthrax, zoonotic influenza viruses, viral hemorrhagic fevers, brucellosis, African trypanosomiasis, plague, and rabies. Discussion: One Health approaches and multi-sectoral collaborations are crucial in the surveillance, prevention, and control strategies for zoonotic diseases. Uganda used such an approach to identify zoonotic diseases of national concern. Identifying these priority diseases enables the National One Health Platform and the Zoonotic Disease Coordinating Office to address the diseases in the future.

Keywords: national one health platform, zoonotic diseases, multi-sectoral, severity

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97 A Pathway to Financial Inclusion: Mobile Money and Individual Savings in Uganda

Authors: Musa Mayanja Lwanga, Annet Adong

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This study provides a micro perspective on the impact of mobile money services on individual’s saving behavior using the 2013 Uganda FinScope data. Results show that although saving through the mobile phone is not a common practice in Uganda, being a registered mobile money user increases the likelihood to save with mobile money. Saving using mobile is more prevalent in urban areas and in Kampala and Central region compared to other regions. This can be explained by: first, rural dwellers tend on average to have lower incomes and thus have lower to saving compared to the urban counterpart. Similarly, residents of Kampala tend to have higher incomes and thus high savings compared to residents of other regions. Secondly, poor infrastructure in rural areas in terms of lack of electricity and poor telecommunication network coverage may limit the use of mobile phones and consequently the use of mobile money as a saving mechanism. Overall, the use of mobile money as a saving mechanism is still very low and this could be partly explained by limitations in the legislation that does not incorporate mobile finance services into mobile money. The absence of interest payments on mobile money savings may act as a disincentive to save through this mechanism. Given the emerging mobile banking services, there is a need to create more awareness and the need for enhanced synergies between telecom companies and commercial banks.

Keywords: financial inclusion, mobile money, savings, Uganda

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96 Deficiencies in Vitamin A and Iron Supply Potential of Selected Indigenous Complementary Foods of Infants in Uganda

Authors: Richard Kajjura, Joyce Kikafunda, Roger Whitehead

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Introduction: Indigenous complementary recipes for children (6-23 months) are bulky and inextricably linked. The potential contribution of indigenous complementary foods to infant’s vitamin A and iron needs is not well investigated in Uganda. Less is known whether children in Uganda are living with or without adequate supply of vitamin A and iron nutrients. In this study, vitamin A and iron contents were assessed in the complementary foods fed to infants aged 6-11 months in a Peri-urban setting in Kampala District in Central Uganda. Objective: Assessment of vitamin A and iron contents of indigenous complementary foods of children as fed and associated demographic factor. Method: In a cross sectional study design, one hundred and three (153) households with children aged 6-11 months were randomly selected to participate in the assessment. Complementary food samples were collected from the children’s mothers/caretakers at the time of feeding the child. The mothers’ socio-demographic characteristics of age, education, marital status, occupation and sex collected a semi-qualitative questionnaire. The Vitamin A and iron contents in the complementary foods were analyzed using a UV/VIS spectrophotometer for vitamin A and Atomic Absorption spectrophotometer for iron samples. The data was analyzed using Gene-stat software program. Results: The mean vitamin A content was 97.0± 72.5 µg while that of iron was 1.5 ± 0.4 mg per 100g of food sample as fed. The contribution of indigenous complementary foods found was 32% for vitamin A and 15% iron of the recommended dietary allowance. Age of children was found to be significantly associated Vitamin A and Iron supply potential. Conclusion: The contribution of indigenous complementary foods to infant’s vitamin A and iron needs was low. Complementary foods in Uganda are more likely to be deficient in vitamin A and iron content. Nutrient dense dietary supplementation should be intervened in to make possible for Ugandan children attain full growth potential.

Keywords: indigenous complementary food, infant, iron, vitamin A

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95 Youth Participation in Peace Building and Development in Northern Uganda

