Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 771

Search results for: compression socks

771 Performance Analysis of Compression Socks Strips

Authors: Hafiz Faisal Siddique, Adnan Ahmed Mazari, Antonin Havelka


Compression socks are highly recommended textile garment for pressure exertion on the lower part of leg. The extent of compression that a patient can easily manage depends on stage (limb size and shape) of venous disease and his activities (mobility, age). Due to dynamic mechanical influence, the socks destroy their extent of pressure exertion around the leg. The main aim of this research is to investigate how the performance of compression socks is deteriorated due to expected induced wearing mechanical impacts. Wearing mechanical impacts influence the durability parameter i.e. tensile energy loss. For tensile energy loss, cut-strip samples were interacted to constant rate of loading and un-loading, cyclic-loading upto 15th cycles for ±5mm extension (considering muscles expansion and relaxation) and were dwelled (stayed) for 3 minutes at 25%, 50% and 75% extension levels, simultaneously. Statistical validation of tensile energy loss was performed by introducing measures of correlation, p-value (≤ 0.05), R-square values using MINITAB 17 software.

Keywords: compression socks, loading and unloading, 15th cyclic loading, Dwell time effect

Procedia PDF Downloads 69
770 Effects of Wearable Garments on Postural Regulation in Community-Dwelling Elderly Adults

Authors: Mei Teng Woo, Keith Davids, Jarmo Liukkonen, Jia Yi Chow, Timo Jaakkola


Wearable garments such as tapes, compression garments, and braces could improve proprioception and reduced postural sway. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of wearable garments on postural regulation in a sample of community-dwelling elderly individuals, aged 65 years. It was hypothesized that wearable garments such as socks would provide stimulation to lower leg mechanoreceptors, and help participants achieve better postural regulation. Participants (N=63) performed a 30-s Romberg balance test protocol under four conditions (barefoot; wearing commercial socks; wearing clinical compression socks; wearing non-clinical compression socks), in a counterbalanced order, with four levels of performance difficulty: (1) standing on a stable surface with open eyes (SO); (2) a stable surface with closed eyes (SC); (3) a foam surface with open eyes (FO); and (4) a foam surface with closed eyes (FC). Centre of pressure (CoP) measurements included postural sway area (C90 area), trace length (TL) and sway velocity. Thirty-five participants (55.6%) showed positive effects of wearing the socks (responded group). In the responded group, it was revealed that socks showed significant differences in SO, SC and FO conditions for the two CoP measurements - TL and sway velocity (p < 0.05). In contrast, in the non-responded group, barefoot condition significantly decreased the TL and velocity in the SO condition. From the positive effects observed in the responded group, it is possible that wearable garments provide sensory cues that could interact with a biological cueing system to enhance performance in the postural regulation system. This study suggests that individuals respond to the socks treatments differently and future research should be undertaken to examine the factors that benefited the responded group of participants.

Keywords: community-dwelling, elderly adults, postural regulation, wearable garments

Procedia PDF Downloads 255
769 An Approach for Thermal Resistance Prediction of Plain Socks in Wet State

Authors: Tariq Mansoor, Lubos Hes, Vladimir Bajzik


Socks comfort has great significance in our daily life. This significance even increased when we have undergone a work of low or high activity. It causes the sweating of our body with different rates. In this study, plain socks with differential fibre composition were wetted to saturated level. Then after successive intervals of conditioning, these socks are characterized by thermal resistance in dry and wet states. Theoretical thermal resistance is predicted by using combined filling coefficients and thermal conductivity of wet polymers instead of dry polymer (fibre) in different models. By this modification, different mathematical models could predict thermal resistance at different moisture levels. Furthermore, predicted thermal resistance by different models has reasonable correlation range between (0.84 -0.98) with experimental results in both dry (lab conditions moisture) and wet states. "This work is supported by Technical University of Liberec under SGC-2019. Project number is 21314".

