Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 264

Search results for: plain socks

264 An Approach for Thermal Resistance Prediction of Plain Socks in Wet State

Authors: Tariq Mansoor, Lubos Hes, Vladimir Bajzik


Socks comfort has great significance in our daily life. This significance even increased when we have undergone a work of low or high activity. It causes the sweating of our body with different rates. In this study, plain socks with differential fibre composition were wetted to saturated level. Then after successive intervals of conditioning, these socks are characterized by thermal resistance in dry and wet states. Theoretical thermal resistance is predicted by using combined filling coefficients and thermal conductivity of wet polymers instead of dry polymer (fibre) in different models. By this modification, different mathematical models could predict thermal resistance at different moisture levels. Furthermore, predicted thermal resistance by different models has reasonable correlation range between (0.84 -0.98) with experimental results in both dry (lab conditions moisture) and wet states. "This work is supported by Technical University of Liberec under SGC-2019. Project number is 21314".

Keywords: thermal resistance, mathematical model, plain socks, moisture loss rate

Procedia PDF Downloads 63
263 Performance Analysis of Compression Socks Strips

Authors: Hafiz Faisal Siddique, Adnan Ahmed Mazari, Antonin Havelka


Compression socks are highly recommended textile garment for pressure exertion on the lower part of leg. The extent of compression that a patient can easily manage depends on stage (limb size and shape) of venous disease and his activities (mobility, age). Due to dynamic mechanical influence, the socks destroy their extent of pressure exertion around the leg. The main aim of this research is to investigate how the performance of compression socks is deteriorated due to expected induced wearing mechanical impacts. Wearing mechanical impacts influence the durability parameter i.e. tensile energy loss. For tensile energy loss, cut-strip samples were interacted to constant rate of loading and un-loading, cyclic-loading upto 15th cycles for ±5mm extension (considering muscles expansion and relaxation) and were dwelled (stayed) for 3 minutes at 25%, 50% and 75% extension levels, simultaneously. Statistical validation of tensile energy loss was performed by introducing measures of correlation, p-value (≤ 0.05), R-square values using MINITAB 17 software.

Keywords: compression socks, loading and unloading, 15th cyclic loading, Dwell time effect

Procedia PDF Downloads 80
262 Effects of Wearable Garments on Postural Regulation in Community-Dwelling Elderly Adults

Authors: Mei Teng Woo, Keith Davids, Jarmo Liukkonen, Jia Yi Chow, Timo Jaakkola


Wearable garments such as tapes, compression garments, and braces could improve proprioception and reduced postural sway. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of wearable garments on postural regulation in a sample of community-dwelling elderly individuals, aged 65 years. It was hypothesized that wearable garments such as socks would provide stimulation to lower leg mechanoreceptors, and help participants achieve better postural regulation. Participants (N=63) performed a 30-s Romberg balance test protocol under four conditions (barefoot; wearing commercial socks; wearing clinical compression socks; wearing non-clinical compression socks), in a counterbalanced order, with four levels of performance difficulty: (1) standing on a stable surface with open eyes (SO); (2) a stable surface with closed eyes (SC); (3) a foam surface with open eyes (FO); and (4) a foam surface with closed eyes (FC). Centre of pressure (CoP) measurements included postural sway area (C90 area), trace length (TL) and sway velocity. Thirty-five participants (55.6%) showed positive effects of wearing the socks (responded group). In the responded group, it was revealed that socks showed significant differences in SO, SC and FO conditions for the two CoP measurements - TL and sway velocity (p < 0.05). In contrast, in the non-responded group, barefoot condition significantly decreased the TL and velocity in the SO condition. From the positive effects observed in the responded group, it is possible that wearable garments provide sensory cues that could interact with a biological cueing system to enhance performance in the postural regulation system. This study suggests that individuals respond to the socks treatments differently and future research should be undertaken to examine the factors that benefited the responded group of participants.

Keywords: community-dwelling, elderly adults, postural regulation, wearable garments

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261 The Effect of Jet Stream on Global Climate Change with Special Reference to Sistan Plain, a Case Study

Authors: Hamidoddin Yousefi, Ahmad Ali Nikbakht


The Sistan Plain has a characteristic climate, mostly dry and characterized by severe steady winds for 120 days of the year. In the Sistan plain, drought problems have been exacerbated by wind erosion, temperature fluctuations, and Afghan and Iranian neighbor policies. In this study, we examine some aspects regarding the study of jet streams in the Sistan plain and their effects on global climate change that are consistent across different models to study convective mass fluxes, horizontal moisture transport, temporal variance, and Calculation of the radiation convective equilibrium in the atmosphere with a given distribution of relative humidity, dry air, and absolute humidity. Prediction of the relation between jet streams and human activities regarding environmental impacts and water scarcity are also a concern to this research. This field involves the study of both local and global environmental impacts, based on the history of climate change and my investigation and research. This research will no doubt have an important impact on reducing global climate change and environmental impact.

Keywords: global change, radiator, jet stream, sistan plain

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260 Fire Effects on Soil Properties of Meshchera Plain, Russia

Authors: Anna Tsibart, Timur Koshovskii


The properties of soils affected by the wildfires of 2002, 2010, and 2012 in Meshchera plain (Moscow region, Russia) were considered in a current research. The formation of ash horizons instead of organic peat horizons was detected both in histosols and histic podzols. The increase of pH and magnetic susceptibility was observed in soil profiles. Significant burning out of organic matter was observed, but already two years after the fire the new stage of organic matter accumulation started.