Authors: Eric Awich Ochen

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The end of the conflict in Northern Uganda in 2006 brought about an opportunity for the youth to return to their original home and contribute to the peace building and development process of their communities. Post-conflict is used here to refer to the post-armed conflict situation and activities of rebels of Joseph Kony in northern Uganda. While the rebels remain very much active in the Sudan and Central African Republic, in Uganda the last confrontations occurred around 2006 or earlier, and communities have returned to their homes and began the process of rebuilding their lives. It is argued that socio-economic reconstruction is at the heart of peacebuilding and sustenance of positive peace in the aftermath of conflict, as it has a bearing on post-conflict stability and good governance. We recognize that several post-conflict interventions within Northern Uganda have targeted women and children with a strong emphasis on family socio-economic empowerment and capacity building, including access to micro finance. The aim of this study was to examine the participation of the youth in post-conflict peace building and development in Northern Uganda by assessing the breadth and width of their engagement and the stages of programming cycle that they are involved in, interrogating the space for participation and how they are facilitating or constraining participation. It was further aimed at examining the various dimensions of participation at play in Northern Uganda and where this fits within the conceptual debates on peace building and development in the region. Supporting young people emerging out of protracted conflict to re-establish meaningful socio-economic engagements and livelihoods is fundamental to their participation in the affairs of the community. The study suggests that in the post-conflict development context of Northern Uganda, participation has rarely been disaggregated or differentiated by sectors or groups. Where some disaggregation occurs, then the main emphasis has always been on either women or children. It appears therefore that little meaningful space has thus been created for young people to engage and participate in peace building initiatives within the region. In other cases where some space is created for youth participation, this has been in pre-conceived programs or interventions conceived by the development organizations with the youth or young people only invited to participate at particular stages of the project implementation cycle. Still within the implementation of the intervention, the extent to which young people participate is bounded, with little power to influence the course of the interventions or make major decisions. It is thus visible that even here young people mainly validate and legitimize what are predetermined processes only act as pawns in the major chess games played by development actors (dominant peace building partners). This paper, therefore, concludes that the engagement of the youth in post-conflict peace building has been quite problematic and tokenistic and has not given the adequate youth space within which they could ably participate and express themselves in the ensuing interventions.

Keywords: youth, conflict, peace building, participation

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94 Copyright Infringement for Academic Authorship in Uganda: Implications on Exemptions of Fair Use for Educational Purposes in Universities

Authors: Elisam Magara

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Like any other property, Intellectual Property (IP) must be regarded, respected, and remunerated to address the historical, ethical, economical and informational needs of society. Article 26 of the Constitution of the Republic of Uganda 1995, the Copyright and Neighbouring Rights (CNR) Act 2006 and CNR Regulations 2010 guide copyright protection in Uganda. However, an unpredictable environment has negatively impact on certain author/intellectual freedoms; and the infringements on academic works that affect the economic rights of authors that limit authors from fully enjoying the benefits of authorship. Notwithstanding the different licensing systems and copyright protection avenues, educational institutions and custodians of copyright works (libraries, archives) have continued to advocate for open access to information resources, under the legal exceptions of fair use for educational purposes. Thus, a study was conducted in educational institutions, libraries and archives in Uganda to assess the state of copyright infringement in Uganda in an increased use of academic authored works. The study attempted to establish the nature and forms of Copyright Infringement, the circumstances for copyright infringement, assessed the opinions from the custodians on strategies for balancing copyright protection for economic and moral gains by authors and increased access to information for educational purposes and fair-use. Through a survey, using a self-administered questionnaire, interviews and physical visits, the study was conducted in higher education institutions, libraries and archives among the officers that manage and keep copyright works. It established that the uncontrolled reproduction of copyright works in educational institutions and information institutions, have contributed copyright infringement robbing authors of their potential economic earnings and limiting their academic innovativeness and creativity. The study also established that lack of consciousness and awareness on copyright issues by lecturers, universities and libraries has made copyright works in Universities highly susceptible to copyright infringement. Thus the increased access to materials without restrictions has resulted in copyright infringement among the educational institutions, libraries and archives. A strategic alliance by the collecting Society (Uganda Reproduction Rights Organisation (URRO), government, Universities and right holders organisations (UTANA) to work together and institute a programme to address copyright protection and access to information is pertinently required.

Keywords: access to information, academic Writing, copyright, copyright infringement, copyright protection, exemptions of fair use, intellectual property rights

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93 Local Community Participation and the Adoption of Agricultural Technology in Kayunga District, Uganda

Authors: Barbara Kyampeire, Gerald Karyeijja

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This study investigated the influence of local community participation on the adoption of new agricultural technology in Uganda, using the case study of Smooth Cayenne Pineapples in Kayunga District, Uganda. The mechanism of adoption of new technologies is often not fully understood and this prompted the study. The study adopted a descriptive, co relational, survey design. The researcher used questionnaire survey, focus group discussion as methods of data collection. A total of 152 respondents including adopters and non-adopters of new technology for producing pineapples were selected from 8 farmer groups in Kayunga District. The results indicated that the participation of the community in the planning, implementation and the monitoring and evaluation of the adoption of the new technology for producing pineapples was low thus reducing the adoption of the new technology in the District. The researcher concluded that community participation significantly influences the adoption of new agricultural technology by members of a particular community. The study thus recommended that: first, there is need for maximum involvement of members of the community in the planning, implementation and monitoring of any new agricultural technology; secondly, there is need for continued sharing of information about new agricultural technologies being introduced; and finally, community members must be equipped with Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) skills in order to make them monitor the progress made by the new agricultural technologies.