Keywords: thermal resistance, mathematical model, plain socks, moisture loss rate

Procedia PDF Downloads 58
768 GPU Accelerated Fractal Image Compression for Medical Imaging in Parallel Computing Platform

Authors: Md. Enamul Haque, Abdullah Al Kaisan, Mahmudur R. Saniat, Aminur Rahman


In this paper, we have implemented both sequential and parallel version of fractal image compression algorithms using CUDA (Compute Unified Device Architecture) programming model for parallelizing the program in Graphics Processing Unit for medical images, as they are highly similar within the image itself. There is several improvements in the implementation of the algorithm as well. Fractal image compression is based on the self similarity of an image, meaning an image having similarity in majority of the regions. We take this opportunity to implement the compression algorithm and monitor the effect of it using both parallel and sequential implementation. Fractal compression has the property of high compression rate and the dimensionless scheme. Compression scheme for fractal image is of two kinds, one is encoding and another is decoding. Encoding is very much computational expensive. On the other hand decoding is less computational. The application of fractal compression to medical images would allow obtaining much higher compression ratios. While the fractal magnification an inseparable feature of the fractal compression would be very useful in presenting the reconstructed image in a highly readable form. However, like all irreversible methods, the fractal compression is connected with the problem of information loss, which is especially troublesome in the medical imaging. A very time consuming encoding process, which can last even several hours, is another bothersome drawback of the fractal compression.

Keywords: accelerated GPU, CUDA, parallel computing, fractal image compression

Procedia PDF Downloads 238
767 Image Compression Using Block Power Method for SVD Decomposition

Authors: El Asnaoui Khalid, Chawki Youness, Aksasse Brahim, Ouanan Mohammed


In these recent decades, the important and fast growth in the development and demand of multimedia products is contributing to an insufficient in the bandwidth of device and network storage memory. Consequently, the theory of data compression becomes more significant for reducing the data redundancy in order to save more transfer and storage of data. In this context, this paper addresses the problem of the lossless and the near-lossless compression of images. This proposed method is based on Block SVD Power Method that overcomes the disadvantages of Matlab's SVD function. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm has a better compression performance compared with the existing compression algorithms that use the Matlab's SVD function. In addition, the proposed approach is simple and can provide different degrees of error resilience, which gives, in a short execution time, a better image compression.

Keywords: image compression, SVD, block SVD power method, lossless compression, near lossless

Procedia PDF Downloads 286
766 Comparison of Compression Properties of Stretchable Knitted Fabrics and Bi-Stretch Woven Fabrics for Compression Garments

Authors: Muhammad Maqsood, Yasir Nawab, Syed Talha Ali Hamdani


Stretchable fabrics have diverse applications ranging from casual apparel to performance sportswear and compression therapy. Compression therapy is the universally accepted treatment for the management of hypertrophic scarring after severe burns. Mostly stretchable knitted fabrics are used in compression therapy but in the recent past, some studies have also been found on bi-stretch woven fabrics being used as compression garments as they also have been found quite effective in the treatment of oedema. Therefore, the objective of the present study is to compare the compression properties of stretchable knitted and bi-stretch woven fabrics for compression garments. For this purpose four woven structures and four knitted structures were produced having the same areal density and their compression, comfort and mechanical properties were compared before and after 5, 10 and 15 washes. Four knitted structures used were single jersey, single locaste, plain pique and the honeycomb, whereas four woven structures produced were 1/1 plain, 2/1 twill, 3/1 twill and 4/1 twill. The compression properties of the produced samples were tested by using kikuhime pressure sensor and it was found that bi-stretch woven fabrics possessed better compression properties before and after washes and retain their durability after repeated use, whereas knitted stretchable fabrics lost their compression ability after repeated use and the required sub garment pressure of the knitted structures after 15 washes was almost half to that of woven bi-stretch fabrics.

Keywords: compression garments, knitted structures, medical textiles, woven bi-stretch

Procedia PDF Downloads 314
765 A High Compression Ratio for a Losseless Image Compression Based on the Arithmetic Coding with the Sorted Run Length Coding: Meteosat Second Generation Image Compression

Authors: Cherifi Mehdi, Lahdir Mourad, Ameur Soltane


Image compression is the heart of several multimedia techniques. It is used to reduce the number of bits required to represent an image. Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) satellite allows the acquisition of 12 image files every 15 minutes and that results in a large databases sizes. In this paper, a novel image compression method based on the arithmetic coding with the sorted Run Length Coding (SRLC) for MSG images is proposed. The SRLC allows us to find the occurrence of the consecutive pixels of the original image to create a sorted run. The arithmetic coding allows the encoding of the sorted data of the previous stage to retrieve a unique code word that represents a binary code stream in the sorted order to boost the compression ratio. Through this article, we show that our method can perform the best results concerning compression ratio and bit rate unlike the method based on the Run Length Coding (RLC) and the arithmetic coding. Evaluation criteria like the compression ratio and the bit rate allow the confirmation of the efficiency of our method of image compression.