Keywords: wildfires, peat soils, organic matter, Meshchera plain

Procedia PDF Downloads 579
259 Estimation of Maize Yield by Using a Process-Based Model and Remote Sensing Data in the Northeast China Plain

Authors: Jia Zhang, Fengmei Yao, Yanjing Tan


The accurate estimation of crop yield is of great importance for the food security. In this study, a process-based mechanism model was modified to estimate yield of C4 crop by modifying the carbon metabolic pathway in the photosynthesis sub-module of the RS-P-YEC (Remote-Sensing-Photosynthesis-Yield estimation for Crops) model. The yield was calculated by multiplying net primary productivity (NPP) and the harvest index (HI) derived from the ratio of grain to stalk yield. The modified RS-P-YEC model was used to simulate maize yield in the Northeast China Plain during the period 2002-2011. The statistical data of maize yield from study area was used to validate the simulated results at county-level. The results showed that the Pearson correlation coefficient (R) was 0.827 (P < 0.01) between the simulated yield and the statistical data, and the root mean square error (RMSE) was 712 kg/ha with a relative error (RE) of 9.3%. From 2002-2011, the yield of maize planting zone in the Northeast China Plain was increasing with smaller coefficient of variation (CV). The spatial pattern of simulated maize yield was consistent with the actual distribution in the Northeast China Plain, with an increasing trend from the northeast to the southwest. Hence the results demonstrated that the modified process-based model coupled with remote sensing data was suitable for yield prediction of maize in the Northeast China Plain at the spatial scale.

Keywords: process-based model, C4 crop, maize yield, remote sensing, Northeast China Plain

Procedia PDF Downloads 275
258 Plantar Neuro-Receptor Activation in Total Knee Arthroplasty Patients: Impact on Clinical Function, Pain, and Stiffness - A Randomized Controlled Trial

Authors: Woolfrey K., Woolfrey M., Bolton C. L., Warchuk D.


Objectives: Osteoarthritis is the most common joint disease of adults worldwide. Despite total knee arthroplasty (TKA) demonstrating high levels of success, 20% of patients report dissatisfaction with their result. VOXX Wellness Stasis Socks are embedded with a proprietary pattern of neuro-receptor activation points that have been proven to activate a precise neuro-response, according to the pattern theory of haptic perception, which stimulates improvements in pain and function. The use of this technology in TKA patients may prove beneficial as an adjunct to recovery as many patients suffer from deficits to their proprioceptive system caused by ligamentous damage and alterations to mechanoreceptors during the procedure. We hypothesized that VOXX Wellness Stasis Socks are a safe, cost-effective, and easily scalable strategy to support TKA patients through their recovery. Design: Double-blinded, placebo-controlled randomized trial. Participants: Patients scheduled to receive TKA were considered eligible for inclusion in the trial. Interventions: Intervention group (I): VOXX Wellness Stasis socks containing receptor point-activation technology. Control group (C): VOXX Wellness Stasis socks without receptor point-activation technology. Sock use during the waking hours x 6 weeks. Main Outcome Measures: Western Ontario McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) questionnaire completed at baseline, 2 weeks, and 6 weeks to assess pain, stiffness, and physical function. Results: Data analysis using SPSS software. P-values, effect sizes, and confidence intervals are reported to assess clinical relevance of the finding. Physical status classifications were compared using t-test. Within-subject and between-subject differences in the mean WOMAC were analyzed by ANOVA. Effect size was analyzed using Cramer’s V. Consistent improvement in WOMAC scores for pain and stiffness at 2 weeks post op in the I over the C group. The womac scores assessing physical function showed a consistent improvement at both 2 and 6 weeks post op in the I group compared to C group. Conclusions: VOXX proved to be a low cost, safe intervention in TKA to help patients improve with regard to pain, stiffness, and physical function. Disclosures: None

Keywords: osteoarthritis, RCT, pain management, total knee arthroplasty

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257 Modeling of Sand Boil near the Danube River

Authors: Edina Koch, Károly Gombás, Márton Maller


The Little Plain is located along the Danube river, and this area is a “hotbed” of sand boil formation. This is due to the combination of a 100-250 m thick gravel layer beneath the Little Plain with a relatively thin blanket of poor soil spreading the gravel with variable thickness. Sand boils have a tradition and history in this area. It was possible to know which sand boil started and stopped working at what water level, and some of them even have names. The authors present a 2D finite element model of groundwater flow through a selected cross-section of the Danube river, which observed activation of piping phenomena during the 2013 flood event. Soil parametrization is based on a complex site investigation program conducted along the Danube River in the Little Plain.