Keywords: adoption, community, technology, implementation

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92 When and How Do Individuals Transition from Regular Drug Use to Injection Drug Use in Uganda? Findings from a Rapid Assessment

Authors: Stanely Nsubuga

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Background In Uganda, injection drug use is a growing but less studied problem. Preventing the transition to injection drug use may help prevent blood-borne viral transmission, but little is known about when and how people transition to injection drug use. A greater understanding of this transition process may aid in the country’s efforts to prevent the continued growth of injection drug use, HIV, and hepatitis C Virus (HCV) infection among people who inject drugs (PWID). Methods Using a rapid situation assessment framework, we conducted semi-structured interviews among 125 PWID (102 males and 23 females)—recruited through outreach and snow-ball sampling. Participants were interviewed about their experiences on when and how they transitioned into injection drug use and these issues were also discussed in 12 focus groups held with the participants. Results All the study participants started their drug use career with non-injecting forms including chewing, smoking, and sniffing before transitioning to injecting. Transitioning was generally described as a peer-driven and socially learnt behavior. The participants’ social networks and accessibility to injectable drugs on the market and among close friends influenced the time lag between first regular drug use and first injecting—which took an average of 4.5 years. By the age of 24, at least 81.6% (95.7% for females and 78.4% for males) had transitioned into injecting. Over 84.8% shared injecting equipment during their first injection, 47.2% started injecting because a close friend was already injecting, 26.4% desired to achieve a greater “high” (26.4%) which could reflect drug-tolerance, and 12% out of curiosity.

Keywords: People who Use Drugs, transition, injection drug use, Uganda

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91 Negotiating Increased Food Production with African Indigenous Agricultural Knowledge: The Ugandan Case

Authors: Harriet Najjemba, Simon Peter Rutabajuuka, Deo Katono Nzarwa

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Scientific agricultural knowledge was introduced in Africa, including Uganda, during colonial rule. While this form of knowledge was introduced as part of Western scientific canon, African indigenous knowledge was not destroyed and has remained vital in food production. Modern scientific methods were devoted to export crops while food crop production was left to Africans who continued to use indigenous knowledge. Today, indigenous agricultural knowledge still provides farming skills and practices, more than a century since modern scientific agricultural knowledge was introduced in Uganda. It is evident that there is need to promote the still useful and more accessible indigenous agricultural practices in order to sustain increased food production. It is also important to have a tailor made agricultural knowledge system that combines practical indigenous practices with financially viable western scientific agricultural practices for sustained food production. The proposed paper will explain why the African indigenous agricultural knowledge has persisted and survived for over a century after colonial introduction of western scientific agricultural knowledge. The paper draws on research findings for a PhD study at Makerere University, Uganda. The study uses both written and oral sources, including colonial and postcolonial archival documents, and interviews. It critiques the parameters within which Western farming methods were introduced to African farmers.

Keywords: food production, food shortage, indigenous agricultural knowledge, western scientific agricultural practices

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90 Risk Mapping of Road Traffic Incidents in Greater Kampala Metropolitan Area for Planning of Emergency Medical Services

Authors: Joseph Kimuli Balikuddembe

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Road traffic incidents (RTIs) continue to be a serious public health and development burden around the globe. Compared to high-income countries (HICs), the low and middle-income countries (LMICs) bear the heaviest brunt of RTIs. Like other LMICs, Uganda, a country located in Eastern Africa, has been experiencing a worryingly high burden of RTIs and their associated impacts. Over the years, the highest number of all the total registered RTIs in Uganda has taken place in the Greater Kampala Metropolitan Area (GKMA). This places a tremendous demand on the few existing emergency medical services (EMS) to adequately respond to those affected. In this regard, the overall objective of the study was to risk map RTIs in the GKMA so as to help in the better planning of EMS for the victims of RTIs. Other objectives included: (i) identifying the factors affecting the exposure, vulnerability and EMS capacity for the victims of RTIs; (ii) identifying the RTI prone-areas and estimating their associated risk factors; (iii) identifying the weaknesses and capacities which affect the EMS systems for RTIs; and (iv) determining the strategies and priority actions that can help to improve the EMS response for RTI victims in the GKMA. To achieve these objectives, a mixed methodological approach was used in four phrases for approximately 15 months. It employed a systematic review based on the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-data analysis guidelines; a Delphi panel technique; retrospective data analysis; and a cross-sectional method. With Uganda progressing forward as envisaged in its 'Vision 2040', the GKMA, which is the country’s political and socioeconomic epicenter, is experiencing significant changes in terms of population growth, urbanization, infrastructure development, rapid motorization and other factors. Unless appropriate actions are taken, these changes are likely to worsen the already alarming rate of RTIs in Uganda, and in turn also to put pressure on the few existing EMS and facilities to render care for those affected. Therefore, road safety vis-à-vis injury prevention measures, which are needed to reduce the burden of RTIs, should be multifaceted in nature so that they closely correlate with the ongoing dynamics that contribute to RTIs, particularly in the GKMA and Uganda as a whole.