Keywords: image compression, arithmetic coding, Run Length Coding, RLC, Sorted Run Length Coding, SRLC, Meteosat Second Generation, MSG

Procedia PDF Downloads 266
764 Medical Image Compression Based on Region of Interest: A Review

Authors: Sudeepti Dayal, Neelesh Gupta


In terms of transmission, bigger the size of any image, longer the time the channel takes for transmission. It is understood that the bandwidth of the channel is fixed. Therefore, if the size of an image is reduced, a larger number of data or images can be transmitted over the channel. Compression is the technique used to reduce the size of an image. In terms of storage, compression reduces the file size which it occupies on the disk. Any image is based on two parameters, region of interest and non-region of interest. There are several algorithms of compression that compress the data more economically. In this paper we have reviewed region of interest and non-region of interest based compression techniques and the algorithms which compress the image most efficiently.

Keywords: compression ratio, region of interest, DCT, DWT

Procedia PDF Downloads 293
763 QCARNet: Networks for Quality-Adaptive Compression Artifact

Authors: Seung Ho Park, Young Su Moon, Nam Ik Cho


We propose a convolution neural network (CNN) for quality adaptive compression artifact reduction named QCARNet. The proposed method is different from the existing discriminative models that learn a specific model at a certain quality level. The method is composed of a quality estimation CNN (QECNN) and a compression artifact reduction CNN (CARCNN), which are two functionally separate CNNs. By connecting the QECNN and CARCNN, each CARCNN layer is able to adaptively reduce compression artifacts and preserve details depending on the estimated quality level map generated by the QECNN. We experimentally demonstrate that the proposed method achieves better performance compared to other state-of-the-art blind compression artifact reduction methods.

Keywords: compression artifact reduction, deblocking, image denoising, image restoration

Procedia PDF Downloads 49
762 Compression Index Estimation by Water Content and Liquid Limit and Void Ratio Using Statistics Method

Authors: Lizhou Chen, Abdelhamid Belgaid, Assem Elsayed, Xiaoming Yang


Compression index is essential in foundation settlement calculation. The traditional method for determining compression index is consolidation test which is expensive and time consuming. Many researchers have used regression methods to develop empirical equations for predicting compression index from soil properties. Based on a large number of compression index data collected from consolidation tests, the accuracy of some popularly empirical equations were assessed. It was found that primary compression index is significantly overestimated in some equations while it is underestimated in others. The sensitivity analyses of soil parameters including water content, liquid limit and void ratio were performed. The results indicate that the compression index obtained from void ratio is most accurate. The ANOVA (analysis of variance) demonstrates that the equations with multiple soil parameters cannot provide better predictions than the equations with single soil parameter. In other words, it is not necessary to develop the relationships between compression index and multiple soil parameters. Meanwhile, it was noted that secondary compression index is approximately 0.7-5.0% of primary compression index with an average of 2.0%. In the end, the proposed prediction equations using power regression technique were provided that can provide more accurate predictions than those from existing equations.

Keywords: compression index, clay, settlement, consolidation, secondary compression index, soil parameter

Procedia PDF Downloads 65
761 In-Situ Quasistatic Compression and Microstructural Characterization of Aluminium Foams of Different Cell Topology

Authors: M. A. Islam, P. J. Hazell, J. P. Escobedo, M. Saadatfar


Quasistatic compression and micro structural characterization of closed cell aluminium foams of different pore size and cell distributions has been carried out. Metallic foams have good potential for lightweight structures for impact and blast mitigation and therefore it is important to find out the optimized foam structure (i.e. cell size, shape, relative density, and distribution) to maximize energy absorption. In this paper, we present results for two different aluminium metal foams of density 0.5 g/cc and 0.7 g/cc respectively that have been tested in quasi-static compression. The influence of cell geometry and cell topology on quasistatic compression behavior has been investigated using computed tomography (micro-CT) analysis. The compression behavior and micro structural characterization will be presented.