Keywords: site characterization, groundwater flow, numerical modeling, sand boil

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256 Groundwater Quality in the Rhiss-Nekor Plain, Morocco: Impacts of Human Activities

Authors: Ali Ait Boughrous, Said Benyoussef, Hossain El Ouarghi, Moulay Abdelazize Aboulhassan, Samah Aitbnichou, Said Benguamra


The Rhiss-Nekor aquifer represents a primary water source for the central Rif region. Many operating structures were built for irrigation and drinking water supply. Because of the vulnerability of this aquifer, a thorough knowledge of the environment is needed to evaluate and protect resources. This work aims at the quality assessment of the water table of the plain Ghiss-Nekor and determination of pollution sources in order to establish a map of the web. The plain-Rhiss Nekor, with an area of 100 km2, is located on the Mediterranean coast of Morocco. It has a particular geological structure resulting from the opening of a graben at the end of the Tertiary, which is filled by the accumulation of hundreds of meters of sediment, generating considerable heterogeneity in deposits. This heterogeneity gives various hydrodynamic properties within the aquifer of the plain. The analysis of the water quality of twenty water points, well distributed over the plain, showed high natural salinity linked to the geological nature of the area. This salinity increases in the littoral area by the seawater intrusion phenomenon. This is accentuated by overexploitation of the ground water due to the growing demand. Some wells, located inland, are characterized by organic pollution caused by wastewater seepage from septic tanks and lost wells widespread in the region.

Keywords: anthropogenic factors, groundwater quality, marine intrusion, Rhiss-Nekor aquifer

Procedia PDF Downloads 60
255 Impacts Of Salinity on Co2 Turnover in Some Gefara Soils of Libya

Authors: Fathi Elyaagubi


Salinization is a major threat to the productivity of agricultural land. The Gefara Plain located in the northwest of Libya; comprises about 80% of the total agricultural activity. The high water requirements for the populations and agriculture are depleting the groundwater aquifer, resulting in intrusion of seawater in the first few kilometers along the coast. Due to increasing salinity in the groundwater used for irrigation, the soils of the Gefara Plain are becoming increasingly saline. This research paper investigated the sensitivity of these soils to increased salinity using Co2 evolution as an integrating measure of soil function. Soil was collected from four sites located in the Gefara Plain, Almaya, Janzur, Gargaresh and Tajura. Soil collected from Tajura had the highest background salinity, and Janzur had the highest organic matter content. All of the soils had relatively low organic matter content, ranging between 0.49-%1.25. The cumulative rate of 14CO2 of added 14C-labelled Lolium shoots (Lolium perenne L.) to soils was decreased under effects of water containing different concentrations of NaCl at 20, 50, 70, 90, 150, and 200 mM compared to the control at any time of incubation in four sites.

Keywords: soil salinity, gefara plain, organic matter, 14C-labelled lolium shoots

Procedia PDF Downloads 157
254 Evaluation of Ecological Resilience in Mountain-plain Transition Zones: A Case Study of Dujiangyan City, Chengdu

Authors: Zhu Zhizheng, Huang Yong, Li Tong


In the context of land and space development and resource environmental protection. Due to its special geographical location, mountain-plain transition zones are limited by many factors such as topography, mountain forest protection, etc., and their ecology is also more sensitive, with the characteristics of disaster susceptibility and resource gradient. Taking Dujiangyan City, Chengdu as an example, this paper establishes resilience evaluation indicators on the basis of ecological suitability evaluation through the analysis of current situation data and relevant policies: water conservation evaluation, soil and water conservation evaluation, biodiversity evaluation, soil erosion sensitivity evaluation, etc. Based on GIS spatial analysis, the ecological suitability and resilience evaluation results of Dujiangyan city were obtained by disjunction operation. The ecological resilience level of Dujiangyan city was divided into three categories: high, medium and low, with an area ratio of 50.81%, 16.4% and 32.79%, respectively. This paper can provide ideas for solving the contradiction between man and land in the mountain-plain transition zones, and also provide a certain basis for the construction of regional ecological protection and the delineation of three zones and three lines.

Keywords: urban and rural planning, ecological resilience, dujiangyan city, mountain-plain transition zones

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253 The Effect of the Pronunciation of Emphatic Sounds on Perceived Masculinity/Femininity

Authors: M. Sayyour, M. Abdulkareem, O. Osman, S. Salmeh


Emphatic sounds in Arabic are /tˤ/, /sˤ/, /dˤ/, and /ðˤ/. They involve a secondary articulation in the pharynx area as opposed to their counterparts: /t/,/s/,/d/and /ð/. Although they are present in most Arabic dialects, some dialects have lost this class as a historical development, such as Maltese Arabic. It has been found that there is a difference in the pronunciation of these emphatic sounds between the two genders, arguing that males tend to produce more evident emphasis than females. This study builds on these studies by trying to investigate whether listeners perceive fully emphatic sounds as more masculine and less emphatic sounds as more feminine. Furthermore, the study aims to find out which is more important in this perception process: the emphatic consonant itself or the vowel following it. To test this, natural and manipulated tokens of two male and two female speakers were used. The natural tokens include words that have emphatic consonant and emphatic vowel and tokens that have plain consonant and plain vowel. The manipulated tokens include words that have emphatic consonant but central vowel and plain consonant followed by the same central vowel. These manipulated tokens allow us to see whether the consonant will still affect the perception even if the vowel is controlled. Another group of words that contained no emphatic sounds was used as a control group. The total number of tokens (natural, manipulated, and control) are 160 tokens. After that, 60 university students (30 males and 30 females) listened to these tokens and responded by choosing a specific character that they think is likely to produce each token. The characters’ descriptions are carefully written with two degrees of femininity and two degrees of masculinity. The preliminary results for the femininity level showed that the highest degree of femininity was for tokens that contain a plain consonant and a plain vowel. The lowest level of femininity was given for tokens that have fully emphatic consonant and vowel. For the manipulated tokens that contained plain consonant and central vowel, the femininity degree was high which indicates that the consonant is more important than the vowel, while for the manipulated tokens that contain emphatic consonant and a central vowel, the femininity level was higher than that for the tokens that have emphatic consonant and emphatic vowel, which indicates that the vowel is more important for the perception of emphatic consonants. These results are interpreted in light of feminist linguistic theories, linguistic expectations, performed gender and linguistic change theories.