Keywords: emergency medical services, Kampala, risk mapping, road traffic incidents

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89 Exploring the Treatment of Unmarried Female Adolescents (10-19 Years) at Health Facilities during the Maternity Period in Uganda

Authors: Peninah Agaba, Monica Magadi, Bev Orton

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Uganda is one of the countries with high maternal mortality (336/100,000) where adolescents account for 24 percent of the total maternal deaths. Research shows that use of maternal health services may prevent some of these deaths and good provider attitudes attract adolescents to use the services. However, poor health provider’s attitudes discourage adolescents from seeking the services during the maternity period. This study explores the experiences of unmarried female adolescents at the health facilities during the maternity period. The study population is unmarried adolescent girls aged 10-19 years who were pregnant or had given birth within three years before the interview. This is a special interest group that requires attention throughout this period. Most of the pregnancies among unmarried adolescents are unwanted; as a result, many of them have been abused and neglected by parents and close family members including partners who deny fatherhood of the pregnancy/child. These adolescents hope to find comfort from health providers like being listened to during counseling, not abused and judged; unfortunately this is not the case always. The research was approved by the University of Hull, School of Education and Social Sciences ethics review committee, Mildmay Uganda Research Ethics Committee and Uganda National Council of Science and Technology. The study was carried out in Bushenyi and Kibale districts in Western Uganda. Fourteen in-depth interviews and seven focus group discussions were completed in the local languages and later transcribed to English language. Thematic analysis to identify the themes was done. Adolescents were aged 16-19 years, two had become pregnant before 15 years. Most had not completed secondary education; none had tertiary education and three of the 14 IDI adolescent participants wanted to get pregnant. Analysis shows varied experiences; most adolescents were abused verbally and physically by the health providers due to their young age of pregnancy, lack of essential items during this period (maternity dresses, children clothes, delivery kit) and fear of labour pains. Another cause for abuse was these adolescents coming for antenatal care with no partners yet the implementation of a policy on increasing male involvement in reproductive health in Uganda requires them to attend antenatal care with their partners and most of these unmarried adolescents have no partners to accompany them. Despite the above challenges, the study also identified the care some of these unmarried adolescents received during the maternity visits for example they were not abused, were provided with appropriate information and supported with child care. The study identified abuse and support the unmarried adolescents received during the maternity period. Efforts to provide adolescents with adequate information including what to expect during labour by providers and provision of basic needs are essential. Health providers should have trainings on client care especially how to embrace unmarried adolescents when they come to access maternity services. More so, the policy on improving male involvement in RH issues need to be considerate of unmarried adolescents who in most cases do not have the partners to go with to access maternity care.

Keywords: abuse, maternity care, Uganda, unmarried, adolescents

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88 Teenage Pregnancy: The Unmet Needs of Female Adolescents in Uganda

Authors: M. Weller Jones, J. Moffat, J. Taylor, J. Hartland, M. Natarajan

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Background: Uganda’s teenage pregnancy rate remains a significant problem for female and maternal health in the country. Teenage pregnancy is linked to higher rates of maternal and neonatal mortality and morbidity, including preterm labour, obstructed labour, vesicovaginal fistulae, infections, and maternal mental health morbidity. In 2015, the National Strategy to End Child Marriage and Teenage Pregnancy was launched in Uganda. Research is needed so that the interventions in this Strategy can be effectively applied at a local level. This study at Kitovu and Villa Maria Hospitals, two local community hospitals near Masaka, Uganda, aimed to measure change in the local teenage pregnancy rate over the past 5 years; and to explore the awareness and attitudes of teenagers and healthcare professionals towards 1) teenage pregnancy and, 2) the challenges female adolescents still currently face. Method: Teenage delivery rate, type of delivery, incidence of complications in labour and neonatal and maternal outcomes were collected from the labour ward admission books, at both hospitals, for a six month time period in 2011 and 2016. At Kitovu Hospital, qualitative data regarding the experience of, and attitudes towards teenage pregnancy was collected from interviews conducted with 12 maternity staff members and with eight female teenagers, aged 16-19, who were pregnant or post-partum. Results: The proportion of total births to teenage mothers fell from 14% in 2011 to 7% in 2016 (Kitovu), but it remains higher in rural locations (19%, Villa Maria). Beliefs about exacerbating factors included: poor access to contraception; misconceptions that contraception is damaging to women’s health; failing sex education in schools; and poor awareness of national campaigns to reduce teenage pregnancy. Staff felt that the best way to tackle teenage pregnancy was to improve sex education in schools and to sensitise families to these issues. Six of the eight teenagers wanted more frequent sex education and easier, cheap access to contraception. Only one teenager saw positive consequences stating that teenage pregnancy would ‘avoid operations later in life.’ Discussion: Teenage pregnancy is a recognised problem and strategies in the Masaka region should focus on improving sex education in schools and initiating an organisation that educates and supplies free contraception to teenagers.