Keywords: metal foams, micro-CT, cell topology, quasistatic compression

Procedia PDF Downloads 370
760 Meteosat Second Generation Image Compression Based on the Radon Transform and Linear Predictive Coding: Comparison and Performance

Authors: Cherifi Mehdi, Lahdir Mourad, Ameur Soltane


Image compression is used to reduce the number of bits required to represent an image. The Meteosat Second Generation satellite (MSG) allows the acquisition of 12 image files every 15 minutes. Which results a large databases sizes. The transform selected in the images compression should contribute to reduce the data representing the images. The Radon transform retrieves the Radon points that represent the sum of the pixels in a given angle for each direction. Linear predictive coding (LPC) with filtering provides a good decorrelation of Radon points using a Predictor constitute by the Symmetric Nearest Neighbor filter (SNN) coefficients, which result losses during decompression. Finally, Run Length Coding (RLC) gives us a high and fixed compression ratio regardless of the input image. In this paper, a novel image compression method based on the Radon transform and linear predictive coding (LPC) for MSG images is proposed. MSG image compression based on the Radon transform and the LPC provides a good compromise between compression and quality of reconstruction. A comparison of our method with other whose two based on DCT and one on DWT bi-orthogonal filtering is evaluated to show the power of the Radon transform in its resistibility against the quantization noise and to evaluate the performance of our method. Evaluation criteria like PSNR and the compression ratio allows showing the efficiency of our method of compression.

Keywords: image compression, radon transform, linear predictive coding (LPC), run lengthcoding (RLC), meteosat second generation (MSG)

Procedia PDF Downloads 349
759 PEINS: A Generic Compression Scheme Using Probabilistic Encoding and Irrational Number Storage

Authors: P. Jayashree, S. Rajkumar


With social networks and smart devices generating a multitude of data, effective data management is the need of the hour for networks and cloud applications. Some applications need effective storage while some other applications need effective communication over networks and data reduction comes as a handy solution to meet out both requirements. Most of the data compression techniques are based on data statistics and may result in either lossy or lossless data reductions. Though lossy reductions produce better compression ratios compared to lossless methods, many applications require data accuracy and miniature details to be preserved. A variety of data compression algorithms does exist in the literature for different forms of data like text, image, and multimedia data. In the proposed work, a generic progressive compression algorithm, based on probabilistic encoding, called PEINS is projected as an enhancement over irrational number stored coding technique to cater to storage issues of increasing data volumes as a cost effective solution, which also offers data security as a secondary outcome to some extent. The proposed work reveals cost effectiveness in terms of better compression ratio with no deterioration in compression time.

Keywords: compression ratio, generic compression, irrational number storage, probabilistic encoding

Procedia PDF Downloads 202
758 Video Compression Using Contourlet Transform

Authors: Delara Kazempour, Mashallah Abasi Dezfuli, Reza Javidan


Video compression used for channels with limited bandwidth and storage devices has limited storage capabilities. One of the most popular approaches in video compression is the usage of different transforms. Discrete cosine transform is one of the video compression methods that have some problems such as blocking, noising and high distortion inappropriate effect in compression ratio. wavelet transform is another approach is better than cosine transforms in balancing of compression and quality but the recognizing of curve curvature is so limit. Because of the importance of the compression and problems of the cosine and wavelet transforms, the contourlet transform is most popular in video compression. In the new proposed method, we used contourlet transform in video image compression. Contourlet transform can save details of the image better than the previous transforms because this transform is multi-scale and oriented. This transform can recognize discontinuity such as edges. In this approach we lost data less than previous approaches. Contourlet transform finds discrete space structure. This transform is useful for represented of two dimension smooth images. This transform, produces compressed images with high compression ratio along with texture and edge preservation. Finally, the results show that the majority of the images, the parameters of the mean square error and maximum signal-to-noise ratio of the new method based contourlet transform compared to wavelet transform are improved but in most of the images, the parameters of the mean square error and maximum signal-to-noise ratio in the cosine transform is better than the method based on contourlet transform.

Keywords: video compression, contourlet transform, discrete cosine transform, wavelet transform

Procedia PDF Downloads 357
757 Normalized Compression Distance Based Scene Alteration Analysis of a Video

Authors: Lakshay Kharbanda, Aabhas Chauhan


In this paper, an application of Normalized Compression Distance (NCD) to detect notable scene alterations occurring in videos is presented. Several research groups have been developing methods to perform image classification using NCD, a computable approximation to Normalized Information Distance (NID) by studying the degree of similarity in images. The timeframes where significant aberrations between the frames of a video have occurred have been identified by obtaining a threshold NCD value, using two compressors: LZMA and BZIP2 and defining scene alterations using Pixel Difference Percentage metrics.