Keywords: Emphatic sounds, gender studies, perception, sociophonetics

Procedia PDF Downloads 299
252 Evaluation of Satellite and Radar Rainfall Product over Seyhan Plain

Authors: Kazım Kaba, Erdem Erdi, M. Akif Erdoğan, H. Mustafa Kandırmaz


Rainfall is crucial data source for very different discipline such as agriculture, hydrology and climate. Therefore rain rate should be known well both spatial and temporal for any area. Rainfall is measured by using rain-gauge at meteorological ground stations traditionally for many years. At the present time, rainfall products are acquired from radar and satellite images with a temporal and spatial continuity. In this study, we investigated the accuracy of these rainfall data according to rain-gauge data. For this purpose, we used Adana-Hatay radar hourly total precipitation product (RN1) and Meteosat convective rainfall rate (CRR) product over Seyhan plain. We calculated daily rainfall values from RN1 and CRR hourly precipitation products. We used the data of rainy days of four stations located within range of the radar from October 2013 to November 2015. In the study, we examined two rainfall data over Seyhan plain and the correlation between the rain-gauge data and two raster rainfall data was observed lowly.

Keywords: meteosat, radar, rainfall, rain-gauge, Turkey

Procedia PDF Downloads 240
251 Effect of Fiber Types and Elevated Temperatures on the Bond Characteristic of Fiber Reinforced Concretes

Authors: Erdoğan Özbay, Hakan T. Türker, Müzeyyen Balçıkanlı, Mohamed Lachemi


In this paper, the effects of fiber types and elevated temperatures on compressive strength, modulus of rapture and the bond characteristics of fiber reinforced concretes (FRC) are presented. By using the three different types of fibers (steel fiber-SF, polypropylene-PPF and polyvinyl alcohol-PVA), FRC specimens were produced and exposed to elevated temperatures up to 800 ºC for 1.5 hours. In addition, a plain concrete (without fiber) was produced and used as a control. Test results obtained showed that the steel fiber reinforced concrete (SFRC) had the highest compressive strength, modulus of rapture and bond stress values at room temperatures, the residual bond, flexural and compressive strengths of both FRC and plain concrete dropped sharply after exposure to high temperatures. The results also indicated that the reduction of bond, flexural and compressive strengths with increasing the exposed temperature was relatively less for SFRC than for plain, and FRC with PPF and PVA.

Keywords: bond stress, compressive strength, elevated temperatures, fiber reinforced concrete, modulus of rapture

Procedia PDF Downloads 335
250 Strength and Permeability Characteristics of Fiber Reinforced Concrete

Authors: Amrit Pal Singh Arora


The paper reports the results of a study undertaken to study the effects of addition of steel fibres of different aspect ratios on the permeability and strength characteristics of steel fiber reinforced fly ash concrete (SFRC). Corrugated steel fibres having a diameter of 0.6 mm and lengths of 12.5 mm, 30 mm and 50 mm were used in this study. Cube samples of 100 mm x 100 mm x 100 mm were cast from mixes replacing 0%, 10%, 20% and 30% cement content by fly ash with and without fibres and tested for the determination of coefficient of water permeability, compressive and split tensile strengths after 7 and 28 days of curing. Plain concrete samples were also cast and tested for reference purposes. Permeability was observed to decrease significantly for all concrete mixes with the addition of steel fibers as compared to plain concrete. The replacement of cement content by fly ash results in an increase in the coefficient of water permeability. With the addition of fly ash to the plain mix the7 day compressive and split tensile strengths decreased, however both the compressive and split tensile strengths increased with increase in curing age.

Keywords: curing age, fiber shape, fly ash, Darcy’s law, Ppermeability

Procedia PDF Downloads 235
249 Impact of Agriculture on the Groundwater Quality: Case of the Alluvial Plain of Nil River (North-Eastern Algerian)