Keywords: adolescents, attitudes, teenage pregnancy, Uganda

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87 Impact of Four Reading and Library Factors on the Grade Average of Ugandan Secondary School Students: A Quantitative Study

Authors: Valeda Dent

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This study explores reading and library factors related to secondary school student academic outcomes in rural areas in Uganda. This mixed methods study utilized quantitative data collected as part of a more extensive project to explore six student factors in relation to students’ school, library, and home environments. The Kitengesa Community Library in Uganda (www.kitengesalibrary.org) served as the site for this study. The factors explored for this study include reading frequency, library use frequency, library access, overall grade average (OGA), and presence and type of reading materials in the home. Results indicated that both reading frequency and certain types of reading materials read for recreational purposes are correlated with higher OGA. Reading frequency was positively correlated with student OGA for all students.

Keywords: rural village libraries, secondary school students, reading, academic achievement

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86 The Level of Adoption of IFRS by SMEs in Developing Countries: Case Study Uganda

Authors: Ssempijja Mark

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The adoption of the use of IFRSis very paramount in quality financial reporting for SMEs, both internationally and locally. The adoption of IFRS helps to guide SMEs in better treatment of transactions which in the long run improves the financial performance of an entity. Despite the presence of professional training and regulatory bodies such as ICPAU that prescribe and regulate accounting and financial reporting practices in relation to IFRS in the country, key information regarding the level of adoption of IFRS by SMEs in Uganda has inadequately been available. This formed the main purpose of the study in order to bridge the information gap. This study assessed the extent of adoption of IFRS by SMEs, the influencers for the adoption level, both impeders, and enablers. The study employed a documentary research model. The collected data was from different sources such as; related research studies, journals, and related articles. The written studies greatly revealed that there was a low level of adoption of IFRS by SMEs in Uganda. It was also revealed that full adoption of IFRS was greatly hampered by hindrances such as; quality of Accountants, low level of knowledge by the individuals in accounting positions for SMEs.Furthermore, there was a strong correlation between adoption and impedersof IFRS for SMEson the adoption level. It was also found that there was a correlation effect between adoption hindrances and the level of adoption. It should be noted and several efforts should be made in the different capacities of the major players so as to curb the impeders affecting the level of adoption of IFRS’s in SMEs. This can include recruitment of professional Accountants, Continuous Professional Trainings to the Accountants, and putting up stringent measures by the policy makers so as to ensure SMEs adhere to reporting in reference to IFRS. The adoption of IFRS by SMEs will help to improve on better accounting purposes which will attract more investors, accessing credit facilities from financial institutions, improved tax planning, and profitability maximization of SME businesses.

Keywords: adoption, IFRS, Influencers, SMEs

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85 Communities as a Source of Evidence: A Case of Advocating for Improved Human Resources for Health in Uganda

Authors: Asinguza P. Allan

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The Advocacy for Better Health aims to equip citizens with enabling environment and systems to effectively advocate for strong action plans to improve health services. This is because the 2020 Government target for Uganda to transform into a middle income country will be achieved if investment is made in keeping the population healthy and productive. Citizen participation as an important foundation for change has been emphasized to gather data through participatory rural appraisal and inform evidence-based advocacy for recruitment and motivation of human resources. Citizens conduct problem ranking during advocacy forums on staffing levels and health worker absenteeism. Citizens prioritised inadequate number of midwives and absenteeism. On triangulation, health worker to population ratio in Uganda remains at 0.25/1,000 which is far below the World Health Organization (WHO) threshold of 2.3/1,000. Working with IntraHealth, the project advocated for recruitment of critical skilled staff (doctors and midwives) and scale up health workers motivation strategy to reduce Uganda’s Neonatal Mortality Rate of 22/1,000 and Maternal Mortality Ratio of 320/100,000. Government has committed to increase staffing to 80% by 2018 (10 districts have passed ordinances and revived use of duty rosters to address health worker absenteeism. On the other hand, the better health advocacy debate has been elevated with need to increase health sector budget allocations from 8% to 10%. The project has learnt that building a body of evidence from citizens enhances the advocacy agenda. Communities will further monitor government commitments to reduce Neonatal Mortality Rate and Maternal Mortality Ratio. The project has learnt that interface meeting between duty bearers and the community allows for immediate feedback and the process is a strong instrument for empowerment. It facilitates monitoring and performance evaluation of services, projects and government administrative units (like district assemblies) by the community members themselves. This, in turn, makes the human resources in health to be accountable, transparent and responsive to communities where they work. This, in turn, promotes human resource performance.