Keywords: image compression, Kolmogorov complexity, normalized compression distance, root mean square error

Procedia PDF Downloads 241
756 Learning Compression Techniques on Smart Phone

Authors: Farouk Lawan Gambo, Hamada Mohammad


Data compression shrinks files into fewer bits than their original presentation. It has more advantage on the internet because the smaller a file, the faster it can be transferred but learning most of the concepts in data compression are abstract in nature, therefore, making them difficult to digest by some students (engineers in particular). This paper studies the learning preference of engineering students who tend to have strong, active, sensing, visual and sequential learning preferences, the paper also studies the three shift of technology-aided that learning has experienced, which mobile learning has been considered to be the feature of learning that will integrate other form of the education process. Lastly, we propose a design and implementation of mobile learning application using software engineering methodology that will enhance the traditional teaching and learning of data compression techniques.

Keywords: data compression, learning preference, mobile learning, multimedia

Procedia PDF Downloads 356
755 Advantages of Electrifying Offshore Compression System

Authors: Siva Sankara Arudra, Kamaruzaman Baharuddin, Ir. Ahmed Fadzil Mustafa Kamal, Ir. Abdul Latif Mohamed


The advancement of electrical and electronics technologies has rewarded the oil and gas industry with great opportunities to embed more environmentally solutions into design. Most offshore oil and gas producers have their engineering and production asset goals to promote greater use of environmentally friendly compression system technologies to eliminate hazardous emissions from conventional gas compressor drivers. Therefore, this paper comprehensively elaborates the parametric study conducted in integrating the latest electrical and electronics drives technology into the existing compression system. This study was conducted in aspects of layout, reliability & availability, maintainability, emission, and cost. An existing offshore facility that utilized gas turbines as the driver for gas compression was set as Conventional Case for this study. The Electrification Case will utilize electric motor drives as the driver for the compression system. Findings from this study indicate more advantages in driver electrification compared to conventional compression systems. The findings of this paper can be set as a benchmark for future offshore driver selection for gas compression systems of similar operating parameters and power range.

Keywords: turbomachinery, electrification, emission, compression system

Procedia PDF Downloads 51
754 Application of the Bionic Wavelet Transform and Psycho-Acoustic Model for Speech Compression

Authors: Chafik Barnoussi, Mourad Talbi, Adnane Cherif


In this paper we propose a new speech compression system based on the application of the Bionic Wavelet Transform (BWT) combined with the psychoacoustic model. This compression system is a modified version of the compression system using a MDCT (Modified Discrete Cosine Transform) filter banks of 32 filters each and the psychoacoustic model. This modification consists in replacing the banks of the MDCT filter banks by the bionic wavelet coefficients which are obtained from the application of the BWT to the speech signal to be compressed. These two methods are evaluated and compared with each other by computing bits before and bits after compression. They are tested on different speech signals and the obtained simulation results show that the proposed technique outperforms the second technique and this in term of compressed file size. In term of SNR, PSNR and NRMSE, the outputs speech signals of the proposed compression system are with acceptable quality. In term of PESQ and speech signal intelligibility, the proposed speech compression technique permits to obtain reconstructed speech signals with good quality.

Keywords: speech compression, bionic wavelet transform, filterbanks, psychoacoustic model

Procedia PDF Downloads 300
753 A New Prediction Model for Soil Compression Index

Authors: D. Mohammadzadeh S., J. Bolouri Bazaz


This paper presents a new prediction model for compression index of fine-grained soils using multi-gene genetic programming (MGGP) technique. The proposed model relates the soil compression index to its liquid limit, plastic limit and void ratio. Several laboratory test results for fine-grained were used to develop the models. Various criteria were considered to check the validity of the model. The parametric and sensitivity analyses were performed and discussed. The MGGP method was found to be very effective for predicting the soil compression index. A comparative study was further performed to prove the superiority of the MGGP model to the existing soft computing and traditional empirical equations.