Authors: S. Benessam, T. H. Debieche, A. Drouiche, F. Zahi, S. Mahdid


The intensive use of the chemical fertilizers and the pesticides in agriculture often produces a contamination of the groundwater by organic pollutants. The irrigation and/or rainwater transport the pollutants towards groundwater or water surface. Among these pollutants, one finds the nitrogen, often observed in the agricultural zones in the nitrate form. In order to understand the form and chemical mobility of nitrogen in groundwater, this study was conducted. A two-monthly monitoring of the parameters physicochemical and chemistry of water of the alluvial plain of Nil river (North-eastern Algerian) were carried out during the period from November 2013 to January 2015 as well as an in-situ investigation of the various chemical products used by the farmers. The results show a raise concentration of nitrates in the wells (depth < 20 m) of the plain, which the concentrations arrive at 50 mg/L (standard of potable water). On the other hand in drillings (depth > 20 m), one observes two behaviors. The first in the upstream part, where the aquifer is unconfined and the medium is oxidizing, one observes the weak nitrate concentrations, indicating its absorption by the ground during the infiltration of water towards the groundwater. The second in the central and downstream parts, where the groundwater is locally confined and the reducing medium, one observes an absence of nitrates and the appearance of nitrites and ammonium, indicating the reduction of nitrates. The projection of the analyses on diagrams Eh-pH of nitrogen has enabled to us to determine the intervals of variation of the nitrogen forms. This study also highlighted the effect of the rains, the pumping and the nature of the geological formations in the form and the mobility of nitrogen in the plain.

Keywords: groundwater, nitrogen, mobility, speciation

Procedia PDF Downloads 181
248 Symmetric Key Encryption Algorithm Using Indian Traditional Musical Scale for Information Security

Authors: Aishwarya Talapuru, Sri Silpa Padmanabhuni, B. Jyoshna


Cryptography helps in preventing threats to information security by providing various algorithms. This study introduces a new symmetric key encryption algorithm for information security which is linked with the "raagas" which means Indian traditional scale and pattern of music notes. This algorithm takes the plain text as input and starts its encryption process. The algorithm then randomly selects a raaga from the list of raagas that is assumed to be present with both sender and the receiver. The plain text is associated with the thus selected raaga and an intermediate cipher-text is formed as the algorithm converts the plain text characters into other characters, depending upon the rules of the algorithm. This intermediate code or cipher text is arranged in various patterns in three different rounds of encryption performed. The total number of rounds in the algorithm is equal to the multiples of 3. To be more specific, the outcome or output of the sequence of first three rounds is again passed as the input to this sequence of rounds recursively, till the total number of rounds of encryption is performed. The raaga selected by the algorithm and the number of rounds performed will be specified at an arbitrary location in the key, in addition to important information regarding the rounds of encryption, embedded in the key which is known by the sender and interpreted only by the receiver, thereby making the algorithm hack proof. The key can be constructed of any number of bits without any restriction to the size. A software application is also developed to demonstrate this process of encryption, which dynamically takes the plain text as input and readily generates the cipher text as output. Therefore, this algorithm stands as one of the strongest tools for information security.

Keywords: cipher text, cryptography, plaintext, raaga

Procedia PDF Downloads 220
247 The Impact of Surface Roughness and PTFE/TiF3/FeF3 Additives in Plain ZDDP Oil on the Friction and Wear Behavior Using Thermal and Tribological Analysis under Extreme Pressure Condition

Authors: Gabi N. Nehme, Saeed Ghalambor


The use of titanium fluoride and iron fluoride (TiF3/FeF3) catalysts in combination with polutetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) in plain zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDDP) oil is important for the study of engine tribocomponents and is increasingly a strategy to improve the formation of tribofilm and to provide low friction and excellent wear protection in reduced phosphorus plain ZDDP oil. The influence of surface roughness and the concentration of TiF3/FeF3/PTFE were investigated using bearing steel samples dipped in lubricant solution @100°C for two different heating time durations. This paper addresses the effects of water drop contact angle using different surface finishes after treating them with different lubricant combination. The calculated water drop contact angles were analyzed using Design of Experiment software (DOE) and it was determined that a 0.05 μm Ra surface roughness would provide an excellent TiF3/FeF3/PTFE coating for antiwear resistance as reflected in the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images and the tribological testing under extreme pressure conditions. Both friction and wear performance depend greatly on the PTFE/and catalysts in plain ZDDP oil with 0.05% phosphorous and on the surface finish of bearing steel. The friction and wear reducing effects, which was observed in the tribological tests, indicated a better micro lubrication effect of the 0.05 μm Ra surface roughness treated at 100°C for 24 hours when compared to the 0.1 μm Ra surface roughness with the same treatment.

Keywords: scanning electron microscopy, ZDDP, catalysts, PTFE, friction, wear

Procedia PDF Downloads 277
246 Mean and Volatility Spillover between US Stocks Market and Crude Oil Markets

Authors: Kamel Malik Bensafta, Gervasio Bensafta


The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between oil prices and socks markets. The empirical analysis in this paper is conducted within the context of Multivariate GARCH models, using a transform version of the so-called BEKK parameterization. We show that mean and uncertainty of US market are transmitted to oil market and European market. We also identify an important transmission from WTI prices to Brent Prices.