Keywords: advocacy, empowerment, evidence, human resources

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84 The Good, the Bad and the Unknown: Exploring the Knowledge, Attitude and Behaviour towards the Use of Insecticide Treated Mosquito Nets among Pregnant Women and Children in Rural South-Western Uganda

Authors: Ivan M. Taremwa, Scholastic Ashaba, Harriet O. Adrama, Carlrona Ayebazibwe, Daniel Omoding, Imelda Kemeza, Jane Yatuha, Thadeus Turuho, Noni E. MacDonald, Robert Hilliard

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Background: The burden of malaria in Uganda remains unacceptably high, especially among children and pregnant women. To prevent malaria related complications, household possession and use of Insecticide Treated mosquito Nets (ITNs) has become a common practice in the country. Despite the availability of ITNs, the number of malaria cases has not gone down. We sought to explore knowledge, attitude, and behaviour towards the use of ITNs as a nightly malaria prevention strategy among pregnant women and children under five years of age in rural southwest Uganda. Materials and Methods: This was a community based, descriptive cross-sectional study, in which households with children under 5 years, and/or pregnant women were enrolled. We used a structured questionnaire to collect data on participants’ understanding of the causes, signs and symptoms of malaria; use of ITNs to prevent malaria; attitudes and behaviours towards the use of ITNs. We also conducted key informant interviews (KIIs) to get in-depth understanding of responses from the participants. We analysed quantitative data using STATA version 12. Qualitative findings from the KIIs were transcribed and translated, and manually analysed using thematic content analysis. Results: Of the 369 households enrolled, 98.6% (N=363) households had children under five. Most participants (41.2%, N=152) were in the 21-30 years of age category (mean age; 32.2). 98.6% (N=362) of the respondents considered ITNs a key malaria prevention strategy. The ITN possession rate was 84.0% (N=310), of these, 67.0% (N=205) consistently used them. 39% of the respondents did not have a positive attitude towards ITNs, as they considered more the perceived effects of ITNs. Conclusions: Although 84.0% of the respondents possessed ITNs, many were not consistently using them. There is need to engage all stakeholders (including cultural leaders, community health workers, religious leaders and the government) in the malaria prevention campaigns using ITNs through: a) government’s concerted effort to ensure universal access of good quality ITNs, b) end-user directed education to correct false beliefs and misinformation, c) telling the ITN success stories to improve on the usage.

Keywords: ITNs use, malaria, pregnant women, rural Uganda

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83 Malaria Outbreak Facilitated by Appearance of Vector-Breeding Sites after Heavy Rainfall and Inadequate Preventive Measures: Nwoya District, Uganda, March–May 2018

Authors: Godfrey Nsereko, Daniel Kadobera, Denis Okethwangu, Joyce Nguna, Alex Riolexus Ario

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Background: Malaria is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Uganda. In April 2018, malaria cases surged in Nwoya District, northern Uganda, exceeding the action thresholds. We investigated to assess the outbreak’s magnitude, identify transmission risk factors, and recommend evidence-based control measures. Methods: We defined a malaria case as onset of fever in a resident of Nwoya District with a positive Rapid Diagnostic Test or microscopy for malaria P. falciparum from 1 February to 22 May 2018. We reviewed medical records in all health facilities of affected sub-counties to find cases. In a case-control study, we compared exposure risk factors between 107 case-persons and 107 asymptomatic controls matched by age and village. We conducted entomological assessment on vector-density and behavior. Results: We identified 3,879 case-persons (attack rate [AR]=6.5%) and 2 deaths (case-fatality rate=5.2/10,000). Females (AR=8.1%) were more affected than males (AR=4.7%). Of all age groups, the 5-18 year age group (AR=8.4%) was most affected. Heavy rain started on 4 March; a propagated outbreak began during the week of 2 April. In the case-control study, 55% (59/107) of case-patients and 18% (19/107) of controls had stagnant water around households for several days following rainfall (ORM-H=5.6, 95%CI=3.0-11); 25% (27/107) of case-patients and 51% (55/107) of controls wore long-sleeve cloths during evening hours (ORM-H=0.30, 95%CI=0.20-0.60); 29% (31/107) of case-patients and 15% (16/107) of controls did not sleep under a long-lasting insecticide-treated net (LLIN) (ORM-H=2.3, 95%CI=1.1-4.9); 37% (40/107) of case-patients and 52% (56/107) of controls had ≥1 LLIN per 2 household members (ORM-H=0.54, 95%CI=0.30-0.97). Entomological assessment indicated active breeding sites; Anopheles gambiae sensu lato species were the predominant vector. Conclusion: Increased vector breeding sites after heavy rainfall, together with inadequate malaria preventive measures caused this outbreak. We recommended increasing coverage for LLINs and larviciding breeding sites.