Keywords: new prediction model, compression index soil, multi-gene genetic programming, MGGP

Procedia PDF Downloads 245
752 A Survey on Lossless Compression of Bayer Color Filter Array Images

Authors: Alina Trifan, António J. R. Neves


Although most digital cameras acquire images in a raw format, based on a Color Filter Array that arranges RGB color filters on a square grid of photosensors, most image compression techniques do not use the raw data; instead, they use the rgb result of an interpolation algorithm of the raw data. This approach is inefficient and by performing a lossless compression of the raw data, followed by pixel interpolation, digital cameras could be more power efficient and provide images with increased resolution given that the interpolation step could be shifted to an external processing unit. In this paper, we conduct a survey on the use of lossless compression algorithms with raw Bayer images. Moreover, in order to reduce the effect of the transition between colors that increase the entropy of the raw Bayer image, we split the image into three new images corresponding to each channel (red, green and blue) and we study the same compression algorithms applied to each one individually. This simple pre-processing stage allows an improvement of more than 15% in predictive based methods.

Keywords: bayer image, CFA, lossless compression, image coding standards

Procedia PDF Downloads 240
751 Comprehensive Study of X-Ray Emission by APF Plasma Focus Device

Authors: M. Habibi


The time-resolved studies of soft and hard X-ray were carried out over a wide range of argon pressures by employing an array of eight filtered photo PIN diodes and a scintillation detector, simultaneously. In 50% of the discharges, the soft X-ray is seen to be emitted in short multiple pulses corresponding to different compression, whereas it is a single pulse for hard X-rays corresponding to only the first strong compression. It should be stated that multiple compressions dominantly occur at low pressures and high pressures are mostly in the single compression regime. In 43% of the discharges, at all pressures except for optimum pressure, the first period is characterized by two or more sharp peaks.The X–ray signal intensity during the second and subsequent compressions is much smaller than the first compression.

Keywords: plasma focus device, SXR, HXR, Pin-diode, argon plasma

Procedia PDF Downloads 329
750 Response of Concrete Panels Subjected to Compression-Tension State of Stresses

Authors: Mohammed F. Almograbi


For reinforced concrete panels the risk of failure due to compression -tension state of stresses, results from pure shear or torsion, can be a major problem. The present calculation methods for such stresses from multiple influences are without taking into account the softening of cracked concrete remains conservative. The non-linear finite element method has become an important and increasingly used tool for the analysis and assessment of the structures by including cracking softening and tension-stiffening. The aim of this paper is to test a computer program refined recently and to simulate the compression response of cracked concrete element and to compare with the available experimental results.

Keywords: reinforced concrete panels, compression-tension, shear, torsion, compression softening, tension stiffening, non-linear finite element analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 255
749 Image Compression on Region of Interest Based on SPIHT Algorithm

Authors: Sudeepti Dayal, Neelesh Gupta


Image abbreviation is utilized for reducing the size of a file without demeaning the quality of the image to an objectionable level. The depletion in file size permits more images to be deposited in a given number of spaces. It also minimizes the time necessary for images to be transferred. Storage of medical images is a most researched area in the current scenario. To store a medical image, there are two parameters on which the image is divided, regions of interest and non-regions of interest. The best way to store an image is to compress it in such a way that no important information is lost. Compression can be done in two ways, namely lossy, and lossless compression. Under that, several compression algorithms are applied. In the paper, two algorithms are used which are, discrete cosine transform, applied to non-region of interest (lossy), and discrete wavelet transform, applied to regions of interest (lossless). The paper introduces SPIHT (set partitioning hierarchical tree) algorithm which is applied onto the wavelet transform to obtain good compression ratio from which an image can be stored efficiently.

Keywords: Compression ratio, DWT, SPIHT, DCT

Procedia PDF Downloads 274
748 A Deletion-Cost Based Fast Compression Algorithm for Linear Vector Data

Authors: Qiuxiao Chen, Yan Hou, Ning Wu


As there are deficiencies of the classic Douglas-Peucker Algorithm (DPA), such as high risks of deleting key nodes by mistake, high complexity, time consumption and relatively slow execution speed, a new Deletion-Cost Based Compression Algorithm (DCA) for linear vector data was proposed. For each curve — the basic element of linear vector data, all the deletion costs of its middle nodes were calculated, and the minimum deletion cost was compared with the pre-defined threshold. If the former was greater than or equal to the latter, all remaining nodes were reserved and the curve’s compression process was finished. Otherwise, the node with the minimal deletion cost was deleted, its two neighbors' deletion costs were updated, and the same loop on the compressed curve was repeated till the termination. By several comparative experiments using different types of linear vector data, the comparison between DPA and DCA was performed from the aspects of compression quality and computing efficiency. Experiment results showed that DCA outperformed DPA in compression accuracy and execution efficiency as well.