Keywords: oil volatility, stock markets, MGARCH, transmission, structural break

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245 Controlled Size Synthesis of ZnO and PEG-ZnO NPs and Their Biological Evaluation

Authors: Mahnoor Khan, Bashir Ahmad, Khizar Hayat, Saad Ahmad Khan, Laiba Ahmad, Shumaila Bashir, Abid Ali Khan


The objective of this study was to synthesize the smallest possible size of ZnO NPs using a modified wet chemical synthesis method and to prepare core shell using polyethylene glycol (PEG) as shell material. Advanced and sophisticated techniques were used to confirm the synthesis, size, and shape of these NPs. Rounded, clustered NPs of size 5.343 nm were formed. Both the plain and core shell NPs were tested against MDR bacteria (E. cloacae, E. amnigenus, Shigella, S. odorifacae, Citrobacter, and E. coli). Both of the NPs showed excellent antibacterial properties, whereas E. cloacae showed maximum zone of inhibition of 16 mm, 27 mm, and 32 mm for 500 μg/ml, 1000 μg/ml, and 1500 μg/ml, respectively for plain ZnO NPs and 18 mm, 28 mm and 35 mm for 500 μg/ml, 1000 μg/ml and 1500 μg/ml for core shell NPs. These NPs were also biocompatible on human red blood cells showing little hemolysis of only 4% for 70 μg/ml for plain NPs and 1.5% for 70 μg/ml for core shell NPs. Core shell NPs were highly biocompatible because of the PEG. Their therapeutic effect as photosensitizers in photodynamic therapy (PDT) for cancer treatment was also monitored. The cytotoxicity of ZnO and PEG-ZnO was evaluated using MTT assay. Our results demonstrated that these NPs could generate ROS inside tumor cells after irradiation which in turn initiates an apoptotic pathway leading to cell death hence proving to be an effective candidate for PDT.

Keywords: ZnO, hemolysis, cytotoxiciy assay, photodynamic therapy, antibacterial

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244 Crude Oil and Stocks Markets: Prices and Uncertainty Transmission Analysis

Authors: Kamel Malik Bensafta, Gervasio Semedo


The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between oil prices and socks markets. The empirical analysis in this paper is conducted within the context of Multivariate GARCH models, using a transform version of the so-called BEKK parameterization. We show that mean and uncertainty of US market are transmitted to oil market and European market. We also identify an important transmission from WTI prices to Brent Prices.

Keywords: oil volatility, stock markets, MGARCH, transmission, structural break

Procedia PDF Downloads 437
243 Seasonal Variability of Aerosol Optical Properties and Their Radiative Effects over Indo-Gangetic Plain in India

Authors: Kanika Taneja, V. K. Soni, S. D. Attri, Kafeel Ahmad, Shamshad Ahmad


Aerosols represent an important component of earth-atmosphere system and have a profound impact on the global and regional climate. With the growing population and urbanization, the aerosol load in the atmosphere over the Indian region is found to be increasing. Several studies have reported that the aerosol optical depth over the northern part of India is higher as compared to the southern part. The northern India along the Indo-Gangetic plain is often influenced with dust transported from the Thar Desert in northwestern India and from Arabian Peninsula during the pre-monsoon season. Seasonal variations in aerosol optical and radiative properties were examined using data retrieved from ground based multi-wavelength Prede Sun/sky radiometer (POM-02) over Delhi, Rohtak, Jodhpur and Varanasi for the period April 2011-April 2013. These stations are part of the Skynet-India network of India Meteorological Department. The Sun/sky radiometer (POM-02) has advantage over other instruments that it can be calibrated on-site. These aerosol optical properties retrieved from skyradiometer observations are further used to analyze the Direct Aerosol Radiative Forcing (DARF) over the study locations.

Keywords: aerosol optical properties, indo- gangetic plain, radiative forcing, sky radiometer

Procedia PDF Downloads 388
242 Phosphorus Reduction in Plain and Fully Formulated Oils Using Fluorinated Additives

Authors: Gabi N. Nehme


The reduction of phosphorus and sulfur in engine oil are the main topics of this paper. Very reproducible boundary lubrication tests were conducted as part of Design of Experiment software (DOE) to study the behavior of fluorinated catalyst iron fluoride (FeF3), and polutetrafluoroethylene or Teflon (PTFE) in developing environmentally friendly (reduced P and S) anti-wear additives for future engine oil formulations. Multi-component Chevron fully formulated oil (GF3) and Chevron plain oil were used with the addition of PTFE and catalyst to characterize and analyze their performance. Lower phosphorus blends were the goal of the model solution. Experiments indicated that new sub-micron FeF3 catalyst played an important role in preventing breakdown of the tribofilm.

Keywords: wear, SEM, EDS, friction, lubricants

Procedia PDF Downloads 215
241 Reformulation of Theory of Critical Distances to Predict the Strength of Notched Plain Concrete Beams under Quasi Static Loading

Authors: Radhika V, J M Chandra Kishen


The theory of critical distances (TCD), due to its appealing characteristics, has been successfully used in the past to predict the strength of brittle as well as ductile materials, weakened by the presence of stress risers under both static and fatigue loading. By utilising most of the TCD's unique features, this paper summarises an attempt for a reformulation of the point method of the TCD to predict the strength of notched plain concrete beams under mode I quasi-static loading. A zone of micro cracks, which is responsible for the non-linearity of concrete, is taken into account considering the concept of an effective elastic crack. An attempt is also made to correlate the value of the material characteristic length required for the application of TCD with the maximum aggregate size in the concrete mix, eliminating the need for any extensive experimentation prior to the application of TCD. The devised reformulation and the proposed power law based relationship is found to yield satisfactory predictions for static strength of notched plain concrete beams, with geometric dimensions of the beam, tensile strength, and maximum aggregate size of the concrete mix being the only needed input parameters.