Keywords: malaria outbreak, Plasmodium falciparum, global health security, Uganda

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82 Determinants of Long Acting Reversible Contraception Utilization among Women (15-49) in Uganda: Analysis of 2016 PMA2020 Uganda Survey

Authors: Nulu Nanono

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Background: The Ugandan national health policy and the national population policy all recognize the need to increase access to quality, affordable, acceptable and sustainable contraceptive services for all people but provision and utilization of quality services remains low. Two contraceptive methods are categorized as long-acting temporary methods: intrauterine contraceptive devices (IUCDs) and implants. Copper-containing IUCDs, generally available in Ministry of Health (MoH) family planning programs and is effective for at least 12 years while Implants, depending on the type, last for up to three to seven years. Uganda’s current policy and political environment are favorable towards achieving national access to quality and safe contraceptives for all people as evidenced by increasing government commitments and innovative family planning programs. Despite the increase of modern contraception use from 14% to 26%, long acting reversible contraceptive (LARC) utilization has relatively remained low with less than 5% using IUDs & Implants which in a way explains Uganda’s persistent high fertility rates. Main question/hypothesis: The purpose of the study was to examine relationship between the demographic, socio-economic characteristics of women, health facility factors and long acting reversible contraception utilization. Methodology: LARC utilization was investigated comprising of the two questions namely are you or your partner currently doing something or using any method to delay or avoid getting pregnant? And which method or methods are you using? Data for the study was sourced from the 2016 Uganda Performance Monitoring and Accountability 2020 Survey comprising of 3816 female respondents aged 15 to 49 years. The analysis was done using the Chi-squared tests and the probit regression at bivariate and multivariate levels respectively. The model was further tested for validity and normality of the residuals using the Sharipo wilks test and test for kurtosis and skewness. Results: The results showed the model the age, parity, marital status, region, knowledge of LARCs, availability of LARCs to be significantly associated with long acting contraceptive utilization with p value of less than 0.05. At the multivariate analysis level, women who had higher parities (0.000) tertiary education (0.013), no knowledge about LARCs (0.006) increases their probability of using LARCs. Furthermore while women age 45-49, those who live in the eastern region reduces their probability of using LARCs. Knowledge contribution: The findings of this study join the debate of prior research in this field and add to the body of knowledge related to long acting reversible contraception. An outstanding and queer finding from the study is the non-utilization of LARCs by women who are aware and have knowledge about them, this may be an opportunity for further research to investigate the attribution to this.

Keywords: contraception, long acting, utilization, women (15-49)

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81 Human Leukocyte Antigen Class 1 Phenotype Distribution and Analysis in Persons from Central Uganda with Active Tuberculosis and Latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection

Authors: Helen K. Buteme, Rebecca Axelsson-Robertson, Moses L. Joloba, Henry W. Boom, Gunilla Kallenius, Markus Maeurer

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Background: The Ugandan population is heavily affected by infectious diseases and Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) diversity plays a crucial role in the host-pathogen interaction and affects the rates of disease acquisition and outcome. The identification of HLA class 1 alleles and determining which alleles are associated with tuberculosis (TB) outcomes would help in screening individuals in TB endemic areas for susceptibility to TB and to predict resistance or progression to TB which would inevitably lead to better clinical management of TB. Aims: To be able to determine the HLA class 1 phenotype distribution in a Ugandan TB cohort and to establish the relationship between these phenotypes and active and latent TB. Methods: Blood samples were drawn from 32 HIV negative individuals with active TB and 45 HIV negative individuals with latent MTB infection. DNA was extracted from the blood samples and the DNA samples HLA typed by the polymerase chain reaction-sequence specific primer method. The allelic frequencies were determined by direct count. Results: HLA-A*02, A*01, A*74, A*30, B*15, B*58, C*07, C*03 and C*04 were the dominant phenotypes in this Ugandan cohort. There were differences in the distribution of HLA types between the individuals with active TB and the individuals with LTBI with only HLA-A*03 allele showing a statistically significant difference (p=0.0136). However, after FDR computation the corresponding q-value is above the expected proportion of false discoveries (q-value 0.2176). Key findings: We identified a number of HLA class I alleles in a population from Central Uganda which will enable us to carry out a functional characterization of CD8+ T-cell mediated immune responses to MTB. Our results also suggest that there may be a positive association between the HLA-A*03 allele and TB implying that individuals with the HLA-A*03 allele are at a higher risk of developing active TB.