Keywords: Douglas-Peucker algorithm, linear vector data, compression, deletion cost

Procedia PDF Downloads 161
747 Experimental Investigation on Variable Compression Ratio of Single Cylinder Four Stroke SI Engine Working under Ethanol – Gasoline Blend

Authors: B. V. Lande, Suhas Kongare


Fuel blend of alcohol and conventional hydrocarbon fuels for a spark ignition engine can increase the fuel octane rating and the power for a given engine displacement and compression ratio. The greatest advantage of ethanol as a fuel in SI Engines is its high octane number. The efficiency of an SI engine that is the ability to convert fuel energy to mechanical energy, mainly depends on the compression ratio. It is, therefore, an advantage to increase this as much as possible. The major restraint is the fuel octane number – high octane fuels can be used with high compression ratios, thus yielding higher energy efficiency. This work investigates to suggest suitable ethanol gasoline blend and compression ratio for single cylinder four strokes SI Engine on the basis of performance and exhaust emissions. A single cylinder four stroke SI Engine was tested with different blend of ethanol – gasoline like E5 (5% ethanol +95% gasoline), E10 (10% ethanol + 90% gasoline) E15 (15% ethanol + 85% petrol) and E20 ( 20% + 80% gasoline) with Variable compression ratio. The performance parameter evaluated BSFC, Brake thermal efficiency and also exhaust emission CO2, Co & HC%. The result showed that higher compression ratio improved engine Performance and reduction in exhaust emission.

Keywords: blend, compression ratio, ethanol, performance, blend

Procedia PDF Downloads 235
746 Prediction Modeling of Compression Properties of a Knitted Sportswear Fabric Using Response Surface Method

Authors: Jawairia Umar, Tanveer Hussain, Zulfiqar Ali, Muhammad Maqsood


Different knitted structures and knitted parameters play a vital role in the stretch and recovery management of compression sportswear in addition to the materials use to generate this stretch and recovery behavior of the fabric. The present work was planned to predict the different performance indicators of a compression sportswear fabric with some ground parameters i.e. base yarn stitch length (polyester as base yarn and spandex as plating yarn involve to make a compression fabric) and linear density of the spandex which is a key material of any sportswear fabric. The prediction models were generated by response surface method for performance indicators such as stretch & recovery percentage, compression generated by the garment on body, total elongation on application of high power force and load generated on certain percentage extension in fabric. Certain physical properties of the fabric were also modeled using these two parameters.

Keywords: Compression, sportswear, stretch and recovery, statistical model, kikuhime

Procedia PDF Downloads 293
745 Elastic Constants of Fir Wood Using Ultrasound and Compression Tests

Authors: Ergun Guntekin


Elastic constants of Fir wood (Abies cilicica) have been investigated by means of ultrasound and compression tests. Three modulus of elasticity in principal directions (EL, ER, ET), six Poisson’s ratios (ʋLR, ʋLT, ʋRT, ʋTR, ʋRL, ʋTL) and three shear modules (GLR, GRT, GLT) were determined. 20 x 20 x 60 mm samples were conditioned at 65 % relative humidity and 20ºC before testing. Three longitudinal and six shear wave velocities propagating along the principal axes of anisotropy, and additionally, three quasi-shear wave velocities at 45° angle with respect to the principal axes of anisotropy were measured. 2.27 MHz longitudinal and 1 MHz shear sensors were used for obtaining sound velocities. Stress-strain curves of the samples in compression tests were obtained using bi-axial extensometer in order to calculate elastic constants. Test results indicated that most of the elastic constants determined in the study are within the acceptable range. Although elastic constants determined from ultrasound are usually higher than those determined from compression tests, the values of EL and GLR determined from compression tests were higher in the study. The results of this study can be used in the numerical modeling of elements or systems under load using Fir wood.