Keywords: characteristic length, effective elastic crack, inherent material strength, modeI loading, theory of critical distances

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240 An EBSD Investigation of Ti-6Al-4Nb Alloy Processed by Plan Strain Compression Test

Authors: Anna Jastrzebska, K. S. Suresh, T. Kitashima, Y. Yamabe-Mitarai, Z. Pakiela


Near α titanium alloys are important materials for aerospace applications, especially in high temperature applications such as jet engine. Mechanical properties of Ti alloys strongly depends on their processing route, then it is very important to understand micro-structure change by different processing. In our previous study, Nb was found to improve oxidation resistance of Ti alloys. In this study, micro-structure evolution of Ti-6Al-4Nb (wt %) alloy was investigated after plain strain compression test in hot working temperatures in the α and β phase region. High-resolution EBSD was successfully used for precise phase and texture characterization of this alloy. 1.1 kg of Ti-6Al-4Nb ingot was prepared using cold crucible levitation melting. The ingot was subsequently homogenized in 1050 deg.C for 1h followed by cooling in the air. Plate like specimens measuring 10×20×50 mm3 were cut from an ingot by electrical discharge machining (EDM). The plain strain compression test using an anvil with 10 x 35 mm in size was performed with 3 different strain rates: 0.1s-1, 1s-1and 10s-1 in 700 deg.C and 1050 deg.C to obtain 75% of deformation. The micro-structure was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) detector. The α/β phase ratio and phase morphology as well as the crystallographic texture, subgrain size, misorientation angles and misorientation gradients corresponding to each phase were determined over the middle and the edge of sample areas. The deformation mechanism in each working temperature was discussed. The evolution of texture changes with strain rate was investigated. The micro-structure obtained by plain strain compression test was heterogeneous with a wide range of grain sizes. This is because deformation and dynamic recrystallization occurred during deformation at temperature in the α and β phase. It was strongly influenced by strain rate.

Keywords: EBSD, plain strain compression test, Ti alloys

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239 The 'Plain Style' in the Theory and Practice of Project Design: Contributions to the Shaping of an Urban Image on the Waterfront Prior to the 1755 Earthquake

Authors: Armenio Lopes, Carlos Ferreira


In the specific context of the Iberian Union between 1580 and 1640, characteristics emerged in Portuguese architecture that stood out from the main architectural production of the period. Recognised and identified aspects that had begun making their appearance decades before (1521) became significantly more marked during the Hapsburg-Spanish occupation. Distinctive even from the imperialist language of Spain, this trend would endure even after the restoration of independence (1706), continuing through to the start of the age of absolutism. Or perhaps not. This trend, recognised as Plain Style (Kubler), associated with a certain scarcity of resources, involved a certain formal and decorative simplification, as well as a particular set of conventions that would subsequently mark the landscape. This expression could also be seen as a means of asserting a certain spirit of independence as the Iberian Union breathed its last. The image of a simple, bare-bones architecture with purer design lines is associated by various authors –most notably Kubler– with the narratives of modernism, to whose principles it is similar, in a context-specific to the period. There is a contrast with some of the exuberance of the baroque or its expression in the Manueline period, in a similar fashion to modernism's responses to nineteenth-century eclecticism. This assertion and practice of simple architecture, drafted from the interpretation of the treaties, and highlighting a certain classical inspiration, was to become a benchmark in the theory of architecture, spanning the Baroque and Mannerism, until achieving contemporary recognition within certain originality and modernity. At a time when the baroque and its scenography became generally very widespread, it is important also to recognise the role played by plain style architecture in the construction of a rather complex and contradictory waterfront landscape, featuring promises of exuberance and more discrete practices.

Keywords: Carlos Mardel, Lisbon's waterfront, plain style, urban image on the waterfront

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238 Heat Transfer Enhancement Using Copper Metallic Foam during Convective Boiling in a Plate Heat Exchanger

Authors: A.Kouidri, B.Madani


The present work deals with the study of the heat transfer in a rectangular channel equipped with a metallic foam. The tested metallic foam sample is made from copper with 20 PPI (Pore per Inch Linear) and 93% of porosity and the working fluid used is the n-pentane. In the present work the independent variables are the velocity in the range from 0.02 to 0.06 m/s and a boiling heat flux rate varying between 30 and 70 kW/m2. The heat transfer coefficient is presented versus boiling heat flux, vapor quality and superheat ΔTsat. The thermal results are compared to those found for a plain tube for the same conditions. The comparison with the plain tube shows that the insert of a metallic foam enhances the heat transfer coefficient by a factor between 1.3 and 3.