Keywords: HLA, phenotype, tuberculosis, Uganda

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80 Understanding ICT Behaviors among Health Workers in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Cross-Sectional Study for Laboratory Persons in Uganda

Authors: M. Kasusse, M. Rosette, E. Burke, C. Mwangi, R. Batamwita, N. Tumwesigye, S. Aisu

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A cross-sectional survey to ascertain the capacity of laboratory persons in using ICTs was conducted in 15 Ugandan districts (July-August 2013). A self-administered questionnaire served as data collection tool, interview guide and observation checklist. 69 questionnaires were filled, 12 interviews conducted, 45 HC observed. SPSS statistics 17.0 and SAS 9.2 software were used for entry and analyses. 69.35% of participants find it difficult to access a computer at work. Of the 30.65% who find it easy to access a computer at work, a significant 21.05% spend 0 hours on a computer daily. 60% of the participants cannot access internet at work. Of the 40% who have internet at work, a significant 20% lack email address but 20% weekly read emails weekly and 48% daily. It is viable/feasible to pilot informatics projects as strategies to build bridges develop skills for e-health landscape in laboratory services with a bigger financial muscle.

Keywords: ICT behavior, clinical laboratory persons, Sub-Saharan Africa, Uganda

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79 An Overview of the Islamic Banking Development in the United Kingdom, Malaysia, Saudi Arabia, Iran, Nigeria, Kenya and Uganda

Authors: Pradeep Kulshrestha, Maulana Ayoub Ali

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The level of penetration of Islamic banking products and services has recorded a reasonable growth at an exponential rate in many parts of the world. There are many factors which have contributed to this growth including, but not limited to the rapid growth of number of Muslims who are uncomfortable with the conventional ways of banking, interest and higher interest rates scheduled by conventional banks and financial institutions as well as the financial inclusion campaign conducted in many countries. The system is facing legal challenges which open the research fdoor for practitioners and academicians for the sake of finding out solutions to those challenges. This paper tries to investigate the development of the Islamic banking system in the United Kingdom (UK), Saudi Arabia, Malaysia, Iran, Kenya, Nigeria and Uganda in order to understand the modalities which have been employed to run an Islamic banking system in the aforementioned countries. The methodology which has been employed in doing this research paper is Doctrinal, of which legislations, policies and other legal tools have been carefully studied and analysed. Again, papers from academic journals, books and financial reports have been deeply analysed for the purpose of enriching the paper and come up with a tangible results. The paper found that in Asia, Malaysia has created the smoothest legal platform for Islamic banking system to work properly in the country. The United Kingdom has tried harder to smooth the banking system without affecting the conventional banking methods and without favouring the operations of Islamic banks. It also tries harder to make UK as an Islamic banking and finance hub in Europe. The entire banking system in Iran is Islamic, while Nigeria has undergone several legal reforms to suit Islamic banking system in the country. Kenya and Uganda are at a different pace in making Islamic Banking system work alongside the conventional banking system.  

Keywords: shariah, Islamic banking, law, alternative banking

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78 The Opportunities and Challenges for Universities in Africa in Addressing Climate Change: A Qualitative Comparative Case Study of Makerere University, Uganda and University of Dar Es Salaam,Tanzania

Authors: David Ssekamate

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The study which is work in progress examines the opportunities and challenges for universities in Africa in addressing climate change issues in their programmes. Specifically, the study attempts to examine the current academic, research and community engagement programmes on climate change implemented by the Universities; the key challenges faced by the implementing units in carrying out these programmes and; the success factors that would support universities to adequately address climate change issues in their programmes. The researcher adopted a qualitative comparative case study design with Makerere University (Uganda) and University of Dar es Salaam (Tanzania) as comparative cases. Data will be collected using semi-structured in-depth interviews, Focus Group Discussions (FDGs) and Document review. A total of 12 semi-structured in-depth interviews and 4 Focus Group Discussions will be undertaken, collecting data from 36 respondents in both Uganda and Tanzania. The data will be analyzed using content and thematic analysis methods with the help of Nvivo software. The findings are envisaged to make a significant contribution to scholarly literature on climate change education and the role of higher education in addressing climate change issues, inform policy making in the sector and development planning to strengthen the academic, research and community engagement programmes on climate change by universities in Africa. The implications of the findings may go beyond the focus on climate change but also other related sustainable development issues incorporated in academic and research programmes of universities in Africa. The results may enable universities to re-think their approaches and practices and also deal with challenges effectively in addressing climate change related issues in their programmes.

Keywords: climate change, climate change education, African universities, challenges

Procedia PDF Downloads 145