Keywords: compression tests, elastic constants, fir wood, ultrasound

Procedia PDF Downloads 129
744 Plantar Neuro-Receptor Activation in Total Knee Arthroplasty Patients: Impact on Clinical Function, Pain, and Stiffness - A Randomized Controlled Trial

Authors: Woolfrey K, Woolfrey M, Bolton CL, Warchuk D


Objectives: Osteoarthritis is the most common joint disease of adults worldwide. Despite total knee arthroplasty (TKA) demonstrating high levels of success, 20% of patients report dissatisfaction with their result. VOXX Wellness Stasis Socks are embedded with a proprietary pattern of neuro-receptor activation points that have been proven to activate a precise neuro-response, according to the pattern theory of haptic perception, which stimulates improvements in pain and function. The use of this technology in TKA patients may prove beneficial as an adjunct to recovery as many patients suffer from deficits to their proprioceptive system caused by ligamentous damage and alterations to mechanoreceptors during the procedure. We hypothesized that VOXX Wellness Stasis Socks are a safe, cost-effective, and easily scalable strategy to support TKA patients through their recovery. Design: Double-blinded, placebo-controlled randomized trial. Participants: Patients scheduled to receive TKA were considered eligible for inclusion in the trial. Interventions: Intervention group (I): VOXX Wellness Stasis socks containing receptor point-activation technology. Control group (C): VOXX Wellness Stasis socks without receptor point-activation technology. Sock use during the waking hours x 6 weeks. Main Outcome Measures: Western Ontario McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) questionnaire completed at baseline, 2 weeks, and 6 weeks to assess pain, stiffness, and physical function. Results: Data analysis using SPSS software. P-values, effect sizes, and confidence intervals are reported to assess clinical relevance of the finding. Physical status classifications were compared using t-test. Within-subject and between-subject differences in the mean WOMAC were analyzed by ANOVA. Effect size was analyzed using Cramer’s V. Consistent improvement in WOMAC scores for pain and stiffness at 2 weeks post op in the I over the C group. The womac scores assessing physical function showed a consistent improvement at both 2 and 6 weeks post op in the I group compared to C group. Conclusions: VOXX proved to be a low cost, safe intervention in TKA to help patients improve with regard to pain, stiffness, and physical function. Disclosures: None

Keywords: osteoarthritis, RCT, pain management, total knee arthroplasty

Procedia PDF Downloads 10
743 Elastic Constants of Heat Treated Wood

Authors: Ergun Guntekin


Effects of heat treatment on elastic constants of Black pine (Pinus nigra) wood were investigated. Specimens were exposed to heat under atmospheric pressure at two different temperatures (180 and 210 °C) and three different time levels (2, 5, 8 hours). Three Young’s modulus in three anatomical directions, six Poisson’s ratios and three Shear modulus values associated with the main directions were evaluated by compression tests. Compression strength of the samples in three principal directions was also determined. All of the properties of the specimens tested were altered by heat treatment. The degree of alteration depends on the temperature as well as duration applied. Results indicate that EL and compression strength in L direction were not significantly influenced, compression strength in R direction significantly decreased, ER, ET and compression strength in T direction were increased for shorter periods, then dropped for 8-hour application of 180 ºC. ER was not significantly affected, compression strength in R direction and EL was significantly decreased, ET and compression strength in T direction were increased for shorter periods, then decreased for 8-hour application of 210 ºC. The shear modulus of the samples was decreased with application of treatment combinations. Most of the Poisson’s ratios were not affected by heat treatment.

Keywords: black pine, elastic constants, heat treatment, wood

Procedia PDF Downloads 66
742 Ab-Initio Study of Native Defects in SnO Under Strain

Authors: A. Albar, D. B. Granato, U. Schwingenschlogl


Tin monoxide (SnO) has promising properties to be applied as a p-type semiconductor in transparent electronics. To this end, it is necessary to understand the behavior of defects in order to control them. We use density functional theory to study native defects of SnO under tensile and compressive strain. We show that Sn vacancies are more stable under tension and less stable under compression, irrespectively of the charge state. In contrast, O vacancies behave differently for different charge. It turns out that the most stable defect under compression is the +1 charged O vacancy in a Sn-rich environment and the charge neutral O interstitial in an O-rich environment. Therefore, compression can be used to transform SnO from an n-type into un-doped semiconductor.

Keywords: native defects, ab-initio, point defect, tension, compression, semiconductor

Procedia PDF Downloads 306