Keywords: boiling, metallic foam, heat transfer, plate heat exchanger

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237 Impact of Drought on Agriculture in the Upper Middle Gangetic Plain in India

Authors: Reshmita Nath


In this study, we investigate the spatiotemporal characteristics of drought in India and its impact on agriculture during the summer season (April to September). For our analysis, we have used Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) datasets between 1982 and 2012 at six-month timescale. Based on the criteria SPEI<-1 we obtain the vulnerability map and have found that the Humid subtropical Upper Middle Gangetic Plain (UMGP) region is highly drought prone with an occurrence frequency of 40-45%. This UMGP region contributes at least 18-20% of India’s annual cereal production. Not only the probability, but the region becomes more and more drought-prone in the recent decades. Moreover, the cereal production in the UMGP has experienced a gradual declining trend from 2000 onwards and this feature is consistent with the increase in drought affected areas from 20-25% to 50-60%, before and after 2000, respectively. The higher correlation coefficient (-0.69) between the changes in cereal production and drought affected areas confirms that at least 50% of the agricultural (cereal) losses is associated with drought. While analyzing the individual impact of precipitation and surface temperature anomalies on SPEI (6), we have found that in the UMGP region surface temperature plays the primary role in lowering of SPEI. The linkage is further confirmed by the correlation analysis between the SPEI (6) and surface temperature rise, which exhibits strong negative values in the UMGP region. Higher temperature might have caused more evaporation and drying, which therefore increases the area affected by drought in the recent decade.

Keywords: drought, agriculture, SPEI, Indo-Gangetic plain

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236 The Anti-Bladder Cancer Effects Exerted by Hyaluronan Nanoparticles Encapsulated Heteronemin Isolated from Hippospongia Sp.

Authors: Kuan Yin Hsiao, Shyh Ming Kuo, Yi Jhen Wu, Chin Wen Chuang, Chuen-Fu Lin, Wei-qing Yang, Han Hsiang Huang


Anti-tumor effects of natural products, like compounds from marine sponges and soft corals, have been investigated for decades. Polymeric nanoparticles prepared from biodegradable and biocompatible molecules, such as Hyaluronan (HA), Chitosan (CHI) and gelatin have been widely studied. Encapsulation of anti-cancer therapies by the biopolymeric nanoparticles in drug delivery system is potentially capable of improving the therapeutic effects and attenuating their toxicity. In the current study, the anti-bladder cancer effects of heteronemin extracted from the sponge Hippospongia sp. with or without HA and CHI nanoparticle encapsulation were assessed and evaluated in vitro. Results showed that IC50 (half maximal inhibitory concentration) of heteronemin toward T24 human bladder cancer cell viability is approximately 0.18 µg/mL. Both plain and HA nanoparticles-encapsulated heteronemin at 0.2 and 0.4 µg/mL significantly reduced T24 cell viability (P<0.001) while HA nanoparticles-encapsulated heteronemin showed weaker viability-inhibitory effects on L929 fibroblasts compared with plain heteronemin at the identical concentrations. HA and CHI nanoparticles-encapsulated heteronemin exhibited significantly stronger inhibitory effects against migration of T24 human bladder cancer cell than those exerted by plain heteronemin at the same concentrations (P<0.001). The flow cytometric results showed that 0.2 µg/mL HA and CHI nanoparticles-encapsulated heteronemin induced higher early apoptosis rate than that induced by plain heteronemin at the same concentration. These results show that HA and CHI nanoparticle encapsulation is able to elevate anti-migratory and apoptosis-inducing effects exerted by heteronemin against bladder cancer cells in vitro. The in vivo anti-bladder cancer effects of the compound with or without HA/CHI nanoparticle encapsulation will be further investigated and examined using murine tumor models. The data obtained from this study will extensively evaluate of the anti-bladder cancer effects of heteronemin as well as HA/CHI-encapsulated heteronemin and pave a way to develop potential bladder cancer treatment.

Keywords: heteronemin, nanoparticles, hyaluronan, chitosan, bladder cancer

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235 Experimental Studies on Fly Ash-Waste Sludge Mix Reinforced with Geofibres

Authors: Malik Shoeb Ahmad


The aim of the present study is to carry out investigations on Class F fly ash obtained from NTPC thermal power plant, Dadri, U.P. (India) and electroplating waste sludge from Aligarh, U.P. (India) along with geofibre for its subsequent utilization in various geotechnical and highway engineering applications. The experimental studies such as California bearing ratio (CBR) tests were carried out to evaluate the strength of plain fly ash as well as fly ash-waste sludge mix reinforced with geofibre, as the CBR value is the vital parameters used in the design of flexible and rigid pavements. Results of the study show that the strength of the mix is highly dependent on the curing period and the sludge and geofibre content. The CBR values were determined for mix containing fly ash (83.5-93.5%), waste sludge (5-15%) and 1-2% geofibre. However, out of the various combinations of mixes the CBR value of the mix 88.5%FA+10%S+1.5%GF at 28 days of curing was found to be 53.52% when compared with the strength of plain fly ash. It has been observed that the fibre inclusion increases the strength of the plain fly ash and fly ash-waste sludge specimens by changing their brittle to ductile behavior. The TCLP leaching test was also conducted to determine the heavy metal concentration in the optimized mix. The results of TCLP test show that the heavy metal concentration in the mix 88.5%FA+10%S+1.5%G at 28 days of curing reduced substantially from 24 to 98% when compared with the concentration of heavy metals in the waste sludge collected from source. It has also been observed that the pH of the leachate of this mix is between 9-11, which ensures the proper stabilization of the heavy metals present in the mix. Hence, this study will certainly help in mass scale utilization of two industrial wastes viz., electroplating waste and fly ash, which are causing pollution to the environment to a great extent.

Keywords: Dadri fly ash, geofibre, electroplating waste sludge, CBR, TCLP

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